view src/hotspot/cpu/s390/vm_version_s390.cpp @ 55788:ddc19ea5059c

8219241: Provide basic virtualization related info in the hs_error file on linux/windows x86_64 Reviewed-by: dholmes, mdoerr
author mbaesken
date Wed, 10 Apr 2019 08:51:38 +0200
parents b776653628c5
children e46fe26d7f77
line wrap: on
line source
/*
 * Copyright (c) 2016, 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 * Copyright (c) 2016, 2019 SAP SE. All rights reserved.
 * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
 *
 * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
 * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
 * published by the Free Software Foundation.
 *
 * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
 * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
 * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
 * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
 * accompanied this code).
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
 * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
 * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
 *
 * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
 * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
 * questions.
 *
 */

#include "precompiled.hpp"
#include "jvm.h"
#include "asm/assembler.inline.hpp"
#include "compiler/disassembler.hpp"
#include "code/compiledIC.hpp"
#include "memory/resourceArea.hpp"
#include "runtime/java.hpp"
#include "runtime/stubCodeGenerator.hpp"
#include "vm_version_s390.hpp"

# include <sys/sysinfo.h>

bool VM_Version::_is_determine_features_test_running  = false;
const char*   VM_Version::_model_string;

unsigned long VM_Version::_features[_features_buffer_len]           = {0, 0, 0, 0};
unsigned long VM_Version::_cipher_features[_features_buffer_len]    = {0, 0, 0, 0};
unsigned long VM_Version::_msgdigest_features[_features_buffer_len] = {0, 0, 0, 0};
unsigned int  VM_Version::_nfeatures                                = 0;
unsigned int  VM_Version::_ncipher_features                         = 0;
unsigned int  VM_Version::_nmsgdigest_features                      = 0;
unsigned int  VM_Version::_Dcache_lineSize                          = 256;
unsigned int  VM_Version::_Icache_lineSize                          = 256;

static const char* z_gen[]     = {"  ",   "G1",   "G2", "G3",    "G4",     "G5",      "G6",   "G7"   };
static const char* z_machine[] = {"  ", "2064", "2084", "2094",  "2097",   "2817",    "  ",   "2964" };
static const char* z_name[]    = {"  ", "z900", "z990", "z9 EC", "z10 EC", "z196 EC", "ec12", "z13"  };

void VM_Version::initialize() {
  determine_features();      // Get processor capabilities.
  set_features_string();     // Set a descriptive feature indication.

  if (Verbose) {
    print_features();
  }

  intx cache_line_size = Dcache_lineSize(0);

  MaxVectorSize = 8;

  if (has_PrefetchRaw()) {
    if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(AllocatePrefetchStyle)) {  // not preset
      // 0 = no prefetch.
      // 1 = Prefetch instructions for each allocation.
      // 2 = Use TLAB watermark to gate allocation prefetch.
      AllocatePrefetchStyle = 1;
    }

    if (AllocatePrefetchStyle > 0) {  // Prefetching turned on at all?
      // Distance to prefetch ahead of allocation pointer.
      if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(AllocatePrefetchDistance) || (AllocatePrefetchDistance < 0)) {  // not preset
        AllocatePrefetchDistance = 0;
      }

      // Number of lines to prefetch ahead of allocation pointer.
      if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(AllocatePrefetchLines) || (AllocatePrefetchLines <= 0)) {      // not preset
        AllocatePrefetchLines = 3;
      }

      // Step size in bytes of sequential prefetch instructions.
      if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(AllocatePrefetchStepSize) || (AllocatePrefetchStepSize <= 0)) { // not preset
        FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(AllocatePrefetchStepSize, cache_line_size);
      } else if (AllocatePrefetchStepSize < cache_line_size) {
        FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(AllocatePrefetchStepSize, cache_line_size);
      } else {
        FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(AllocatePrefetchStepSize, cache_line_size);
      }
    } else {
      FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(AllocatePrefetchStyle, 0);
      AllocatePrefetchDistance = 0;
      AllocatePrefetchLines    = 0;
      // Can't be zero. Will SIGFPE during constraints checking.
      FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(AllocatePrefetchStepSize, cache_line_size);
    }

  } else {
    FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(AllocatePrefetchStyle, 0);
    AllocatePrefetchDistance = 0;
    AllocatePrefetchLines    = 0;
    // Can't be zero. Will SIGFPE during constraints checking.
    FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(AllocatePrefetchStepSize, cache_line_size);
  }

  // TODO:
  // On z/Architecture, cache line size is significantly large (256 bytes). Do we really need
  // to keep contended members that far apart? Performance tests are required.
  if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(ContendedPaddingWidth) && (cache_line_size > ContendedPaddingWidth)) {
    ContendedPaddingWidth = cache_line_size;
  }

  // On z/Architecture, the CRC32/CRC32C intrinsics are implemented "by hand".
  // TODO: Provide implementation based on the vector instructions available from z13.
  // Note: The CHECKSUM instruction, which has been there since the very beginning
  //       (of z/Architecture), computes "some kind of" a checksum.
  //       It has nothing to do with the CRC32 algorithm.
  if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(UseCRC32Intrinsics)) {
    FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseCRC32Intrinsics, true);
  }
  if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(UseCRC32CIntrinsics)) {
    FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseCRC32CIntrinsics, true);
  }

  // TODO: Provide implementation.
  if (UseAdler32Intrinsics) {
    warning("Adler32Intrinsics not available on this CPU.");
    FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseAdler32Intrinsics, false);
  }

  // On z/Architecture, we take UseAES as the general switch to enable/disable the AES intrinsics.
  // The specific, and yet to be defined, switches UseAESxxxIntrinsics will then be set
  // depending on the actual machine capabilities.
  // Explicitly setting them via CmdLine option takes precedence, of course.
  // TODO: UseAESIntrinsics must be made keylength specific.
  // As of March 2015 and Java8, only AES128 is supported by the Java Cryptographic Extensions.
  // Therefore, UseAESIntrinsics is of minimal use at the moment.
  if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(UseAES) && has_Crypto_AES()) {
    FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseAES, true);
  }
  if (UseAES && !has_Crypto_AES()) {
    warning("AES instructions are not available on this CPU");
    FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseAES, false);
  }
  if (UseAES) {
    if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(UseAESIntrinsics)) {
      FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseAESIntrinsics, true);
    }
  }
  if (UseAESIntrinsics && !has_Crypto_AES()) {
    warning("AES intrinsics are not available on this CPU");
    FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseAESIntrinsics, false);
  }
  if (UseAESIntrinsics && !UseAES) {
    warning("AES intrinsics require UseAES flag to be enabled. Intrinsics will be disabled.");
    FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseAESIntrinsics, false);
  }

  // TODO: implement AES/CTR intrinsics
  if (UseAESCTRIntrinsics) {
    warning("AES/CTR intrinsics are not available on this CPU");
    FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseAESCTRIntrinsics, false);
  }

  if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(UseGHASHIntrinsics) && has_Crypto_GHASH()) {
    FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseGHASHIntrinsics, true);
  }
  if (UseGHASHIntrinsics && !has_Crypto_GHASH()) {
    warning("GHASH intrinsics are not available on this CPU");
    FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseGHASHIntrinsics, false);
  }

  if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(UseFMA)) {
    FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseFMA, true);
  }

  // On z/Architecture, we take UseSHA as the general switch to enable/disable the SHA intrinsics.
  // The specific switches UseSHAxxxIntrinsics will then be set depending on the actual
  // machine capabilities.
  // Explicitly setting them via CmdLine option takes precedence, of course.
  if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(UseSHA) && has_Crypto_SHA()) {
    FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseSHA, true);
  }
  if (UseSHA && !has_Crypto_SHA()) {
    warning("SHA instructions are not available on this CPU");
    FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseSHA, false);
  }
  if (UseSHA && has_Crypto_SHA1()) {
    if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(UseSHA1Intrinsics)) {
      FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseSHA1Intrinsics, true);
    }
  } else if (UseSHA1Intrinsics) {
    warning("Intrinsics for SHA-1 crypto hash functions not available on this CPU.");
    FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseSHA1Intrinsics, false);
  }
  if (UseSHA && has_Crypto_SHA256()) {
    if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(UseSHA256Intrinsics)) {
      FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseSHA256Intrinsics, true);
    }
  } else if (UseSHA256Intrinsics) {
    warning("Intrinsics for SHA-224 and SHA-256 crypto hash functions not available on this CPU.");
    FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseSHA256Intrinsics, false);
  }
  if (UseSHA && has_Crypto_SHA512()) {
    if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(UseSHA512Intrinsics)) {
      FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseSHA512Intrinsics, true);
    }
  } else if (UseSHA512Intrinsics) {
    warning("Intrinsics for SHA-384 and SHA-512 crypto hash functions not available on this CPU.");
    FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseSHA512Intrinsics, false);
  }

  if (!(UseSHA1Intrinsics || UseSHA256Intrinsics || UseSHA512Intrinsics)) {
    FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseSHA, false);
  }

  if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(UseMultiplyToLenIntrinsic)) {
    FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseMultiplyToLenIntrinsic, true);
  }
  if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(UseMontgomeryMultiplyIntrinsic)) {
    FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseMontgomeryMultiplyIntrinsic, true);
  }
  if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(UseMontgomerySquareIntrinsic)) {
    FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseMontgomerySquareIntrinsic, true);
  }
  if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(UsePopCountInstruction)) {
    FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UsePopCountInstruction, true);
  }

  // z/Architecture supports 8-byte compare-exchange operations
  // (see Atomic::cmpxchg)
  // and 'atomic long memory ops' (see Unsafe_GetLongVolatile).
  _supports_cx8 = true;

  _supports_atomic_getadd4 = VM_Version::has_LoadAndALUAtomicV1();
  _supports_atomic_getadd8 = VM_Version::has_LoadAndALUAtomicV1();

  // z/Architecture supports unaligned memory accesses.
  // Performance penalty is negligible. An additional tick or so
  // is lost if the accessed data spans a cache line boundary.
  // Unaligned accesses are not atomic, of course.
  if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(UseUnalignedAccesses)) {
    FLAG_SET_DEFAULT(UseUnalignedAccesses, true);
  }
}


void VM_Version::set_features_string() {

  unsigned int ambiguity = 0;
  _model_string = z_name[0];
  if (is_z13()) {
    _features_string = "System z G7-z13  (LDISP_fast, ExtImm, PCrel Load/Store, CmpB, Cond Load/Store, Interlocked Update, TxM, VectorInstr)";
    _model_string = z_name[7];
    ambiguity++;
  }
  if (is_ec12()) {
    _features_string = "System z G6-EC12 (LDISP_fast, ExtImm, PCrel Load/Store, CmpB, Cond Load/Store, Interlocked Update, TxM)";
    _model_string = z_name[6];
    ambiguity++;
  }
  if (is_z196()) {
    _features_string = "System z G5-z196 (LDISP_fast, ExtImm, PCrel Load/Store, CmpB, Cond Load/Store, Interlocked Update)";
    _model_string = z_name[5];
    ambiguity++;
  }
  if (is_z10()) {
    _features_string = "System z G4-z10  (LDISP_fast, ExtImm, PCrel Load/Store, CmpB)";
    _model_string = z_name[4];
    ambiguity++;
  }
  if (is_z9()) {
    _features_string = "System z G3-z9   (LDISP_fast, ExtImm), out-of-support as of 2016-04-01";
    _model_string = z_name[3];
    ambiguity++;
  }
  if (is_z990()) {
    _features_string = "System z G2-z990 (LDISP_fast), out-of-support as of 2014-07-01";
    _model_string = z_name[2];
    ambiguity++;
  }
  if (is_z900()) {
    _features_string = "System z G1-z900 (LDISP), out-of-support as of 2014-07-01";
    _model_string = z_name[1];
    ambiguity++;
  }

  if (ambiguity == 0) {
    _features_string = "z/Architecture (unknown generation)";
  } else if (ambiguity > 1) {
    tty->print_cr("*** WARNING *** Ambiguous z/Architecture detection, ambiguity = %d", ambiguity);
    tty->print_cr("                oldest detected generation is %s", _features_string);
    _features_string = "z/Architecture (ambiguous detection)";
  }

  if (has_Crypto_AES()) {
    char buf[256];
    assert(strlen(_features_string) + 4 + 3*4 + 1 < sizeof(buf), "increase buffer size");
    jio_snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), "%s aes%s%s%s", // String 'aes' must be surrounded by spaces so that jtreg tests recognize it.
                 _features_string,
                 has_Crypto_AES128() ? " 128" : "",
                 has_Crypto_AES192() ? " 192" : "",
                 has_Crypto_AES256() ? " 256" : "");
    _features_string = os::strdup(buf);
  }

  if (has_Crypto_SHA()) {
    char buf[256];
    assert(strlen(_features_string) + 4 + 2 + 2*4 + 6 + 1 < sizeof(buf), "increase buffer size");
    // String 'sha1' etc must be surrounded by spaces so that jtreg tests recognize it.
    jio_snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), "%s %s%s%s%s",
                 _features_string,
                 has_Crypto_SHA1()   ? " sha1"   : "",
                 has_Crypto_SHA256() ? " sha256" : "",
                 has_Crypto_SHA512() ? " sha512" : "",
                 has_Crypto_GHASH()  ? " ghash"  : "");
    if (has_Crypto_AES()) { os::free((void *)_features_string); }
    _features_string = os::strdup(buf);
  }
}

// featureBuffer - bit array indicating availability of various features
// featureNum    - bit index of feature to be tested
//                 Featurenum < 0 requests test for any nonzero bit in featureBuffer.
// bufLen        - length of featureBuffer in bits
bool VM_Version::test_feature_bit(unsigned long* featureBuffer, int featureNum, unsigned int bufLen) {
  assert(bufLen > 0,             "buffer len must be positive");
  assert((bufLen & 0x0007) == 0, "unaligned buffer len");
  assert(((intptr_t)featureBuffer&0x0007) == 0, "unaligned feature buffer");
  if (featureNum < 0) {
    // Any bit set at all?
    bool anyBit = false;
    for (size_t i = 0; i < bufLen/(8*sizeof(long)); i++) {
      anyBit = anyBit || (featureBuffer[i] != 0);
    }
    return anyBit;
  } else {
    assert((unsigned int)featureNum < bufLen,    "feature index out of range");
    unsigned char* byteBuffer = (unsigned char*)featureBuffer;
    int   byteIndex  = featureNum/(8*sizeof(char));
    int   bitIndex   = featureNum%(8*sizeof(char));
    // Indexed bit set?
    return (byteBuffer[byteIndex] & (1U<<(7-bitIndex))) != 0;
  }
}

void VM_Version::print_features_internal(const char* text, bool print_anyway) {
  tty->print_cr("%s %s",       text, features_string());
  tty->print("%s", text);
  for (unsigned int i = 0; i < _nfeatures; i++) {
    tty->print("  0x%16.16lx", _features[i]);
  }
  tty->cr();

  if (Verbose || print_anyway) {
    // z900
    if (has_long_displacement()        ) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "LongDispFacility");
    // z990
    if (has_long_displacement_fast()   ) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "LongDispFacilityHighPerf");
    if (has_ETF2() && has_ETF3()       ) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "ETF2 and ETF3");
    if (has_Crypto()                   ) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "CryptoFacility");
    // z9
    if (has_extended_immediate()       ) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "ExtImmedFacility");
    if (has_StoreFacilityListExtended()) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "StoreFacilityListExtended");
    if (has_StoreClockFast()           ) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "StoreClockFast");
    if (has_ETF2Enhancements()         ) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "ETF2 Enhancements");
    if (has_ETF3Enhancements()         ) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "ETF3 Enhancements");
    if (has_HFPUnnormalized()          ) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "HFPUnnormalizedFacility");
    if (has_HFPMultiplyAndAdd()        ) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "HFPMultiplyAndAddFacility");
    // z10
    if (has_ParsingEnhancements()      ) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "Parsing Enhancements");
    if (has_ExtractCPUtime()           ) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "ExtractCPUTime");
    if (has_CompareSwapStore()         ) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "CompareSwapStore");
    if (has_GnrlInstrExtensions()      ) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "General Instruction Extensions");
    if (has_CompareBranch()            ) tty->print_cr("  available: %s", "Compare and Branch");
    if (has_CompareTrap()              ) tty->print_cr("  available: %s", "Compare and Trap");
    if (has_RelativeLoadStore()        ) tty->print_cr("  available: %s", "Relative Load/Store");
    if (has_MultiplySingleImm32()      ) tty->print_cr("  available: %s", "MultiplySingleImm32");
    if (has_Prefetch()                 ) tty->print_cr("  available: %s", "Prefetch");
    if (has_MoveImmToMem()             ) tty->print_cr("  available: %s", "Direct Moves Immediate to Memory");
    if (has_MemWithImmALUOps()         ) tty->print_cr("  available: %s", "Direct ALU Ops Memory .op. Immediate");
    if (has_ExtractCPUAttributes()     ) tty->print_cr("  available: %s", "Extract CPU Atributes");
    if (has_ExecuteExtensions()        ) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "ExecuteExtensions");
    if (has_FPSupportEnhancements()    ) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "FPSupportEnhancements");
    if (has_DecimalFloatingPoint()     ) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "DecimalFloatingPoint");
    // z196
    if (has_DistinctOpnds()            ) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "Distinct Operands");
    if (has_InterlockedAccessV1()      ) tty->print_cr("  available: %s", "InterlockedAccess V1 (fast)");
    if (has_PopCount()                 ) tty->print_cr("  available: %s", "PopCount");
    if (has_LoadStoreConditional()     ) tty->print_cr("  available: %s", "LoadStoreConditional");
    if (has_HighWordInstr()            ) tty->print_cr("  available: %s", "HighWord Instructions");
    if (has_FastSync()                 ) tty->print_cr("  available: %s", "FastSync (bcr 14,0)");
    if (has_AtomicMemWithImmALUOps()   ) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "Atomic Direct ALU Ops Memory .op. Immediate");
    if (has_FPExtensions()             ) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "Floatingpoint Extensions");
    if (has_CryptoExt3()               ) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "Crypto Extensions 3");
    if (has_CryptoExt4()               ) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "Crypto Extensions 4");
    // EC12
    if (has_MiscInstrExt()             ) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "Miscelaneous Instruction Extensions");
    if (has_ExecutionHint()            ) tty->print_cr("  available: %s", "Execution Hints (branch prediction)");
    if (has_ProcessorAssist()          ) tty->print_cr("  available: %s", "Processor Assists");
    if (has_LoadAndTrap()              ) tty->print_cr("  available: %s", "Load and Trap");
    if (has_TxMem()                    ) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "Transactional Memory");
    if (has_InterlockedAccessV2()      ) tty->print_cr("  available: %s", "InterlockedAccess V2 (fast)");
    if (has_DFPZonedConversion()       ) tty->print_cr("  available: %s", "DFP Zoned Conversions");
    // z13
    if (has_LoadStoreConditional2()    ) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "Load/Store Conditional 2");
    if (has_CryptoExt5()               ) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "Crypto Extensions 5");
    if (has_DFPPackedConversion()      ) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "DFP Packed Conversions");
    if (has_VectorFacility()           ) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "Vector Facility");
    // test switches
    if (has_TestFeature1Impl()         ) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "TestFeature1Impl");
    if (has_TestFeature2Impl()         ) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "TestFeature2Impl");
    if (has_TestFeature4Impl()         ) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "TestFeature4Impl");
    if (has_TestFeature8Impl()         ) tty->print_cr("available: %s", "TestFeature8Impl");

    if (has_Crypto()) {
      tty->cr();
      tty->print_cr("detailed availability of %s capabilities:", "CryptoFacility");
      if (test_feature_bit(&_cipher_features[0], -1, 2*Cipher::_featureBits)) {
        tty->cr();
        tty->print_cr("  available: %s", "Message Cipher Functions");
      }
      if (test_feature_bit(&_cipher_features[0], -1, (int)Cipher::_featureBits)) {
        tty->print_cr("    available Crypto Features of KM  (Cipher Message):");
        for (unsigned int i = 0; i < Cipher::_featureBits; i++) {
          if (test_feature_bit(&_cipher_features[0], i, (int)Cipher::_featureBits)) {
            switch (i) {
              case Cipher::_Query:              tty->print_cr("      available: KM   Query");                  break;
              case Cipher::_DEA:                tty->print_cr("      available: KM   DEA");                    break;
              case Cipher::_TDEA128:            tty->print_cr("      available: KM   TDEA-128");               break;
              case Cipher::_TDEA192:            tty->print_cr("      available: KM   TDEA-192");               break;
              case Cipher::_EncryptedDEA:       tty->print_cr("      available: KM   Encrypted DEA");          break;
              case Cipher::_EncryptedDEA128:    tty->print_cr("      available: KM   Encrypted DEA-128");      break;
              case Cipher::_EncryptedDEA192:    tty->print_cr("      available: KM   Encrypted DEA-192");      break;
              case Cipher::_AES128:             tty->print_cr("      available: KM   AES-128");                break;
              case Cipher::_AES192:             tty->print_cr("      available: KM   AES-192");                break;
              case Cipher::_AES256:             tty->print_cr("      available: KM   AES-256");                break;
              case Cipher::_EnccryptedAES128:   tty->print_cr("      available: KM   Encrypted-AES-128");      break;
              case Cipher::_EnccryptedAES192:   tty->print_cr("      available: KM   Encrypted-AES-192");      break;
              case Cipher::_EnccryptedAES256:   tty->print_cr("      available: KM   Encrypted-AES-256");      break;
              case Cipher::_XTSAES128:          tty->print_cr("      available: KM   XTS-AES-128");            break;
              case Cipher::_XTSAES256:          tty->print_cr("      available: KM   XTS-AES-256");            break;
              case Cipher::_EncryptedXTSAES128: tty->print_cr("      available: KM   XTS-Encrypted-AES-128");  break;
              case Cipher::_EncryptedXTSAES256: tty->print_cr("      available: KM   XTS-Encrypted-AES-256");  break;
              default: tty->print_cr("      available: unknown KM  code %d", i);      break;
            }
          }
        }
      }
      if (test_feature_bit(&_cipher_features[2], -1, (int)Cipher::_featureBits)) {
        tty->print_cr("    available Crypto Features of KMC (Cipher Message with Chaining):");
        for (unsigned int i = 0; i < Cipher::_featureBits; i++) {
            if (test_feature_bit(&_cipher_features[2], i, (int)Cipher::_featureBits)) {
            switch (i) {
              case Cipher::_Query:              tty->print_cr("      available: KMC  Query");                  break;
              case Cipher::_DEA:                tty->print_cr("      available: KMC  DEA");                    break;
              case Cipher::_TDEA128:            tty->print_cr("      available: KMC  TDEA-128");               break;
              case Cipher::_TDEA192:            tty->print_cr("      available: KMC  TDEA-192");               break;
              case Cipher::_EncryptedDEA:       tty->print_cr("      available: KMC  Encrypted DEA");          break;
              case Cipher::_EncryptedDEA128:    tty->print_cr("      available: KMC  Encrypted DEA-128");      break;
              case Cipher::_EncryptedDEA192:    tty->print_cr("      available: KMC  Encrypted DEA-192");      break;
              case Cipher::_AES128:             tty->print_cr("      available: KMC  AES-128");                break;
              case Cipher::_AES192:             tty->print_cr("      available: KMC  AES-192");                break;
              case Cipher::_AES256:             tty->print_cr("      available: KMC  AES-256");                break;
              case Cipher::_EnccryptedAES128:   tty->print_cr("      available: KMC  Encrypted-AES-128");      break;
              case Cipher::_EnccryptedAES192:   tty->print_cr("      available: KMC  Encrypted-AES-192");      break;
              case Cipher::_EnccryptedAES256:   tty->print_cr("      available: KMC  Encrypted-AES-256");      break;
              case Cipher::_PRNG:               tty->print_cr("      available: KMC  PRNG");                   break;
              default: tty->print_cr("      available: unknown KMC code %d", i);      break;
            }
          }
        }
      }

      if (test_feature_bit(&_msgdigest_features[0], -1, 2*MsgDigest::_featureBits)) {
        tty->cr();
        tty->print_cr("  available: %s", "Message Digest Functions for SHA");
      }
      if (test_feature_bit(&_msgdigest_features[0], -1, (int)MsgDigest::_featureBits)) {
        tty->print_cr("    available Features of KIMD (Msg Digest):");
        for (unsigned int i = 0; i < MsgDigest::_featureBits; i++) {
            if (test_feature_bit(&_msgdigest_features[0], i, (int)MsgDigest::_featureBits)) {
            switch (i) {
              case MsgDigest::_Query:  tty->print_cr("      available: KIMD Query");   break;
              case MsgDigest::_SHA1:   tty->print_cr("      available: KIMD SHA-1");   break;
              case MsgDigest::_SHA256: tty->print_cr("      available: KIMD SHA-256"); break;
              case MsgDigest::_SHA512: tty->print_cr("      available: KIMD SHA-512"); break;
              case MsgDigest::_GHASH:  tty->print_cr("      available: KIMD GHASH");   break;
              default: tty->print_cr("      available: unknown code %d", i);  break;
            }
          }
        }
      }
      if (test_feature_bit(&_msgdigest_features[2], -1, (int)MsgDigest::_featureBits)) {
        tty->print_cr("    available Features of KLMD (Msg Digest):");
        for (unsigned int i = 0; i < MsgDigest::_featureBits; i++) {
          if (test_feature_bit(&_msgdigest_features[2], i, (int)MsgDigest::_featureBits)) {
            switch (i) {
              case MsgDigest::_Query:  tty->print_cr("      available: KLMD Query");   break;
              case MsgDigest::_SHA1:   tty->print_cr("      available: KLMD SHA-1");   break;
              case MsgDigest::_SHA256: tty->print_cr("      available: KLMD SHA-256"); break;
              case MsgDigest::_SHA512: tty->print_cr("      available: KLMD SHA-512"); break;
              default: tty->print_cr("      available: unknown code %d", i);  break;
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }
    if (ContendedPaddingWidth > 0) {
      tty->cr();
      tty->print_cr("ContendedPaddingWidth " INTX_FORMAT, ContendedPaddingWidth);
    }
  }
}

void VM_Version::print_platform_virtualization_info(outputStream* st) {
  // /proc/sysinfo contains interesting information about
  // - LPAR
  // - whole "Box" (CPUs )
  // - z/VM / KVM (VM<nn>); this is not available in an LPAR-only setup
  const char* kw[] = { "LPAR", "CPUs", "VM", NULL };
  const char* info_file = "/proc/sysinfo";

  if (!print_matching_lines_from_file(info_file, st, kw)) {
    st->print_cr("  <%s Not Available>", info_file);
  }
}

void VM_Version::print_features() {
  print_features_internal("Version:");
}

void VM_Version::reset_features(bool reset) {
  if (reset) {
    for (unsigned int i = 0; i < _features_buffer_len; i++) {
      VM_Version::_features[i] = 0;
    }
  }
}

void VM_Version::set_features_z900(bool reset) {
  reset_features(reset);

  set_has_long_displacement();
  set_has_ETF2();
}

void VM_Version::set_features_z990(bool reset) {
  reset_features(reset);

  set_features_z900(false);
  set_has_ETF3();
  set_has_long_displacement_fast();
  set_has_HFPMultiplyAndAdd();
}

void VM_Version::set_features_z9(bool reset) {
  reset_features(reset);

  set_features_z990(false);
  set_has_StoreFacilityListExtended();
  // set_has_Crypto();   // Do not set, crypto features must be retrieved separately.
  set_has_ETF2Enhancements();
  set_has_ETF3Enhancements();
  set_has_extended_immediate();
  set_has_StoreClockFast();
  set_has_HFPUnnormalized();
}

void VM_Version::set_features_z10(bool reset) {
  reset_features(reset);

  set_features_z9(false);
  set_has_CompareSwapStore();
  set_has_RelativeLoadStore();
  set_has_CompareBranch();
  set_has_CompareTrap();
  set_has_MultiplySingleImm32();
  set_has_Prefetch();
  set_has_MoveImmToMem();
  set_has_MemWithImmALUOps();
  set_has_ExecuteExtensions();
  set_has_FPSupportEnhancements();
  set_has_DecimalFloatingPoint();
  set_has_ExtractCPUtime();
  set_has_CryptoExt3();
}

void VM_Version::set_features_z196(bool reset) {
  reset_features(reset);

  set_features_z10(false);
  set_has_InterlockedAccessV1();
  set_has_PopCount();
  set_has_LoadStoreConditional();
  set_has_HighWordInstr();
  set_has_FastSync();
  set_has_FPExtensions();
  set_has_DistinctOpnds();
  set_has_CryptoExt4();
}

void VM_Version::set_features_ec12(bool reset) {
  reset_features(reset);

  set_features_z196(false);
  set_has_MiscInstrExt();
  set_has_InterlockedAccessV2();
  set_has_LoadAndALUAtomicV2();
  set_has_TxMem();
}

void VM_Version::set_features_z13(bool reset) {
  reset_features(reset);

  set_features_ec12(false);
  set_has_LoadStoreConditional2();
  set_has_CryptoExt5();
  set_has_VectorFacility();
}

void VM_Version::set_features_from(const char* march) {
  bool err = false;
  bool prt = false;

  if ((march != NULL) && (march[0] != '\0')) {
    const int buf_len = 16;
    const int hdr_len =  5;
    char buf[buf_len];
    if (strlen(march) >= hdr_len) {
      memcpy(buf, march, hdr_len);
      buf[hdr_len] = '\00';
    } else {
      buf[0]       = '\00';
    }

    if (!strcmp(march, "z900")) {
      set_features_z900();
    } else if (!strcmp(march, "z990")) {
        set_features_z990();
    } else if (!strcmp(march, "z9")) {
        set_features_z9();
    } else if (!strcmp(march, "z10")) {
        set_features_z10();
    } else if (!strcmp(march, "z196")) {
        set_features_z196();
    } else if (!strcmp(march, "ec12")) {
        set_features_ec12();
    } else if (!strcmp(march, "z13")) {
        set_features_z13();
    } else if (!strcmp(buf, "ztest")) {
      assert(!has_TestFeaturesImpl(), "possible facility list flag conflict");
      if (strlen(march) > hdr_len) {
        int itest = 0;
        if ((strlen(march)-hdr_len) >= buf_len) err = true;
        if (!err) {
          memcpy(buf, &march[hdr_len], strlen(march)-hdr_len);
          buf[strlen(march)-hdr_len] = '\00';
          for (size_t i = 0; !err && (i < strlen(buf)); i++) {
            itest = itest*10 + buf[i]-'0';
            err   = err || ((buf[i]-'0') < 0) || ((buf[i]-'0') > 9) || (itest > 15);
          }
        }
        if (!err) {
          prt = true;
          if (itest & 0x01) { set_has_TestFeature1Impl(); }
          if (itest & 0x02) { set_has_TestFeature2Impl(); }
          if (itest & 0x04) { set_has_TestFeature4Impl(); }
          if (itest & 0x08) { set_has_TestFeature8Impl(); }
        }
      } else {
        prt = true;
        set_has_TestFeature1Impl();
        set_has_TestFeature2Impl();
        set_has_TestFeature4Impl();
        set_has_TestFeature8Impl();
      }
    } else {
      err = true;
    }
    if (!err) {
      set_features_string();
      if (prt || PrintAssembly) {
        print_features_internal("CPU Version as set by cmdline option:", prt);
      }
    } else {
      tty->print_cr("***Warning: Unsupported ProcessorArchitecture: %s, internal settings left undisturbed.", march);
    }
  }

}

static long (*getFeatures)(unsigned long*, int, int) = NULL;

void VM_Version::set_getFeatures(address entryPoint) {
  if (getFeatures == NULL) {
    getFeatures = (long(*)(unsigned long*, int, int))entryPoint;
  }
}

long VM_Version::call_getFeatures(unsigned long* buffer, int buflen, int functionCode) {
  VM_Version::_is_determine_features_test_running = true;
  long functionResult = (*getFeatures)(buffer, buflen, functionCode);
  VM_Version::_is_determine_features_test_running = false;
  return functionResult;
}

// Helper function for "extract cache attribute" instruction.
int VM_Version::calculate_ECAG_functionCode(unsigned int attributeIndication,
                                            unsigned int levelIndication,
                                            unsigned int typeIndication) {
  return (attributeIndication<<4) | (levelIndication<<1) | typeIndication;
}

void VM_Version::determine_features() {

  const int      cbuf_size = _code_buffer_len;
  const int      buf_len   = _features_buffer_len;

  // Allocate code buffer space for the detection code.
  ResourceMark    rm;
  CodeBuffer      cbuf("determine CPU features", cbuf_size, 0);
  MacroAssembler* a = new MacroAssembler(&cbuf);

  // Emit code.
  set_getFeatures(a->pc());
  address   code = a->pc();

  // Try STFLE. Possible INVOP will cause defaults to be used.
  Label    getFEATURES;
  Label    getCPUFEATURES;                   // fcode = -1 (cache)
  Label    getCIPHERFEATURES;                // fcode = -2 (cipher)
  Label    getMSGDIGESTFEATURES;             // fcode = -3 (SHA)
  Label    getVECTORFEATURES;                // fcode = -4 (OS support for vector instructions)
  Label    errRTN;
  a->z_ltgfr(Z_R0, Z_ARG2);                  // Buf len to r0 and test.
  a->z_brl(getFEATURES);                     // negative -> Get machine features not covered by facility list.
  a->z_lghi(Z_R1,0);
  a->z_brz(errRTN);                          // zero -> Function code currently not used, indicate "aborted".

  a->z_aghi(Z_R0, -1);
  a->z_stfle(0, Z_ARG1);
  a->z_lg(Z_R1, 0, Z_ARG1);                  // Get first DW of facility list.
  a->z_lgr(Z_RET, Z_R0);                     // Calculate rtn value for success.
  a->z_la(Z_RET, 1, Z_RET);
  a->z_brnz(errRTN);                         // Instr failed if non-zero CC.
  a->z_ltgr(Z_R1, Z_R1);                     // Instr failed if first DW == 0.
  a->z_bcr(Assembler::bcondNotZero, Z_R14);  // Successful return.

  a->bind(errRTN);
  a->z_lngr(Z_RET, Z_RET);
  a->z_ltgr(Z_R1, Z_R1);
  a->z_bcr(Assembler::bcondNotZero, Z_R14);  // Return "buffer too small".
  a->z_xgr(Z_RET, Z_RET);
  a->z_br(Z_R14);                            // Return "operation aborted".

  a->bind(getFEATURES);
  a->z_cghi(Z_R0, -1);                       // -1: Extract CPU attributes, currently: cache layout only.
  a->z_bre(getCPUFEATURES);
  a->z_cghi(Z_R0, -2);                       // -2: Extract detailed crypto capabilities (cipher instructions).
  a->z_bre(getCIPHERFEATURES);
  a->z_cghi(Z_R0, -3);                       // -3: Extract detailed crypto capabilities (msg digest instructions).
  a->z_bre(getMSGDIGESTFEATURES);
  a->z_cghi(Z_R0, -4);                       // -4: Verify vector instruction availability (OS support).
  a->z_bre(getVECTORFEATURES);

  a->z_xgr(Z_RET, Z_RET);                    // Not a valid function code.
  a->z_br(Z_R14);                            // Return "operation aborted".

  // Try KIMD/KLMD query function to get details about msg digest (secure hash, SHA) instructions.
  a->bind(getMSGDIGESTFEATURES);
  a->z_lghi(Z_R0,(int)MsgDigest::_Query);    // query function code
  a->z_lgr(Z_R1,Z_R2);                       // param block addr, 2*16 bytes min size
  a->z_kimd(Z_R2,Z_R2);                      // Get available KIMD functions (bit pattern in param blk).
  a->z_la(Z_R1,16,Z_R1);                     // next param block addr
  a->z_klmd(Z_R2,Z_R2);                      // Get available KLMD functions (bit pattern in param blk).
  a->z_lghi(Z_RET,4);
  a->z_br(Z_R14);

  // Try KM/KMC query function to get details about crypto instructions.
  a->bind(getCIPHERFEATURES);
  a->z_lghi(Z_R0,(int)Cipher::_Query);       // query function code
  a->z_lgr(Z_R1,Z_R2);                       // param block addr, 2*16 bytes min size (KIMD/KLMD output)
  a->z_km(Z_R2,Z_R2);                        // get available KM functions
  a->z_la(Z_R1,16,Z_R1);                     // next param block addr
  a->z_kmc(Z_R2,Z_R2);                       // get available KMC functions
  a->z_lghi(Z_RET,4);
  a->z_br(Z_R14);

  // Use EXTRACT CPU ATTRIBUTE instruction to get information about cache layout.
  a->bind(getCPUFEATURES);
  a->z_xgr(Z_R0,Z_R0);                       // as recommended in instruction documentation
  a->z_ecag(Z_RET,Z_R0,0,Z_ARG3);            // Extract information as requested by Z_ARG1 contents.
  a->z_br(Z_R14);

  // Use a vector instruction to verify OS support. Will fail with SIGFPE if OS support is missing.
  a->bind(getVECTORFEATURES);
  a->z_vtm(Z_V0,Z_V0);                       // non-destructive vector instruction. Will cause SIGFPE if not supported.
  a->z_br(Z_R14);

  address code_end = a->pc();
  a->flush();

  // Print the detection code.
  bool printVerbose = Verbose || PrintAssembly || PrintStubCode;
  if (printVerbose) {
    ttyLocker ttyl;
    tty->print_cr("Decoding CPU feature detection stub at " INTPTR_FORMAT " before execution:", p2i(code));
    tty->print_cr("Stub length is %ld bytes, codebuffer reserves %d bytes, %ld bytes spare.",
                  code_end-code, cbuf_size, cbuf_size-(code_end-code));

    // Use existing decode function. This enables the [Code] format which is needed to DecodeErrorFile.
    Disassembler::decode((u_char*)code, (u_char*)code_end, tty);
  }

  // Prepare for detection code execution and clear work buffer.
  _nfeatures        = 0;
  _ncipher_features = 0;
  unsigned long  buffer[buf_len];

  for (int i = 0; i < buf_len; i++) {
    buffer[i] = 0L;
  }

  // execute code
  // Illegal instructions will be replaced by 0 in signal handler.
  // In case of problems, call_getFeatures will return a not-positive result.
  long used_len = call_getFeatures(buffer, buf_len, 0);

  bool ok;
  if (used_len == 1) {
    ok = true;
  } else if (used_len > 1) {
    unsigned int used_lenU = (unsigned int)used_len;
    ok = true;
    for (unsigned int i = 1; i < used_lenU; i++) {
      ok = ok && (buffer[i] == 0L);
    }
    if (printVerbose && !ok) {
      bool compact = false;
      tty->print_cr("Note: feature list has %d (i.e. more than one) array elements.", used_lenU);
      if (compact) {
        tty->print("non-zero feature list elements:");
        for (unsigned int i = 0; i < used_lenU; i++) {
          tty->print("  [%d]: 0x%16.16lx", i, buffer[i]);
        }
        tty->cr();
      } else {
        for (unsigned int i = 0; i < used_lenU; i++) {
          tty->print_cr("non-zero feature list[%d]: 0x%16.16lx", i, buffer[i]);
        }
      }

      if (compact) {
        tty->print_cr("Active features (compact view):");
        for (unsigned int k = 0; k < used_lenU; k++) {
          tty->print_cr("  buffer[%d]:", k);
          for (unsigned int j = k*sizeof(long); j < (k+1)*sizeof(long); j++) {
            bool line = false;
            for (unsigned int i = j*8; i < (j+1)*8; i++) {
              bool bit  = test_feature_bit(buffer, i, used_lenU*sizeof(long)*8);
              if (bit) {
                if (!line) {
                  tty->print("    byte[%d]:", j);
                  line = true;
                }
                tty->print("  [%3.3d]", i);
              }
            }
            if (line) {
              tty->cr();
            }
          }
        }
      } else {
        tty->print_cr("Active features (full view):");
        for (unsigned int k = 0; k < used_lenU; k++) {
          tty->print_cr("  buffer[%d]:", k);
          for (unsigned int j = k*sizeof(long); j < (k+1)*sizeof(long); j++) {
            tty->print("    byte[%d]:", j);
            for (unsigned int i = j*8; i < (j+1)*8; i++) {
              bool bit  = test_feature_bit(buffer, i, used_lenU*sizeof(long)*8);
              if (bit) {
                tty->print("  [%3.3d]", i);
              } else {
                tty->print("       ");
              }
            }
            tty->cr();
          }
        }
      }
    }
    ok = true;
  } else {  // No features retrieved if we reach here. Buffer too short or instr not available.
    if (used_len < 0) {
      ok = false;
      if (printVerbose) {
        tty->print_cr("feature list buffer[%d] too short, required: buffer[%ld]", buf_len, -used_len);
      }
    } else {
      if (printVerbose) {
        tty->print_cr("feature list could not be retrieved. Running on z900 or z990? Trying to find out...");
      }
      used_len = call_getFeatures(buffer, 0, 0);       // Must provide at least two DW buffer elements!!!!

      ok = used_len > 0;
      if (ok) {
        if (buffer[1]*10 < buffer[0]) {
          set_features_z900();
        } else {
          set_features_z990();
        }

        if (printVerbose) {
          tty->print_cr("Note: high-speed long displacement test used %ld iterations.", used_len);
          tty->print_cr("      Positive displacement loads took %8.8lu microseconds.", buffer[1]);
          tty->print_cr("      Negative displacement loads took %8.8lu microseconds.", buffer[0]);
          if (has_long_displacement_fast()) {
            tty->print_cr("      assuming high-speed long displacement IS     available.");
          } else {
            tty->print_cr("      assuming high-speed long displacement is NOT available.");
          }
        }
      } else {
        if (printVerbose) {
          tty->print_cr("Note: high-speed long displacement test was not successful.");
          tty->print_cr("      assuming long displacement is NOT available.");
        }
      }
      return; // Do not copy buffer to _features, no test for cipher features.
    }
  }

  if (ok) {
    // Fill features buffer.
    // Clear work buffer.
    for (int i = 0; i < buf_len; i++) {
      _features[i]           = buffer[i];
      _cipher_features[i]    = 0;
      _msgdigest_features[i] = 0;
      buffer[i]              = 0L;
    }
    _nfeatures = used_len;
  } else {
    for (int i = 0; i < buf_len; i++) {
      _features[i]           = 0;
      _cipher_features[i]    = 0;
      _msgdigest_features[i] = 0;
      buffer[i]              = 0L;
    }
    _nfeatures = 0;
  }

  if (has_VectorFacility()) {
    // Verify that feature can actually be used. OS support required.
    call_getFeatures(buffer, -4, 0);
    if (printVerbose) {
      ttyLocker ttyl;
      if (has_VectorFacility()) {
        tty->print_cr("  Vector Facility has been verified to be supported by OS");
      } else {
        tty->print_cr("  Vector Facility has been disabled - not supported by OS");
      }
    }
  }

  // Extract Crypto Facility details.
  if (has_Crypto()) {
    // Get cipher features.
    used_len = call_getFeatures(buffer, -2, 0);
    for (int i = 0; i < buf_len; i++) {
      _cipher_features[i] = buffer[i];
    }
    _ncipher_features = used_len;

    // Get msg digest features.
    used_len = call_getFeatures(buffer, -3, 0);
    for (int i = 0; i < buf_len; i++) {
      _msgdigest_features[i] = buffer[i];
    }
    _nmsgdigest_features = used_len;
  }

  static int   levelProperties[_max_cache_levels];     // All property indications per level.
  static int   levelScope[_max_cache_levels];          // private/shared
  static const char* levelScopeText[4] = {"No cache   ",
                                          "CPU private",
                                          "shared     ",
                                          "reserved   "};

  static int   levelType[_max_cache_levels];           // D/I/mixed
  static const char* levelTypeText[4]  = {"separate D and I caches",
                                          "I cache only           ",
                                          "D-cache only           ",
                                          "combined D/I cache     "};

  static unsigned int levelReserved[_max_cache_levels];    // reserved property bits
  static unsigned int levelLineSize[_max_cache_levels];
  static unsigned int levelTotalSize[_max_cache_levels];
  static unsigned int levelAssociativity[_max_cache_levels];


  // Extract Cache Layout details.
  if (has_ExtractCPUAttributes() && printVerbose) { // For information only, as of now.
    bool         lineSize_mismatch;
    bool         print_something;
    long         functionResult;
    unsigned int attributeIndication = 0; // 0..15
    unsigned int levelIndication     = 0; // 0..8
    unsigned int typeIndication      = 0; // 0..1 (D-Cache, I-Cache)
    int          functionCode        = calculate_ECAG_functionCode(attributeIndication, levelIndication, typeIndication);

    // Get cache topology.
    functionResult = call_getFeatures(buffer, -1, functionCode);

    for (unsigned int i = 0; i < _max_cache_levels; i++) {
      if (functionResult > 0) {
        int shiftVal          = 8*(_max_cache_levels-(i+1));
        levelProperties[i]    = (functionResult & (0xffUL<<shiftVal)) >> shiftVal;
        levelReserved[i]      = (levelProperties[i] & 0xf0) >> 4;
        levelScope[i]         = (levelProperties[i] & 0x0c) >> 2;
        levelType[i]          = (levelProperties[i] & 0x03);
      } else {
        levelProperties[i]    = 0;
        levelReserved[i]      = 0;
        levelScope[i]         = 0;
        levelType[i]          = 0;
      }
      levelLineSize[i]      = 0;
      levelTotalSize[i]     = 0;
      levelAssociativity[i] = 0;
    }

    tty->cr();
    tty->print_cr("------------------------------------");
    tty->print_cr("---  Cache Topology Information  ---");
    tty->print_cr("------------------------------------");
    for (unsigned int i = 0; (i < _max_cache_levels) && (levelProperties[i] != 0); i++) {
      tty->print_cr("  Cache Level %d: <scope>  %s | <type>  %s",
                    i+1, levelScopeText[levelScope[i]], levelTypeText[levelType[i]]);
    }

    // Get D-cache details per level.
    _Dcache_lineSize   = 0;
    lineSize_mismatch  = false;
    print_something    = false;
    typeIndication     = 0; // 0..1 (D-Cache, I-Cache)
    for (unsigned int i = 0; (i < _max_cache_levels) && (levelProperties[i] != 0); i++) {
      if ((levelType[i] == 0) || (levelType[i] == 2)) {
        print_something     = true;

        // Get cache line size of level i.
        attributeIndication   = 1;
        functionCode          = calculate_ECAG_functionCode(attributeIndication, i, typeIndication);
        levelLineSize[i]      = (unsigned int)call_getFeatures(buffer, -1, functionCode);

        // Get cache total size of level i.
        attributeIndication   = 2;
        functionCode          = calculate_ECAG_functionCode(attributeIndication, i, typeIndication);
        levelTotalSize[i]     = (unsigned int)call_getFeatures(buffer, -1, functionCode);

        // Get cache associativity of level i.
        attributeIndication   = 3;
        functionCode          = calculate_ECAG_functionCode(attributeIndication, i, typeIndication);
        levelAssociativity[i] = (unsigned int)call_getFeatures(buffer, -1, functionCode);

        _Dcache_lineSize      = _Dcache_lineSize == 0 ? levelLineSize[i] : _Dcache_lineSize;
        lineSize_mismatch     = lineSize_mismatch || (_Dcache_lineSize != levelLineSize[i]);
      } else {
        levelLineSize[i]      = 0;
      }
    }

    if (print_something) {
      tty->cr();
      tty->print_cr("------------------------------------");
      tty->print_cr("---  D-Cache Detail Information  ---");
      tty->print_cr("------------------------------------");
      if (lineSize_mismatch) {
        tty->print_cr("WARNING: D-Cache line size mismatch!");
      }
      for (unsigned int i = 0; (i < _max_cache_levels) && (levelProperties[i] != 0); i++) {
        if (levelLineSize[i] > 0) {
          tty->print_cr("  D-Cache Level %d: line size = %4d,  total size = %6dKB,  associativity = %2d",
                        i+1, levelLineSize[i], levelTotalSize[i]/(int)K, levelAssociativity[i]);
        }
      }
    }

    // Get I-cache details per level.
    _Icache_lineSize   = 0;
    lineSize_mismatch  = false;
    print_something    = false;
    typeIndication     = 1; // 0..1 (D-Cache, I-Cache)
    for (unsigned int i = 0; (i < _max_cache_levels) && (levelProperties[i] != 0); i++) {
      if ((levelType[i] == 0) || (levelType[i] == 1)) {
        print_something     = true;

        // Get cache line size of level i.
        attributeIndication   = 1;
        functionCode          = calculate_ECAG_functionCode(attributeIndication, i, typeIndication);
        levelLineSize[i]      = (unsigned int)call_getFeatures(buffer, -1, functionCode);

        // Get cache total size of level i.
        attributeIndication   = 2;
        functionCode          = calculate_ECAG_functionCode(attributeIndication, i, typeIndication);
        levelTotalSize[i]     = (unsigned int)call_getFeatures(buffer, -1, functionCode);

        // Get cache associativity of level i.
        attributeIndication   = 3;
        functionCode          = calculate_ECAG_functionCode(attributeIndication, i, typeIndication);
        levelAssociativity[i] = (unsigned int)call_getFeatures(buffer, -1, functionCode);

        _Icache_lineSize      = _Icache_lineSize == 0 ? levelLineSize[i] : _Icache_lineSize;
        lineSize_mismatch     = lineSize_mismatch || (_Icache_lineSize != levelLineSize[i]);
      } else {
        levelLineSize[i]      = 0;
      }
    }

    if (print_something) {
      tty->cr();
      tty->print_cr("------------------------------------");
      tty->print_cr("---  I-Cache Detail Information  ---");
      tty->print_cr("------------------------------------");
      if (lineSize_mismatch) {
        tty->print_cr("WARNING: I-Cache line size mismatch!");
      }
      for (unsigned int i = 0; (i < _max_cache_levels) && (levelProperties[i] != 0); i++) {
        if (levelLineSize[i] > 0) {
          tty->print_cr("  I-Cache Level %d: line size = %4d,  total size = %6dKB,  associativity = %2d",
                        i+1, levelLineSize[i], levelTotalSize[i]/(int)K, levelAssociativity[i]);
        }
      }
    }

    // Get D/I-cache details per level.
    lineSize_mismatch  = false;
    print_something    = false;
    typeIndication     = 0; // 0..1 (D-Cache, I-Cache)
    for (unsigned int i = 0; (i < _max_cache_levels) && (levelProperties[i] != 0); i++) {
      if (levelType[i] == 3) {
        print_something     = true;

        // Get cache line size of level i.
        attributeIndication   = 1;
        functionCode          = calculate_ECAG_functionCode(attributeIndication, i, typeIndication);
        levelLineSize[i]      = (unsigned int)call_getFeatures(buffer, -1, functionCode);

        // Get cache total size of level i.
        attributeIndication   = 2;
        functionCode          = calculate_ECAG_functionCode(attributeIndication, i, typeIndication);
        levelTotalSize[i]     = (unsigned int)call_getFeatures(buffer, -1, functionCode);

        // Get cache associativity of level i.
        attributeIndication   = 3;
        functionCode          = calculate_ECAG_functionCode(attributeIndication, i, typeIndication);
        levelAssociativity[i] = (unsigned int)call_getFeatures(buffer, -1, functionCode);

        _Dcache_lineSize      = _Dcache_lineSize == 0 ? levelLineSize[i] : _Dcache_lineSize;
        _Icache_lineSize      = _Icache_lineSize == 0 ? levelLineSize[i] : _Icache_lineSize;
        lineSize_mismatch     = lineSize_mismatch || (_Dcache_lineSize != levelLineSize[i])
                                                  || (_Icache_lineSize != levelLineSize[i]);
      } else {
        levelLineSize[i]      = 0;
      }
    }

    if (print_something) {
      tty->cr();
      tty->print_cr("--------------------------------------");
      tty->print_cr("---  D/I-Cache Detail Information  ---");
      tty->print_cr("--------------------------------------");
      if (lineSize_mismatch) {
        tty->print_cr("WARNING: D/I-Cache line size mismatch!");
      }
      for (unsigned int i = 0; (i < _max_cache_levels) && (levelProperties[i] != 0); i++) {
        if (levelLineSize[i] > 0) {
          tty->print_cr("  D/I-Cache Level %d: line size = %4d,  total size = %6dKB,  associativity = %2d",
                        i+1, levelLineSize[i], levelTotalSize[i]/(int)K, levelAssociativity[i]);
        }
      }
    }
    tty->cr();
  }
  return;
}

unsigned long VM_Version::z_SIGILL() {
  unsigned long   ZeroBuffer = 0;
  unsigned long   work;
  asm(
    "     LA      %[work],%[buffer]  \n\t"   // Load address of buffer.
    "     LARL    14,+6              \n\t"   // Load address of faulting instruction.
    "     BCR     15,%[work]         \n\t"   // Branch into buffer, execute whatever is in there.
    : [buffer]  "+Q"  (ZeroBuffer)   /* outputs   */
    , [work]   "=&a"  (work)         /* outputs   */
    :                                /* inputs    */
    : "cc"                           /* clobbered */
 );
  return ZeroBuffer;
}

unsigned long VM_Version::z_SIGSEGV() {
  unsigned long   ZeroBuffer = 0;
  unsigned long   work;
  asm(
    "     LG      %[work],%[buffer]  \n\t"   // Load zero address.
    "     STG     %[work],0(,%[work])\n\t"   // Store to address zero.
    : [buffer]  "+Q"  (ZeroBuffer)   /* outputs   */
    , [work]   "=&a"  (work)         /* outputs   */
    :                                /* inputs    */
    : "cc"                           /* clobbered */
 );
  return ZeroBuffer;
}