changeset 40312:4c7bf578577e

Merge
author lana
date Thu, 11 Aug 2016 17:02:00 +0000
parents a00b1704aa14 bb76098875c8
children a85f92c9a8ab
files langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/util/MessageRetriever.java langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/genericClass/Main.java langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/genericClass/expected.out langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/genericClass/pkg1/A.java langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/genericInnerAndOuter/Main.java langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/genericInnerAndOuter/expected.out langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/genericInnerAndOuter/pkg1/O.java langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/genericInnerAndOuter/pkg1/X.java langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/genericInterface/Main.java langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/genericInterface/expected.out langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/genericInterface/pkg1/A.java langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/genericMethod/Main.java langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/genericMethod/expected.out langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/genericMethod/pkg1/A.java langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/genericSuper/Main.java langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/genericSuper/expected.out langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/genericSuper/pkg1/A.java langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/supertypes/Main.java langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/supertypes/expected.out langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/supertypes/pkg1/A.java langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/supertypes/pkg1/B.java langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/throwsGeneric/Main.java langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/throwsGeneric/expected.out langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/throwsGeneric/pkg1/A.java langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/tparamCycle/Main.java langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/tparamCycle/pkg1/LikeEnum.java langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/tparamTagOnMethod/Main.java langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/tparamTagOnMethod/expected.out langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/tparamTagOnMethod/pkg1/A.java langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/tparamTagOnType/Main.java langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/tparamTagOnType/expected.out langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/tparamTagOnType/pkg1/A.java langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/wildcards/Main.java langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/wildcards/expected.out langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/generics/wildcards/pkg1/A.java langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/imports/I.java langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/imports/MissingImport.java langtools/test/jdk/javadoc/tool/lib/Tester.java langtools/test/tools/javac/diags/examples/InvalidArgForXPatch/InvalidArgForXpatch.java
diffstat 314 files changed, 4793 insertions(+), 4572 deletions(-) [+]
line wrap: on
line diff
--- a/langtools/make/tools/crules/MutableFieldsAnalyzer.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/make/tools/crules/MutableFieldsAnalyzer.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -107,6 +107,8 @@
                 "layerClass", "bootMethod", "defineModulesWithOneLoaderMethod", "configurationMethod");
         ignoreFields("com.sun.tools.javac.util.JDK9Wrappers$ServiceLoaderHelper",
                 "loadMethod");
+        ignoreFields("com.sun.tools.javac.util.JDK9Wrappers$VMHelper",
+                "vmClass", "getRuntimeArgumentsMethod");
         ignoreFields("com.sun.tools.javac.util.ModuleHelper",
                 "addExportsMethod", "getUnnamedModuleMethod", "getModuleMethod");
     }
--- a/langtools/src/java.compiler/share/classes/javax/tools/DocumentationTool.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/java.compiler/share/classes/javax/tools/DocumentationTool.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 2005, 2014, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 2005, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -57,7 +57,7 @@
      * use the tool's default method for reporting diagnostics
      *
      * @param docletClass a class providing the necessary methods required
-     * of a doclet
+     * of a doclet; a value of {@code null} means to use the standard doclet.
      *
      * @param options documentation tool options and doclet options,
      * {@code null} means no options
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/api/JavacTool.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/api/JavacTool.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -179,10 +179,10 @@
             args.init("javac", options, classes, compilationUnits);
 
             // init multi-release jar handling
-            if (fileManager.isSupportedOption(Option.MULTIRELEASE.text) == 1) {
+            if (fileManager.isSupportedOption(Option.MULTIRELEASE.primaryName) == 1) {
                 Target target = Target.instance(context);
                 List<String> list = List.of(target.multiReleaseValue());
-                fileManager.handleOption(Option.MULTIRELEASE.text, list.iterator());
+                fileManager.handleOption(Option.MULTIRELEASE.primaryName, list.iterator());
             }
 
             return new JavacTaskImpl(context);
@@ -212,8 +212,9 @@
     public int isSupportedOption(String option) {
         Set<Option> recognizedOptions = Option.getJavacToolOptions();
         for (Option o : recognizedOptions) {
-            if (o.matches(option))
+            if (o.matches(option)) {
                 return o.hasArg() ? 1 : 0;
+            }
         }
         return -1;
     }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/code/ClassFinder.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/code/ClassFinder.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -51,6 +51,7 @@
 import com.sun.tools.javac.file.JavacFileManager;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.jvm.ClassReader;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.jvm.Profile;
+import com.sun.tools.javac.main.Option;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.platform.PlatformDescription;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.util.*;
 
@@ -59,8 +60,6 @@
 import static com.sun.tools.javac.code.Flags.*;
 import static com.sun.tools.javac.code.Kinds.Kind.*;
 
-import static com.sun.tools.javac.main.Option.*;
-
 import com.sun.tools.javac.util.Dependencies.CompletionCause;
 
 /**
@@ -200,10 +199,10 @@
         annotate = Annotate.instance(context);
 
         Options options = Options.instance(context);
-        verbose = options.isSet(VERBOSE);
+        verbose = options.isSet(Option.VERBOSE);
         cacheCompletionFailure = options.isUnset("dev");
         preferSource = "source".equals(options.get("-Xprefer"));
-        userPathsFirst = options.isSet(XXUSERPATHSFIRST);
+        userPathsFirst = options.isSet(Option.XXUSERPATHSFIRST);
         allowSigFiles = context.get(PlatformDescription.class) != null;
 
         completionFailureName =
@@ -211,7 +210,7 @@
             ? names.fromString(options.get("failcomplete"))
             : null;
 
-        moduleOverride = options.isSet(XMODULE) ? names.fromString(options.get(XMODULE))
+        moduleOverride = options.isSet(Option.XMODULE) ? names.fromString(options.get(Option.XMODULE))
                                                 : null;
 
         // Temporary, until more info is available from the module system.
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/comp/Lower.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/comp/Lower.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -3184,11 +3184,13 @@
     }
 
     public void visitAssignop(final JCAssignOp tree) {
-        JCTree lhsAccess = access(TreeInfo.skipParens(tree.lhs));
         final boolean boxingReq = !tree.lhs.type.isPrimitive() &&
             tree.operator.type.getReturnType().isPrimitive();
 
-        if (boxingReq || lhsAccess.hasTag(APPLY)) {
+        AssignopDependencyScanner depScanner = new AssignopDependencyScanner(tree);
+        depScanner.scan(tree.rhs);
+
+        if (boxingReq || depScanner.dependencyFound) {
             // boxing required; need to rewrite as x = (unbox typeof x)(x op y);
             // or if x == (typeof x)z then z = (unbox typeof x)((typeof x)z op y)
             // (but without recomputing x)
@@ -3238,6 +3240,41 @@
         }
     }
 
+    class AssignopDependencyScanner extends TreeScanner {
+
+        Symbol sym;
+        boolean dependencyFound = false;
+
+        AssignopDependencyScanner(JCAssignOp tree) {
+            this.sym = TreeInfo.symbol(tree.lhs);
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        public void scan(JCTree tree) {
+            if (tree != null && sym != null) {
+                tree.accept(this);
+            }
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        public void visitAssignop(JCAssignOp tree) {
+            if (TreeInfo.symbol(tree.lhs) == sym) {
+                dependencyFound = true;
+                return;
+            }
+            super.visitAssignop(tree);
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        public void visitUnary(JCUnary tree) {
+            if (TreeInfo.symbol(tree.arg) == sym) {
+                dependencyFound = true;
+                return;
+            }
+            super.visitUnary(tree);
+        }
+    }
+
     /** Lower a tree of the form e++ or e-- where e is an object type */
     JCExpression lowerBoxedPostop(final JCUnary tree) {
         // translate to tmp1=lval(e); tmp2=tmp1; tmp1 OP 1; tmp2
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/comp/Modules.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/comp/Modules.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -147,7 +147,9 @@
     private final String addReadsOpt;
     private Map<ModuleSymbol, Set<RequiresDirective>> addReads;
     private final String addModsOpt;
+    private final Set<String> extraAddMods = new HashSet<>();
     private final String limitModsOpt;
+    private final Set<String> extraLimitMods = new HashSet<>();
 
     private Set<ModuleSymbol> rootModules = null;
 
@@ -182,10 +184,10 @@
         java_se = names.fromString("java.se");
         java_ = names.fromString("java.");
 
-        addExportsOpt = options.get(Option.XADDEXPORTS);
-        addReadsOpt = options.get(Option.XADDREADS);
-        addModsOpt = options.get(Option.ADDMODS);
-        limitModsOpt = options.get(Option.LIMITMODS);
+        addExportsOpt = options.get(Option.ADD_EXPORTS);
+        addReadsOpt = options.get(Option.ADD_READS);
+        addModsOpt = options.get(Option.ADD_MODULES);
+        limitModsOpt = options.get(Option.LIMIT_MODULES);
     }
 
     int depth = -1;
@@ -195,8 +197,16 @@
         System.err.println(msg);
     }
 
+    public void addExtraAddModules(String... extras) {
+        extraAddMods.addAll(Arrays.asList(extras));
+    }
+
+    public void addExtraLimitModules(String... extras) {
+        extraLimitMods.addAll(Arrays.asList(extras));
+    }
+
     boolean inInitModules;
-    public void initModules(List<JCCompilationUnit> trees, Collection<String> extraAddMods, Collection<String> extraLimitMods) {
+    public void initModules(List<JCCompilationUnit> trees) {
         Assert.check(!inInitModules);
         try {
             inInitModules = true;
@@ -205,7 +215,7 @@
                 Assert.checkNull(rootModules);
                 Assert.checkNull(allModules);
                 this.rootModules = modules;
-                setupAllModules(extraAddMods, extraLimitMods); //initialize the module graph
+                setupAllModules(); //initialize the module graph
                 Assert.checkNonNull(allModules);
                 inInitModules = false;
             }, null);
@@ -862,7 +872,7 @@
         return allModules;
     }
 
-    private void setupAllModules(Collection<String> extraAddMods, Collection<String> extraLimitMods) {
+    private void setupAllModules() {
         Assert.checkNonNull(rootModules);
         Assert.checkNull(allModules);
 
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/file/BaseFileManager.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/file/BaseFileManager.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -232,7 +232,7 @@
         OptionHelper helper = new GrumpyHelper(log) {
             @Override
             public String get(Option option) {
-                return options.get(option.getText());
+                return options.get(option);
             }
 
             @Override
@@ -251,23 +251,15 @@
             }
         };
 
-        for (Option o: javacFileManagerOptions) {
-            if (o.matches(current))  {
-                if (o.hasArg()) {
-                    if (remaining.hasNext()) {
-                        if (!o.process(helper, current, remaining.next()))
-                            return true;
-                    }
-                } else {
-                    if (!o.process(helper, current))
-                        return true;
-                }
-                // operand missing, or process returned true
-                throw new IllegalArgumentException(current);
-            }
+        Option o = Option.lookup(current, javacFileManagerOptions);
+        if (o == null) {
+            return false;
         }
 
-        return false;
+        if (!o.handleOption(helper, current, remaining))
+            throw new IllegalArgumentException(current);
+
+        return true;
     }
     // where
         private static final Set<Option> javacFileManagerOptions =
@@ -275,11 +267,8 @@
 
     @Override @DefinedBy(Api.COMPILER)
     public int isSupportedOption(String option) {
-        for (Option o : javacFileManagerOptions) {
-            if (o.matches(option))
-                return o.hasArg() ? 1 : 0;
-        }
-        return -1;
+        Option o = Option.lookup(option, javacFileManagerOptions);
+        return (o == null) ? -1 : o.hasArg() ? 1 : 0;
     }
 
     protected String multiReleaseValue;
@@ -316,7 +305,7 @@
             try {
                 ok = ok & handleOption(e.getKey(), e.getValue());
             } catch (IllegalArgumentException ex) {
-                log.error(Errors.IllegalArgumentForOption(e.getKey().getText(), ex.getMessage()));
+                log.error(Errors.IllegalArgumentForOption(e.getKey().getPrimaryName(), ex.getMessage()));
                 ok = false;
             }
         }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/file/Locations.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/file/Locations.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -84,7 +84,7 @@
 
 import static javax.tools.StandardLocation.PLATFORM_CLASS_PATH;
 
-import static com.sun.tools.javac.main.Option.BOOTCLASSPATH;
+import static com.sun.tools.javac.main.Option.BOOT_CLASS_PATH;
 import static com.sun.tools.javac.main.Option.DJAVA_ENDORSED_DIRS;
 import static com.sun.tools.javac.main.Option.DJAVA_EXT_DIRS;
 import static com.sun.tools.javac.main.Option.ENDORSEDDIRS;
@@ -580,8 +580,7 @@
     private class ClassPathLocationHandler extends SimpleLocationHandler {
 
         ClassPathLocationHandler() {
-            super(StandardLocation.CLASS_PATH,
-                    Option.CLASSPATH, Option.CP);
+            super(StandardLocation.CLASS_PATH, Option.CLASS_PATH);
         }
 
         @Override
@@ -649,7 +648,7 @@
 
         BootClassPathLocationHandler() {
             super(StandardLocation.PLATFORM_CLASS_PATH,
-                    Option.BOOTCLASSPATH, Option.XBOOTCLASSPATH,
+                    Option.BOOT_CLASS_PATH, Option.XBOOTCLASSPATH,
                     Option.XBOOTCLASSPATH_PREPEND,
                     Option.XBOOTCLASSPATH_APPEND,
                     Option.ENDORSEDDIRS, Option.DJAVA_ENDORSED_DIRS,
@@ -669,7 +668,7 @@
 
             option = canonicalize(option);
             optionValues.put(option, value);
-            if (option == BOOTCLASSPATH) {
+            if (option == BOOT_CLASS_PATH) {
                 optionValues.remove(XBOOTCLASSPATH_PREPEND);
                 optionValues.remove(XBOOTCLASSPATH_APPEND);
             }
@@ -682,7 +681,7 @@
         private Option canonicalize(Option option) {
             switch (option) {
                 case XBOOTCLASSPATH:
-                    return Option.BOOTCLASSPATH;
+                    return Option.BOOT_CLASS_PATH;
                 case DJAVA_ENDORSED_DIRS:
                     return Option.ENDORSEDDIRS;
                 case DJAVA_EXT_DIRS:
@@ -713,7 +712,7 @@
         SearchPath computePath() throws IOException {
             SearchPath path = new SearchPath();
 
-            String bootclasspathOpt = optionValues.get(BOOTCLASSPATH);
+            String bootclasspathOpt = optionValues.get(BOOT_CLASS_PATH);
             String endorseddirsOpt = optionValues.get(ENDORSEDDIRS);
             String extdirsOpt = optionValues.get(EXTDIRS);
             String xbootclasspathPrependOpt = optionValues.get(XBOOTCLASSPATH_PREPEND);
@@ -773,14 +772,14 @@
         private Collection<Path> systemClasses() throws IOException {
             // Return "modules" jimage file if available
             if (Files.isRegularFile(thisSystemModules)) {
-                return addAdditionalBootEntries(Collections.singleton(thisSystemModules));
+                return Collections.singleton(thisSystemModules);
             }
 
             // Exploded module image
             Path modules = javaHome.resolve("modules");
             if (Files.isDirectory(modules.resolve("java.base"))) {
                 try (Stream<Path> listedModules = Files.list(modules)) {
-                    return addAdditionalBootEntries(listedModules.collect(Collectors.toList()));
+                    return listedModules.collect(Collectors.toList());
                 }
             }
 
@@ -788,26 +787,6 @@
             return null;
         }
 
-        //ensure bootclasspath prepends/appends are reflected in the systemClasses
-        private Collection<Path> addAdditionalBootEntries(Collection<Path> modules) throws IOException {
-            String files = System.getProperty("sun.boot.class.path");
-            if (files == null)
-                return modules;
-
-            Set<Path> paths = new LinkedHashSet<>();
-
-            // The JVM no longer supports -Xbootclasspath/p:, so any interesting
-            // entries should be appended to the set of modules.
-
-            paths.addAll(modules);
-
-            for (String s : files.split(Pattern.quote(File.pathSeparator))) {
-                paths.add(getPath(s));
-            }
-
-            return paths;
-        }
-
         private void lazy() {
             if (searchPath == null) {
                 try {
@@ -1161,7 +1140,7 @@
 
         ModuleSourcePathLocationHandler() {
             super(StandardLocation.MODULE_SOURCE_PATH,
-                    Option.MODULESOURCEPATH);
+                    Option.MODULE_SOURCE_PATH);
         }
 
         @Override
@@ -1493,16 +1472,16 @@
         BasicLocationHandler[] handlers = {
             new BootClassPathLocationHandler(),
             new ClassPathLocationHandler(),
-            new SimpleLocationHandler(StandardLocation.SOURCE_PATH, Option.SOURCEPATH),
-            new SimpleLocationHandler(StandardLocation.ANNOTATION_PROCESSOR_PATH, Option.PROCESSORPATH),
-            new SimpleLocationHandler(StandardLocation.ANNOTATION_PROCESSOR_MODULE_PATH, Option.PROCESSORMODULEPATH),
+            new SimpleLocationHandler(StandardLocation.SOURCE_PATH, Option.SOURCE_PATH),
+            new SimpleLocationHandler(StandardLocation.ANNOTATION_PROCESSOR_PATH, Option.PROCESSOR_PATH),
+            new SimpleLocationHandler(StandardLocation.ANNOTATION_PROCESSOR_MODULE_PATH, Option.PROCESSOR_MODULE_PATH),
             new OutputLocationHandler(StandardLocation.CLASS_OUTPUT, Option.D),
             new OutputLocationHandler(StandardLocation.SOURCE_OUTPUT, Option.S),
             new OutputLocationHandler(StandardLocation.NATIVE_HEADER_OUTPUT, Option.H),
             new ModuleSourcePathLocationHandler(),
             // TODO: should UPGRADE_MODULE_PATH be merged with SYSTEM_MODULES?
-            new ModulePathLocationHandler(StandardLocation.UPGRADE_MODULE_PATH, Option.UPGRADEMODULEPATH),
-            new ModulePathLocationHandler(StandardLocation.MODULE_PATH, Option.MODULEPATH, Option.MP),
+            new ModulePathLocationHandler(StandardLocation.UPGRADE_MODULE_PATH, Option.UPGRADE_MODULE_PATH),
+            new ModulePathLocationHandler(StandardLocation.MODULE_PATH, Option.MODULE_PATH),
             new SystemModulesLocationHandler(),
         };
 
@@ -1518,29 +1497,42 @@
 
     boolean handleOption(Option option, String value) {
         switch (option) {
-            case XPATCH:
-                Map<String, SearchPath> map = new LinkedHashMap<>();
-                int eq = value.indexOf('=');
-                if (eq > 0) {
-                    String mName = value.substring(0, eq);
-                    SearchPath mPatchPath = new SearchPath()
-                            .addFiles(value.substring(eq + 1));
-                    boolean ok = true;
-                    for (Path p: mPatchPath) {
-                        Path mi = p.resolve("module-info.class");
-                        if (Files.exists(mi)) {
-                            log.error(Errors.LocnModuleInfoNotAllowedOnPatchPath(mi));
-                            ok = false;
+            case PATCH_MODULE:
+                if (value == null) {
+                    patchMap = null;
+                } else {
+                    // Allow an extended syntax for --patch-module consisting of a series
+                    // of values separated by NULL characters. This is to facilitate
+                    // supporting deferred file manager options on the command line.
+                    // See Option.PATCH_MODULE for the code that composes these multiple
+                    // values.
+                    for (String v : value.split("\0")) {
+                        int eq = v.indexOf('=');
+                        if (eq > 0) {
+                            String mName = v.substring(0, eq);
+                            SearchPath mPatchPath = new SearchPath()
+                                    .addFiles(v.substring(eq + 1));
+                            boolean ok = true;
+                            for (Path p : mPatchPath) {
+                                Path mi = p.resolve("module-info.class");
+                                if (Files.exists(mi)) {
+                                    log.error(Errors.LocnModuleInfoNotAllowedOnPatchPath(mi));
+                                    ok = false;
+                                }
+                            }
+                            if (ok) {
+                                if (patchMap == null) {
+                                    patchMap = new LinkedHashMap<>();
+                                }
+                                patchMap.put(mName, mPatchPath);
+                            }
+                        } else {
+                            // Should not be able to get here;
+                            // this should be caught and handled in Option.PATCH_MODULE
+                            log.error(Errors.LocnInvalidArgForXpatch(value));
                         }
                     }
-                    if (ok && !mPatchPath.isEmpty()) {
-                        map.computeIfAbsent(mName, (_x) -> new SearchPath())
-                                .addAll(mPatchPath);
-                    }
-                } else {
-                    log.error(Errors.LocnInvalidArgForXpatch(value));
                 }
-                patchMap = map;
                 return true;
             default:
                 LocationHandler h = handlersForOption.get(option);
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/jvm/ClassReader.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/jvm/ClassReader.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -55,6 +55,7 @@
 import com.sun.tools.javac.file.PathFileObject;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.jvm.ClassFile.NameAndType;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.jvm.ClassFile.Version;
+import com.sun.tools.javac.main.Option;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.util.*;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.util.DefinedBy.Api;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.util.JCDiagnostic.DiagnosticPosition;
@@ -67,7 +68,7 @@
 import static com.sun.tools.javac.jvm.ClassFile.*;
 import static com.sun.tools.javac.jvm.ClassFile.Version.*;
 
-import static com.sun.tools.javac.main.Option.*;
+import static com.sun.tools.javac.main.Option.PARAMETERS;
 
 /** This class provides operations to read a classfile into an internal
  *  representation. The internal representation is anchored in a
@@ -236,7 +237,7 @@
         log = Log.instance(context);
 
         Options options = Options.instance(context);
-        verbose         = options.isSet(VERBOSE);
+        verbose         = options.isSet(Option.VERBOSE);
 
         Source source = Source.instance(context);
         allowSimplifiedVarargs = source.allowSimplifiedVarargs();
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/main/Arguments.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/main/Arguments.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -63,6 +63,7 @@
 import com.sun.tools.javac.resources.CompilerProperties.Errors;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.resources.CompilerProperties.Warnings;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.util.Context;
+import com.sun.tools.javac.util.JCDiagnostic;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.util.List;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.util.ListBuffer;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.util.Log;
@@ -143,7 +144,7 @@
 
         @Override
         public boolean handleFileManagerOption(Option option, String value) {
-            options.put(option.getText(), value);
+            options.put(option, value);
             deferredFileManagerOptions.put(option, value);
             return true;
         }
@@ -164,6 +165,11 @@
         }
 
         @Override
+        public void error(JCDiagnostic.Error error) {
+            Arguments.this.error(error);
+        }
+
+        @Override
         public void addFile(Path p) {
             files.add(p);
         }
@@ -193,12 +199,15 @@
         fileObjects = null;
         classNames = new LinkedHashSet<>();
         processArgs(List.from(args), Option.getJavaCompilerOptions(), cmdLineHelper, true, false);
+        if (errors) {
+            log.printLines(PrefixKind.JAVAC, "msg.usage", ownName);
+        }
     }
 
     private final OptionHelper apiHelper = new GrumpyHelper(null) {
         @Override
         public String get(Option option) {
-            return options.get(option.getText());
+            return options.get(option);
         }
 
         @Override
@@ -297,8 +306,8 @@
         String platformString = options.get(Option.RELEASE);
 
         checkOptionAllowed(platformString == null,
-                option -> error("err.release.bootclasspath.conflict", option.getText()),
-                Option.BOOTCLASSPATH, Option.XBOOTCLASSPATH, Option.XBOOTCLASSPATH_APPEND,
+                option -> error("err.release.bootclasspath.conflict", option.getPrimaryName()),
+                Option.BOOT_CLASS_PATH, Option.XBOOTCLASSPATH, Option.XBOOTCLASSPATH_APPEND,
                 Option.XBOOTCLASSPATH_PREPEND,
                 Option.ENDORSEDDIRS, Option.DJAVA_ENDORSED_DIRS,
                 Option.EXTDIRS, Option.DJAVA_EXT_DIRS,
@@ -360,39 +369,29 @@
             }
 
             Option option = null;
+
+            // first, check the provided set of javac options
             if (arg.startsWith("-")) {
-                for (Option o : allowableOpts) {
-                    if (o.matches(arg)) {
-                        option = o;
-                        break;
-                    }
-                }
+                option = Option.lookup(arg, allowableOpts);
             } else if (allowOperands && Option.SOURCEFILE.matches(arg)) {
                 option = Option.SOURCEFILE;
             }
 
-            if (option == null) {
-                if (fm != null && fm.handleOption(arg, argIter)) {
-                    continue;
+            if (option != null) {
+                if (!option.handleOption(helper, arg, argIter)) {
+                    return false;
                 }
-                error("err.invalid.flag", arg);
-                return false;
+                continue;
             }
 
-            if (option.hasArg()) {
-                if (!argIter.hasNext()) {
-                    error("err.req.arg", arg);
-                    return false;
-                }
-                String operand = argIter.next();
-                if (option.process(helper, arg, operand)) {
-                    return false;
-                }
-            } else {
-                if (option.process(helper, arg)) {
-                    return false;
-                }
+            // check file manager option
+            if (fm != null && fm.handleOption(arg, argIter)) {
+                continue;
             }
+
+            // none of the above
+            error("err.invalid.flag", arg);
+            return false;
         }
 
         return true;
@@ -407,13 +406,13 @@
      */
     public boolean validate() {
         JavaFileManager fm = getFileManager();
-        if (options.isSet(Option.M)) {
+        if (options.isSet(Option.MODULE)) {
             if (!fm.hasLocation(StandardLocation.CLASS_OUTPUT)) {
                 log.error(Errors.OutputDirMustBeSpecifiedWithDashMOption);
             } else if (!fm.hasLocation(StandardLocation.MODULE_SOURCE_PATH)) {
                 log.error(Errors.ModulesourcepathMustBeSpecifiedWithDashMOption);
             } else {
-                java.util.List<String> modules = Arrays.asList(options.get(Option.M).split(","));
+                java.util.List<String> modules = Arrays.asList(options.get(Option.MODULE).split(","));
                 try {
                     for (String module : modules) {
                         Location sourceLoc = fm.getModuleLocation(StandardLocation.MODULE_SOURCE_PATH, module);
@@ -449,17 +448,20 @@
                 || options.isSet(Option.X)
                 || options.isSet(Option.VERSION)
                 || options.isSet(Option.FULLVERSION)
-                || options.isSet(Option.M))
+                || options.isSet(Option.MODULE))
                 return true;
 
             if (emptyAllowed)
                 return true;
 
-            if (JavaCompiler.explicitAnnotationProcessingRequested(options)) {
-                error("err.no.source.files.classes");
-            } else {
-                error("err.no.source.files");
+            if (!errors) {
+                if (JavaCompiler.explicitAnnotationProcessingRequested(options)) {
+                    error("err.no.source.files.classes");
+                } else {
+                    error("err.no.source.files");
+                }
             }
+
             return false;
         }
 
@@ -542,12 +544,12 @@
 
             // This check is only effective in command line mode,
             // where the file manager options are added to options
-            if (options.get(Option.BOOTCLASSPATH) != null) {
+            if (options.get(Option.BOOT_CLASS_PATH) != null) {
                 error("err.profile.bootclasspath.conflict");
             }
         }
 
-        if (options.isSet(Option.SOURCEPATH) && options.isSet(Option.MODULESOURCEPATH)) {
+        if (options.isSet(Option.SOURCE_PATH) && options.isSet(Option.MODULE_SOURCE_PATH)) {
             error("err.sourcepath.modulesourcepath.conflict");
         }
 
@@ -578,17 +580,17 @@
 
         final Target t = target;
         checkOptionAllowed(t.compareTo(Target.JDK1_8) <= 0,
-                option -> error("err.option.not.allowed.with.target", option.getText(), t.name),
-                Option.BOOTCLASSPATH,
+                option -> error("err.option.not.allowed.with.target", option.getPrimaryName(), t.name),
+                Option.BOOT_CLASS_PATH,
                 Option.XBOOTCLASSPATH_PREPEND, Option.XBOOTCLASSPATH, Option.XBOOTCLASSPATH_APPEND,
                 Option.ENDORSEDDIRS, Option.DJAVA_ENDORSED_DIRS,
                 Option.EXTDIRS, Option.DJAVA_EXT_DIRS);
 
         checkOptionAllowed(t.compareTo(Target.JDK1_9) >= 0,
-                option -> error("err.option.not.allowed.with.target", option.getText(), t.name),
-                Option.MODULESOURCEPATH, Option.UPGRADEMODULEPATH,
-                Option.SYSTEM, Option.MODULEPATH, Option.ADDMODS, Option.LIMITMODS,
-                Option.XPATCH);
+                option -> error("err.option.not.allowed.with.target", option.getPrimaryName(), t.name),
+                Option.MODULE_SOURCE_PATH, Option.UPGRADE_MODULE_PATH,
+                Option.SYSTEM, Option.MODULE_PATH, Option.ADD_MODULES, Option.LIMIT_MODULES,
+                Option.PATCH_MODULE);
 
         if (fm.hasLocation(StandardLocation.MODULE_SOURCE_PATH)) {
             if (!options.isSet(Option.PROC, "only")
@@ -608,7 +610,7 @@
         if (obsoleteOptionFound)
             log.warning(LintCategory.OPTIONS, "option.obsolete.suppression");
 
-        String addExports = options.get(Option.XADDEXPORTS);
+        String addExports = options.get(Option.ADD_EXPORTS);
         if (addExports != null) {
             // Each entry must be of the form module/package=target-list where target-list is a
             // comma-separated list of module or ALL-UNNAMED.
@@ -636,7 +638,7 @@
             });
         }
 
-        String addReads = options.get(Option.XADDREADS);
+        String addReads = options.get(Option.ADD_READS);
         if (addReads != null) {
             // Each entry must be of the form module=source-list where source-list is a
             // comma separated list of module or ALL-UNNAMED.
@@ -724,7 +726,7 @@
             for (String s: xdoclintCustom.split("\\s+")) {
                 if (s.isEmpty())
                     continue;
-                doclintOpts.add(s.replace(Option.XDOCLINT_CUSTOM.text, DocLint.XMSGS_CUSTOM_PREFIX));
+                doclintOpts.add(DocLint.XMSGS_CUSTOM_PREFIX + s);
             }
         }
 
@@ -735,14 +737,13 @@
 
         if (checkPackages != null) {
             for (String s : checkPackages.split("\\s+")) {
-                doclintOpts.add(s.replace(Option.XDOCLINT_PACKAGE.text, DocLint.XCHECK_PACKAGE));
+                doclintOpts.add(DocLint.XCHECK_PACKAGE + s);
             }
         }
 
         // standard doclet normally generates H1, H2,
         // so for now, allow user comments to assume that
         doclintOpts.add(DocLint.XIMPLICIT_HEADERS + "2");
-
         return List.from(doclintOpts.toArray(new String[doclintOpts.size()]));
     }
 
@@ -771,6 +772,22 @@
         }
     }
 
+    void error(JCDiagnostic.Error error) {
+        errors = true;
+        switch (errorMode) {
+            case ILLEGAL_ARGUMENT: {
+                String msg = log.localize(error);
+                throw new PropagatedException(new IllegalArgumentException(msg));
+            }
+            case ILLEGAL_STATE: {
+                String msg = log.localize(error);
+                throw new PropagatedException(new IllegalStateException(msg));
+            }
+            case LOG:
+                report(error);
+        }
+    }
+
     void error(String key, Object... args) {
         errors = true;
         switch (errorMode) {
@@ -784,7 +801,6 @@
             }
             case LOG:
                 report(key, args);
-                log.printLines(PrefixKind.JAVAC, "msg.usage", ownName);
         }
     }
 
@@ -797,6 +813,11 @@
         log.printRawLines(ownName + ": " + log.localize(PrefixKind.JAVAC, key, args));
     }
 
+    private void report(JCDiagnostic.Error error) {
+        // Would be good to have support for -XDrawDiagnostics here
+        log.printRawLines(ownName + ": " + log.localize(error));
+    }
+
     private JavaFileManager getFileManager() {
         if (fileManager == null)
             fileManager = context.get(JavaFileManager.class);
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/main/JavaCompiler.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/main/JavaCompiler.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -892,14 +892,21 @@
 
         // forcibly set the equivalent of -Xlint:-options, so that no further
         // warnings about command line options are generated from this point on
-        options.put(XLINT_CUSTOM.text + "-" + LintCategory.OPTIONS.option, "true");
-        options.remove(XLINT_CUSTOM.text + LintCategory.OPTIONS.option);
+        options.put(XLINT_CUSTOM.primaryName + "-" + LintCategory.OPTIONS.option, "true");
+        options.remove(XLINT_CUSTOM.primaryName + LintCategory.OPTIONS.option);
 
         start_msec = now();
 
         try {
             initProcessAnnotations(processors);
 
+            for (String className : classnames) {
+                int sep = className.indexOf('/');
+                if (sep != -1) {
+                    modules.addExtraAddModules(className.substring(0, sep));
+                }
+            }
+
             // These method calls must be chained to avoid memory leaks
             processAnnotations(
                 enterTrees(
@@ -1010,7 +1017,7 @@
     }
 
     public List<JCCompilationUnit> initModules(List<JCCompilationUnit> roots) {
-        modules.initModules(roots, Collections.emptySet(), Collections.emptySet());
+        modules.initModules(roots);
         if (roots.isEmpty()) {
             enterDone = true;
         }
@@ -1258,8 +1265,8 @@
     static boolean explicitAnnotationProcessingRequested(Options options) {
         return
             options.isSet(PROCESSOR) ||
-            options.isSet(PROCESSORPATH) ||
-            options.isSet(PROCESSORMODULEPATH) ||
+            options.isSet(PROCESSOR_PATH) ||
+            options.isSet(PROCESSOR_MODULE_PATH) ||
             options.isSet(PROC, "only") ||
             options.isSet(XPRINT);
     }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/main/Main.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/main/Main.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -176,12 +176,13 @@
         log = Log.instance(context);
 
         if (argv.length == 0) {
-            Option.HELP.process(new OptionHelper.GrumpyHelper(log) {
+            OptionHelper h = new OptionHelper.GrumpyHelper(log) {
                 @Override
                 public String getOwnName() { return ownName; }
                 @Override
                 public void put(String name, String value) { }
-            }, "-help");
+            };
+            Option.HELP.process(h, "-help");
             return Result.CMDERR;
         }
 
@@ -266,10 +267,10 @@
         }
 
         // init multi-release jar handling
-        if (fileManager.isSupportedOption(Option.MULTIRELEASE.text) == 1) {
+        if (fileManager.isSupportedOption(Option.MULTIRELEASE.primaryName) == 1) {
             Target target = Target.instance(context);
             List<String> list = List.of(target.multiReleaseValue());
-            fileManager.handleOption(Option.MULTIRELEASE.text, list.iterator());
+            fileManager.handleOption(Option.MULTIRELEASE.primaryName, list.iterator());
         }
 
         // init JavaCompiler
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/main/Option.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/main/Option.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -30,9 +30,14 @@
 import java.nio.file.Files;
 import java.nio.file.Path;
 import java.nio.file.Paths;
+import java.text.Collator;
+import java.util.Arrays;
 import java.util.Collections;
+import java.util.Comparator;
 import java.util.EnumSet;
+import java.util.Iterator;
 import java.util.LinkedHashMap;
+import java.util.Locale;
 import java.util.Map;
 import java.util.ServiceLoader;
 import java.util.Set;
@@ -51,6 +56,9 @@
 import com.sun.tools.javac.jvm.Target;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.platform.PlatformProvider;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.processing.JavacProcessingEnvironment;
+import com.sun.tools.javac.resources.CompilerProperties.Errors;
+import com.sun.tools.javac.util.Assert;
+import com.sun.tools.javac.util.JDK9Wrappers;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.util.Log;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.util.Log.PrefixKind;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.util.Log.WriterKind;
@@ -62,10 +70,13 @@
 import static com.sun.tools.javac.main.Option.OptionKind.*;
 
 /**
- * Options for javac. The specific Option to handle a command-line option
- * is identified by searching the members of this enum in order, looking for
- * the first {@link #matches match}. The action for an Option is performed
- * by calling {@link #process process}, and by providing a suitable
+ * Options for javac.
+ * The specific Option to handle a command-line option can be found by calling
+ * {@link #lookup}, which search some or all of the members of this enum in order,
+ * looking for the first {@link #matches match}.
+ * The action for an Option is performed {@link #handleOption}, which determines
+ * whether an argument is needed and where to find it;
+ * {@code handleOption} then calls {@link #process process} providing a suitable
  * {@link OptionHelper} to provide access the compiler state.
  *
  * <p><b>This is NOT part of any supported API.
@@ -89,17 +100,12 @@
 
     XLINT("-Xlint", "opt.Xlint", EXTENDED, BASIC),
 
-    XLINT_CUSTOM("-Xlint:", EXTENDED, BASIC, ANYOF, getXLintChoices()) {
-        private static final String LINT_KEY_FORMAT = "         %-19s %s";
+    XLINT_CUSTOM("-Xlint:", "opt.arg.Xlint", "opt.Xlint.custom", EXTENDED, BASIC, ANYOF, getXLintChoices()) {
+        private final String LINT_KEY_FORMAT = LARGE_INDENT + "  %-" +
+                (DEFAULT_SYNOPSIS_WIDTH + SMALL_INDENT.length() - LARGE_INDENT.length() - 2) + "s %s";
         @Override
-        void help(Log log, OptionKind kind) {
-            if (this.kind != kind)
-                return;
-
-            log.printRawLines(WriterKind.STDOUT,
-                              String.format(HELP_LINE_FORMAT,
-                                            log.localize(PrefixKind.JAVAC, "opt.Xlint.subopts"),
-                                            log.localize(PrefixKind.JAVAC, "opt.Xlint.suboptlist")));
+        protected void help(Log log) {
+            super.help(log);
             log.printRawLines(WriterKind.STDOUT,
                               String.format(LINT_KEY_FORMAT,
                                             "all",
@@ -125,14 +131,14 @@
         @Override
         public boolean matches(String option) {
             return DocLint.isValidOption(
-                    option.replace(XDOCLINT_CUSTOM.text, DocLint.XMSGS_CUSTOM_PREFIX));
+                    option.replace(XDOCLINT_CUSTOM.primaryName, DocLint.XMSGS_CUSTOM_PREFIX));
         }
 
         @Override
         public boolean process(OptionHelper helper, String option) {
             String prev = helper.get(XDOCLINT_CUSTOM);
             String next = (prev == null) ? option : (prev + " " + option);
-            helper.put(XDOCLINT_CUSTOM.text, next);
+            helper.put(XDOCLINT_CUSTOM.primaryName, next);
             return false;
         }
     },
@@ -141,14 +147,14 @@
         @Override
         public boolean matches(String option) {
             return DocLint.isValidOption(
-                    option.replace(XDOCLINT_PACKAGE.text, DocLint.XCHECK_PACKAGE));
+                    option.replace(XDOCLINT_PACKAGE.primaryName, DocLint.XCHECK_PACKAGE));
         }
 
         @Override
         public boolean process(OptionHelper helper, String option) {
             String prev = helper.get(XDOCLINT_PACKAGE);
             String next = (prev == null) ? option : (prev + " " + option);
-            helper.put(XDOCLINT_PACKAGE.text, next);
+            helper.put(XDOCLINT_PACKAGE.primaryName, next);
             return false;
         }
     },
@@ -173,35 +179,55 @@
         }
     },
 
-    CLASSPATH("-classpath", "opt.arg.path", "opt.classpath", STANDARD, FILEMANAGER),
+    CLASS_PATH("--class-path -classpath -cp", "opt.arg.path", "opt.classpath", STANDARD, FILEMANAGER),
 
-    CP("-cp", "opt.arg.path", "opt.classpath", STANDARD, FILEMANAGER) {
+    SOURCE_PATH("--source-path -sourcepath", "opt.arg.path", "opt.sourcepath", STANDARD, FILEMANAGER),
+
+    MODULE_SOURCE_PATH("--module-source-path -modulesourcepath", "opt.arg.mspath", "opt.modulesourcepath", STANDARD, FILEMANAGER),
+
+    MODULE_PATH("--module-path -p -modulepath -mp", "opt.arg.path", "opt.modulepath", STANDARD, FILEMANAGER),
+
+    UPGRADE_MODULE_PATH("--upgrade-module-path -upgrademodulepath", "opt.arg.path", "opt.upgrademodulepath", STANDARD, FILEMANAGER),
+
+    SYSTEM("--system -system", "opt.arg.jdk", "opt.system", STANDARD, FILEMANAGER),
+
+    PATCH_MODULE("--patch-module -Xpatch:", "opt.arg.patch", "opt.patch", EXTENDED, FILEMANAGER) {
+        // The deferred filemanager diagnostics mechanism assumes a single value per option,
+        // but --patch-module can be used multiple times, once per module. Therefore we compose
+        // a value for the option containing the last value specified for each module, and separate
+        // the the module=path pairs by an invalid path character, NULL.
+        // The standard file manager code knows to split apart the NULL-separated components.
         @Override
         public boolean process(OptionHelper helper, String option, String arg) {
-            return super.process(helper, "-classpath", arg);
+            if (!arg.contains("=")) { // could be more strict regeex, e.g. "(?i)[a-z0-9_.]+=.*"
+                helper.error(Errors.LocnInvalidArgForXpatch(arg));
+            }
+
+            String previous = helper.get(this);
+            if (previous == null) {
+                return super.process(helper, option, arg);
+            }
+
+            Map<String,String> map = new LinkedHashMap<>();
+            for (String s : previous.split("\0")) {
+                int sep = s.indexOf('=');
+                map.put(s.substring(0, sep), s.substring(sep + 1));
+            }
+
+            int sep = arg.indexOf('=');
+            map.put(arg.substring(0, sep), arg.substring(sep + 1));
+
+            StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
+            map.forEach((m, p) -> {
+                if (sb.length() > 0)
+                    sb.append('\0');
+                sb.append(m).append('=').append(p);
+            });
+            return super.process(helper, option, sb.toString());
         }
     },
 
-    SOURCEPATH("-sourcepath", "opt.arg.path", "opt.sourcepath", STANDARD, FILEMANAGER),
-
-    MODULESOURCEPATH("-modulesourcepath", "opt.arg.mspath", "opt.modulesourcepath", STANDARD, FILEMANAGER),
-
-    MODULEPATH("-modulepath", "opt.arg.path", "opt.modulepath", STANDARD, FILEMANAGER),
-
-    MP("-mp", "opt.arg.path", "opt.modulepath", STANDARD, FILEMANAGER) {
-        @Override
-        public boolean process(OptionHelper helper, String option, String arg) {
-            return super.process(helper, "-modulepath", arg);
-        }
-    },
-
-    UPGRADEMODULEPATH("-upgrademodulepath", "opt.arg.path", "opt.upgrademodulepath", STANDARD, FILEMANAGER),
-
-    SYSTEM("-system", "opt.arg.jdk", "opt.system", STANDARD, FILEMANAGER),
-
-    XPATCH("-Xpatch:", "opt.arg.patch", "opt.patch", EXTENDED, FILEMANAGER),
-
-    BOOTCLASSPATH("-bootclasspath", "opt.arg.path", "opt.bootclasspath", STANDARD, FILEMANAGER) {
+    BOOT_CLASS_PATH("--boot-class-path -bootclasspath", "opt.arg.path", "opt.bootclasspath", STANDARD, FILEMANAGER) {
         @Override
         public boolean process(OptionHelper helper, String option, String arg) {
             helper.remove("-Xbootclasspath/p:");
@@ -228,7 +254,7 @@
     DJAVA_EXT_DIRS("-Djava.ext.dirs=", "opt.arg.dirs", "opt.extdirs", EXTENDED, FILEMANAGER) {
         @Override
         public boolean process(OptionHelper helper, String option, String arg) {
-            return super.process(helper, "-extdirs", arg);
+            return EXTDIRS.process(helper, "-extdirs", arg);
         }
     },
 
@@ -237,7 +263,7 @@
     DJAVA_ENDORSED_DIRS("-Djava.endorsed.dirs=", "opt.arg.dirs", "opt.endorseddirs", EXTENDED, FILEMANAGER) {
         @Override
         public boolean process(OptionHelper helper, String option, String arg) {
-            return super.process(helper, "-endorseddirs", arg);
+            return ENDORSEDDIRS.process(helper, "-endorseddirs", arg);
         }
     },
 
@@ -245,9 +271,9 @@
 
     PROCESSOR("-processor", "opt.arg.class.list", "opt.processor", STANDARD, BASIC),
 
-    PROCESSORPATH("-processorpath", "opt.arg.path", "opt.processorpath", STANDARD, FILEMANAGER),
+    PROCESSOR_PATH("--processor-path -processorpath", "opt.arg.path", "opt.processorpath", STANDARD, FILEMANAGER),
 
-    PROCESSORMODULEPATH("-processormodulepath", "opt.arg.path", "opt.processormodulepath", STANDARD, FILEMANAGER),
+    PROCESSOR_MODULE_PATH("--processor-module-path -processormodulepath", "opt.arg.path", "opt.processormodulepath", STANDARD, FILEMANAGER),
 
     PARAMETERS("-parameters","opt.parameters", STANDARD, BASIC),
 
@@ -285,12 +311,9 @@
         }
     },
 
-    RELEASE("-release", "opt.arg.release", "opt.release", STANDARD, BASIC) {
+    RELEASE("--release -release", "opt.arg.release", "opt.release", STANDARD, BASIC) {
         @Override
-        void help(Log log, OptionKind kind) {
-            if (this.kind != kind)
-                return;
-
+        protected void help(Log log) {
             Iterable<PlatformProvider> providers =
                     ServiceLoader.load(PlatformProvider.class, Arguments.class.getClassLoader());
             Set<String> platforms = StreamSupport.stream(providers.spliterator(), false)
@@ -307,10 +330,7 @@
                 delim = ", ";
             }
 
-            log.printRawLines(WriterKind.STDOUT,
-                    String.format(HELP_LINE_FORMAT,
-                        super.helpSynopsis(log),
-                        log.localize(PrefixKind.JAVAC, descrKey, targets.toString())));
+            super.help(log, log.localize(PrefixKind.JAVAC, descrKey, targets.toString()));
         }
     },
 
@@ -346,21 +366,20 @@
         }
     },
 
-    HELP("-help", "opt.help", STANDARD, INFO) {
+    // Note: -h is already taken for "native header output directory".
+    HELP("--help -help", "opt.help", STANDARD, INFO) {
         @Override
         public boolean process(OptionHelper helper, String option) {
             Log log = helper.getLog();
             String ownName = helper.getOwnName();
             log.printLines(WriterKind.STDOUT, PrefixKind.JAVAC, "msg.usage.header", ownName);
-            for (Option o: getJavaCompilerOptions()) {
-                o.help(log, OptionKind.STANDARD);
-            }
+            showHelp(log, OptionKind.STANDARD);
             log.printNewline(WriterKind.STDOUT);
             return super.process(helper, option);
         }
     },
 
-    A("-A", "opt.arg.key.equals.value", "opt.A", STANDARD, BASIC, true) {
+    A("-A", "opt.arg.key.equals.value", "opt.A", STANDARD, BASIC, ArgKind.ADJACENT) {
         @Override
         public boolean matches(String arg) {
             return arg.startsWith("-A");
@@ -385,7 +404,8 @@
                 helper.error("err.invalid.A.key", option);
                 return true;
             }
-            return process(helper, option, option);
+            helper.put(option, option);
+            return false;
         }
     },
 
@@ -393,9 +413,7 @@
         @Override
         public boolean process(OptionHelper helper, String option) {
             Log log = helper.getLog();
-            for (Option o: getJavaCompilerOptions()) {
-                o.help(log, OptionKind.EXTENDED);
-            }
+            showHelp(log, OptionKind.EXTENDED);
             log.printNewline(WriterKind.STDOUT);
             log.printLines(WriterKind.STDOUT, PrefixKind.JAVAC, "msg.usage.nonstandard.footer");
             return super.process(helper, option);
@@ -404,7 +422,7 @@
 
     // This option exists only for the purpose of documenting itself.
     // It's actually implemented by the launcher.
-    J("-J", "opt.arg.flag", "opt.J", STANDARD, INFO, true) {
+    J("-J", "opt.arg.flag", "opt.J", STANDARD, INFO, ArgKind.ADJACENT) {
         @Override
         public boolean process(OptionHelper helper, String option) {
             throw new AssertionError
@@ -484,7 +502,7 @@
         public boolean process(OptionHelper helper, String option) {
             String p = option.substring(option.indexOf(':') + 1).trim();
             String prev = helper.get(PLUGIN);
-            helper.put(PLUGIN.text, (prev == null) ? p : prev + '\0' + p);
+            helper.put(PLUGIN.primaryName, (prev == null) ? p : prev + '\0' + p);
             return false;
         }
     },
@@ -517,7 +535,7 @@
         }
     },
 
-    DIAGS("-diags:", null, HIDDEN, BASIC, true) {
+    DIAGS("-diags:", null, HIDDEN, BASIC) {
         @Override
         public boolean process(OptionHelper helper, String option) {
             return HiddenGroup.DIAGS.process(helper, option);
@@ -531,11 +549,11 @@
     XD("-XD", null, HIDDEN, BASIC) {
         @Override
         public boolean matches(String s) {
-            return s.startsWith(text);
+            return s.startsWith(primaryName);
         }
         @Override
         public boolean process(OptionHelper helper, String option) {
-            return process(helper, option, option.substring(text.length()));
+            return process(helper, option, option.substring(primaryName.length()));
         }
 
         @Override
@@ -548,47 +566,45 @@
         }
     },
 
-    XADDEXPORTS("-XaddExports:", "opt.arg.addExports", "opt.addExports", EXTENDED, BASIC) {
+    ADD_EXPORTS("--add-exports -XaddExports:", "opt.arg.addExports", "opt.addExports", EXTENDED, BASIC) {
         @Override
-        public boolean process(OptionHelper helper, String option) {
-            String p = option.substring(option.indexOf(':') + 1).trim();
-            String prev = helper.get(XADDEXPORTS);
-            helper.put(XADDEXPORTS.text, (prev == null) ? p : prev + '\0' + p);
+        public boolean process(OptionHelper helper, String option, String arg) {
+            String prev = helper.get(ADD_EXPORTS);
+            helper.put(ADD_EXPORTS.primaryName, (prev == null) ? arg : prev + '\0' + arg);
             return false;
         }
     },
 
-    XADDREADS("-XaddReads:", "opt.arg.addReads", "opt.addReads", EXTENDED, BASIC) {
+    ADD_READS("--add-reads -XaddReads:", "opt.arg.addReads", "opt.addReads", EXTENDED, BASIC) {
         @Override
-        public boolean process(OptionHelper helper, String option) {
-            String p = option.substring(option.indexOf(':') + 1).trim();
-            String prev = helper.get(XADDREADS);
-            helper.put(XADDREADS.text, (prev == null) ? p : prev + '\0' + p);
+        public boolean process(OptionHelper helper, String option, String arg) {
+            String prev = helper.get(ADD_READS);
+            helper.put(ADD_READS.primaryName, (prev == null) ? arg : prev + '\0' + arg);
             return false;
         }
     },
 
     XMODULE("-Xmodule:", "opt.arg.module", "opt.module", EXTENDED, BASIC) {
         @Override
-        public boolean process(OptionHelper helper, String option) {
+        public boolean process(OptionHelper helper, String option, String arg) {
             String prev = helper.get(XMODULE);
             if (prev != null) {
-                helper.error("err.option.too.many", XMODULE.text);
+                helper.error("err.option.too.many", XMODULE.primaryName);
             }
-            String p = option.substring(option.indexOf(':') + 1);
-            helper.put(XMODULE.text, p);
+            helper.put(XMODULE.primaryName, arg);
             return false;
         }
     },
 
-    M("-m", "opt.arg.m", "opt.m", STANDARD, BASIC),
+    MODULE("--module -m", "opt.arg.m", "opt.m", STANDARD, BASIC),
 
-    ADDMODS("-addmods", "opt.arg.addmods", "opt.addmods", STANDARD, BASIC),
-    LIMITMODS("-limitmods", "opt.arg.limitmods", "opt.limitmods", STANDARD, BASIC),
+    ADD_MODULES("--add-modules -addmods", "opt.arg.addmods", "opt.addmods", STANDARD, BASIC),
+
+    LIMIT_MODULES("--limit-modules -limitmods", "opt.arg.limitmods", "opt.limitmods", STANDARD, BASIC),
 
     // This option exists only for the purpose of documenting itself.
     // It's actually implemented by the CommandLine class.
-    AT("@", "opt.arg.file", "opt.AT", STANDARD, INFO, true) {
+    AT("@", "opt.arg.file", "opt.AT", STANDARD, INFO, ArgKind.ADJACENT) {
         @Override
         public boolean process(OptionHelper helper, String option) {
             throw new AssertionError("the @ flag should be caught by CommandLine.");
@@ -629,9 +645,78 @@
         }
     },
 
-    MULTIRELEASE("-multi-release", "opt.arg.multi-release", "opt.multi-release", HIDDEN, FILEMANAGER);
+    MULTIRELEASE("--multi-release -multi-release", "opt.arg.multi-release", "opt.multi-release", HIDDEN, FILEMANAGER),
 
-    /** The kind of an Option. This is used by the -help and -X options. */
+    INHERIT_RUNTIME_ENVIRONMENT("--inherit-runtime-environment", "opt.inherit_runtime_environment",
+            EXTENDED, BASIC) {
+        @Override
+        public boolean process(OptionHelper helper, String option) {
+            try {
+                Class.forName(JDK9Wrappers.VMHelper.VM_CLASSNAME);
+                String[] runtimeArgs = JDK9Wrappers.VMHelper.getRuntimeArguments();
+                for (String arg : runtimeArgs) {
+                    // Handle any supported runtime options; ignore all others.
+                    // The runtime arguments always use the single token form, e.g. "--name=value".
+                    for (Option o : getSupportedRuntimeOptions()) {
+                        if (o.matches(arg)) {
+                            o.handleOption(helper, arg, Collections.emptyIterator());
+                            break;
+                        }
+                    }
+                }
+            } catch (ClassNotFoundException | SecurityException e) {
+                helper.error("err.cannot.access.runtime.env");
+            }
+            return false;
+        }
+
+        private Option[] getSupportedRuntimeOptions() {
+            Option[] supportedRuntimeOptions = {
+                ADD_EXPORTS,
+                ADD_MODULES,
+                LIMIT_MODULES,
+                MODULE_PATH,
+                UPGRADE_MODULE_PATH,
+                PATCH_MODULE
+            };
+            return supportedRuntimeOptions;
+        }
+    };
+
+    /**
+     * The kind of argument, if any, accepted by this option. The kind is augmented
+     * by characters in the name of the option.
+     */
+    public enum ArgKind {
+        /** This option does not take any argument. */
+        NONE,
+
+// Not currently supported
+//        /**
+//         * This option takes an optional argument, which may be provided directly after an '='
+//         * separator, or in the following argument position if that word does not itself appear
+//         * to be the name of an option.
+//         */
+//        OPTIONAL,
+
+        /**
+         * This option takes an argument.
+         * If the name of option ends with ':' or '=', the argument must be provided directly
+         * after that separator.
+         * Otherwise, if may appear after an '=' or in the following argument position.
+         */
+        REQUIRED,
+
+        /**
+         * This option takes an argument immediately after the option name, with no separator
+         * character.
+         */
+        ADJACENT
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * The kind of an Option. This is used by the -help and -X options.
+     */
     public enum OptionKind {
         /** A standard option, documented by -help. */
         STANDARD,
@@ -641,8 +726,10 @@
         HIDDEN,
     }
 
-    /** The group for an Option. This determines the situations in which the
-     *  option is applicable. */
+    /**
+     * The group for an Option. This determines the situations in which the
+     * option is applicable.
+     */
     enum OptionGroup {
         /** A basic option, available for use on the command line or via the
          *  Compiler API. */
@@ -656,7 +743,9 @@
         OPERAND
     }
 
-    /** The kind of choice for "choice" options. */
+    /**
+     * The kind of choice for "choice" options.
+     */
     enum ChoiceKind {
         /** The expected value is exactly one of the set of choices. */
         ONEOF,
@@ -684,65 +773,113 @@
         }
     }
 
-    public final String text;
+    /**
+     * The "primary name" for this option.
+     * This is the name that is used to put values in the {@link Options} table.
+     */
+    public final String primaryName;
 
-    final OptionKind kind;
+    /**
+     * The set of names (primary name and aliases) for this option.
+     * Note that some names may end in a separator, to indicate that an argument must immediately
+     * follow the separator (and cannot appear in the following argument position.
+     */
+    public final String[] names;
 
-    final OptionGroup group;
-
-    /** Documentation key for arguments.
-     */
-    final String argsNameKey;
+    /** Documentation key for arguments. */
+    protected final String argsNameKey;
 
     /** Documentation key for description.
      */
-    final String descrKey;
+    protected final String descrKey;
 
-    /** Suffix option (-foo=bar or -foo:bar)
+    /** The kind of this option. */
+    private final OptionKind kind;
+
+    /** The group for this option. */
+    private final OptionGroup group;
+
+    /** The kind of argument for this option. */
+    private final ArgKind argKind;
+
+    /** The kind of choices for this option, if any. */
+    private final ChoiceKind choiceKind;
+
+    /** The choices for this option, if any, and whether or not the choices are hidden. */
+    private final Map<String,Boolean> choices;
+
+    /**
+     * Looks up the first option matching the given argument in the full set of options.
+     * @param arg the argument to be matches
+     * @return the first option that matches, or null if none.
      */
-    final boolean hasSuffix;
+    public static Option lookup(String arg) {
+        return lookup(arg, EnumSet.allOf(Option.class));
+    }
 
-    /** The kind of choices for this option, if any.
+    /**
+     * Looks up the first option matching the given argument within a set of options.
+     * @param arg the argument to be matches
+     * @return the first option that matches, or null if none.
      */
-    final ChoiceKind choiceKind;
+    public static Option lookup(String arg, Set<Option> options) {
+        for (Option option: options) {
+            if (option.matches(arg))
+                return option;
+        }
+        return null;
+    }
 
-    /** The choices for this option, if any, and whether or not the choices
-     *  are hidden
+    /**
+     * Writes the "command line help" for given kind of option to the log.
+     * @param log the log
+     * @param kind  the kind of options to select
      */
-    final Map<String,Boolean> choices;
+    private static void showHelp(Log log, OptionKind kind) {
+        Comparator<Option> comp = new Comparator<Option>() {
+            final Collator collator = Collator.getInstance(Locale.US);
+            { collator.setStrength(Collator.PRIMARY); }
 
+            @Override
+            public int compare(Option o1, Option o2) {
+                return collator.compare(o1.primaryName, o2.primaryName);
+            }
+        };
+
+        getJavaCompilerOptions()
+                .stream()
+                .filter(o -> o.kind == kind)
+                .sorted(comp)
+                .forEach(o -> {
+                    o.help(log);
+                });
+    }
 
     Option(String text, String descrKey,
             OptionKind kind, OptionGroup group) {
-        this(text, null, descrKey, kind, group, null, null, false);
-    }
-
-    Option(String text, String descrKey,
-            OptionKind kind, OptionGroup group,
-            boolean doHasSuffix) {
-        this(text, null, descrKey, kind, group, null, null, doHasSuffix);
+        this(text, null, descrKey, kind, group, null, null, ArgKind.NONE);
     }
 
     Option(String text, String argsNameKey, String descrKey,
             OptionKind kind, OptionGroup group) {
-        this(text, argsNameKey, descrKey, kind, group, null, null, false);
+        this(text, argsNameKey, descrKey, kind, group, null, null, ArgKind.REQUIRED);
     }
 
     Option(String text, String argsNameKey, String descrKey,
-            OptionKind kind, OptionGroup group, boolean doHasSuffix) {
-        this(text, argsNameKey, descrKey, kind, group, null, null, doHasSuffix);
+            OptionKind kind, OptionGroup group, ArgKind ak) {
+        this(text, argsNameKey, descrKey, kind, group, null, null, ak);
     }
 
-    Option(String text, OptionKind kind, OptionGroup group,
+    Option(String text, String argsNameKey, String descrKey, OptionKind kind, OptionGroup group,
             ChoiceKind choiceKind, Map<String,Boolean> choices) {
-        this(text, null, null, kind, group, choiceKind, choices, false);
+        this(text, argsNameKey, descrKey, kind, group, choiceKind, choices, ArgKind.REQUIRED);
     }
 
     Option(String text, String descrKey,
             OptionKind kind, OptionGroup group,
             ChoiceKind choiceKind, String... choices) {
         this(text, null, descrKey, kind, group, choiceKind,
-                createChoices(choices), false);
+                createChoices(choices), ArgKind.REQUIRED);
     }
     // where
         private static Map<String,Boolean> createChoices(String... choices) {
@@ -755,39 +892,60 @@
     private Option(String text, String argsNameKey, String descrKey,
             OptionKind kind, OptionGroup group,
             ChoiceKind choiceKind, Map<String,Boolean> choices,
-            boolean doHasSuffix) {
-        this.text = text;
+            ArgKind argKind) {
+        this.names = text.trim().split("\\s+");
+        Assert.check(names.length >= 1);
+        this.primaryName = names[0];
         this.argsNameKey = argsNameKey;
         this.descrKey = descrKey;
         this.kind = kind;
         this.group = group;
         this.choiceKind = choiceKind;
         this.choices = choices;
-        char lastChar = text.charAt(text.length()-1);
-        this.hasSuffix = doHasSuffix || lastChar == ':' || lastChar == '=';
+        this.argKind = argKind;
     }
 
-    public String getText() {
-        return text;
+    public String getPrimaryName() {
+        return primaryName;
     }
 
     public OptionKind getKind() {
         return kind;
     }
 
+    public ArgKind getArgKind() {
+        return argKind;
+    }
+
     public boolean hasArg() {
-        return argsNameKey != null && !hasSuffix;
+        return (argKind != ArgKind.NONE);
     }
 
     public boolean matches(String option) {
+        for (String name: names) {
+            if (matches(option, name))
+                return true;
+        }
+        return false;
+    }
+
+    private boolean matches(String option, String name) {
+        if (name.startsWith("--")) {
+            return option.equals(name)
+                    || hasArg() && option.startsWith(name + "=");
+        }
+
+        boolean hasSuffix = (argKind == ArgKind.ADJACENT)
+                || name.endsWith(":") || name.endsWith("=");
+
         if (!hasSuffix)
-            return option.equals(text);
+            return option.equals(name);
 
-        if (!option.startsWith(text))
+        if (!option.startsWith(name))
             return false;
 
         if (choices != null) {
-            String arg = option.substring(text.length());
+            String arg = option.substring(name.length());
             if (choiceKind == ChoiceKind.ONEOF)
                 return choices.keySet().contains(arg);
             else {
@@ -801,55 +959,161 @@
         return true;
     }
 
+    /**
+     * Handles an option.
+     * If an argument for the option is required, depending on spec of the option, it will be found
+     * as part of the current arg (following ':' or '=') or in the following argument.
+     * This is the recommended way to handle an option directly, instead of calling the underlying
+     * {@link #process process} methods.
+     * @param helper a helper to provide access to the environment
+     * @param arg the arg string that identified this option
+     * @param rest the remaining strings to be analysed
+     * @return true if the operation was successful, and false otherwise
+     * @implNote The return value is the opposite of that used by {@link #process}.
+     */
+    public boolean handleOption(OptionHelper helper, String arg, Iterator<String> rest) {
+        if (hasArg()) {
+            String operand;
+            int sep = findSeparator(arg);
+            if (getArgKind() == Option.ArgKind.ADJACENT) {
+                operand = arg.substring(primaryName.length());
+            } else if (sep > 0) {
+                operand = arg.substring(sep + 1);
+            } else {
+                if (!rest.hasNext()) {
+                    helper.error("err.req.arg", arg);
+                    return false;
+                }
+                operand = rest.next();
+            }
+            return !process(helper, arg, operand);
+        } else {
+            return !process(helper, arg);
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Processes an option that either does not need an argument,
+     * or which contains an argument within it, following a separator.
+     * @param helper a helper to provide access to the environment
+     * @param option the option to be processed
+     * @return true if an error occurred
+     */
+    public boolean process(OptionHelper helper, String option) {
+        if (argKind == ArgKind.NONE) {
+            return process(helper, primaryName, option);
+        } else {
+            int sep = findSeparator(option);
+            return process(helper, primaryName, option.substring(sep + 1));
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Processes an option by updating the environment via a helper object.
+     * @param helper a helper to provide access to the environment
+     * @param option the option to be processed
+     * @param arg the value to associate with the option, or a default value
+     *  to be used if the option does not otherwise take an argument.
+     * @return true if an error occurred
+     */
     public boolean process(OptionHelper helper, String option, String arg) {
         if (choices != null) {
             if (choiceKind == ChoiceKind.ONEOF) {
                 // some clients like to see just one of option+choice set
                 for (String s: choices.keySet())
-                    helper.remove(option + s);
-                String opt = option + arg;
+                    helper.remove(primaryName + s);
+                String opt = primaryName + arg;
                 helper.put(opt, opt);
                 // some clients like to see option (without trailing ":")
                 // set to arg
-                String nm = option.substring(0, option.length() - 1);
+                String nm = primaryName.substring(0, primaryName.length() - 1);
                 helper.put(nm, arg);
             } else {
                 // set option+word for each word in arg
                 for (String a: arg.split(",+")) {
-                    String opt = option + a;
+                    String opt = primaryName + a;
                     helper.put(opt, opt);
                 }
             }
         }
-        helper.put(option, arg);
+        helper.put(primaryName, arg);
         if (group == OptionGroup.FILEMANAGER)
             helper.handleFileManagerOption(this, arg);
         return false;
     }
 
-    public boolean process(OptionHelper helper, String option) {
-        if (hasSuffix)
-            return process(helper, text, option.substring(text.length()));
-        else
-            return process(helper, option, option);
+    /**
+     * Scans a word to find the first separator character, either colon or equals.
+     * @param word the word to be scanned
+     * @return the position of the first':' or '=' character in the word,
+     *  or -1 if none found
+     */
+    private static int findSeparator(String word) {
+        for (int i = 0; i < word.length(); i++) {
+            switch (word.charAt(i)) {
+                case ':': case '=':
+                    return i;
+            }
+        }
+        return -1;
     }
 
-    private static final String HELP_LINE_FORMAT = "  %-26s %s";
+    /** The indent for the option synopsis. */
+    private static final String SMALL_INDENT = "  ";
+    /** The automatic indent for the description. */
+    private static final String LARGE_INDENT = "        ";
+    /** The space allowed for the synopsis, if the description is to be shown on the same line. */
+    private static final int DEFAULT_SYNOPSIS_WIDTH = 28;
+    /** The nominal maximum line length, when seeing if text will fit on a line. */
+    private static final int DEFAULT_MAX_LINE_LENGTH = 80;
+    /** The format for a single-line help entry. */
+    private static final String COMPACT_FORMAT = SMALL_INDENT + "%-" + DEFAULT_SYNOPSIS_WIDTH + "s %s";
 
-    void help(Log log, OptionKind kind) {
-        if (this.kind != kind)
-            return;
-
-        log.printRawLines(WriterKind.STDOUT,
-                String.format(HELP_LINE_FORMAT,
-                    helpSynopsis(log),
-                    log.localize(PrefixKind.JAVAC, descrKey)));
-
+    /**
+     * Writes help text for this option to the log.
+     * @param log the log
+     */
+    protected void help(Log log) {
+        help(log, log.localize(PrefixKind.JAVAC, descrKey));
     }
 
-    private String helpSynopsis(Log log) {
+    protected void help(Log log, String descr) {
+        String synopses = Arrays.stream(names)
+                .map(s -> helpSynopsis(s, log))
+                .collect(Collectors.joining(", "));
+
+        // If option synopses and description fit on a single line of reasonable length,
+        // display using COMPACT_FORMAT
+        if (synopses.length() < DEFAULT_SYNOPSIS_WIDTH
+                && !descr.contains("\n")
+                && (SMALL_INDENT.length() + DEFAULT_SYNOPSIS_WIDTH + 1 + descr.length() <= DEFAULT_MAX_LINE_LENGTH)) {
+            log.printRawLines(WriterKind.STDOUT, String.format(COMPACT_FORMAT, synopses, descr));
+            return;
+        }
+
+        // If option synopses fit on a single line of reasonable length, show that;
+        // otherwise, show 1 per line
+        if (synopses.length() <= DEFAULT_MAX_LINE_LENGTH) {
+            log.printRawLines(WriterKind.STDOUT, SMALL_INDENT + synopses);
+        } else {
+            for (String name: names) {
+                log.printRawLines(WriterKind.STDOUT, SMALL_INDENT + helpSynopsis(name, log));
+            }
+        }
+
+        // Finally, show the description
+        log.printRawLines(WriterKind.STDOUT, LARGE_INDENT + descr.replace("\n", "\n" + LARGE_INDENT));
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Composes the initial synopsis of one of the forms for this option.
+     * @param name the name of this form of the option
+     * @param log the log used to localize the description of the arguments
+     * @return  the synopsis
+     */
+    private String helpSynopsis(String name, Log log) {
         StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
-        sb.append(text);
+        sb.append(name);
         if (argsNameKey == null) {
             if (choices != null) {
                 String sep = "{";
@@ -863,10 +1127,9 @@
                 sb.append("}");
             }
         } else {
-            if (!hasSuffix)
+            if (!name.matches(".*[=:]$") && argKind != ArgKind.ADJACENT)
                 sb.append(" ");
             sb.append(log.localize(PrefixKind.JAVAC, argsNameKey));
-
         }
 
         return sb.toString();
@@ -915,24 +1178,35 @@
         return choices;
     }
 
+    /**
+     * Returns the set of options supported by the command line tool.
+     * @return the set of options.
+     */
     static Set<Option> getJavaCompilerOptions() {
         return EnumSet.allOf(Option.class);
     }
 
+    /**
+     * Returns the set of options supported by the built-in file manager.
+     * @return the set of options.
+     */
     public static Set<Option> getJavacFileManagerOptions() {
-        return getOptions(EnumSet.of(FILEMANAGER));
+        return getOptions(FILEMANAGER);
     }
 
+    /**
+     * Returns the set of options supported by this implementation of
+     * the JavaCompiler API, via {@link JavaCompiler#getTask}.
+     * @return the set of options.
+     */
     public static Set<Option> getJavacToolOptions() {
-        return getOptions(EnumSet.of(BASIC));
+        return getOptions(BASIC);
     }
 
-    static Set<Option> getOptions(Set<OptionGroup> desired) {
-        Set<Option> options = EnumSet.noneOf(Option.class);
-        for (Option option : Option.values())
-            if (desired.contains(option.group))
-                options.add(option);
-        return Collections.unmodifiableSet(options);
+    private static Set<Option> getOptions(OptionGroup group) {
+        return Arrays.stream(Option.values())
+                .filter(o -> o.group == group)
+                .collect(Collectors.toCollection(() -> EnumSet.noneOf(Option.class)));
     }
 
 }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/main/OptionHelper.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/main/OptionHelper.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -27,6 +27,7 @@
 
 import java.nio.file.Path;
 
+import com.sun.tools.javac.util.JCDiagnostic;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.util.Log;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.util.Log.PrefixKind;
 
@@ -63,6 +64,9 @@
     /** Report an error. */
     abstract void error(String key, Object... args);
 
+    /** Report an error. */
+    abstract void error(JCDiagnostic.Error error);
+
     /** Record a file to be compiled. */
     abstract void addFile(Path p);
 
@@ -113,6 +117,11 @@
         }
 
         @Override
+        void error(JCDiagnostic.Error error) {
+            throw new IllegalArgumentException(log.localize(error));
+        }
+
+        @Override
         public void addFile(Path p) {
             throw new IllegalArgumentException(p.toString());
         }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/processing/JavacProcessingEnvironment.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/processing/JavacProcessingEnvironment.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -62,6 +62,7 @@
 import com.sun.tools.javac.comp.Modules;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.file.JavacFileManager;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.main.JavaCompiler;
+import com.sun.tools.javac.main.Option;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.model.JavacElements;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.model.JavacTypes;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.platform.PlatformDescription;
@@ -89,7 +90,6 @@
 
 import static com.sun.tools.javac.code.Lint.LintCategory.PROCESSING;
 import static com.sun.tools.javac.code.Kinds.Kind.*;
-import static com.sun.tools.javac.main.Option.*;
 import static com.sun.tools.javac.comp.CompileStates.CompileState;
 import static com.sun.tools.javac.util.JCDiagnostic.DiagnosticFlag.*;
 
@@ -196,17 +196,17 @@
         source = Source.instance(context);
         diags = JCDiagnostic.Factory.instance(context);
         options = Options.instance(context);
-        printProcessorInfo = options.isSet(XPRINTPROCESSORINFO);
-        printRounds = options.isSet(XPRINTROUNDS);
-        verbose = options.isSet(VERBOSE);
+        printProcessorInfo = options.isSet(Option.XPRINTPROCESSORINFO);
+        printRounds = options.isSet(Option.XPRINTROUNDS);
+        verbose = options.isSet(Option.VERBOSE);
         lint = Lint.instance(context).isEnabled(PROCESSING);
         compiler = JavaCompiler.instance(context);
-        if (options.isSet(PROC, "only") || options.isSet(XPRINT)) {
+        if (options.isSet(Option.PROC, "only") || options.isSet(Option.XPRINT)) {
             compiler.shouldStopPolicyIfNoError = CompileState.PROCESS;
         }
         fatalErrors = options.isSet("fatalEnterError");
         showResolveErrors = options.isSet("showResolveErrors");
-        werror = options.isSet(WERROR);
+        werror = options.isSet(Option.WERROR);
         fileManager = context.get(JavaFileManager.class);
         platformAnnotations = initPlatformAnnotations();
 
@@ -279,7 +279,7 @@
     private void initProcessorIterator(Iterable<? extends Processor> processors) {
         Iterator<? extends Processor> processorIterator;
 
-        if (options.isSet(XPRINT)) {
+        if (options.isSet(Option.XPRINT)) {
             try {
                 processorIterator = List.of(new PrintingProcessor()).iterator();
             } catch (Throwable t) {
@@ -297,7 +297,7 @@
                  * path for the named class.  Otherwise, use a service
                  * provider mechanism to create the processor iterator.
                  */
-                String processorNames = options.get(PROCESSOR);
+                String processorNames = options.get(Option.PROCESSOR);
                 if (fileManager.hasLocation(ANNOTATION_PROCESSOR_MODULE_PATH)) {
                     processorIterator = (processorNames == null) ?
                             new ServiceIterator(serviceLoader, log) :
@@ -363,7 +363,7 @@
                 ? standardFileManager.getLocationAsPaths(ANNOTATION_PROCESSOR_PATH)
                 : standardFileManager.getLocationAsPaths(CLASS_PATH);
 
-            if (needClassLoader(options.get(PROCESSOR), workingPath) )
+            if (needClassLoader(options.get(Option.PROCESSOR), workingPath) )
                 handleException(key, e);
 
         } else {
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/resources/compiler.properties	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/resources/compiler.properties	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -1222,7 +1222,7 @@
 
 # 0: string
 compiler.err.locn.invalid.arg.for.xpatch=\
-    invalid argument for -Xpatch option: {0}
+    invalid argument for --patch-module option: {0}
 
 #####
 
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/resources/javac.properties	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/resources/javac.properties	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -165,12 +165,12 @@
 javac.opt.Xlint.none=\
     Disable all warnings
 #L10N: do not localize: -Xlint
-javac.opt.Xlint.subopts=\
-    -Xlint:key,...
-javac.opt.Xlint.suboptlist=\n\
-\        Warnings to enable or disable, separated by comma.\n\
-\        Precede a key by '-' to disable the specified warning.\n\
-\        Supported keys are:
+javac.opt.arg.Xlint=\
+    <key>(,<key>)*
+javac.opt.Xlint.custom=\
+    Warnings to enable or disable, separated by comma.\n\
+    Precede a key by '-' to disable the specified warning.\n\
+    Supported keys are:
 javac.opt.Xlint.desc.auxiliaryclass=\
     Warn about an auxiliary class that is hidden in a source file, and is used from other files.
 
@@ -239,20 +239,19 @@
 
 # L10N: do not localize: accessibility html missing reference syntax
 # L10N: do not localize: public protected package private
-javac.opt.Xdoclint.custom=\n\
-\        Enable or disable specific checks for problems in javadoc comments,\n\
-\        where <group> is one of accessibility, html, missing, reference, or syntax,\n\
-\        and <access> is one of public, protected, package, or private.
+javac.opt.Xdoclint.custom=\
+    Enable or disable specific checks for problems in javadoc comments,\n\
+    where <group> is one of accessibility, html, missing, reference, or syntax,\n\
+    and <access> is one of public, protected, package, or private.
 
 javac.opt.Xdoclint.package.args = \
-    ([-]<packages>)
+    [-]<packages>(,[-]<package>)*
 
-javac.opt.Xdoclint.package.desc=\n\
-\        Enable or disable checks in specific packages. <packages> is a comma separated\n\
-\        list of package specifiers. Package specifier is either a qualified name of a package\n\
-\        or a package name prefix followed by '.*', which expands to all sub-packages of\n\
-\        the given package. Prefix the package specifier with '-' to disable checks for\n\
-\        the specified packages.
+javac.opt.Xdoclint.package.desc=\
+    Enable or disable checks in specific packages. Each <package> is either the\n\
+    qualified name of a package or a package name prefix followed by '.*', which\n\
+    expands to all sub-packages of the given package. Each <package> can be prefixed\n\
+    with '-' to disable checks for the specified package or packages.
 
 javac.opt.Xstdout=\
     Redirect standard output
@@ -274,34 +273,36 @@
     Read options and filenames from file
 javac.opt.diags=\
     Select a diagnostic mode
-javac.opt.addExports=\n\
-\        Specify a package to be considered as exported from its defining module\n\
-\        to additional modules, or to all unnamed modules if <other-module> is ALL-UNNAMED.
+javac.opt.addExports=\
+    Specify a package to be considered as exported from its defining module\n\
+    to additional modules, or to all unnamed modules if <other-module> is ALL-UNNAMED.
 javac.opt.arg.addExports=\
     <module>/<package>=<other-module>(,<other-module>)*
-javac.opt.addReads=\n\
-\        Specify additional modules to be considered as required by a given module.\n\
-\        <other-module> may be ALL-UNNAMED to require the unnamed module.
+javac.opt.addReads=\
+    Specify additional modules to be considered as required by a given module.\n\
+    <other-module> may be ALL-UNNAMED to require the unnamed module.
 javac.opt.arg.addReads=\
     <module>=<other-module>(,<other-module>)*
-javac.opt.patch=\n\
-\        Override or augment a module with classes and resources\n\
-\        in JAR files or directories
+javac.opt.patch=\
+    Override or augment a module with classes and resources\n\
+    in JAR files or directories
 javac.opt.arg.patch=\
     <module>=<file>(:<file>)*
 javac.opt.module=\
     Specify a module to which the classes being compiled belong.
 javac.opt.arg.module=\
-    <module-name>
-javac.opt.addmods=\n\
-\        Root modules to resolve in addition to the initial modules, or all modules\n\
-\        on the module path if <module> is ALL-MODULE-PATH.
+    <module>
+javac.opt.addmods=\
+    Root modules to resolve in addition to the initial modules, or all modules\n\
+    on the module path if <module> is ALL-MODULE-PATH.
 javac.opt.arg.addmods=\
     <module>(,<module>)*
 javac.opt.limitmods=\
     Limit the universe of observable modules
 javac.opt.arg.limitmods=\
     <module>(,<module>)*
+javac.opt.inherit_runtime_environment=\
+    Inherit module system configuration options from the runtime environment.
 
 ## errors
 
@@ -334,7 +335,7 @@
 javac.err.error.writing.file=\
     error writing {0}; {1}
 javac.err.sourcepath.modulesourcepath.conflict=\
-    cannot specify both -sourcepath and -modulesourcepath
+    cannot specify both --source-path and --module-source-path
 javac.warn.source.target.conflict=\
     source release {0} requires target release {1}
 javac.warn.target.default.source.conflict=\
@@ -347,6 +348,8 @@
     not a directory: {0}
 javac.err.file.not.file=\
     not a file: {0}
+javac.err.cannot.access.runtime.env=\
+    cannot access runtime environment
 
 ## messages
 
@@ -356,7 +359,7 @@
 
 javac.msg.usage=\
     Usage: {0} <options> <source files>\n\
-    use -help for a list of possible options
+    use --help for a list of possible options
 
 javac.msg.usage.nonstandard.footer=\
 These options are non-standard and subject to change without notice.
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/util/JDK9Wrappers.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/util/JDK9Wrappers.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -252,4 +252,40 @@
             }
         }
     }
+
+
+    /**
+     * Helper class for new method in jdk.internal.misc.VM.
+     */
+    public static final class VMHelper {
+        public static final String VM_CLASSNAME = "jdk.internal.misc.VM";
+
+        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
+        public static String[] getRuntimeArguments() {
+            try {
+                init();
+                Object result = getRuntimeArgumentsMethod.invoke(null);
+                return (String[])result;
+            } catch (IllegalAccessException | IllegalArgumentException | InvocationTargetException
+                    | SecurityException ex) {
+                throw new Abort(ex);
+            }
+        }
+
+        // -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+        private static Class<?> vmClass = null;
+        private static Method getRuntimeArgumentsMethod = null;
+
+        private static void init() {
+            if (vmClass == null) {
+                try {
+                    vmClass = Class.forName(VM_CLASSNAME, false, null);
+                    getRuntimeArgumentsMethod = vmClass.getDeclaredMethod("getRuntimeArguments");
+                } catch (ClassNotFoundException | NoSuchMethodException | SecurityException ex) {
+                    throw new Abort(ex);
+                }
+            }
+        }
+    }
 }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/util/Log.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/util/Log.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -748,6 +748,14 @@
         return localize(PrefixKind.COMPILER_MISC, key, args);
     }
 
+    public String localize(JCDiagnostic.DiagnosticInfo diagInfo) {
+        if (useRawMessages) {
+            return diagInfo.key();
+        } else {
+            return messages.getLocalizedString(diagInfo.key(), diagInfo.args);
+        }
+    }
+
     /** Find a localized string in the resource bundle.
      *  @param key    The key for the localized string.
      *  @param args   Fields to substitute into the string.
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/util/Options.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javac/util/Options.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 2001, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 2001, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -71,7 +71,7 @@
      * Get the value for an option.
      */
     public String get(Option option) {
-        return values.get(option.text);
+        return values.get(option.primaryName);
     }
 
     /**
@@ -101,14 +101,14 @@
      * Check if the value for an option has been set.
      */
     public boolean isSet(Option option) {
-        return (values.get(option.text) != null);
+        return (values.get(option.primaryName) != null);
     }
 
     /**
      * Check if the value for a choice option has been set to a specific value.
      */
     public boolean isSet(Option option, String value) {
-        return (values.get(option.text + value) != null);
+        return (values.get(option.primaryName + value) != null);
     }
 
     /**
@@ -122,14 +122,14 @@
      * Check if the value for an option has not been set.
      */
     public boolean isUnset(Option option) {
-        return (values.get(option.text) == null);
+        return (values.get(option.primaryName) == null);
     }
 
     /**
      * Check if the value for a choice option has not been set to a specific value.
      */
     public boolean isUnset(Option option, String value) {
-        return (values.get(option.text + value) == null);
+        return (values.get(option.primaryName + value) == null);
     }
 
     public void put(String name, String value) {
@@ -137,7 +137,7 @@
     }
 
     public void put(Option option, String value) {
-        values.put(option.text, value);
+        values.put(option.primaryName, value);
     }
 
     public void putAll(Options options) {
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javah/JavahTask.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javah/JavahTask.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -526,19 +526,27 @@
 
     private void showHelp() {
         log.println(getMessage("main.usage", progname));
+
         for (Option o: recognizedOptions) {
             if (o.isHidden())
                 continue;
             String name = o.aliases[0].substring(1); // there must always be at least one name
             log.println(getMessage("main.opt." + name));
         }
-        String[] fmOptions = { "-classpath", "-cp", "-bootclasspath" };
+
+        String[] fmOptions = {
+            "--module-path", "--system",
+            "--class-path", "-classpath", "-cp",
+            "-bootclasspath"
+        };
+
         for (String o: fmOptions) {
             if (fileManager.isSupportedOption(o) == -1)
                 continue;
-            String name = o.substring(1);
+            String name = o.replaceAll("^-+", "").replaceAll("-+", "_");
             log.println(getMessage("main.opt." + name));
         }
+
         log.println(getMessage("main.usage.foot"));
     }
 
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javah/Util.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javah/Util.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 2002, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 2002, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -91,7 +91,6 @@
         log.println(s);
     }
 
-
     /*
      * Help for loading localized messages.
      */
@@ -117,18 +116,6 @@
     }
 
     /*
-     * Usage message.
-     */
-    public void usage() throws Exit {
-        log.println(getText("usage"));
-    }
-
-    public void version() throws Exit {
-        log.println(getText("javah.version",
-                                   System.getProperty("java.version"), null));
-    }
-
-    /*
      * Failure modes.
      */
     public void bug(String key) throws Exit {
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javah/resources/l10n.properties	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javah/resources/l10n.properties	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -69,58 +69,61 @@
         Warning: Tracing is no longer supported.  Instead, use\
         -verbose:jni option of the virtual machine.
 
-#
-# Usage message.
-#
-usage=\
-Usage: javah [options] <classes>\n\
-\n\
-where [options] include:\n\
-\n\t\
--help                 Print this help message and exit\n\t\
--classpath <path>     Path from which to load classes\n\t\
--cp <path>            Path from which to load classes\n\t\
--modulepath <path>    Path from which to load application modules\n\t\
--system <path>        JDK directory from which to load system modules\n\t\
--d <dir>              Output directory\n\t\
--o <file>             Output file (only one of -d or -o may be used)\n\t\
--jni                  Generate JNI-style header file (default)\n\t\
--version              Print version information\n\t\
--verbose              Enable verbose output\n\t\
--force                Always write output files\n\
-\n\
-<classes> are specified with their fully qualified names, optionally\n\
-prefixed by a module name followed by '/'. Examples:\n\
-    java.lang.Object\n\
-    java.base/java.io.File\n\
-
 main.usage=\
 Usage: \n\
 \  javah [options] <classes>\n\
 where [options] include:
+
 main.opt.o=\
-\  -o <file>                Output file (only one of -d or -o may be used)
+\  -o <file>                    Output file (only one of -d or -o may be used)
+
 main.opt.d=\
-\  -d <dir>                 Output directory
+\  -d <dir>                     Output directory
+
 main.opt.v=\
-\  -v  -verbose             Enable verbose output
+\  -v  -verbose                 Enable verbose output
+
 main.opt.h=\
-\  -h  --help  -?           Print this message
+\  -h  --help  -?               Print this message
+
 main.opt.version=\
-\  -version                 Print version information
+\  -version                     Print version information
+
 main.opt.jni=\
-\  -jni                     Generate JNI-style header file (default)
+\  -jni                         Generate JNI-style header file (default)
+
 main.opt.force=\
-\  -force                   Always write output files
+\  -force                       Always write output files
+
+main.opt.module_path=\
+\  --module-path <path>         Path from which to load application modules
+
+main.opt.upgrade_module_path=\
+\  --upgrade_module-path <path> Path from which to load application modules
+
 main.opt.classpath=\
-\  -classpath <path>        Path from which to load classes
+\  -classpath <path>            Path from which to load classes
+
+main.opt.class_path=\
+\  --class-path <path>          Path from which to load classes
+
 main.opt.cp=\
-\  -cp <path>               Path from which to load classes
+\  -cp <path>                   Path from which to load classes
+
 main.opt.bootclasspath=\
-\  -bootclasspath <path>    Path from which to load bootstrap classes
-main.usage.foot=\
-<classes> are specified with their fully qualified names\n\
-(for example, java.lang.Object).
+\  -bootclasspath <path>        Path from which to load bootstrap classes
+
+main.opt.system=\
+\  --system <jdk>               Specify where to find system modules
+
+main.usage.foot=\n\
+GNU-style options may use '=' instead whitespace to separate the name of an option\n\
+from its value.\n\
+\n\
+Each class must be specified by its fully qualified names, optionally\n\
+prefixed by a module name followed by '/'. Examples:\n\
+\    java.lang.Object\n\
+\    java.base/java.io.File\n\
 
 #
 # Version string.
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/sjavac/options/Option.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/sjavac/options/Option.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -63,7 +63,7 @@
                 helper.sourceRoots(paths);
         }
     },
-    SOURCEPATH("-sourcepath", "Specify search path for sources.") {
+    SOURCE_PATH("--source-path", "Specify search path for sources.") {
         @Override
         protected void processMatching(ArgumentIterator iter, OptionHelper helper) {
             List<Path> paths = getFileListArg(iter, helper);
@@ -71,7 +71,13 @@
                 helper.sourcepath(paths);
         }
     },
-    MODULEPATH("-modulepath", "Specify search path for modules.") {
+    SOURCEPATH("-sourcepath", "An alias for -sourcepath") {
+        @Override
+        protected void processMatching(ArgumentIterator iter, OptionHelper helper) {
+            SOURCE_PATH.processMatching(iter, helper);
+        }
+    },
+    MODULE_PATH("--module-path", "Specify search path for modules.") {
         @Override
         protected void processMatching(ArgumentIterator iter, OptionHelper helper) {
             List<Path> paths = getFileListArg(iter, helper);
@@ -79,7 +85,19 @@
                 helper.modulepath(paths);
         }
     },
-    CLASSPATH("-classpath", "Specify search path for classes.") {
+    MODULEPATH("-modulepath", "An alias for -modulepath") {
+        @Override
+        protected void processMatching(ArgumentIterator iter, OptionHelper helper) {
+            MODULE_PATH.processMatching(iter, helper);
+        }
+    },
+    P("-p", "An alias for -modulepath") {
+        @Override
+        protected void processMatching(ArgumentIterator iter, OptionHelper helper) {
+            MODULE_PATH.processMatching(iter, helper);
+        }
+    },
+    CLASS_PATH("--class-path", "Specify search path for classes.") {
         @Override
         protected void processMatching(ArgumentIterator iter, OptionHelper helper) {
             List<Path> paths = getFileListArg(iter, helper);
@@ -87,10 +105,16 @@
                 helper.classpath(paths);
         }
     },
+    CLASSPATH("-classpath", "An alias for -classpath.") {
+        @Override
+        protected void processMatching(ArgumentIterator iter, OptionHelper helper) {
+            CLASS_PATH.processMatching(iter, helper);
+        }
+    },
     CP("-cp", "An alias for -classpath") {
         @Override
         protected void processMatching(ArgumentIterator iter, OptionHelper helper) {
-            CLASSPATH.processMatching(iter, helper);
+            CLASS_PATH.processMatching(iter, helper);
         }
     },
     X("-x", "Exclude files matching the given pattern") {
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/sjavac/options/Options.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.compiler/share/classes/com/sun/tools/sjavac/options/Options.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -251,9 +251,9 @@
 
         // Source roots
         args.addSourceLocations(Option.SRC, sources);
-        args.addSourceLocations(Option.SOURCEPATH, sourceSearchPaths);
-        args.addSourceLocations(Option.CLASSPATH,  classSearchPaths);
-        args.addSourceLocations(Option.MODULEPATH, moduleSearchPaths);
+        args.addSourceLocations(Option.SOURCE_PATH, sourceSearchPaths);
+        args.addSourceLocations(Option.CLASS_PATH,  classSearchPaths);
+        args.addSourceLocations(Option.MODULE_PATH, moduleSearchPaths);
 
         // Boolean options
         if (permitSourcesInDefaultPackage)
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javadoc/main/JavadocTool.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javadoc/main/JavadocTool.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -187,7 +187,7 @@
             // Parse file objects provide via the DocumentationTool API
             parse(fileObjects, classTrees, true);
 
-            modules.initModules(classTrees.toList(), Collections.emptySet(), Collections.emptySet());
+            modules.initModules(classTrees.toList());
 
             // Build up the complete list of any packages to be documented
             Location location = modules.multiModuleMode ? StandardLocation.MODULE_SOURCE_PATH
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javadoc/main/Start.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javadoc/main/Start.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -45,6 +45,8 @@
 import com.sun.tools.javac.main.CommandLine;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.main.Option;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.file.BaseFileManager;
+import com.sun.tools.javac.main.OptionHelper;
+import com.sun.tools.javac.main.OptionHelper.GrumpyHelper;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.platform.PlatformDescription;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.platform.PlatformUtils;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.util.ClientCodeException;
@@ -173,7 +175,7 @@
     }
 
     void usage(boolean exit) {
-        usage("main.usage", "-help", null, exit);
+        usage("main.usage", "-help", "main.usage.foot", exit);
     }
 
     @Override
@@ -365,14 +367,14 @@
             ((BaseFileManager) fileManager).handleOptions(fileManagerOpts);
         }
 
-        String platformString = compOpts.get("-release");
+        String platformString = compOpts.get("--release");
 
         if (platformString != null) {
             if (compOpts.isSet("-source")) {
                 usageError("main.release.bootclasspath.conflict", "-source");
             }
-            if (fileManagerOpts.containsKey(Option.BOOTCLASSPATH)) {
-                usageError("main.release.bootclasspath.conflict", Option.BOOTCLASSPATH.getText());
+            if (fileManagerOpts.containsKey(Option.BOOT_CLASS_PATH)) {
+                usageError("main.release.bootclasspath.conflict", Option.BOOT_CLASS_PATH.getPrimaryName());
             }
 
             PlatformDescription platformDescription =
@@ -555,4 +557,19 @@
         }
         options.append(args);
     }
+
+    @Override
+    OptionHelper getOptionHelper() {
+        return new GrumpyHelper(null) {
+            @Override
+            public String get(com.sun.tools.javac.main.Option option) {
+                return compOpts.get(option);
+            }
+
+            @Override
+            public void put(String name, String value) {
+                compOpts.put(name, value);
+            }
+        };
+    }
 }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javadoc/main/ToolOption.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javadoc/main/ToolOption.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -31,6 +31,7 @@
 
 import com.sun.tools.javac.code.Flags;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.main.Option;
+import com.sun.tools.javac.main.OptionHelper;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.util.ListBuffer;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.util.Options;
 
@@ -50,21 +51,28 @@
     BOOTCLASSPATH("-bootclasspath", true) {
         @Override
         public void process(Helper helper, String arg) {
-            helper.setFileManagerOpt(Option.BOOTCLASSPATH, arg);
+            helper.setFileManagerOpt(Option.BOOT_CLASS_PATH, arg);
         }
     },
 
     CLASSPATH("-classpath", true) {
         @Override
         public void process(Helper helper, String arg) {
-            helper.setFileManagerOpt(Option.CLASSPATH, arg);
+            helper.setFileManagerOpt(Option.CLASS_PATH, arg);
         }
     },
 
     CP("-cp", true) {
         @Override
         public void process(Helper helper, String arg) {
-            helper.setFileManagerOpt(Option.CP, arg);
+            helper.setFileManagerOpt(Option.CLASS_PATH, arg);
+        }
+    },
+
+    CLASS_PATH("--class-path", true) {
+        @Override
+        public void process(Helper helper, String arg) {
+            helper.setFileManagerOpt(Option.CLASS_PATH, arg);
         }
     },
 
@@ -78,28 +86,49 @@
     SOURCEPATH("-sourcepath", true) {
         @Override
         public void process(Helper helper, String arg) {
-            helper.setFileManagerOpt(Option.SOURCEPATH, arg);
+            helper.setFileManagerOpt(Option.SOURCE_PATH, arg);
+        }
+    },
+
+    SOURCE_PATH("--source-path", true) {
+        @Override
+        public void process(Helper helper, String arg) {
+            helper.setFileManagerOpt(Option.SOURCE_PATH, arg);
         }
     },
 
     SYSCLASSPATH("-sysclasspath", true) {
         @Override
         public void process(Helper helper, String arg) {
-            helper.setFileManagerOpt(Option.BOOTCLASSPATH, arg);
+            helper.setFileManagerOpt(Option.BOOT_CLASS_PATH, arg);
         }
     },
 
     MODULESOURCEPATH("-modulesourcepath", true) {
         @Override
         public void process(Helper helper, String arg) {
-            helper.setFileManagerOpt(Option.MODULESOURCEPATH, arg);
+            helper.setFileManagerOpt(Option.MODULE_SOURCE_PATH, arg);
+        }
+    },
+
+    MODULE_SOURCE_PATH("--module-source-path", true) {
+        @Override
+        public void process(Helper helper, String arg) {
+            helper.setFileManagerOpt(Option.MODULE_SOURCE_PATH, arg);
         }
     },
 
     UPGRADEMODULEPATH("-upgrademodulepath", true) {
         @Override
         public void process(Helper helper, String arg) {
-            helper.setFileManagerOpt(Option.UPGRADEMODULEPATH, arg);
+            helper.setFileManagerOpt(Option.UPGRADE_MODULE_PATH, arg);
+        }
+    },
+
+    UPGRADE_MODULE_PATH("--upgrade-module-path", true) {
+        @Override
+        public void process(Helper helper, String arg) {
+            helper.setFileManagerOpt(Option.UPGRADE_MODULE_PATH, arg);
         }
     },
 
@@ -110,10 +139,31 @@
         }
     },
 
+    SYSTEM_("--system", true) {
+        @Override
+        public void process(Helper helper, String arg) {
+            helper.setFileManagerOpt(Option.SYSTEM, arg);
+        }
+    },
+
     MODULEPATH("-modulepath", true) {
         @Override
         public void process(Helper helper, String arg) {
-            helper.setFileManagerOpt(Option.MODULEPATH, arg);
+            helper.setFileManagerOpt(Option.MODULE_PATH, arg);
+        }
+    },
+
+    MODULE_PATH("--module-path", true) {
+        @Override
+        public void process(Helper helper, String arg) {
+            helper.setFileManagerOpt(Option.MODULE_PATH, arg);
+        }
+    },
+
+    P("-p", true) {
+        @Override
+        public void process(Helper helper, String arg) {
+            helper.setFileManagerOpt(Option.MODULE_PATH, arg);
         }
     },
 
@@ -124,6 +174,13 @@
         }
     },
 
+    ADD_MODULES("--add-modules", true) {
+        @Override
+        public void process(Helper helper, String arg) {
+            Option.ADD_MODULES.process(helper.getOptionHelper(), opt, arg);
+        }
+    },
+
     LIMITMODS("-limitmods", true) {
         @Override
         public void process(Helper helper, String arg) {
@@ -131,6 +188,13 @@
         }
     },
 
+    LIMIT_MODULES("--limit-modules", true) {
+        @Override
+        public void process(Helper helper, String arg) {
+            Option.LIMIT_MODULES.process(helper.getOptionHelper(), opt, arg);
+        }
+    },
+
     ENCODING("-encoding", true) {
         @Override
         public void process(Helper helper, String arg) {
@@ -139,13 +203,20 @@
         }
     },
 
-    RELEASE("-release", true) {
+    RELEASE("--release", true) {
         @Override
         public void process(Helper helper, String arg) {
             helper.setCompilerOpt(opt, arg);
         }
     },
 
+    RELEASE_OLD("-release", true) {
+        @Override
+        public void process(Helper helper, String arg) {
+            helper.setCompilerOpt("--release", arg);
+        }
+    },
+
     SOURCE("-source", true) {
         @Override
         public void process(Helper helper, String arg) {
@@ -167,6 +238,55 @@
         }
     },
 
+    XADDREADS("-XaddReads:", false) {
+        @Override
+        public void process(Helper helper, String arg) {
+            Option.ADD_READS.process(helper.getOptionHelper(), arg);
+        }
+    },
+
+    ADD_READS("--add-reads", true) {
+        @Override
+        public void process(Helper helper, String arg) {
+            Option.ADD_READS.process(helper.getOptionHelper(), opt, arg);
+        }
+    },
+
+    ADDEXPORTS("-XaddExports:", false) {
+        @Override
+        public void process(Helper helper, String arg) {
+            Option.ADD_EXPORTS.process(helper.getOptionHelper(), arg);
+        }
+    },
+
+    ADD_EXPORTS("--add-exports", true) {
+        @Override
+        public void process(Helper helper, String arg) {
+            Option.ADD_EXPORTS.process(helper.getOptionHelper(), opt, arg);
+        }
+    },
+
+    XMODULE("-Xmodule:", false) {
+        @Override
+        public void process(Helper helper, String arg) {
+            Option.XMODULE.process(helper.getOptionHelper(), arg);
+        }
+    },
+
+    XPATCH("-Xpatch:", false) {
+        @Override
+        public void process(Helper helper, String arg) {
+            Option.XMODULE.process(helper.getOptionHelper(), arg);
+        }
+    },
+
+    PATCH_MODULE("--patch-module", true) {
+        @Override
+        public void process(Helper helper, String arg) {
+            Option.PATCH_MODULE.process(helper.getOptionHelper(), opt, arg);
+        }
+    },
+
     // ----- doclet options -----
 
     DOCLET("-doclet", true), // handled in setDocletInvoker
@@ -362,6 +482,7 @@
         abstract void Xusage();
 
         abstract void usageError(String msg, Object... args);
+        abstract OptionHelper getOptionHelper();
 
         void addToList(ListBuffer<String> list, String str){
             StringTokenizer st = new StringTokenizer(str, ":");
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javadoc/resources/javadoc.properties	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/com/sun/tools/javadoc/resources/javadoc.properties	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 #
-# Copyright (c) 1997, 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+# Copyright (c) 1997, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 # DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
 #
 # This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -37,15 +37,28 @@
 \  -help                            Display command line options and exit\n\
 \  -doclet <class>                  Generate output via alternate doclet\n\
 \  -docletpath <path>               Specify where to find doclet class files\n\
-\  -sourcepath <pathlist>           Specify where to find source files\n\
-\  -classpath <pathlist>            Specify where to find user class files\n\
-\  -cp <pathlist>                   Specify where to find user class files\n\
+\  --module-source-path <path>      Specify where to find input source files for multiple modules\n\
+\  --upgrade-module-path <path>     Override location of upgradeable modules\n\
+\  --module-path <path>, -p <path>  Specify where to find application modules\n\
+\  --add-modules <module>(,<module>)*\n\
+\                                   Root modules to resolve in addition to the initial modules,\n\
+\                                   or all modules on the module path if <module> is ALL-MODULE-PATH.\n\
+\  --limit-modules <module>(,<module>)*\n\
+\                                   Limit the universe of observable modules\n\
+\  --source-path <path>             Specify where to find source files\n\
+\  -sourcepath <path>               Specify where to find source files\n\
+\  --class-path <path>              Specify where to find user class files\n\
+\  -classpath <path>                Specify where to find user class files\n\
+\  -cp <path>                       Specify where to find user class files\n\
 \  -exclude <pkglist>               Specify a list of packages to exclude\n\
 \  -subpackages <subpkglist>        Specify subpackages to recursively load\n\
 \  -breakiterator                   Compute first sentence with BreakIterator\n\
-\  -bootclasspath <pathlist>        Override location of class files loaded\n\
-\                                   by the bootstrap class loader\n\
+\  -bootclasspath <path>            Override location of platform class files\n\
+\                                   used for non-modular releases\n\
+\  --system <jdk>                   Override location of system modules used\n\
+\                                   for modular releases.\n\
 \  -source <release>                Provide source compatibility with specified release\n\
+\  --release <release>              Provide source compatibility with specified release\n\
 \  -extdirs <dirlist>               Override location of installed extensions\n\
 \  -verbose                         Output messages about what Javadoc is doing\n\
 \  -locale <name>                   Locale to be used, e.g. en_US or en_US_WIN\n\
@@ -54,9 +67,25 @@
 \  -J<flag>                         Pass <flag> directly to the runtime system\n\
 \  -X                               Print a synopsis of nonstandard options and exit\n
 
+main.usage.foot=\n\
+GNU-style options may use '=' instead whitespace to separate the name of an option\n\
+from its value.\n
+
 main.Xusage=\
 \  -Xmaxerrs <number>               Set the maximum number of errors to print\n\
-\  -Xmaxwarns <number>              Set the maximum number of warnings to print\n
+\  -Xmaxwarns <number>              Set the maximum number of warnings to print\n\
+\  --add-exports <module>/<package>=<other-module>(,<other-module>)*\n\
+\                                   Specify a package to be considered as exported from its \n\
+\                                   defining module to additional modules, or to all unnamed \n\
+\                                   modules if <other-module> is ALL-UNNAMED.\n\
+\  --add-reads <module>=<other-module>(,<other-module>)*\n\
+\                                   Specify additional modules to be considered as required by a\n\
+\                                   given module. <other-module> may be ALL-UNNAMED to require\n\
+\                                   the unnamed module.\n\
+\  -Xmodule:<module-name>           Specify a module to which the classes being compiled belong.\n\
+\  --patch-module <module>=<file>(:<file>)*\n\
+\                                   Override or augment a module with classes and resources\n\
+\                                   in JAR files or directories\n
 
 main.Xusage.foot=\
 These options are non-standard and subject to change without notice.
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/AbstractExecutableMemberWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/AbstractExecutableMemberWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -80,7 +80,7 @@
         Content typeParameters = getTypeParameters(member);
         if (!typeParameters.isEmpty()) {
             htmltree.addContent(typeParameters);
-            htmltree.addContent(writer.getSpace());
+            htmltree.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
         }
     }
 
@@ -157,7 +157,7 @@
                 param.asType()).varargs(isVarArg));
         tree.addContent(link);
         if(name(param).length() > 0) {
-            tree.addContent(writer.getSpace());
+            tree.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
             tree.addContent(name(param));
         }
     }
@@ -173,11 +173,11 @@
     protected void addReceiverAnnotations(ExecutableElement member, TypeMirror rcvrType,
             List<? extends AnnotationMirror> annotationMirrors, Content tree) {
         writer.addReceiverAnnotationInfo(member, rcvrType, annotationMirrors, tree);
-        tree.addContent(writer.getSpace());
+        tree.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
         tree.addContent(utils.getTypeName(rcvrType, false));
         LinkInfoImpl linkInfo = new LinkInfoImpl(configuration, RECEIVER_TYPE, rcvrType);
         tree.addContent(writer.getTypeParameterLinks(linkInfo));
-        tree.addContent(writer.getSpace());
+        tree.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
         tree.addContent("this");
     }
 
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/AbstractIndexWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/AbstractIndexWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -82,8 +82,7 @@
      */
     protected AbstractIndexWriter(ConfigurationImpl configuration,
                                   DocPath path,
-                                  IndexBuilder indexbuilder)
-                                  throws IOException {
+                                  IndexBuilder indexbuilder) {
         super(configuration, path);
         this.indexbuilder = indexbuilder;
     }
@@ -94,7 +93,7 @@
      * @return a content tree for the tree label
      */
     protected Content getNavLinkIndex() {
-        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.navBarCell1Rev, indexLabel);
+        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.navBarCell1Rev, contents.indexLabel);
         return li;
     }
 
@@ -216,10 +215,10 @@
     protected void addDescription(PackageElement pkg, Content dlTree, SearchIndexItem si) {
         Content link = getPackageLink(pkg, new StringContent(utils.getPackageName(pkg)));
         si.setLabel(utils.getPackageName(pkg));
-        si.setCategory(getResource("doclet.Packages").toString());
+        si.setCategory(resources.getText("doclet.Packages"));
         Content dt = HtmlTree.DT(link);
         dt.addContent(" - ");
-        dt.addContent(getResource("doclet.package"));
+        dt.addContent(contents.package_);
         dt.addContent(" " + utils.getPackageName(pkg));
         dlTree.addContent(dt);
         Content dd = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.DD);
@@ -238,7 +237,7 @@
                         LinkInfoImpl.Kind.INDEX, typeElement).strong(true));
         si.setContainingPackage(utils.getPackageName(utils.containingPackage(typeElement)));
         si.setLabel(utils.getSimpleName(typeElement));
-        si.setCategory(getResource("doclet.Types").toString());
+        si.setCategory(resources.getText("doclet.Types"));
         Content dt = HtmlTree.DT(link);
         dt.addContent(" - ");
         addClassInfo(typeElement, dt);
@@ -256,7 +255,7 @@
      * @param contentTree the content tree to which the class info will be added
      */
     protected void addClassInfo(TypeElement te, Content contentTree) {
-        contentTree.addContent(getResource("doclet.in",
+        contentTree.addContent(contents.getContent("doclet.in",
                 utils.getTypeElementName(te, false),
                 getPackageLink(utils.containingPackage(te),
                     utils.getPackageName(utils.containingPackage(te)))
@@ -286,7 +285,7 @@
         }  else {
             si.setLabel(name);
         }
-        si.setCategory(getResource("doclet.Members").toString());
+        si.setCategory(resources.getText("doclet.Members"));
         Content span = HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.memberNameLink,
                 getDocLink(LinkInfoImpl.Kind.INDEX, member, name));
         Content dt = HtmlTree.DT(span);
@@ -304,11 +303,11 @@
         HtmlTree labelLink = HtmlTree.A(path, new StringContent(sii.getLabel()));
         Content dt = HtmlTree.DT(HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.searchTagLink, labelLink));
         dt.addContent(" - ");
-        dt.addContent(getResource("doclet.Search_tag_in", sii.getHolder()));
+        dt.addContent(contents.getContent("doclet.Search_tag_in", sii.getHolder()));
         dlTree.addContent(dt);
         Content dd = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.DD);
         if (sii.getDescription().isEmpty()) {
-            dd.addContent(getSpace());
+            dd.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
         } else {
             dd.addContent(sii.getDescription());
         }
@@ -326,7 +325,7 @@
      */
     protected void addComment(Element element, Content contentTree) {
         List<? extends DocTree> tags;
-        Content span = HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.deprecatedLabel, deprecatedPhrase);
+        Content span = HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.deprecatedLabel, contents.deprecatedPhrase);
         HtmlTree div = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.DIV);
         div.addStyle(HtmlStyle.block);
         if (utils.isDeprecated(element)) {
@@ -360,15 +359,15 @@
         TypeElement containing = utils.getEnclosingTypeElement(member);
         String classdesc = utils.getTypeElementName(containing, true) + " ";
         if (utils.isField(member)) {
-            Content resource = getResource(utils.isStatic(member)
+            Content resource = contents.getContent(utils.isStatic(member)
                     ? "doclet.Static_variable_in"
                     : "doclet.Variable_in", classdesc);
             contentTree.addContent(resource);
         } else if (utils.isConstructor(member)) {
             contentTree.addContent(
-                    getResource("doclet.Constructor_for", classdesc));
+                    contents.getContent("doclet.Constructor_for", classdesc));
         } else if (utils.isMethod(member)) {
-            Content resource = getResource(utils.isStatic(member)
+            Content resource = contents.getContent(utils.isStatic(member)
                     ? "doclet.Static_method_in"
                     : "doclet.Method_in", classdesc);
             contentTree.addContent(resource);
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/AbstractMemberWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/AbstractMemberWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -33,13 +33,9 @@
 import javax.lang.model.element.Modifier;
 import javax.lang.model.element.TypeElement;
 import javax.lang.model.element.TypeParameterElement;
-import javax.lang.model.element.VariableElement;
 import javax.lang.model.type.TypeMirror;
-import javax.lang.model.util.SimpleElementVisitor9;
 
 import com.sun.source.doctree.DocTree;
-import com.sun.tools.javac.util.DefinedBy;
-import com.sun.tools.javac.util.DefinedBy.Api;
 
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.HtmlAttr;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.HtmlConstants;
@@ -48,6 +44,7 @@
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.HtmlTree;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.StringContent;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Content;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Resources;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.taglets.DeprecatedTaglet;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.MethodTypes;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.Utils;
@@ -73,6 +70,9 @@
     protected final ConfigurationImpl configuration;
     protected final Utils utils;
     protected final SubWriterHolderWriter writer;
+    protected final Contents contents;
+    protected final Resources resources;
+
     protected final TypeElement typeElement;
     protected Map<String, Integer> typeMap = new LinkedHashMap<>();
     protected Set<MethodTypes> methodTypes = EnumSet.noneOf(MethodTypes.class);
@@ -86,7 +86,9 @@
         this.writer = writer;
         this.nodepr = configuration.nodeprecated;
         this.typeElement = typeElement;
-        this.utils = writer.configuration.utils;
+        this.utils = configuration.utils;
+        this.contents = configuration.contents;
+        this.resources = configuration.resources;
     }
 
     public AbstractMemberWriter(SubWriterHolderWriter writer) {
@@ -258,7 +260,7 @@
         if (!set.isEmpty()) {
             String mods = set.stream().map(m -> m.toString()).collect(Collectors.joining(" "));
             htmltree.addContent(mods);
-            htmltree.addContent(writer.getSpace());
+            htmltree.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
         }
     }
 
@@ -286,7 +288,7 @@
         addModifier(member, code);
         if (type == null) {
             code.addContent(utils.isClass(member) ? "class" : "interface");
-            code.addContent(writer.getSpace());
+            code.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
         } else {
             List<? extends TypeParameterElement> list = utils.isExecutableElement(member)
                     ? ((ExecutableElement)member).getTypeParameters()
@@ -299,7 +301,7 @@
                 if (typeParameters.charCount() > 10) {
                     code.addContent(new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.BR));
                 } else {
-                    code.addContent(writer.getSpace());
+                    code.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
                 }
                 code.addContent(
                         writer.getLink(new LinkInfoImpl(configuration,
@@ -394,6 +396,7 @@
     * @param ped The <code>ProgramElement</code> being checked.
     * return true if the <code>ProgramElement</code> is being inherited and
     * false otherwise.
+     *@return true if inherited
     */
     protected boolean isInherited(Element ped){
         return (!utils.isPrivate(ped) &&
@@ -413,7 +416,7 @@
     protected void addDeprecatedAPI(Collection<Element> deprmembers, String headingKey,
             String tableSummary, List<String> tableHeader, Content contentTree) {
         if (deprmembers.size() > 0) {
-            Content caption = writer.getTableCaption(configuration.getResource(headingKey));
+            Content caption = writer.getTableCaption(configuration.getContent(headingKey));
             Content table = (configuration.isOutputHtml5())
                     ? HtmlTree.TABLE(HtmlStyle.deprecatedSummary, caption)
                     : HtmlTree.TABLE(HtmlStyle.deprecatedSummary, tableSummary, caption);
@@ -536,7 +539,7 @@
 
     protected void serialWarning(Element e, String key, String a1, String a2) {
         if (configuration.serialwarn) {
-            configuration.getDocletSpecificMsg().warning(e, key, a1, a2);
+            configuration.messages.warning(e, key, a1, a2);
         }
     }
 
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/AbstractModuleIndexWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/AbstractModuleIndexWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -66,7 +66,7 @@
      * @param filename Name of the module index file to be generated.
      */
     public AbstractModuleIndexWriter(ConfigurationImpl configuration,
-                                      DocPath filename) throws IOException {
+                                      DocPath filename) {
         super(configuration, filename);
         modules = configuration.modulePackages;
     }
@@ -259,7 +259,7 @@
      * @return a Content object to be added to the documentation tree
      */
     protected Content getNavLinkContents() {
-        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.navBarCell1Rev, overviewLabel);
+        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.navBarCell1Rev, contents.overviewLabel);
         return li;
     }
 
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/AbstractPackageIndexWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/AbstractPackageIndexWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 1998, 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1998, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -65,7 +65,7 @@
      * @param filename Name of the package index file to be generated.
      */
     public AbstractPackageIndexWriter(ConfigurationImpl configuration,
-                                      DocPath filename) throws IOException {
+                                      DocPath filename) {
         super(configuration, filename);
         packages = configuration.packages;
     }
@@ -191,7 +191,7 @@
      * @return a Content object to be added to the documentation tree
      */
     protected Content getNavLinkContents() {
-        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.navBarCell1Rev, overviewLabel);
+        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.navBarCell1Rev, contents.overviewLabel);
         return li;
     }
 
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/AbstractTreeWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/AbstractTreeWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -71,8 +71,7 @@
      * @throws DocletAbortException
      */
     protected AbstractTreeWriter(ConfigurationImpl configuration,
-                                 DocPath filename, ClassTree classtree)
-                                 throws IOException {
+                                 DocPath filename, ClassTree classtree) {
         super(configuration, filename);
         this.classtree = classtree;
     }
@@ -121,7 +120,7 @@
                            HtmlTree div, boolean isEnums) {
         if (!sset.isEmpty()) {
             TypeElement firstTypeElement = sset.first();
-            Content headingContent = getResource(heading);
+            Content headingContent = contents.getContent(heading);
             Content sectionHeading = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.CONTENT_HEADING, true,
                     headingContent);
             HtmlTree htmlTree;
@@ -162,7 +161,7 @@
                             isFirst = false;
                             if (utils.isInterface(typeElement)) {
                                 contentTree.addContent(" (");
-                                contentTree.addContent(getResource("doclet.also"));
+                                contentTree.addContent(contents.also);
                                 contentTree.addContent(" extends ");
                             } else {
                                 contentTree.addContent(" (implements ");
@@ -196,7 +195,7 @@
      * @return a content tree for the tree label
      */
     protected Content getNavLinkTree() {
-        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.navBarCell1Rev, treeLabel);
+        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.navBarCell1Rev, contents.treeLabel);
         return li;
     }
 }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/AllClassesFrameWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/AllClassesFrameWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -35,6 +35,7 @@
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.HtmlTag;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.HtmlTree;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Content;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Messages;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPath;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPaths;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocletAbortException;
@@ -78,8 +79,7 @@
      * @throws DocletAbortException
      */
     public AllClassesFrameWriter(ConfigurationImpl configuration,
-                                 DocPath filename, IndexBuilder indexbuilder)
-                              throws IOException {
+                                 DocPath filename, IndexBuilder indexbuilder) {
         super(configuration, filename);
         this.indexbuilder = indexbuilder;
     }
@@ -100,15 +100,13 @@
             allclassgen = new AllClassesFrameWriter(configuration,
                                                     filename, indexbuilder);
             allclassgen.buildAllClassesFile(true);
-            allclassgen.close();
             filename = DocPaths.ALLCLASSES_NOFRAME;
             allclassgen = new AllClassesFrameWriter(configuration,
                                                     filename, indexbuilder);
             allclassgen.buildAllClassesFile(false);
-            allclassgen.close();
         } catch (IOException exc) {
-            configuration.standardmessage.
-                     error("doclet.exception_encountered",
+            Messages messages = configuration.getMessages();
+            messages.error("doclet.exception_encountered",
                            exc.toString(), filename);
             throw new DocletAbortException(exc);
         }
@@ -122,7 +120,7 @@
         String label = configuration.getText("doclet.All_Classes");
         Content body = getBody(false, getWindowTitle(label));
         Content heading = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.TITLE_HEADING,
-                HtmlStyle.bar, allclassesLabel);
+                HtmlStyle.bar, contents.allClassesLabel);
         body.addContent(heading);
         Content ul = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.UL);
         // Generate the class links and add it to the tdFont tree.
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/AnnotationTypeFieldWriterImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/AnnotationTypeFieldWriterImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -111,7 +111,7 @@
             memberDetailsTree.addContent(writer.getMarkerAnchor(
                     SectionName.ANNOTATION_TYPE_FIELD_DETAIL));
             Content heading = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.DETAILS_HEADING,
-                    writer.fieldDetailsLabel);
+                    contents.fieldDetailsLabel);
             memberDetailsTree.addContent(heading);
             writer.printedAnnotationFieldHeading = true;
         }
@@ -142,7 +142,7 @@
                 writer.getLink(new LinkInfoImpl(configuration,
                         LinkInfoImpl.Kind.MEMBER, getType(member)));
         pre.addContent(link);
-        pre.addContent(writer.getSpace());
+        pre.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
         if (configuration.linksource) {
             Content memberName = new StringContent(name(member));
             writer.addSrcLink(member, memberName, pre);
@@ -193,18 +193,11 @@
     }
 
     /**
-     * Close the writer.
-     */
-    public void close() throws IOException {
-        writer.close();
-    }
-
-    /**
      * {@inheritDoc}
      */
     public void addSummaryLabel(Content memberTree) {
         Content label = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.SUMMARY_HEADING,
-                writer.getResource("doclet.Field_Summary"));
+                contents.fieldSummaryLabel);
         memberTree.addContent(label);
     }
 
@@ -221,7 +214,7 @@
      * {@inheritDoc}
      */
     public Content getCaption() {
-        return configuration.getResource("doclet.Fields");
+        return configuration.getContent("doclet.Fields");
     }
 
     /**
@@ -296,9 +289,9 @@
         if (link) {
             return writer.getHyperLink(
                     SectionName.ANNOTATION_TYPE_FIELD_SUMMARY,
-                    writer.getResource("doclet.navField"));
+                    contents.navField);
         } else {
-            return writer.getResource("doclet.navField");
+            return contents.navField;
         }
     }
 
@@ -309,9 +302,9 @@
         if (link) {
             liNav.addContent(writer.getHyperLink(
                     SectionName.ANNOTATION_TYPE_FIELD_DETAIL,
-                    writer.getResource("doclet.navField")));
+                    contents.navField));
         } else {
-            liNav.addContent(writer.getResource("doclet.navField"));
+            liNav.addContent(contents.navField);
         }
     }
     private TypeMirror getType(Element member) {
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/AnnotationTypeOptionalMemberWriterImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/AnnotationTypeOptionalMemberWriterImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -25,8 +25,6 @@
 
 package jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html;
 
-import java.io.*;
-
 import java.util.Arrays;
 import java.util.List;
 
@@ -96,7 +94,7 @@
             ExecutableElement ee = (ExecutableElement)member;
             AnnotationValue value = ee.getDefaultValue();
             if (value != null) {
-                Content dt = HtmlTree.DT(writer.getResource("doclet.Default"));
+                Content dt = HtmlTree.DT(contents.default_);
                 Content dl = HtmlTree.DL(dt);
                 Content dd = HtmlTree.DD(new StringContent(value.toString()));
                 dl.addContent(dd);
@@ -108,16 +106,9 @@
     /**
      * {@inheritDoc}
      */
-    public void close() throws IOException {
-        writer.close();
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * {@inheritDoc}
-     */
     public void addSummaryLabel(Content memberTree) {
         Content label = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.SUMMARY_HEADING,
-                writer.getResource("doclet.Annotation_Type_Optional_Member_Summary"));
+                contents.annotateTypeOptionalMemberSummaryLabel);
         memberTree.addContent(label);
     }
 
@@ -125,16 +116,16 @@
      * {@inheritDoc}
      */
     public String getTableSummary() {
-        return configuration.getText("doclet.Member_Table_Summary",
-                configuration.getText("doclet.Annotation_Type_Optional_Member_Summary"),
-                configuration.getText("doclet.annotation_type_optional_members"));
+        return resources.getText("doclet.Member_Table_Summary",
+                resources.getText("doclet.Annotation_Type_Optional_Member_Summary"),
+                resources.getText("doclet.annotation_type_optional_members"));
     }
 
     /**
      * {@inheritDoc}
      */
     public Content getCaption() {
-        return configuration.getResource("doclet.Annotation_Type_Optional_Members");
+        return configuration.getContent("doclet.Annotation_Type_Optional_Members");
     }
 
     /**
@@ -163,9 +154,9 @@
         if (link) {
             return writer.getHyperLink(
                     SectionName.ANNOTATION_TYPE_OPTIONAL_ELEMENT_SUMMARY,
-                    writer.getResource("doclet.navAnnotationTypeOptionalMember"));
+                    contents.navAnnotationTypeOptionalMember);
         } else {
-            return writer.getResource("doclet.navAnnotationTypeOptionalMember");
+            return contents.navAnnotationTypeOptionalMember;
         }
     }
 }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/AnnotationTypeRequiredMemberWriterImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/AnnotationTypeRequiredMemberWriterImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -111,7 +111,7 @@
             memberDetailsTree.addContent(writer.getMarkerAnchor(
                     SectionName.ANNOTATION_TYPE_ELEMENT_DETAIL));
             Content heading = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.DETAILS_HEADING,
-                    writer.annotationTypeDetailsLabel);
+                    contents.annotationTypeDetailsLabel);
             memberDetailsTree.addContent(heading);
             writer.printedAnnotationHeading = true;
         }
@@ -143,7 +143,7 @@
                 writer.getLink(new LinkInfoImpl(configuration,
                         LinkInfoImpl.Kind.MEMBER, getType(member)));
         pre.addContent(link);
-        pre.addContent(writer.getSpace());
+        pre.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
         if (configuration.linksource) {
             Content memberName = new StringContent(name(member));
             writer.addSrcLink(member, memberName, pre);
@@ -194,18 +194,11 @@
     }
 
     /**
-     * Close the writer.
-     */
-    public void close() throws IOException {
-        writer.close();
-    }
-
-    /**
      * {@inheritDoc}
      */
     public void addSummaryLabel(Content memberTree) {
         Content label = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.SUMMARY_HEADING,
-                writer.getResource("doclet.Annotation_Type_Required_Member_Summary"));
+                contents.annotateTypeRequiredMemberSummaryLabel);
         memberTree.addContent(label);
     }
 
@@ -222,7 +215,7 @@
      * {@inheritDoc}
      */
     public Content getCaption() {
-        return configuration.getResource("doclet.Annotation_Type_Required_Members");
+        return configuration.getContent("doclet.Annotation_Type_Required_Members");
     }
 
     /**
@@ -297,9 +290,9 @@
         if (link) {
             return writer.getHyperLink(
                     SectionName.ANNOTATION_TYPE_REQUIRED_ELEMENT_SUMMARY,
-                    writer.getResource("doclet.navAnnotationTypeRequiredMember"));
+                    contents.navAnnotationTypeRequiredMember);
         } else {
-            return writer.getResource("doclet.navAnnotationTypeRequiredMember");
+            return contents.navAnnotationTypeRequiredMember;
         }
     }
 
@@ -310,9 +303,9 @@
         if (link) {
             liNav.addContent(writer.getHyperLink(
                     SectionName.ANNOTATION_TYPE_ELEMENT_DETAIL,
-                    writer.getResource("doclet.navAnnotationTypeMember")));
+                    contents.navAnnotationTypeMember));
         } else {
-            liNav.addContent(writer.getResource("doclet.navAnnotationTypeMember"));
+            liNav.addContent(contents.navAnnotationTypeMember);
         }
     }
 
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/AnnotationTypeWriterImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/AnnotationTypeWriterImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -98,7 +98,7 @@
     @Override
     protected Content getNavLinkModule() {
         Content linkContent = getModuleLink(utils.elementUtils.getModuleOf(annotationType),
-                moduleLabel);
+                contents.moduleLabel);
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(linkContent);
         return li;
     }
@@ -111,7 +111,7 @@
     @Override
     protected Content getNavLinkPackage() {
         Content linkContent = getHyperLink(DocPaths.PACKAGE_SUMMARY,
-                packageLabel);
+                contents.packageLabel);
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(linkContent);
         return li;
     }
@@ -123,7 +123,7 @@
      */
     @Override
     protected Content getNavLinkClass() {
-        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.navBarCell1Rev, classLabel);
+        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.navBarCell1Rev, contents.classLabel);
         return li;
     }
 
@@ -134,7 +134,7 @@
      */
     @Override
     protected Content getNavLinkClassUse() {
-        Content linkContent = getHyperLink(DocPaths.CLASS_USE.resolve(filename), useLabel);
+        Content linkContent = getHyperLink(DocPaths.CLASS_USE.resolve(filename), contents.useLabel);
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(linkContent);
         return li;
     }
@@ -150,11 +150,11 @@
         if (prev != null) {
             Content prevLink = getLink(new LinkInfoImpl(configuration,
                     LinkInfoImpl.Kind.CLASS, utils.asTypeElement(prev))
-                    .label(prevclassLabel).strong(true));
+                    .label(contents.prevClassLabel).strong(true));
             li = HtmlTree.LI(prevLink);
         }
         else
-            li = HtmlTree.LI(prevclassLabel);
+            li = HtmlTree.LI(contents.prevClassLabel);
         return li;
     }
 
@@ -169,11 +169,11 @@
         if (next != null) {
             Content nextLink = getLink(new LinkInfoImpl(configuration,
                     LinkInfoImpl.Kind.CLASS, utils.asTypeElement(next))
-                    .label(nextclassLabel).strong(true));
+                    .label(contents.nextClassLabel).strong(true));
             li = HtmlTree.LI(nextLink);
         }
         else
-            li = HtmlTree.LI(nextclassLabel);
+            li = HtmlTree.LI(contents.nextClassLabel);
         return li;
     }
 
@@ -320,13 +320,13 @@
         List<? extends DocTree> deprs = utils.getBlockTags(annotationType, DocTree.Kind.DEPRECATED);
         if (utils.isDeprecated(annotationType)) {
             CommentHelper ch = utils.getCommentHelper(annotationType);
-            Content deprLabel = HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.deprecatedLabel, deprecatedPhrase);
+            Content deprLabel = HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.deprecatedLabel, contents.deprecatedPhrase);
             Content div = HtmlTree.DIV(HtmlStyle.block, deprLabel);
             if (!deprs.isEmpty()) {
 
                 List<? extends DocTree> commentTags = ch.getDescription(configuration, deprs.get(0));
                 if (!commentTags.isEmpty()) {
-                    div.addContent(getSpace());
+                    div.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
                     addInlineDeprecatedComment(annotationType, deprs.get(0), div);
                 }
             }
@@ -340,7 +340,7 @@
     @Override
     protected Content getNavLinkTree() {
         Content treeLinkContent = getHyperLink(DocPaths.PACKAGE_TREE,
-                treeLabel, "", "");
+                contents.treeLabel, "", "");
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(treeLinkContent);
         return li;
     }
@@ -368,8 +368,8 @@
      * @throws java.lang.Exception
      */
     protected Content getNavSummaryLinks() throws Exception {
-        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(summaryLabel);
-        li.addContent(getSpace());
+        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(contents.summaryLabel);
+        li.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
         Content ulNav = HtmlTree.UL(HtmlStyle.subNavList, li);
         MemberSummaryBuilder memberSummaryBuilder = (MemberSummaryBuilder)
                 configuration.getBuilderFactory().getMemberSummaryBuilder(this);
@@ -406,7 +406,7 @@
         AbstractMemberWriter writer = ((AbstractMemberWriter) builder.
                 getMemberSummaryWriter(type));
         if (writer == null) {
-            liNav.addContent(getResource(label));
+            liNav.addContent(contents.getContent(label));
         } else {
             liNav.addContent(writer.getNavSummaryLink(null,
                     ! builder.getVisibleMemberMap(type).noVisibleMembers()));
@@ -420,8 +420,8 @@
      * @throws java.lang.Exception
      */
     protected Content getNavDetailLinks() throws Exception {
-        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(detailLabel);
-        li.addContent(getSpace());
+        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(contents.detailLabel);
+        li.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
         Content ulNav = HtmlTree.UL(HtmlStyle.subNavList, li);
         MemberSummaryBuilder memberSummaryBuilder = (MemberSummaryBuilder)
                 configuration.getBuilderFactory().getMemberSummaryBuilder(this);
@@ -438,7 +438,7 @@
         if (writerField != null) {
             writerField.addNavDetailLink(!utils.getAnnotationFields(annotationType).isEmpty(), liNavField);
         } else {
-            liNavField.addContent(getResource("doclet.navField"));
+            liNavField.addContent(contents.navField);
         }
         addNavGap(liNavField);
         ulNav.addContent(liNavField);
@@ -451,7 +451,7 @@
             writerRequired.addNavDetailLink(!annotationType.getAnnotationMirrors().isEmpty(), liNavReq);
             ulNav.addContent(liNavReq);
         } else {
-            Content liNav = HtmlTree.LI(getResource("doclet.navAnnotationTypeMember"));
+            Content liNav = HtmlTree.LI(contents.navAnnotationTypeMember);
             ulNav.addContent(liNav);
         }
         return ulNav;
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/ClassUseWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/ClassUseWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -47,6 +47,7 @@
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.HtmlTree;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.StringContent;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Content;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Messages;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.ClassTree;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.ClassUseMapper;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPath;
@@ -226,11 +227,10 @@
         try {
             clsgen = new ClassUseWriter(configuration, mapper, path, typeElement);
             clsgen.generateClassUseFile();
-            clsgen.close();
         } catch (IOException exc) {
-            configuration.standardmessage.
-                error("doclet.exception_encountered",
-                      exc.toString(), path.getPath());
+            Messages messages = configuration.getMessages();
+            messages.error("doclet.exception_encountered",
+                    exc.toString(), path.getPath());
             throw new DocletAbortException(exc);
         }
     }
@@ -245,7 +245,7 @@
         if (pkgSet.size() > 0) {
             addClassUse(div);
         } else {
-            div.addContent(getResource("doclet.ClassUse_No.usage.of.0",
+            div.addContent(contents.getContent("doclet.ClassUse_No.usage.of.0",
                     utils.getFullyQualifiedName(typeElement)));
         }
         if (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.MAIN)) {
@@ -287,7 +287,7 @@
      * @param contentTree the content tree to which the packages elements will be added
      */
     protected void addPackageList(Content contentTree) throws IOException {
-        Content caption = getTableCaption(configuration.getResource(
+        Content caption = getTableCaption(configuration.getContent(
                 "doclet.ClassUse_Packages.that.use.0",
                 getLink(new LinkInfoImpl(configuration,
                         LinkInfoImpl.Kind.CLASS_USE_HEADER, typeElement))));
@@ -320,7 +320,7 @@
                 pkgToPackageAnnotations.isEmpty()) {
             return;
         }
-        Content caption = getTableCaption(configuration.getResource(
+        Content caption = getTableCaption(configuration.getContent(
                 "doclet.ClassUse_PackageAnnotation",
                 getLink(new LinkInfoImpl(configuration,
                         LinkInfoImpl.Kind.CLASS_USE_HEADER, typeElement))));
@@ -360,10 +360,10 @@
             HtmlTree htmlTree = (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.SECTION))
                     ? HtmlTree.SECTION(markerAnchor)
                     : HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.blockList, markerAnchor);
-            Content link = getResource("doclet.ClassUse_Uses.of.0.in.1",
-                                       getLink(new LinkInfoImpl(configuration, LinkInfoImpl.Kind.CLASS_USE_HEADER,
-                                                                typeElement)),
-                                       getPackageLink(pkg, utils.getPackageName(pkg)));
+            Content link = contents.getContent("doclet.ClassUse_Uses.of.0.in.1",
+                    getLink(new LinkInfoImpl(configuration, LinkInfoImpl.Kind.CLASS_USE_HEADER,
+                            typeElement)),
+                    getPackageLink(pkg, utils.getPackageName(pkg)));
             Content heading = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.SUMMARY_HEADING, link);
             htmlTree.addContent(heading);
             addClassUse(pkg, htmlTree);
@@ -404,67 +404,67 @@
             LinkInfoImpl.Kind.CLASS_USE_HEADER, typeElement));
         Content pkgLink = getPackageLink(pkg, utils.getPackageName(pkg));
         classSubWriter.addUseInfo(pkgToClassAnnotations.get(pkg),
-                configuration.getResource("doclet.ClassUse_Annotation", classLink,
+                configuration.getContent("doclet.ClassUse_Annotation", classLink,
                 pkgLink), classUseTableSummary, contentTree);
         classSubWriter.addUseInfo(pkgToClassTypeParameter.get(pkg),
-                configuration.getResource("doclet.ClassUse_TypeParameter", classLink,
+                configuration.getContent("doclet.ClassUse_TypeParameter", classLink,
                 pkgLink), classUseTableSummary, contentTree);
         classSubWriter.addUseInfo(pkgToSubclass.get(pkg),
-                configuration.getResource("doclet.ClassUse_Subclass", classLink,
+                configuration.getContent("doclet.ClassUse_Subclass", classLink,
                 pkgLink), subclassUseTableSummary, contentTree);
         classSubWriter.addUseInfo(pkgToSubinterface.get(pkg),
-                configuration.getResource("doclet.ClassUse_Subinterface", classLink,
+                configuration.getContent("doclet.ClassUse_Subinterface", classLink,
                 pkgLink), subinterfaceUseTableSummary, contentTree);
         classSubWriter.addUseInfo(pkgToImplementingClass.get(pkg),
-                configuration.getResource("doclet.ClassUse_ImplementingClass", classLink,
+                configuration.getContent("doclet.ClassUse_ImplementingClass", classLink,
                 pkgLink), classUseTableSummary, contentTree);
         fieldSubWriter.addUseInfo(pkgToField.get(pkg),
-                configuration.getResource("doclet.ClassUse_Field", classLink,
+                configuration.getContent("doclet.ClassUse_Field", classLink,
                 pkgLink), fieldUseTableSummary, contentTree);
         fieldSubWriter.addUseInfo(pkgToFieldAnnotations.get(pkg),
-                configuration.getResource("doclet.ClassUse_FieldAnnotations", classLink,
+                configuration.getContent("doclet.ClassUse_FieldAnnotations", classLink,
                 pkgLink), fieldUseTableSummary, contentTree);
         fieldSubWriter.addUseInfo(pkgToFieldTypeParameter.get(pkg),
-                configuration.getResource("doclet.ClassUse_FieldTypeParameter", classLink,
+                configuration.getContent("doclet.ClassUse_FieldTypeParameter", classLink,
                 pkgLink), fieldUseTableSummary, contentTree);
         methodSubWriter.addUseInfo(pkgToMethodAnnotations.get(pkg),
-                configuration.getResource("doclet.ClassUse_MethodAnnotations", classLink,
+                configuration.getContent("doclet.ClassUse_MethodAnnotations", classLink,
                 pkgLink), methodUseTableSummary, contentTree);
         methodSubWriter.addUseInfo(pkgToMethodParameterAnnotations.get(pkg),
-                configuration.getResource("doclet.ClassUse_MethodParameterAnnotations", classLink,
+                configuration.getContent("doclet.ClassUse_MethodParameterAnnotations", classLink,
                 pkgLink), methodUseTableSummary, contentTree);
         methodSubWriter.addUseInfo(pkgToMethodTypeParameter.get(pkg),
-                configuration.getResource("doclet.ClassUse_MethodTypeParameter", classLink,
+                configuration.getContent("doclet.ClassUse_MethodTypeParameter", classLink,
                 pkgLink), methodUseTableSummary, contentTree);
         methodSubWriter.addUseInfo(pkgToMethodReturn.get(pkg),
-                configuration.getResource("doclet.ClassUse_MethodReturn", classLink,
+                configuration.getContent("doclet.ClassUse_MethodReturn", classLink,
                 pkgLink), methodUseTableSummary, contentTree);
         methodSubWriter.addUseInfo(pkgToMethodReturnTypeParameter.get(pkg),
-                configuration.getResource("doclet.ClassUse_MethodReturnTypeParameter", classLink,
+                configuration.getContent("doclet.ClassUse_MethodReturnTypeParameter", classLink,
                 pkgLink), methodUseTableSummary, contentTree);
         methodSubWriter.addUseInfo(pkgToMethodArgs.get(pkg),
-                configuration.getResource("doclet.ClassUse_MethodArgs", classLink,
+                configuration.getContent("doclet.ClassUse_MethodArgs", classLink,
                 pkgLink), methodUseTableSummary, contentTree);
         methodSubWriter.addUseInfo(pkgToMethodArgTypeParameter.get(pkg),
-                configuration.getResource("doclet.ClassUse_MethodArgsTypeParameters", classLink,
+                configuration.getContent("doclet.ClassUse_MethodArgsTypeParameters", classLink,
                 pkgLink), methodUseTableSummary, contentTree);
         methodSubWriter.addUseInfo(pkgToMethodThrows.get(pkg),
-                configuration.getResource("doclet.ClassUse_MethodThrows", classLink,
+                configuration.getContent("doclet.ClassUse_MethodThrows", classLink,
                 pkgLink), methodUseTableSummary, contentTree);
         constrSubWriter.addUseInfo(pkgToConstructorAnnotations.get(pkg),
-                configuration.getResource("doclet.ClassUse_ConstructorAnnotations", classLink,
+                configuration.getContent("doclet.ClassUse_ConstructorAnnotations", classLink,
                 pkgLink), constructorUseTableSummary, contentTree);
         constrSubWriter.addUseInfo(pkgToConstructorParameterAnnotations.get(pkg),
-                configuration.getResource("doclet.ClassUse_ConstructorParameterAnnotations", classLink,
+                configuration.getContent("doclet.ClassUse_ConstructorParameterAnnotations", classLink,
                 pkgLink), constructorUseTableSummary, contentTree);
         constrSubWriter.addUseInfo(pkgToConstructorArgs.get(pkg),
-                configuration.getResource("doclet.ClassUse_ConstructorArgs", classLink,
+                configuration.getContent("doclet.ClassUse_ConstructorArgs", classLink,
                 pkgLink), constructorUseTableSummary, contentTree);
         constrSubWriter.addUseInfo(pkgToConstructorArgTypeParameter.get(pkg),
-                configuration.getResource("doclet.ClassUse_ConstructorArgsTypeParameters", classLink,
+                configuration.getContent("doclet.ClassUse_ConstructorArgsTypeParameters", classLink,
                 pkgLink), constructorUseTableSummary, contentTree);
         constrSubWriter.addUseInfo(pkgToConstructorThrows.get(pkg),
-                configuration.getResource("doclet.ClassUse_ConstructorThrows", classLink,
+                configuration.getContent("doclet.ClassUse_ConstructorThrows", classLink,
                 pkgLink), constructorUseTableSummary, contentTree);
     }
 
@@ -490,7 +490,7 @@
             bodyTree.addContent(htmlTree);
         }
         ContentBuilder headContent = new ContentBuilder();
-        headContent.addContent(getResource("doclet.ClassUse_Title", cltype));
+        headContent.addContent(contents.getContent("doclet.ClassUse_Title", cltype));
         headContent.addContent(new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.BR));
         headContent.addContent(clname);
         Content heading = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.CLASS_PAGE_HEADING,
@@ -512,7 +512,7 @@
     @Override
     protected Content getNavLinkModule() {
         Content linkContent = getModuleLink(utils.elementUtils.getModuleOf(typeElement),
-                moduleLabel);
+                contents.moduleLabel);
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(linkContent);
         return li;
     }
@@ -524,7 +524,7 @@
      */
     protected Content getNavLinkPackage() {
         Content linkContent =
-                getHyperLink(DocPath.parent.resolve(DocPaths.PACKAGE_SUMMARY), packageLabel);
+                getHyperLink(DocPath.parent.resolve(DocPaths.PACKAGE_SUMMARY), contents.packageLabel);
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(linkContent);
         return li;
     }
@@ -548,7 +548,7 @@
      * @return a content tree for the use link
      */
     protected Content getNavLinkClassUse() {
-        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.navBarCell1Rev, useLabel);
+        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.navBarCell1Rev, contents.useLabel);
         return li;
     }
 
@@ -559,8 +559,8 @@
      */
     protected Content getNavLinkTree() {
         Content linkContent = utils.isEnclosingPackageIncluded(typeElement)
-                ? getHyperLink(DocPath.parent.resolve(DocPaths.PACKAGE_TREE), treeLabel)
-                : getHyperLink(pathToRoot.resolve(DocPaths.OVERVIEW_TREE), treeLabel);
+                ? getHyperLink(DocPath.parent.resolve(DocPaths.PACKAGE_TREE), contents.treeLabel)
+                : getHyperLink(pathToRoot.resolve(DocPaths.OVERVIEW_TREE), contents.treeLabel);
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(linkContent);
         return li;
     }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/ClassWriterImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/ClassWriterImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -112,7 +112,7 @@
     @Override
     protected Content getNavLinkModule() {
         Content linkContent = getModuleLink(utils.elementUtils.getModuleOf(typeElement),
-                moduleLabel);
+                contents.moduleLabel);
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(linkContent);
         return li;
     }
@@ -125,7 +125,7 @@
     @Override
     protected Content getNavLinkPackage() {
         Content linkContent = getHyperLink(DocPaths.PACKAGE_SUMMARY,
-                packageLabel);
+                contents.packageLabel);
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(linkContent);
         return li;
     }
@@ -137,7 +137,7 @@
      */
     @Override
     protected Content getNavLinkClass() {
-        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.navBarCell1Rev, classLabel);
+        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.navBarCell1Rev, contents.classLabel);
         return li;
     }
 
@@ -148,7 +148,7 @@
      */
     @Override
     protected Content getNavLinkClassUse() {
-        Content linkContent = getHyperLink(DocPaths.CLASS_USE.resolve(filename), useLabel);
+        Content linkContent = getHyperLink(DocPaths.CLASS_USE.resolve(filename), contents.useLabel);
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(linkContent);
         return li;
     }
@@ -164,11 +164,11 @@
         if (prev != null) {
             Content prevLink = getLink(new LinkInfoImpl(configuration,
                     LinkInfoImpl.Kind.CLASS, prev)
-                    .label(prevclassLabel).strong(true));
+                    .label(contents.prevClassLabel).strong(true));
             li = HtmlTree.LI(prevLink);
         }
         else
-            li = HtmlTree.LI(prevclassLabel);
+            li = HtmlTree.LI(contents.prevClassLabel);
         return li;
     }
 
@@ -183,11 +183,11 @@
         if (next != null) {
             Content nextLink = getLink(new LinkInfoImpl(configuration,
                     LinkInfoImpl.Kind.CLASS, next)
-                    .label(nextclassLabel).strong(true));
+                    .label(contents.nextClassLabel).strong(true));
             li = HtmlTree.LI(nextLink);
         }
         else
-            li = HtmlTree.LI(nextclassLabel);
+            li = HtmlTree.LI(contents.nextClassLabel);
         return li;
     }
 
@@ -210,18 +210,18 @@
         div.addStyle(HtmlStyle.header);
         ModuleElement mdle = configuration.docEnv.getElementUtils().getModuleOf(typeElement);
         if (mdle != null && !mdle.isUnnamed()) {
-            Content classModuleLabel = HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.moduleLabelInClass, moduleLabel);
+            Content classModuleLabel = HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.moduleLabelInClass, contents.moduleLabel);
             Content moduleNameDiv = HtmlTree.DIV(HtmlStyle.subTitle, classModuleLabel);
-            moduleNameDiv.addContent(getSpace());
+            moduleNameDiv.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
             moduleNameDiv.addContent(getModuleLink(mdle,
                     new StringContent(mdle.getQualifiedName().toString())));
             div.addContent(moduleNameDiv);
         }
         PackageElement pkg = utils.containingPackage(typeElement);
         if (!pkg.isUnnamed()) {
-            Content classPackageLabel = HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.packageLabelInClass, packageLabel);
+            Content classPackageLabel = HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.packageLabelInClass, contents.packageLabel);
             Content pkgNameDiv = HtmlTree.DIV(HtmlStyle.subTitle, classPackageLabel);
-            pkgNameDiv.addContent(getSpace());
+            pkgNameDiv.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
             Content pkgNameContent = getPackageLink(pkg,
                     new StringContent(utils.getPackageName(pkg)));
             pkgNameDiv.addContent(pkgNameContent);
@@ -469,8 +469,7 @@
             }
             Set<TypeElement> subclasses = classtree.directSubClasses(typeElement, false);
             if (!subclasses.isEmpty()) {
-                Content label = getResource(
-                        "doclet.Subclasses");
+                Content label = contents.subclassesLabel;
                 Content dt = HtmlTree.DT(label);
                 Content dl = HtmlTree.DL(dt);
                 dl.addContent(getClassLinks(LinkInfoImpl.Kind.SUBCLASSES,
@@ -488,8 +487,7 @@
         if (utils.isInterface(typeElement)) {
             Set<TypeElement> subInterfaces = classtree.allSubClasses(typeElement, false);
             if (!subInterfaces.isEmpty()) {
-                Content label = getResource(
-                        "doclet.Subinterfaces");
+                Content label = contents.subinterfacesLabel;
                 Content dt = HtmlTree.DT(label);
                 Content dl = HtmlTree.DL(dt);
                 dl.addContent(getClassLinks(LinkInfoImpl.Kind.SUBINTERFACES,
@@ -513,8 +511,7 @@
         }
         Set<TypeElement> implcl = classtree.implementingClasses(typeElement);
         if (!implcl.isEmpty()) {
-            Content label = getResource(
-                    "doclet.Implementing_Classes");
+            Content label = contents.implementingClassesLabel;
             Content dt = HtmlTree.DT(label);
             Content dl = HtmlTree.DL(dt);
             dl.addContent(getClassLinks(LinkInfoImpl.Kind.IMPLEMENTED_CLASSES,
@@ -531,8 +528,7 @@
         SortedSet<TypeMirror> interfaces = new TreeSet<>(utils.makeTypeMirrorClassUseComparator());
         interfaces.addAll(utils.getAllInterfaces(typeElement));
         if (utils.isClass(typeElement) && !interfaces.isEmpty()) {
-            Content label = getResource(
-                    "doclet.All_Implemented_Interfaces");
+            Content label = contents.allImplementedInterfacesLabel;
             Content dt = HtmlTree.DT(label);
             Content dl = HtmlTree.DL(dt);
             dl.addContent(getClassLinks(LinkInfoImpl.Kind.IMPLEMENTED_INTERFACES, interfaces));
@@ -550,7 +546,7 @@
         interfaces.addAll(utils.getAllInterfaces(typeElement));
 
         if (utils.isInterface(typeElement) && !interfaces.isEmpty()) {
-            Content label = getResource("doclet.All_Superinterfaces");
+            Content label = contents.allSuperinterfacesLabel;
             Content dt = HtmlTree.DT(label);
             Content dl = HtmlTree.DL(dt);
             dl.addContent(getClassLinks(LinkInfoImpl.Kind.SUPER_INTERFACES, interfaces));
@@ -569,10 +565,10 @@
         new SimpleElementVisitor8<Void, Void>() {
             @Override @DefinedBy(Api.LANGUAGE_MODEL)
             public Void visitType(TypeElement e, Void p) {
-                String label = utils.isInterface(e)
-                        ? "doclet.Enclosing_Interface"
-                        : "doclet.Enclosing_Class";
-                Content dt = HtmlTree.DT(getResource(label));
+                Content label = utils.isInterface(e)
+                        ? contents.enclosingInterfaceLabel
+                        : contents.enclosingClassLabel;
+                Content dt = HtmlTree.DT(label);
                 Content dl = HtmlTree.DL(dt);
                 Content dd = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.DD);
                 dd.addContent(getLink(new LinkInfoImpl(configuration,
@@ -590,10 +586,10 @@
     @Override
     public void addFunctionalInterfaceInfo (Content classInfoTree) {
         if (isFunctionalInterface()) {
-            Content dt = HtmlTree.DT(getResource("doclet.Functional_Interface"));
+            Content dt = HtmlTree.DT(contents.functionalInterface);
             Content dl = HtmlTree.DL(dt);
             Content dd = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.DD);
-            dd.addContent(getResource("doclet.Functional_Interface_Message"));
+            dd.addContent(contents.functionalInterfaceMessage);
             dl.addContent(dd);
             classInfoTree.addContent(dl);
         }
@@ -619,14 +615,14 @@
         classInfoTree.addContent(hr);
         List<? extends DocTree> deprs = utils.getBlockTags(typeElement, DocTree.Kind.DEPRECATED);
         if (utils.isDeprecated(typeElement)) {
-            Content deprLabel = HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.deprecatedLabel, deprecatedPhrase);
+            Content deprLabel = HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.deprecatedLabel, contents.deprecatedPhrase);
             Content div = HtmlTree.DIV(HtmlStyle.block, deprLabel);
             if (!deprs.isEmpty()) {
                 CommentHelper ch = utils.getCommentHelper(typeElement);
                 DocTree dt = deprs.get(0);
                 List<? extends DocTree> commentTags = ch.getBody(configuration, dt);
                 if (!commentTags.isEmpty()) {
-                    div.addContent(getSpace());
+                    div.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
                     addInlineDeprecatedComment(typeElement, deprs.get(0), div);
                 }
             }
@@ -671,7 +667,7 @@
     @Override
     protected Content getNavLinkTree() {
         Content treeLinkContent = getHyperLink(DocPaths.PACKAGE_TREE,
-                treeLabel, "", "");
+                contents.treeLabel, "", "");
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(treeLinkContent);
         return li;
     }
@@ -697,8 +693,8 @@
      * @return the content tree for the navigation summary links
      */
     protected Content getNavSummaryLinks() throws Exception {
-        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(summaryLabel);
-        li.addContent(getSpace());
+        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(contents.summaryLabel);
+        li.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
         Content ulNav = HtmlTree.UL(HtmlStyle.subNavList, li);
         MemberSummaryBuilder memberSummaryBuilder = (MemberSummaryBuilder)
                 configuration.getBuilderFactory().getMemberSummaryBuilder(this);
@@ -713,7 +709,7 @@
             AbstractMemberWriter writer =
                 ((AbstractMemberWriter) memberSummaryBuilder.getMemberSummaryWriter(kind));
             if (writer == null) {
-                liNav.addContent(getResource(VisibleMemberMap.Kind.getNavLinkLabels(kind)));
+                liNav.addContent(contents.getContent(VisibleMemberMap.Kind.getNavLinkLabels(kind)));
             } else {
                 writer.addNavSummaryLink(
                         memberSummaryBuilder.members(kind),
@@ -734,8 +730,8 @@
      * @throws java.lang.Exception
      */
     protected Content getNavDetailLinks() throws Exception {
-        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(detailLabel);
-        li.addContent(getSpace());
+        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(contents.detailLabel);
+        li.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
         Content ulNav = HtmlTree.UL(HtmlStyle.subNavList, li);
         MemberSummaryBuilder memberSummaryBuilder = (MemberSummaryBuilder)
                 configuration.getBuilderFactory().getMemberSummaryBuilder(this);
@@ -751,7 +747,7 @@
                 continue;
             }
             if (writer == null) {
-                liNav.addContent(getResource(VisibleMemberMap.Kind.getNavLinkLabels(kind)));
+                liNav.addContent(contents.getContent(VisibleMemberMap.Kind.getNavLinkLabels(kind)));
             } else {
                 writer.addNavDetailLink(memberSummaryBuilder.members(kind), liNav);
             }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/ConfigurationImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/ConfigurationImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -40,23 +40,22 @@
 
 import com.sun.source.util.DocTreePath;
 import com.sun.tools.doclint.DocLint;
-import com.sun.tools.javac.code.Symbol.ClassSymbol;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.code.Symbol.ModuleSymbol;
 import com.sun.tools.javac.code.Symbol.PackageSymbol;
 
 import jdk.javadoc.doclet.Doclet;
 import jdk.javadoc.doclet.DocletEnvironment;
-import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.ContentBuilder;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.HtmlTag;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.HtmlVersion;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Configuration;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Content;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Messages;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Resources;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.WriterFactory;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocFile;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPath;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPaths;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocletAbortException;
-import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.MessageRetriever;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.Utils;
 
 import static javax.tools.Diagnostic.Kind.*;
@@ -208,10 +207,7 @@
      */
     public Map<Doclet.Option, String> doclintOpts = new LinkedHashMap<>();
 
-    /**
-     * Unique Resource Handler for this package.
-     */
-    public final MessageRetriever standardmessage;
+    public final Resources resources;
 
     /**
      * First file to appear in the right-hand frame in the generated
@@ -236,13 +232,21 @@
 
     protected Set<Character> tagSearchIndexKeys;
 
+    protected Contents contents;
+
+    protected Messages messages;
+
     /**
      * Constructor. Initializes resource for the
      * {@link com.sun.tools.doclets.internal.toolkit.util.MessageRetriever MessageRetriever}.
      */
     public ConfigurationImpl() {
-        standardmessage = new MessageRetriever(this,
-            "jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.resources.standard");
+        resources = new Resources(this,
+                Configuration.sharedResourceBundleName,
+                "jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.resources.standard");
+
+        messages = new Messages(this);
+        contents = new Contents(this);
     }
 
     private final String versionRBName = "jdk.javadoc.internal.tool.resources.version";
@@ -269,6 +273,16 @@
         }
     }
 
+    @Override
+    public Resources getResources() {
+        return resources;
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public Messages getMessages() {
+        return messages;
+    }
+
     protected boolean validateOptions() {
         // check shared options
         if (!generalValidOptions()) {
@@ -393,14 +407,6 @@
     }
 
     /**
-     * {@inheritDoc}
-     */
-    @Override
-    public MessageRetriever getDocletSpecificMsg() {
-        return standardmessage;
-    }
-
-    /**
      * Decide the page which will appear first in the right-hand frame. It will
      * be "overview-summary.html" if "-overview" option is used or no
      * "-overview" but the number of packages is more than one. It will be
@@ -479,10 +485,11 @@
     }
 
     /**
-     * Return the path of the overview file and null if it does not exist.
+     * Return the path of the overview file or null if it does not exist.
      *
-     * @return the path of the overview file and null if it does not exist.
+     * @return the path of the overview file or null if it does not exist.
      */
+    @Override
     public JavaFileObject getOverviewPath() {
         if (overviewpath != null && getFileManager() instanceof StandardJavaFileManager) {
             StandardJavaFileManager fm = (StandardJavaFileManager) getFileManager();
@@ -510,11 +517,64 @@
     }
 
     @Override
-    public Content newContent() {
-        return new ContentBuilder();
+    public String getText(String key) {
+        return resources.getText(key);
     }
 
     @Override
+    public String getText(String key, String... args) {
+        return resources.getText(key, (Object[]) args);
+    }
+
+   /**
+     * {@inheritdoc}
+     */
+    @Override
+    public Content getContent(String key) {
+        return contents.getContent(key);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Get the configuration string as a content.
+     *
+     * @param key the key to look for in the configuration file
+     * @param o   string or content argument added to configuration text
+     * @return a content tree for the text
+     */
+    @Override
+    public Content getContent(String key, Object o) {
+        return contents.getContent(key, o);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Get the configuration string as a content.
+     *
+     * @param key the key to look for in the configuration file
+     * @param o1 resource argument
+     * @param o2 resource argument
+     * @return a content tree for the text
+     */
+    @Override
+    public Content getContent(String key, Object o1, Object o2) {
+        return contents.getContent(key, o1, o2);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Get the configuration string as a content.
+     *
+     * @param key the key to look for in the configuration file
+     * @param o0  string or content argument added to configuration text
+     * @param o1  string or content argument added to configuration text
+     * @param o2  string or content argument added to configuration text
+     * @return a content tree for the text
+     */
+    @Override
+    public Content getContent(String key, Object o0, Object o1, Object o2) {
+        return contents.getContent(key, o0, o1, o2);
+    }
+
+
+    @Override
     public Location getLocationForPackage(PackageElement pd) {
         JavaFileManager fm = getFileManager();
         if (fm.hasLocation(StandardLocation.MODULE_SOURCE_PATH) && (pd instanceof PackageSymbol)) {
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/ConstantsSummaryWriterImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/ConstantsSummaryWriterImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -87,8 +87,7 @@
      * @param configuration the configuration used in this run
      *        of the standard doclet.
      */
-    public ConstantsSummaryWriterImpl(ConfigurationImpl configuration)
-            throws IOException {
+    public ConstantsSummaryWriterImpl(ConfigurationImpl configuration) {
         super(configuration, DocPaths.CONSTANT_VALUES);
         this.configuration = configuration;
         constantsTableSummary = configuration.getText("doclet.Constants_Table_Summary",
@@ -133,7 +132,7 @@
         if (pkg.isUnnamed()) {
             link = getHyperLink(getDocLink(
                     SectionName.UNNAMED_PACKAGE_ANCHOR),
-                    defaultPackageLabel, "", "");
+                    contents.defaultPackageLabel, "", "");
         } else {
             String parsedPackageName = utils.parsePackageName(pkg);
             Content packageNameContent = getPackageLabel(parsedPackageName);
@@ -150,13 +149,11 @@
      * {@inheritDoc}
      */
     public void addContentsList(Content contentTree, Content contentListTree) {
-        Content titleContent = getResource(
-                "doclet.Constants_Summary");
+        Content titleContent = contents.constantsSummaryTitle;
         Content pHeading = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.TITLE_HEADING, true,
                 HtmlStyle.title, titleContent);
         Content div = HtmlTree.DIV(HtmlStyle.header, pHeading);
-        Content headingContent = getResource(
-                "doclet.Contents");
+        Content headingContent = contents.contentsHeading;
         Content heading = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.CONTENT_HEADING, true,
                 headingContent);
         if (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.SECTION)) {
@@ -191,7 +188,7 @@
         if (pkg.isUnnamed()) {
             summariesTree.addContent(getMarkerAnchor(
                     SectionName.UNNAMED_PACKAGE_ANCHOR));
-            pkgNameContent = defaultPackageLabel;
+            pkgNameContent = contents.defaultPackageLabel;
         } else {
             String parsedPackageName = utils.parsePackageName(pkg);
             summariesTree.addContent(getMarkerAnchor(parsedPackageName));
@@ -315,7 +312,7 @@
         for (Modifier mod : member.getModifiers()) {
             Content modifier = new StringContent(mod.toString());
             code.addContent(modifier);
-            code.addContent(getSpace());
+            code.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
         }
         Content type = getLink(new LinkInfoImpl(configuration,
                 LinkInfoImpl.Kind.CONSTANT_SUMMARY, member.asType()));
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/ConstructorWriterImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/ConstructorWriterImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -119,7 +119,7 @@
         constructorDetailsTree.addContent(writer.getMarkerAnchor(
                 SectionName.CONSTRUCTOR_DETAIL));
         Content heading = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.DETAILS_HEADING,
-                writer.constructorDetailsLabel);
+                contents.constructorDetailsLabel);
         constructorDetailsTree.addContent(heading);
         return constructorDetailsTree;
     }
@@ -221,14 +221,6 @@
     }
 
     /**
-     * Close the writer.
-     */
-    @Override
-    public void close() throws IOException {
-        writer.close();
-    }
-
-    /**
      * Let the writer know whether a non public constructor was found.
      *
      * @param foundNonPubConstructor true if we found a non public constructor.
@@ -244,7 +236,7 @@
     @Override
     public void addSummaryLabel(Content memberTree) {
         Content label = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.SUMMARY_HEADING,
-                writer.getResource("doclet.Constructor_Summary"));
+                contents.constructorSummaryLabel);
         memberTree.addContent(label);
     }
 
@@ -253,9 +245,9 @@
      */
     @Override
     public String getTableSummary() {
-        return configuration.getText("doclet.Member_Table_Summary",
-                configuration.getText("doclet.Constructor_Summary"),
-                configuration.getText("doclet.constructors"));
+        return resources.getText("doclet.Member_Table_Summary",
+                resources.getText("doclet.Constructor_Summary"),
+                resources.getText("doclet.constructors"));
     }
 
     /**
@@ -263,7 +255,7 @@
      */
     @Override
     public Content getCaption() {
-        return configuration.getResource("doclet.Constructors");
+        return contents.constructors;
     }
 
     /**
@@ -273,11 +265,11 @@
     public List<String> getSummaryTableHeader(Element member) {
         List<String> header = new ArrayList<>();
         if (foundNonPubConstructor) {
-            header.add(configuration.getText("doclet.Modifier"));
+            header.add(resources.getText("doclet.Modifier"));
         }
-        header.add(configuration.getText("doclet.0_and_1",
-                configuration.getText("doclet.Constructor"),
-                configuration.getText("doclet.Description")));
+        header.add(resources.getText("doclet.0_and_1",
+                resources.getText("doclet.Constructor"),
+                resources.getText("doclet.Description")));
         return header;
     }
 
@@ -311,9 +303,9 @@
     protected Content getNavSummaryLink(TypeElement typeElement, boolean link) {
         if (link) {
             return writer.getHyperLink(SectionName.CONSTRUCTOR_SUMMARY,
-                    writer.getResource("doclet.navConstructor"));
+                    contents.navConstructor);
         } else {
-            return writer.getResource("doclet.navConstructor");
+            return contents.navConstructor;
         }
     }
 
@@ -325,9 +317,9 @@
         if (link) {
             liNav.addContent(writer.getHyperLink(
                     SectionName.CONSTRUCTOR_DETAIL,
-                    writer.getResource("doclet.navConstructor")));
+                    contents.navConstructor));
         } else {
-            liNav.addContent(writer.getResource("doclet.navConstructor"));
+            liNav.addContent(contents.navConstructor);
         }
     }
 
@@ -343,7 +335,7 @@
             } else if (utils.isPrivate(member)) {
                 code.addContent("private ");
             } else if (utils.isPublic(member)) {
-                code.addContent(writer.getSpace());
+                code.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
             } else {
                 code.addContent(
                         configuration.getText("doclet.Package_private"));
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/Contents.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -0,0 +1,369 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 1998, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+ *
+ * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+ * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
+ * particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
+ * by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
+ *
+ * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+ * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+ * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
+ * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+ * accompanied this code).
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+ * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+ * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+ *
+ * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
+ * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
+ * questions.
+ */
+
+package jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html;
+
+import java.util.regex.Matcher;
+import java.util.regex.Pattern;
+
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.ContentBuilder;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.FixedStringContent;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.RawHtml;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.StringContent;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Content;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Resources;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocletConstants;
+
+/**
+ * Constants and factory methods for common fragments of content
+ * used by HtmlDoclet. The string content of these fragments is
+ * generally obtained from the {@link Resources resources} found
+ * in the doclet's configuration.
+ *
+ * @implNote
+ * Many constants are made available in this class, so that they are
+ * only created once per doclet-instance, instead of once per generated page.
+ */
+public class Contents {
+    public static final Content SPACE = RawHtml.nbsp;
+
+    public final Content allClassesLabel;
+    public final Content allImplementedInterfacesLabel;
+    public final Content allModulesLabel;
+    public final Content allPackagesLabel;
+    public final Content allSuperinterfacesLabel;
+    public final Content also;
+    public final Content annotateTypeOptionalMemberSummaryLabel;
+    public final Content annotateTypeRequiredMemberSummaryLabel;
+    public final Content annotationType;
+    public final Content annotationTypeDetailsLabel;
+    public final Content annotationTypeMemberDetail;
+    public final Content annotationTypes;
+    public final Content classLabel;
+    public final Content classes;
+    public final Content constantsSummaryTitle;
+    public final Content constructorDetailsLabel;
+    public final Content constructorSummaryLabel;
+    public final Content constructors;
+    public final Content contentsHeading;
+    public final Content defaultPackageLabel;
+    public final Content default_;
+    public final Content deprecatedAPI;
+    public final Content deprecatedLabel;
+    public final Content deprecatedPhrase;
+    public final Content descfrmClassLabel;
+    public final Content descfrmInterfaceLabel;
+    public final Content descriptionLabel;
+    public final Content detailLabel;
+    public final Content enclosingClassLabel;
+    public final Content enclosingInterfaceLabel;
+    public final Content enumConstantDetailLabel;
+    public final Content enumConstantSummary;
+    public final Content enum_;
+    public final Content enums;
+    public final Content errors;
+    public final Content exceptions;
+    public final Content fieldDetailsLabel;
+    public final Content fieldSummaryLabel;
+    public final Content fields;
+    public final Content framesLabel;
+    public final Content functionalInterface;
+    public final Content functionalInterfaceMessage;
+    public final Content helpLabel;
+    public final Content hierarchyForAllPackages;
+    public final Content implementation;
+    public final Content implementingClassesLabel;
+    public final Content inClass;
+    public final Content inInterface;
+    public final Content indexLabel;
+    public final Content interfaces;
+    public final Content interfacesItalic;
+    public final Content methodDetailLabel;
+    public final Content methodSummary;
+    public final Content methods;
+    public final Content moduleLabel;
+    public final Content moduleSubNavLabel;
+    public final Content modulesLabel;
+    public final Content navAnnotationTypeMember;
+    public final Content navAnnotationTypeOptionalMember;
+    public final Content navAnnotationTypeRequiredMember;
+    public final Content navConstructor;
+    public final Content navEnum;
+    public final Content navField;
+    public final Content navMethod;
+    public final Content navModuleDescription;
+    public final Content navModules;
+    public final Content navNested;
+    public final Content navPackages;
+    public final Content navProperty;
+    public final Content navServices;
+    public final Content nestedClassSummary;
+    public final Content nextClassLabel;
+    public final Content nextLabel;
+    public final Content nextLetter;
+    public final Content nextModuleLabel;
+    public final Content nextPackageLabel;
+    public final Content noFramesLabel;
+    public final Content noScriptMessage;
+    public final Content overridesLabel;
+    public final Content overviewLabel;
+    public final Content packageHierarchies;
+    public final Content packageLabel;
+    public final Content package_;
+    public final Content packagesLabel;
+    public final Content prevClassLabel;
+    public final Content prevLabel;
+    public final Content prevLetter;
+    public final Content prevModuleLabel;
+    public final Content prevPackageLabel;
+    public final Content properties;
+    public final Content propertyDetailsLabel;
+    public final Content propertySummary;
+    public final Content seeLabel;
+    public final Content serializedForm;
+    public final Content specifiedByLabel;
+    public final Content subclassesLabel;
+    public final Content subinterfacesLabel;
+    public final Content summaryLabel;
+    public final Content treeLabel;
+    public final Content useLabel;
+
+    private final Resources resources;
+
+    /**
+     * Creates a {@code Contents} object.
+     *
+     * @param configuration the configuration in which to find the
+     * resources used to look up resource keys, and other details.
+     */
+    Contents(ConfigurationImpl configuration) {
+        this.resources = configuration.getResources();
+
+        allClassesLabel = getNonBreakContent("doclet.All_Classes");
+        allImplementedInterfacesLabel = getContent("doclet.All_Implemented_Interfaces");
+        allModulesLabel = getNonBreakContent("doclet.All_Modules");
+        allPackagesLabel = getNonBreakContent("doclet.All_Packages");
+        allSuperinterfacesLabel = getContent("doclet.All_Superinterfaces");
+        also = getContent("doclet.also");
+        annotateTypeOptionalMemberSummaryLabel = getContent("doclet.Annotation_Type_Optional_Member_Summary");
+        annotateTypeRequiredMemberSummaryLabel = getContent("doclet.Annotation_Type_Required_Member_Summary");
+        annotationType = getContent("doclet.AnnotationType");
+        annotationTypeDetailsLabel = getContent("doclet.Annotation_Type_Member_Detail");
+        annotationTypeMemberDetail = getContent("doclet.Annotation_Type_Member_Detail");
+        annotationTypes = getContent("doclet.AnnotationTypes");
+        classLabel = getContent("doclet.Class");
+        classes = getContent("doclet.Classes");
+        constantsSummaryTitle = getContent("doclet.Constants_Summary");
+        constructorDetailsLabel = getContent("doclet.Constructor_Detail");
+        constructorSummaryLabel = getContent("doclet.Constructor_Summary");
+        constructors = getContent("doclet.Constructors");
+        contentsHeading = getContent("doclet.Contents");
+        defaultPackageLabel = new StringContent(DocletConstants.DEFAULT_PACKAGE_NAME);
+        default_ = getContent("doclet.Default");
+        deprecatedAPI = getContent("doclet.Deprecated_API");
+        deprecatedLabel = getContent("doclet.navDeprecated");
+        deprecatedPhrase = getContent("doclet.Deprecated");
+        descfrmClassLabel = getContent("doclet.Description_From_Class");
+        descfrmInterfaceLabel = getContent("doclet.Description_From_Interface");
+        descriptionLabel = getContent("doclet.Description");
+        detailLabel = getContent("doclet.Detail");
+        enclosingClassLabel = getContent("doclet.Enclosing_Class");
+        enclosingInterfaceLabel = getContent("doclet.Enclosing_Interface");
+        enumConstantDetailLabel = getContent("doclet.Enum_Constant_Detail");
+        enumConstantSummary = getContent("doclet.Enum_Constant_Summary");
+        enum_ = getContent("doclet.Enum");
+        enums = getContent("doclet.Enums");
+        errors = getContent("doclet.Errors");
+        exceptions = getContent("doclet.Exceptions");
+        fieldDetailsLabel = getContent("doclet.Field_Detail");
+        fieldSummaryLabel = getContent("doclet.Field_Summary");
+        fields = getContent("doclet.Fields");
+        framesLabel = getContent("doclet.Frames");
+        functionalInterface = getContent("doclet.Functional_Interface");
+        functionalInterfaceMessage = getContent("doclet.Functional_Interface_Message");
+        helpLabel = getContent("doclet.Help");
+        hierarchyForAllPackages = getContent("doclet.Hierarchy_For_All_Packages");
+        implementation = getContent("doclet.Implementation");
+        implementingClassesLabel = getContent("doclet.Implementing_Classes");
+        inClass = getContent("doclet.in_class");
+        inInterface = getContent("doclet.in_interface");
+        indexLabel = getContent("doclet.Index");
+        interfaces = getContent("doclet.Interfaces");
+        interfacesItalic = getContent("doclet.Interfaces_Italic");
+        methodDetailLabel = getContent("doclet.Method_Detail");
+        methodSummary = getContent("doclet.Method_Summary");
+        methods = getContent("doclet.Methods");
+        moduleLabel = getContent("doclet.Module");
+        moduleSubNavLabel = getContent("doclet.Module_Sub_Nav");
+        modulesLabel = getContent("doclet.Modules");
+        navAnnotationTypeMember = getContent("doclet.navAnnotationTypeMember");
+        navAnnotationTypeOptionalMember = getContent("doclet.navAnnotationTypeOptionalMember");
+        navAnnotationTypeRequiredMember = getContent("doclet.navAnnotationTypeRequiredMember");
+        navConstructor = getContent("doclet.navConstructor");
+        navEnum = getContent("doclet.navEnum");
+        navField = getContent("doclet.navField");
+        navMethod = getContent("doclet.navMethod");
+        navModuleDescription = getContent("doclet.navModuleDescription");
+        navModules = getContent("doclet.navModules");
+        navNested = getContent("doclet.navNested");
+        navPackages = getContent("doclet.navPackages");
+        navProperty = getContent("doclet.navProperty");
+        navServices = getContent("doclet.navServices");
+        nestedClassSummary = getContent("doclet.Nested_Class_Summary");
+        nextClassLabel = getNonBreakContent("doclet.Next_Class");
+        nextLabel = getNonBreakContent("doclet.Next");
+        nextLetter = getContent("doclet.Next_Letter");
+        nextModuleLabel = getNonBreakContent("doclet.Next_Module");
+        nextPackageLabel = getNonBreakContent("doclet.Next_Package");
+        noFramesLabel = getNonBreakContent("doclet.No_Frames");
+        noScriptMessage = getContent("doclet.No_Script_Message");
+        overridesLabel = getContent("doclet.Overrides");
+        overviewLabel = getContent("doclet.Overview");
+        packageHierarchies = getContent("doclet.Package_Hierarchies");
+        packageLabel = getContent("doclet.Package");
+        package_ = getContent("doclet.package");
+        packagesLabel = getContent("doclet.Packages");
+        prevClassLabel = getNonBreakContent("doclet.Prev_Class");
+        prevLabel = getContent("doclet.Prev");
+        prevLetter = getContent("doclet.Prev_Letter");
+        prevModuleLabel = getNonBreakContent("doclet.Prev_Module");
+        prevPackageLabel = getNonBreakContent("doclet.Prev_Package");
+        properties = getContent("doclet.Properties");
+        propertyDetailsLabel = getContent("doclet.Property_Detail");
+        propertySummary = getContent("doclet.Property_Summary");
+        seeLabel = getContent("doclet.See");
+        serializedForm = getContent("doclet.Serialized_Form");
+        specifiedByLabel = getContent("doclet.Specified_By");
+        subclassesLabel = getContent("doclet.Subclasses");
+        subinterfacesLabel = getContent("doclet.Subinterfaces");
+        summaryLabel = getContent("doclet.Summary");
+        treeLabel = getContent("doclet.Tree");
+        useLabel = getContent("doclet.navClassUse");
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Gets a {@code Content} object, containing the string for
+     * a given key in the doclet's resources.
+     *
+     * @param key the key for the desired string
+     * @return a content tree for the string
+     */
+    public Content getContent(String key) {
+        return new FixedStringContent(resources.getText(key));
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Gets a {@code Content} object, containing the string for
+     * a given key in the doclet's resources, formatted with
+     * given arguments.
+     *
+     * @param key the key to look for in the configuration fil
+     * @param key the key for the desired string
+     * @param o0  string or content argument to be formatted into the result
+     * @return a content tree for the text
+     */
+    public Content getContent(String key, Object o0) {
+        return getContent(key, o0, null, null);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Gets a {@code Content} object, containing the string for
+     * a given key in the doclet's resources, formatted with
+     * given arguments.
+
+     * @param key the key for the desired string
+     * @param o0  string or content argument to be formatted into the result
+     * @param o1  string or content argument to be formatted into the result
+     * @return a content tree for the text
+     */
+    public Content getContent(String key, Object o0, Object o1) {
+        return getContent(key, o0, o1, null);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Gets a {@code Content} object, containing the string for
+     * a given key in the doclet's resources, formatted with
+     * given arguments.
+     *
+     * @param key the key for the desired string
+     * @param o0  string or content argument to be formatted into the result
+     * @param o1  string or content argument to be formatted into the result
+     * @param o2  string or content argument to be formatted into the result
+     * @return a content tree for the text
+     */
+    public Content getContent(String key, Object o0, Object o1, Object o2) {
+        Content c = new ContentBuilder();
+        Pattern p = Pattern.compile("\\{([012])\\}");
+        String text = resources.getText(key); // TODO: cache
+        Matcher m = p.matcher(text);
+        int start = 0;
+        while (m.find(start)) {
+            c.addContent(text.substring(start, m.start()));
+
+            Object o = null;
+            switch (m.group(1).charAt(0)) {
+                case '0': o = o0; break;
+                case '1': o = o1; break;
+                case '2': o = o2; break;
+            }
+
+            if (o == null) {
+                c.addContent("{" + m.group(1) + "}");
+            } else if (o instanceof String) {
+                c.addContent((String) o);
+            } else if (o instanceof Content) {
+                c.addContent((Content) o);
+            }
+
+            start = m.end();
+        }
+
+        c.addContent(text.substring(start));
+        return c;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Gets a {@code Content} object, containing the string for
+     * a given key in the doclet's resources, substituting
+     * <code>&nbsp;</code> for any space characters found in
+     * the named resource string.
+     *
+     * @param key the key for the desired string
+     * @return a content tree for the string
+     */
+    private Content getNonBreakContent(String key) {
+        String text = resources.getText(key); // TODO: cache
+        Content c = new ContentBuilder();
+        int start = 0;
+        int p;
+        while ((p = text.indexOf(" ", start)) != -1) {
+            c.addContent(text.substring(start, p));
+            c.addContent(RawHtml.nbsp);
+            start = p + 1;
+        }
+        c.addContent(text.substring(start));
+        return c; // TODO: should be made immutable
+    }
+}
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/DeprecatedListWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/DeprecatedListWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -35,6 +35,7 @@
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.HtmlTag;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.HtmlTree;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Content;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Messages;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DeprecatedAPIListBuilder;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPath;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPaths;
@@ -243,10 +244,9 @@
                    new DeprecatedListWriter(configuration, filename);
             depr.generateDeprecatedListFile(
                    new DeprecatedAPIListBuilder(configuration));
-            depr.close();
         } catch (IOException exc) {
-            configuration.standardmessage.error(
-                        "doclet.exception_encountered",
+            Messages messages = configuration.getMessages();
+            messages.error("doclet.exception_encountered",
                         exc.toString(), filename);
             throw new DocletAbortException(exc);
         }
@@ -314,7 +314,7 @@
             DeprElementKind kind, Content contentTree) {
         if (builder.hasDocumentation(kind)) {
             Content li = HtmlTree.LI(getHyperLink(getAnchorName(kind),
-                    getResource(getHeadingKey(kind))));
+                    contents.getContent(getHeadingKey(kind))));
             contentTree.addContent(li);
         }
     }
@@ -326,11 +326,11 @@
      * @return a content tree for the contents list
      */
     public Content getContentsList(DeprecatedAPIListBuilder deprapi) {
-        Content headContent = getResource("doclet.Deprecated_API");
+        Content headContent = contents.deprecatedAPI;
         Content heading = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.TITLE_HEADING, true,
                 HtmlStyle.title, headContent);
         Content div = HtmlTree.DIV(HtmlStyle.header, heading);
-        Content headingContent = getResource("doclet.Contents");
+        Content headingContent = contents.contentsHeading;
         div.addContent(HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.CONTENT_HEADING, true,
                 headingContent));
         Content ul = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.UL);
@@ -379,7 +379,7 @@
      * @return a content tree for the deprecated label
      */
     protected Content getNavLinkDeprecated() {
-        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.navBarCell1Rev, deprecatedLabel);
+        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.navBarCell1Rev, contents.deprecatedLabel);
         return li;
     }
 }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/EnumConstantWriterImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/EnumConstantWriterImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -95,7 +95,7 @@
         enumConstantsDetailsTree.addContent(writer.getMarkerAnchor(
                 SectionName.ENUM_CONSTANT_DETAIL));
         Content heading = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.DETAILS_HEADING,
-                writer.enumConstantsDetailsLabel);
+                contents.enumConstantDetailLabel);
         enumConstantsDetailsTree.addContent(heading);
         return enumConstantsDetailsTree;
     }
@@ -185,17 +185,9 @@
      * {@inheritDoc}
      */
     @Override
-    public void close() throws IOException {
-        writer.close();
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * {@inheritDoc}
-     */
-    @Override
     public void addSummaryLabel(Content memberTree) {
         Content label = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.SUMMARY_HEADING,
-                writer.getResource("doclet.Enum_Constant_Summary"));
+                contents.enumConstantSummary);
         memberTree.addContent(label);
     }
 
@@ -204,9 +196,9 @@
      */
     @Override
     public String getTableSummary() {
-        return configuration.getText("doclet.Member_Table_Summary",
-                configuration.getText("doclet.Enum_Constant_Summary"),
-                configuration.getText("doclet.enum_constants"));
+        return resources.getText("doclet.Member_Table_Summary",
+                resources.getText("doclet.Enum_Constant_Summary"),
+                resources.getText("doclet.enum_constants"));
     }
 
     /**
@@ -214,7 +206,7 @@
      */
     @Override
     public Content getCaption() {
-        return configuration.getResource("doclet.Enum_Constants");
+        return configuration.getContent("doclet.Enum_Constants");
     }
 
     /**
@@ -303,14 +295,14 @@
         if (link) {
             if (typeElement == null) {
                 return writer.getHyperLink(SectionName.ENUM_CONSTANT_SUMMARY,
-                        writer.getResource("doclet.navEnum"));
+                        contents.navEnum);
             } else {
                 return writer.getHyperLink(
                         SectionName.ENUM_CONSTANTS_INHERITANCE,
-                        configuration.getClassName(typeElement), writer.getResource("doclet.navEnum"));
+                        configuration.getClassName(typeElement), contents.navEnum);
             }
         } else {
-            return writer.getResource("doclet.navEnum");
+            return contents.navEnum;
         }
     }
 
@@ -322,9 +314,9 @@
         if (link) {
             liNav.addContent(writer.getHyperLink(
                     SectionName.ENUM_CONSTANT_DETAIL,
-                    writer.getResource("doclet.navEnum")));
+                    contents.navEnum));
         } else {
-            liNav.addContent(writer.getResource("doclet.navEnum"));
+            liNav.addContent(contents.navEnum);
         }
     }
 }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/FieldWriterImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/FieldWriterImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -95,7 +95,7 @@
         fieldDetailsTree.addContent(writer.getMarkerAnchor(
                 SectionName.FIELD_DETAIL));
         Content heading = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.DETAILS_HEADING,
-                writer.fieldDetailsLabel);
+                contents.fieldDetailsLabel);
         fieldDetailsTree.addContent(heading);
         return fieldDetailsTree;
     }
@@ -182,20 +182,12 @@
     }
 
     /**
-     * Close the writer.
-     */
-    @Override
-    public void close() throws IOException {
-        writer.close();
-    }
-
-    /**
      * {@inheritDoc}
      */
     @Override
     public void addSummaryLabel(Content memberTree) {
         Content label = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.SUMMARY_HEADING,
-                writer.getResource("doclet.Field_Summary"));
+                contents.fieldSummaryLabel);
         memberTree.addContent(label);
     }
 
@@ -204,9 +196,9 @@
      */
     @Override
     public String getTableSummary() {
-        return configuration.getText("doclet.Member_Table_Summary",
-                configuration.getText("doclet.Field_Summary"),
-                configuration.getText("doclet.fields"));
+        return resources.getText("doclet.Member_Table_Summary",
+                resources.getText("doclet.Field_Summary"),
+                resources.getText("doclet.fields"));
     }
 
     /**
@@ -214,7 +206,7 @@
      */
     @Override
     public Content getCaption() {
-        return configuration.getResource("doclet.Fields");
+        return contents.fields;
     }
 
     /**
@@ -223,9 +215,9 @@
     @Override
     public List<String> getSummaryTableHeader(Element member) {
         List<String> header = Arrays.asList(writer.getModifierTypeHeader(),
-            configuration.getText("doclet.0_and_1",
-                    configuration.getText("doclet.Field"),
-                    configuration.getText("doclet.Description")));
+            resources.getText("doclet.0_and_1",
+                    resources.getText("doclet.Field"),
+                    resources.getText("doclet.Description")));
         return header;
     }
 
@@ -259,7 +251,7 @@
                 : configuration.getText("doclet.Fields_Inherited_From_Interface"));
         Content labelHeading = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.INHERITED_SUMMARY_HEADING,
                 label);
-        labelHeading.addContent(writer.getSpace());
+        labelHeading.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
         labelHeading.addContent(classLink);
         inheritedTree.addContent(labelHeading);
     }
@@ -312,14 +304,14 @@
             if (typeElement == null) {
                 return writer.getHyperLink(
                         SectionName.FIELD_SUMMARY,
-                        writer.getResource("doclet.navField"));
+                        contents.navField);
             } else {
                 return writer.getHyperLink(
                         SectionName.FIELDS_INHERITANCE,
-                        configuration.getClassName(typeElement), writer.getResource("doclet.navField"));
+                        configuration.getClassName(typeElement), contents.navField);
             }
         } else {
-            return writer.getResource("doclet.navField");
+            return contents.navField;
         }
     }
 
@@ -331,9 +323,9 @@
         if (link) {
             liNav.addContent(writer.getHyperLink(
                     SectionName.FIELD_DETAIL,
-                    writer.getResource("doclet.navField")));
+                    contents.navField));
         } else {
-            liNav.addContent(writer.getResource("doclet.navField"));
+            liNav.addContent(contents.navField);
         }
     }
 }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/FrameOutputWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/FrameOutputWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -32,6 +32,7 @@
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.HtmlTag;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.HtmlTree;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Content;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Messages;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPath;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPaths;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocletAbortException;
@@ -68,7 +69,7 @@
      * @param filename File to be generated.
      * @throws java.io.IOException
      */
-    public FrameOutputWriter(ConfigurationImpl configuration, DocPath filename) throws IOException {
+    public FrameOutputWriter(ConfigurationImpl configuration, DocPath filename) {
         super(configuration, filename);
         noOfPackages = configuration.packages.size();
     }
@@ -87,10 +88,9 @@
             filename = DocPaths.INDEX;
             framegen = new FrameOutputWriter(configuration, filename);
             framegen.generateFrameFile();
-            framegen.close();
         } catch (IOException exc) {
-            configuration.standardmessage.error(
-                        "doclet.exception_encountered",
+            Messages messages = configuration.getMessages();
+            messages.error("doclet.exception_encountered",
                         exc.toString(), filename);
             throw new DocletAbortException(exc);
         }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/HelpWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/HelpWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 1998, 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1998, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -33,6 +33,7 @@
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.HtmlTree;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.StringContent;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Content;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Messages;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPath;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPaths;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocletAbortException;
@@ -58,7 +59,7 @@
      * @param filename File to be generated.
      */
     public HelpWriter(ConfigurationImpl configuration,
-                      DocPath filename) throws IOException {
+                      DocPath filename) {
         super(configuration, filename);
     }
 
@@ -76,10 +77,9 @@
             filename = DocPaths.HELP_DOC;
             helpgen = new HelpWriter(configuration, filename);
             helpgen.generateHelpFile();
-            helpgen.close();
         } catch (IOException exc) {
-            configuration.standardmessage.error(
-                        "doclet.exception_encountered",
+            Messages messages = configuration.getMessages();
+            messages.error("doclet.exception_encountered",
                         exc.toString(), filename);
             throw new DocletAbortException(exc);
         }
@@ -121,10 +121,10 @@
      */
     protected void addHelpFileContents(Content contentTree) {
         Content heading = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.TITLE_HEADING, false, HtmlStyle.title,
-                getResource("doclet.Help_line_1"));
+                contents.getContent("doclet.Help_line_1"));
         Content div = HtmlTree.DIV(HtmlStyle.header, heading);
         Content line2 = HtmlTree.DIV(HtmlStyle.subTitle,
-                getResource("doclet.Help_line_2"));
+                contents.getContent("doclet.Help_line_2"));
         div.addContent(line2);
         if (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.MAIN)) {
             mainTree.addContent(div);
@@ -136,11 +136,11 @@
         ul.addStyle(HtmlStyle.blockList);
         if (configuration.createoverview) {
             Content overviewHeading = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.CONTENT_HEADING,
-                getResource("doclet.Overview"));
+                contents.overviewLabel);
             htmlTree = (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.SECTION))
                     ? HtmlTree.SECTION(overviewHeading)
                     : HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.blockList, overviewHeading);
-            Content line3 = getResource("doclet.Help_line_3",
+            Content line3 = contents.getContent("doclet.Help_line_3",
                     getHyperLink(DocPaths.OVERVIEW_SUMMARY,
                     configuration.getText("doclet.Overview")));
             Content overviewPara = HtmlTree.P(line3);
@@ -152,26 +152,26 @@
             }
         }
         Content packageHead = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.CONTENT_HEADING,
-                getResource("doclet.Package"));
+                contents.packageLabel);
         htmlTree = (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.SECTION))
                 ? HtmlTree.SECTION(packageHead)
                 : HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.blockList, packageHead);
-        Content line4 = getResource("doclet.Help_line_4");
+        Content line4 = contents.getContent("doclet.Help_line_4");
         Content packagePara = HtmlTree.P(line4);
         htmlTree.addContent(packagePara);
         HtmlTree ulPackage = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.UL);
         ulPackage.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(
-                getResource("doclet.Interfaces_Italic")));
+                contents.interfacesItalic));
         ulPackage.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(
-                getResource("doclet.Classes")));
+                contents.classes));
         ulPackage.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(
-                getResource("doclet.Enums")));
+                contents.enums));
         ulPackage.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(
-                getResource("doclet.Exceptions")));
+                contents.exceptions));
         ulPackage.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(
-                getResource("doclet.Errors")));
+                contents.errors));
         ulPackage.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(
-                getResource("doclet.AnnotationTypes")));
+                contents.annotationTypes));
         htmlTree.addContent(ulPackage);
         if (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.SECTION)) {
             ul.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.blockList, htmlTree));
@@ -179,46 +179,39 @@
             ul.addContent(htmlTree);
         }
         Content classHead = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.CONTENT_HEADING,
-                getResource("doclet.Help_line_5"));
+                contents.getContent("doclet.Help_line_5"));
         htmlTree = (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.SECTION))
                 ? HtmlTree.SECTION(classHead)
                 : HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.blockList, classHead);
-        Content line6 = getResource("doclet.Help_line_6");
+        Content line6 = contents.getContent("doclet.Help_line_6");
         Content classPara = HtmlTree.P(line6);
         htmlTree.addContent(classPara);
         HtmlTree ul1 = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.UL);
         ul1.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(
-                getResource("doclet.Help_line_7")));
+                contents.getContent("doclet.Help_line_7")));
         ul1.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(
-                getResource("doclet.Help_line_8")));
+                contents.getContent("doclet.Help_line_8")));
         ul1.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(
-                getResource("doclet.Help_line_9")));
+                contents.getContent("doclet.Help_line_9")));
         ul1.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(
-                getResource("doclet.Help_line_10")));
+                contents.getContent("doclet.Help_line_10")));
         ul1.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(
-                getResource("doclet.Help_line_11")));
+                contents.getContent("doclet.Help_line_11")));
         ul1.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(
-                getResource("doclet.Help_line_12")));
+                contents.getContent("doclet.Help_line_12")));
         htmlTree.addContent(ul1);
         HtmlTree ul2 = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.UL);
-        ul2.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(
-                getResource("doclet.Nested_Class_Summary")));
-        ul2.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(
-                getResource("doclet.Field_Summary")));
-        ul2.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(
-                getResource("doclet.Constructor_Summary")));
-        ul2.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(
-                getResource("doclet.Method_Summary")));
+        ul2.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(contents.nestedClassSummary));
+        ul2.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(contents.fieldSummaryLabel));
+        ul2.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(contents.constructorSummaryLabel));
+        ul2.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(contents.methodSummary));
         htmlTree.addContent(ul2);
         HtmlTree ul3 = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.UL);
-        ul3.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(
-                getResource("doclet.Field_Detail")));
-        ul3.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(
-                getResource("doclet.Constructor_Detail")));
-        ul3.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(
-                getResource("doclet.Method_Detail")));
+        ul3.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(contents.fieldDetailsLabel));
+        ul3.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(contents.constructorDetailsLabel));
+        ul3.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(contents.methodDetailLabel));
         htmlTree.addContent(ul3);
-        Content line13 = getResource("doclet.Help_line_13");
+        Content line13 = contents.getContent("doclet.Help_line_13");
         Content para = HtmlTree.P(line13);
         htmlTree.addContent(para);
         if (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.SECTION)) {
@@ -228,24 +221,24 @@
         }
         //Annotation Types
         Content aHead = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.CONTENT_HEADING,
-                getResource("doclet.AnnotationType"));
+                contents.annotationType);
         htmlTree = (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.SECTION))
                 ? HtmlTree.SECTION(aHead)
                 : HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.blockList, aHead);
-        Content aline1 = getResource("doclet.Help_annotation_type_line_1");
+        Content aline1 = contents.getContent("doclet.Help_annotation_type_line_1");
         Content aPara = HtmlTree.P(aline1);
         htmlTree.addContent(aPara);
         HtmlTree aul = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.UL);
         aul.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(
-                getResource("doclet.Help_annotation_type_line_2")));
+                contents.getContent("doclet.Help_annotation_type_line_2")));
         aul.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(
-                getResource("doclet.Help_annotation_type_line_3")));
+                contents.getContent("doclet.Help_annotation_type_line_3")));
         aul.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(
-                getResource("doclet.Annotation_Type_Required_Member_Summary")));
+                contents.annotateTypeRequiredMemberSummaryLabel));
         aul.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(
-                getResource("doclet.Annotation_Type_Optional_Member_Summary")));
+                contents.annotateTypeOptionalMemberSummaryLabel));
         aul.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(
-                getResource("doclet.Annotation_Type_Member_Detail")));
+                contents.annotationTypeMemberDetail));
         htmlTree.addContent(aul);
         if (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.SECTION)) {
             ul.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.blockList, htmlTree));
@@ -254,22 +247,22 @@
         }
         //Enums
         Content enumHead = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.CONTENT_HEADING,
-                getResource("doclet.Enum"));
+                contents.enum_);
         htmlTree = (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.SECTION))
                 ? HtmlTree.SECTION(enumHead)
                 : HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.blockList, enumHead);
-        Content eline1 = getResource("doclet.Help_enum_line_1");
+        Content eline1 = contents.getContent("doclet.Help_enum_line_1");
         Content enumPara = HtmlTree.P(eline1);
         htmlTree.addContent(enumPara);
         HtmlTree eul = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.UL);
         eul.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(
-                getResource("doclet.Help_enum_line_2")));
+                contents.getContent("doclet.Help_enum_line_2")));
         eul.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(
-                getResource("doclet.Help_enum_line_3")));
+                contents.getContent("doclet.Help_enum_line_3")));
         eul.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(
-                getResource("doclet.Enum_Constant_Summary")));
+                contents.enumConstantSummary));
         eul.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(
-                getResource("doclet.Enum_Constant_Detail")));
+                contents.enumConstantDetailLabel));
         htmlTree.addContent(eul);
         if (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.SECTION)) {
             ul.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.blockList, htmlTree));
@@ -278,11 +271,11 @@
         }
         if (configuration.classuse) {
             Content useHead = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.CONTENT_HEADING,
-                    getResource("doclet.Help_line_14"));
+                    contents.getContent("doclet.Help_line_14"));
             htmlTree = (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.SECTION))
                     ? HtmlTree.SECTION(useHead)
                     : HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.blockList, useHead);
-            Content line15 = getResource("doclet.Help_line_15");
+            Content line15 = contents.getContent("doclet.Help_line_15");
             Content usePara = HtmlTree.P(line15);
             htmlTree.addContent(usePara);
             if (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.SECTION)) {
@@ -293,11 +286,11 @@
         }
         if (configuration.createtree) {
             Content treeHead = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.CONTENT_HEADING,
-                    getResource("doclet.Help_line_16"));
+                    contents.getContent("doclet.Help_line_16"));
             htmlTree = (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.SECTION))
                     ? HtmlTree.SECTION(treeHead)
                     : HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.blockList, treeHead);
-            Content line17 = getResource("doclet.Help_line_17_with_tree_link",
+            Content line17 = contents.getContent("doclet.Help_line_17_with_tree_link",
                     getHyperLink(DocPaths.OVERVIEW_TREE,
                     configuration.getText("doclet.Class_Hierarchy")),
                     HtmlTree.CODE(new StringContent("java.lang.Object")));
@@ -305,9 +298,9 @@
             htmlTree.addContent(treePara);
             HtmlTree tul = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.UL);
             tul.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(
-                    getResource("doclet.Help_line_18")));
+                    contents.getContent("doclet.Help_line_18")));
             tul.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(
-                    getResource("doclet.Help_line_19")));
+                    contents.getContent("doclet.Help_line_19")));
             htmlTree.addContent(tul);
             if (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.SECTION)) {
                 ul.addContent(HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.blockList, htmlTree));
@@ -318,11 +311,11 @@
         if (!(configuration.nodeprecatedlist ||
                   configuration.nodeprecated)) {
             Content dHead = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.CONTENT_HEADING,
-                    getResource("doclet.Deprecated_API"));
+                    contents.deprecatedAPI);
             htmlTree = (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.SECTION))
                     ? HtmlTree.SECTION(dHead)
                     : HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.blockList, dHead);
-            Content line20 = getResource("doclet.Help_line_20_with_deprecated_api_link",
+            Content line20 = contents.getContent("doclet.Help_line_20_with_deprecated_api_link",
                     getHyperLink(DocPaths.DEPRECATED_LIST,
                     configuration.getText("doclet.Deprecated_API")));
             Content dPara = HtmlTree.P(line20);
@@ -343,11 +336,11 @@
                         configuration.getText("doclet.Index"));
             }
             Content indexHead = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.CONTENT_HEADING,
-                    getResource("doclet.Help_line_21"));
+                    contents.getContent("doclet.Help_line_21"));
             htmlTree = (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.SECTION))
                     ? HtmlTree.SECTION(indexHead)
                     : HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.blockList, indexHead);
-            Content line22 = getResource("doclet.Help_line_22", indexlink);
+            Content line22 = contents.getContent("doclet.Help_line_22", indexlink);
             Content indexPara = HtmlTree.P(line22);
             htmlTree.addContent(indexPara);
             if (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.SECTION)) {
@@ -357,11 +350,11 @@
             }
         }
         Content prevHead = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.CONTENT_HEADING,
-                getResource("doclet.Help_line_23"));
+                contents.getContent("doclet.Help_line_23"));
         htmlTree = (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.SECTION))
                 ? HtmlTree.SECTION(prevHead)
                 : HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.blockList, prevHead);
-        Content line24 = getResource("doclet.Help_line_24");
+        Content line24 = contents.getContent("doclet.Help_line_24");
         Content prevPara = HtmlTree.P(line24);
         htmlTree.addContent(prevPara);
         if (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.SECTION)) {
@@ -370,11 +363,11 @@
             ul.addContent(htmlTree);
         }
         Content frameHead = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.CONTENT_HEADING,
-                getResource("doclet.Help_line_25"));
+                contents.getContent("doclet.Help_line_25"));
         htmlTree = (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.SECTION))
                 ? HtmlTree.SECTION(frameHead)
                 : HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.blockList, frameHead);
-        Content line26 = getResource("doclet.Help_line_26");
+        Content line26 = contents.getContent("doclet.Help_line_26");
         Content framePara = HtmlTree.P(line26);
         htmlTree.addContent(framePara);
         if (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.SECTION)) {
@@ -383,13 +376,13 @@
             ul.addContent(htmlTree);
         }
         Content allclassesHead = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.CONTENT_HEADING,
-                getResource("doclet.All_Classes"));
+                contents.allClassesLabel);
         htmlTree = (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.SECTION))
                 ? HtmlTree.SECTION(allclassesHead)
                 : HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.blockList, allclassesHead);
-        Content line27 = getResource("doclet.Help_line_27",
+        Content line27 = contents.getContent("doclet.Help_line_27",
                 getHyperLink(DocPaths.ALLCLASSES_NOFRAME,
-                configuration.getText("doclet.All_Classes")));
+                resources.getText("doclet.All_Classes")));
         Content allclassesPara = HtmlTree.P(line27);
         htmlTree.addContent(allclassesPara);
         if (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.SECTION)) {
@@ -398,11 +391,11 @@
             ul.addContent(htmlTree);
         }
         Content sHead = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.CONTENT_HEADING,
-                getResource("doclet.Serialized_Form"));
+                contents.serializedForm);
         htmlTree = (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.SECTION))
                 ? HtmlTree.SECTION(sHead)
                 : HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.blockList, sHead);
-        Content line28 = getResource("doclet.Help_line_28");
+        Content line28 = contents.getContent("doclet.Help_line_28");
         Content serialPara = HtmlTree.P(line28);
         htmlTree.addContent(serialPara);
         if (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.SECTION)) {
@@ -411,13 +404,13 @@
             ul.addContent(htmlTree);
         }
         Content constHead = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.CONTENT_HEADING,
-                getResource("doclet.Constants_Summary"));
+                contents.constantsSummaryTitle);
         htmlTree = (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.SECTION))
                 ? HtmlTree.SECTION(constHead)
                 : HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.blockList, constHead);
-        Content line29 = getResource("doclet.Help_line_29",
+        Content line29 = contents.getContent("doclet.Help_line_29",
                 getHyperLink(DocPaths.CONSTANT_VALUES,
-                configuration.getText("doclet.Constants_Summary")));
+                resources.getText("doclet.Constants_Summary")));
         Content constPara = HtmlTree.P(line29);
         htmlTree.addContent(constPara);
         if (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.SECTION)) {
@@ -426,7 +419,7 @@
             ul.addContent(htmlTree);
         }
         Content divContent = HtmlTree.DIV(HtmlStyle.contentContainer, ul);
-        Content line30 = HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.emphasizedPhrase, getResource("doclet.Help_line_30"));
+        Content line30 = HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.emphasizedPhrase, contents.getContent("doclet.Help_line_30"));
         divContent.addContent(line30);
         if (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.MAIN)) {
             mainTree.addContent(divContent);
@@ -443,7 +436,7 @@
      */
     @Override
     protected Content getNavLinkHelp() {
-        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.navBarCell1Rev, helpLabel);
+        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.navBarCell1Rev, contents.helpLabel);
         return li;
     }
 }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/HtmlDoclet.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/HtmlDoclet.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -38,6 +38,7 @@
 import jdk.javadoc.doclet.Reporter;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.AbstractDoclet;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Configuration;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Messages;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.builders.AbstractBuilder;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.ClassTree;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocFile;
@@ -68,7 +69,9 @@
     /**
      * The global configuration information for this run.
      */
-    public final ConfigurationImpl configuration;
+    private final ConfigurationImpl configuration;
+
+    private Messages messages;
 
 
     private static final DocPath DOCLET_RESOURCES = DocPath
@@ -77,6 +80,7 @@
     public void init(Locale locale, Reporter reporter) {
         configuration.reporter = reporter;
         configuration.locale = locale;
+        messages = configuration.getMessages();
     }
 
     /**
@@ -118,8 +122,7 @@
         }
 
         if (configuration.topFile.isEmpty()) {
-            configuration.standardmessage.
-                error("doclet.No_Non_Deprecated_Classes_To_Document");
+            messages.error("doclet.No_Non_Deprecated_Classes_To_Document");
             return;
         }
         boolean nodeprecated = configuration.nodeprecated;
@@ -351,11 +354,11 @@
             if (toFile.isSameFile(fromfile))
                 return;
 
-            configuration.message.notice("doclet.Copying_File_0_To_File_1",
+            messages.notice("doclet.Copying_File_0_To_File_1",
                     fromfile.toString(), path.getPath());
             toFile.copyFile(fromfile);
         } catch (IOException exc) {
-            configuration.message.error("doclet.perform_copy_exception_encountered",
+            messages.error("doclet.perform_copy_exception_encountered",
                     exc.toString());
             throw new DocletAbortException(exc);
         }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/HtmlDocletWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/HtmlDocletWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -82,7 +82,9 @@
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.ClassWriter;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Configuration;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Content;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Messages;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.PackageSummaryWriter;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Resources;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.taglets.DocRootTaglet;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.taglets.TagletWriter;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocFile;
@@ -145,6 +147,12 @@
 
     protected final Utils utils;
 
+    protected final Contents contents;
+
+    protected final Messages messages;
+
+    protected final Resources resources;
+
     /**
      * To check whether annotation heading is printed or not.
      */
@@ -174,10 +182,12 @@
      *
      * @param path File to be generated.
      */
-    public HtmlDocletWriter(ConfigurationImpl configuration, DocPath path)
-            throws IOException {
+    public HtmlDocletWriter(ConfigurationImpl configuration, DocPath path) {
         super(configuration, path);
         this.configuration = configuration;
+        this.contents = configuration.contents;
+        this.messages = configuration.messages;
+        this.resources = configuration.resources;
         this.utils = configuration.utils;
         this.path = path;
         this.pathToRoot = path.parent().invert();
@@ -249,19 +259,19 @@
      */
     public Content getAllClassesLinkScript(String id) {
         HtmlTree script = HtmlTree.SCRIPT();
-        String scriptCode = "<!--" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "  allClassesLink = document.getElementById(\"" + id + "\");" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "  if(window==top) {" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "    allClassesLink.style.display = \"block\";" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "  }" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "  else {" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "    allClassesLink.style.display = \"none\";" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "  }" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "  //-->" + DocletConstants.NL;
-        Content scriptContent = new RawHtml(scriptCode);
+        String scriptCode = "<!--\n" +
+                "  allClassesLink = document.getElementById(\"" + id + "\");\n" +
+                "  if(window==top) {\n" +
+                "    allClassesLink.style.display = \"block\";\n" +
+                "  }\n" +
+                "  else {\n" +
+                "    allClassesLink.style.display = \"none\";\n" +
+                "  }\n" +
+                "  //-->\n";
+        Content scriptContent = new RawHtml(scriptCode.replace("\n", DocletConstants.NL));
         script.addContent(scriptContent);
         Content div = HtmlTree.DIV(script);
-        Content div_noscript = HtmlTree.DIV(getResource("doclet.No_Script_Message"));
+        Content div_noscript = HtmlTree.DIV(contents.noScriptMessage);
         Content noScript = HtmlTree.NOSCRIPT(div_noscript);
         div.addContent(noScript);
         return div;
@@ -404,7 +414,7 @@
                 HtmlTree tdClassDescription = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.TD);
                 tdClassDescription.addStyle(HtmlStyle.colLast);
                 if (utils.isDeprecated(te)) {
-                    tdClassDescription.addContent(deprecatedLabel);
+                    tdClassDescription.addContent(contents.deprecatedLabel);
                     List<? extends DocTree> tags = utils.getDeprecatedTrees(te);
                     if (!tags.isEmpty()) {
                         addSummaryDeprecatedComment(te, tags.get(0), tdClassDescription);
@@ -535,7 +545,7 @@
             String allClassesId = "allclasses_";
             HtmlTree navDiv = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.DIV);
             fixedNavDiv.addStyle(HtmlStyle.fixedNav);
-            Content skipNavLinks = configuration.getResource("doclet.Skip_navigation_links");
+            Content skipNavLinks = configuration.getContent("doclet.Skip_navigation_links");
             if (header) {
                 fixedNavDiv.addContent(HtmlConstants.START_OF_TOP_NAVBAR);
                 navDiv.addStyle(HtmlStyle.topNav);
@@ -617,8 +627,9 @@
             if (header && configuration.createindex) {
                 HtmlTree inputText = HtmlTree.INPUT("text", "search");
                 HtmlTree inputReset = HtmlTree.INPUT("reset", "reset");
-                Content searchTxt = configuration.getResource("doclet.search");
-                searchTxt.addContent(getSpace());
+                Content searchTxt = new ContentBuilder();
+                searchTxt.addContent(configuration.getContent("doclet.search"));
+                searchTxt.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
                 HtmlTree liInput = HtmlTree.LI(HtmlTree.SPAN(searchTxt));
                 liInput.addContent(inputText);
                 liInput.addContent(inputReset);
@@ -632,7 +643,7 @@
                 fixedNavDiv.addContent(subDiv);
                 fixedNavDiv.addContent(HtmlConstants.END_OF_TOP_NAVBAR);
                 tree.addContent(fixedNavDiv);
-                HtmlTree paddingDiv = HtmlTree.DIV(HtmlStyle.navPadding, getSpace());
+                HtmlTree paddingDiv = HtmlTree.DIV(HtmlStyle.navPadding, Contents.SPACE);
                 tree.addContent(paddingDiv);
             } else {
                 subDiv.addContent(getMarkerAnchor(SectionName.SKIP_NAVBAR_BOTTOM));
@@ -678,7 +689,7 @@
      */
     protected Content getNavLinkContents() {
         Content linkContent = getHyperLink(pathToRoot.resolve(DocPaths.OVERVIEW_SUMMARY),
-                overviewLabel, "", "");
+                contents.overviewLabel, "", "");
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(linkContent);
         return li;
     }
@@ -690,7 +701,7 @@
      * @return a content tree for the link
      */
     protected Content getNavLinkModule(ModuleElement mdle) {
-        Content linkContent = getModuleLink(mdle, moduleLabel);
+        Content linkContent = getModuleLink(mdle, contents.moduleLabel);
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(linkContent);
         return li;
     }
@@ -701,7 +712,7 @@
      * @return a content tree for the link
      */
     protected Content getNavLinkModule() {
-        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(moduleLabel);
+        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(contents.moduleLabel);
         return li;
     }
 
@@ -712,7 +723,7 @@
      * @return a content tree for the link
      */
     protected Content getNavLinkPackage(PackageElement pkg) {
-        Content linkContent = getPackageLink(pkg, packageLabel);
+        Content linkContent = getPackageLink(pkg, contents.packageLabel);
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(linkContent);
         return li;
     }
@@ -723,7 +734,7 @@
      * @return a content tree for the link
      */
     protected Content getNavLinkPackage() {
-        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(packageLabel);
+        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(contents.packageLabel);
         return li;
     }
 
@@ -733,7 +744,7 @@
      * @return a content tree for the link
      */
     protected Content getNavLinkClassUse() {
-        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(useLabel);
+        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(contents.useLabel);
         return li;
     }
 
@@ -746,10 +757,10 @@
     public Content getNavLinkPrevious(DocPath prev) {
         Content li;
         if (prev != null) {
-            li = HtmlTree.LI(getHyperLink(prev, prevLabel, "", ""));
+            li = HtmlTree.LI(getHyperLink(prev, contents.prevLabel, "", ""));
         }
         else
-            li = HtmlTree.LI(prevLabel);
+            li = HtmlTree.LI(contents.prevLabel);
         return li;
     }
 
@@ -763,10 +774,10 @@
     public Content getNavLinkNext(DocPath next) {
         Content li;
         if (next != null) {
-            li = HtmlTree.LI(getHyperLink(next, nextLabel, "", ""));
+            li = HtmlTree.LI(getHyperLink(next, contents.nextLabel, "", ""));
         }
         else
-            li = HtmlTree.LI(nextLabel);
+            li = HtmlTree.LI(contents.nextLabel);
         return li;
     }
 
@@ -778,7 +789,7 @@
      */
     protected Content getNavShowLists(DocPath link) {
         DocLink dl = new DocLink(link, path.getPath(), null);
-        Content framesContent = getHyperLink(dl, framesLabel, "", "_top");
+        Content framesContent = getHyperLink(dl, contents.framesLabel, "", "_top");
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(framesContent);
         return li;
     }
@@ -799,7 +810,7 @@
      * @return a content tree for the link
      */
     protected Content getNavHideLists(DocPath link) {
-        Content noFramesContent = getHyperLink(link, noframesLabel, "", "_top");
+        Content noFramesContent = getHyperLink(link, contents.noFramesLabel, "", "_top");
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(noFramesContent);
         return li;
     }
@@ -817,7 +828,7 @@
         DocPath docPath = packages.size() == 1 && utils.getSpecifiedClasses().isEmpty()
                 ? pathString(packages.get(0), DocPaths.PACKAGE_TREE)
                 : pathToRoot.resolve(DocPaths.OVERVIEW_TREE);
-        return HtmlTree.LI(getHyperLink(docPath, treeLabel, "", ""));
+        return HtmlTree.LI(getHyperLink(docPath, contents.treeLabel, "", ""));
     }
 
     /**
@@ -839,7 +850,7 @@
      * @return a content tree for the link
      */
     protected Content getNavLinkClass() {
-        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(classLabel);
+        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(contents.classLabel);
         return li;
     }
 
@@ -850,7 +861,7 @@
      */
     protected Content getNavLinkDeprecated() {
         Content linkContent = getHyperLink(pathToRoot.resolve(DocPaths.DEPRECATED_LIST),
-                deprecatedLabel, "", "");
+                contents.deprecatedLabel, "", "");
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(linkContent);
         return li;
     }
@@ -865,7 +876,7 @@
     protected Content getNavLinkClassIndex() {
         Content allClassesContent = getHyperLink(pathToRoot.resolve(
                 DocPaths.ALLCLASSES_NOFRAME),
-                allclassesLabel, "", "");
+                contents.allClassesLabel, "", "");
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(allClassesContent);
         return li;
     }
@@ -880,7 +891,7 @@
                 (configuration.splitindex
                     ? DocPaths.INDEX_FILES.resolve(DocPaths.indexN(1))
                     : DocPaths.INDEX_ALL)),
-            indexLabel, "", "");
+            contents.indexLabel, "", "");
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(linkContent);
         return li;
     }
@@ -902,7 +913,7 @@
             helpfilenm = DocPath.create(file.getName());
         }
         Content linkContent = getHyperLink(pathToRoot.resolve(helpfilenm),
-                helpLabel, "", "");
+                contents.helpLabel, "", "");
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(linkContent);
         return li;
     }
@@ -913,9 +924,9 @@
      * @param liNav the content tree to which the gap will be added
      */
     protected void addNavGap(Content liNav) {
-        liNav.addContent(getSpace());
+        liNav.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
         liNav.addContent("|");
-        liNav.addContent(getSpace());
+        liNav.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
     }
 
     /**
@@ -954,7 +965,7 @@
      */
     public Content getTableCaption(Content title) {
         Content captionSpan = HtmlTree.SPAN(title);
-        Content space = getSpace();
+        Content space = Contents.SPACE;
         Content tabSpan = HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.tabEnd, space);
         Content caption = HtmlTree.CAPTION(captionSpan);
         caption.addContent(tabSpan);
@@ -1014,7 +1025,7 @@
      */
     public Content getPackageName(PackageElement packageElement) {
         return packageElement == null || packageElement.isUnnamed()
-                ? defaultPackageLabel
+                ? contents.defaultPackageLabel
                 : getPackageLabel(packageElement.getQualifiedName());
     }
 
@@ -1040,7 +1051,7 @@
     protected void addPackageDeprecatedAPI(SortedSet<Element> deprPkgs, String headingKey,
             String tableSummary, List<String> tableHeader, Content contentTree) {
         if (deprPkgs.size() > 0) {
-            Content caption = getTableCaption(configuration.getResource(headingKey));
+            Content caption = getTableCaption(configuration.getContent(headingKey));
             Content table = (configuration.isOutputHtml5())
                     ? HtmlTree.TABLE(HtmlStyle.deprecatedSummary, caption)
                     : HtmlTree.TABLE(HtmlStyle.deprecatedSummary, tableSummary, caption);
@@ -1551,7 +1562,7 @@
                     return classCrossLink;
                 } else {
                     // No cross link found so print warning
-                    configuration.getDocletSpecificMsg().warning(ch.getDocTreePath(see),
+                    messages.warning(ch.getDocTreePath(see),
                             "doclet.see.class_or_package_not_found",
                             "@" + tagName,
                             seetext);
@@ -1594,11 +1605,11 @@
                 if (this instanceof ClassWriterImpl) {
                     containing = ((ClassWriterImpl) this).getTypeElement();
                 } else if (!utils.isPublic(containing)) {
-                    configuration.getDocletSpecificMsg().warning(
+                    messages.warning(
                         ch.getDocTreePath(see), "doclet.see.class_or_package_not_accessible",
                         tagName, utils.getFullyQualifiedName(containing));
                 } else {
-                    configuration.getDocletSpecificMsg().warning(
+                    messages.warning(
                         ch.getDocTreePath(see), "doclet.see.class_or_package_not_found",
                         tagName, seetext);
                 }
@@ -1728,7 +1739,7 @@
             htmltree.addContent(div);
         }
         if (tags.isEmpty()) {
-            htmltree.addContent(getSpace());
+            htmltree.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
         }
     }
 
@@ -1917,7 +1928,7 @@
 
                 @Override @DefinedBy(Api.COMPILER_TREE)
                 public Boolean visitErroneous(ErroneousTree node, Content c) {
-                    configuration.getDocletSpecificMsg().warning(ch.getDocTreePath(node),
+                    messages.warning(ch.getDocTreePath(node),
                             "doclet.tag.invalid_usage", node);
                     result.addContent(new RawHtml(node.toString()));
                     return false;
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/MethodWriterImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/MethodWriterImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -25,8 +25,6 @@
 
 package jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html;
 
-import java.io.*;
-
 import java.util.Arrays;
 import java.util.List;
 import java.util.SortedSet;
@@ -111,7 +109,7 @@
         methodDetailsTree.addContent(writer.getMarkerAnchor(
                 SectionName.METHOD_DETAIL));
         Content heading = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.DETAILS_HEADING,
-                writer.methodDetailsLabel);
+                contents.methodDetailLabel);
         methodDetailsTree.addContent(heading);
         return methodDetailsTree;
     }
@@ -190,9 +188,9 @@
                 Content codelLink = HtmlTree.CODE(link);
                 Content descfrmLabel = HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.descfrmTypeLabel,
                         utils.isClass(holder)
-                                ? writer.descfrmClassLabel
-                                : writer.descfrmInterfaceLabel);
-                descfrmLabel.addContent(writer.getSpace());
+                                ? contents.descfrmClassLabel
+                                : contents.descfrmInterfaceLabel);
+                descfrmLabel.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
                 descfrmLabel.addContent(codelLink);
                 methodDocTree.addContent(HtmlTree.DIV(HtmlStyle.block, descfrmLabel));
                 writer.addInlineComment(method, methodDocTree);
@@ -230,20 +228,12 @@
     }
 
     /**
-     * Close the writer.
-     */
-    @Override
-    public void close() throws IOException {
-        writer.close();
-    }
-
-    /**
      * {@inheritDoc}
      */
     @Override
     public void addSummaryLabel(Content memberTree) {
         Content label = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.SUMMARY_HEADING,
-                writer.getResource("doclet.Method_Summary"));
+                contents.methodSummary);
         memberTree.addContent(label);
     }
 
@@ -252,9 +242,9 @@
      */
     @Override
     public String getTableSummary() {
-        return configuration.getText("doclet.Member_Table_Summary",
-                configuration.getText("doclet.Method_Summary"),
-                configuration.getText("doclet.methods"));
+        return resources.getText("doclet.Member_Table_Summary",
+                resources.getText("doclet.Method_Summary"),
+                resources.getText("doclet.methods"));
     }
 
     /**
@@ -262,7 +252,7 @@
      */
     @Override
     public Content getCaption() {
-        return configuration.getResource("doclet.Methods");
+        return contents.methods;
     }
 
     /**
@@ -271,9 +261,9 @@
     @Override
     public List<String> getSummaryTableHeader(Element member) {
         List<String> header = Arrays.asList(writer.getModifierTypeHeader(),
-        configuration.getText("doclet.0_and_1",
-                   configuration.getText("doclet.Method"),
-                   configuration.getText("doclet.Description")));
+                resources.getText("doclet.0_and_1",
+                        resources.getText("doclet.Method"),
+                        resources.getText("doclet.Description")));
         return header;
     }
 
@@ -307,7 +297,7 @@
                 : configuration.getText("doclet.Methods_Inherited_From_Interface"));
         Content labelHeading = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.INHERITED_SUMMARY_HEADING,
                 label);
-        labelHeading.addContent(writer.getSpace());
+        labelHeading.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
         labelHeading.addContent(classLink);
         inheritedTree.addContent(labelHeading);
     }
@@ -329,7 +319,8 @@
         if (writer.configuration.nocomment) {
             return;
         }
-        Utils utils = writer.configuration().utils;
+        Utils utils = writer.utils;
+        Contents contents = writer.contents;
         TypeElement holder = utils.getEnclosingTypeElement(method);
         if (!(utils.isPublic(holder) ||
             utils.isLinkable(holder))) {
@@ -341,14 +332,14 @@
             //is not visible so don't document this.
             return;
         }
-        Content label = writer.overridesLabel;
+        Content label = contents.overridesLabel;
         LinkInfoImpl.Kind context = LinkInfoImpl.Kind.METHOD_OVERRIDES;
 
         if (method != null) {
             if (utils.isAbstract(holder) && utils.isAbstract(method)){
                 //Abstract method is implemented from abstract class,
                 //not overridden
-                label = writer.specifiedByLabel;
+                label = contents.specifiedByLabel;
                 context = LinkInfoImpl.Kind.METHOD_SPECIFIED_BY;
             }
             Content dt = HtmlTree.DT(HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.overrideSpecifyLabel, label));
@@ -362,9 +353,9 @@
                     .where(writer.getName(writer.getAnchor(method))).label(method.getSimpleName()));
             Content codeMethLink = HtmlTree.CODE(methlink);
             Content dd = HtmlTree.DD(codeMethLink);
-            dd.addContent(writer.getSpace());
-            dd.addContent(writer.getResource("doclet.in_class"));
-            dd.addContent(writer.getSpace());
+            dd.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
+            dd.addContent(writer.contents.inClass);
+            dd.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
             dd.addContent(codeOverridenTypeLink);
             dl.addContent(dd);
         }
@@ -379,6 +370,7 @@
             return;
         }
         Utils utils = writer.utils;
+        Contents contents = writer.contents;
         ImplementedMethods implementedMethodsFinder =
                 new ImplementedMethods(method, writer.configuration);
         SortedSet<ExecutableElement> implementedMethods =
@@ -390,16 +382,16 @@
             Content intfaclink = writer.getLink(new LinkInfoImpl(
                     writer.configuration, LinkInfoImpl.Kind.METHOD_SPECIFIED_BY, intfac));
             Content codeIntfacLink = HtmlTree.CODE(intfaclink);
-            Content dt = HtmlTree.DT(HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.overrideSpecifyLabel, writer.specifiedByLabel));
+            Content dt = HtmlTree.DT(HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.overrideSpecifyLabel, contents.specifiedByLabel));
             dl.addContent(dt);
             Content methlink = writer.getDocLink(
                     LinkInfoImpl.Kind.MEMBER, implementedMeth,
                     implementedMeth.getSimpleName(), false);
             Content codeMethLink = HtmlTree.CODE(methlink);
             Content dd = HtmlTree.DD(codeMethLink);
-            dd.addContent(writer.getSpace());
-            dd.addContent(writer.getResource("doclet.in_interface"));
-            dd.addContent(writer.getSpace());
+            dd.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
+            dd.addContent(contents.inInterface);
+            dd.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
             dd.addContent(codeIntfacLink);
             dl.addContent(dd);
         }
@@ -417,7 +409,7 @@
             Content linkContent = writer.getLink(
                     new LinkInfoImpl(configuration, LinkInfoImpl.Kind.RETURN_TYPE, type));
             htmltree.addContent(linkContent);
-            htmltree.addContent(writer.getSpace());
+            htmltree.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
         }
     }
 
@@ -430,14 +422,14 @@
             if (typeElement == null) {
                 return writer.getHyperLink(
                         SectionName.METHOD_SUMMARY,
-                        writer.getResource("doclet.navMethod"));
+                        contents.navMethod);
             } else {
                 return writer.getHyperLink(
                         SectionName.METHODS_INHERITANCE,
-                        configuration.getClassName(typeElement), writer.getResource("doclet.navMethod"));
+                        configuration.getClassName(typeElement), contents.navMethod);
             }
         } else {
-            return writer.getResource("doclet.navMethod");
+            return contents.navMethod;
         }
     }
 
@@ -448,9 +440,9 @@
     protected void addNavDetailLink(boolean link, Content liNav) {
         if (link) {
             liNav.addContent(writer.getHyperLink(
-                    SectionName.METHOD_DETAIL, writer.getResource("doclet.navMethod")));
+                    SectionName.METHOD_DETAIL, contents.navMethod));
         } else {
-            liNav.addContent(writer.getResource("doclet.navMethod"));
+            liNav.addContent(contents.navMethod);
         }
     }
 }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/ModuleFrameWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/ModuleFrameWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -60,7 +60,7 @@
     /**
      * The module being documented.
      */
-    private ModuleElement mdle;
+    private final ModuleElement mdle;
 
     /**
      * The classes to be documented.  Use this to filter out classes
@@ -114,9 +114,8 @@
             }
             mdlgen.printHtmlDocument(
                     configuration.metakeywords.getMetaKeywordsForModule(moduleElement), false, body);
-            mdlgen.close();
         } catch (IOException exc) {
-            configuration.standardmessage.error(
+            configuration.messages.error(
                     "doclet.exception_encountered",
                     exc.toString(), DocPaths.moduleTypeFrame(moduleElement).getPath());
             throw new DocletAbortException(exc);
@@ -148,12 +147,12 @@
                 annotationTypes.addAll(utils.getAnnotationTypes(pkg));
             }
         }
-        addClassKindListing(interfaces, getResource("doclet.Interfaces"), contentTree);
-        addClassKindListing(classes, getResource("doclet.Classes"), contentTree);
-        addClassKindListing(enums, getResource("doclet.Enums"), contentTree);
-        addClassKindListing(exceptions, getResource("doclet.Exceptions"), contentTree);
-        addClassKindListing(errors, getResource("doclet.Errors"), contentTree);
-        addClassKindListing(annotationTypes, getResource("doclet.AnnotationTypes"), contentTree);
+        addClassKindListing(interfaces, contents.interfaces, contentTree);
+        addClassKindListing(classes, contents.classes, contentTree);
+        addClassKindListing(enums, contents.enums, contentTree);
+        addClassKindListing(exceptions, contents.exceptions, contentTree);
+        addClassKindListing(errors, contents.errors, contentTree);
+        addClassKindListing(annotationTypes, contents.annotationTypes, contentTree);
     }
 
     /**
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/ModuleIndexFrameWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/ModuleIndexFrameWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -39,6 +39,7 @@
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.RawHtml;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.StringContent;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Content;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Messages;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPath;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPaths;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocletAbortException;
@@ -79,10 +80,9 @@
         try {
             modulegen = new ModuleIndexFrameWriter(configuration, filename);
             modulegen.buildModuleIndexFile("doclet.Window_Overview", false);
-            modulegen.close();
         } catch (IOException exc) {
-            configuration.standardmessage.error(
-                        "doclet.exception_encountered",
+            Messages messages = configuration.getMessages();
+            messages.error("doclet.exception_encountered",
                         exc.toString(), filename);
             throw new DocletAbortException(exc);
         }
@@ -94,12 +94,12 @@
     protected void addModulesList(Map<ModuleElement, Set<PackageElement>> modules, String text,
             String tableSummary, Content body) {
         Content heading = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.MODULE_HEADING, true,
-                modulesLabel);
+                contents.modulesLabel);
         HtmlTree htmlTree = (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.MAIN))
                 ? HtmlTree.MAIN(HtmlStyle.indexContainer, heading)
                 : HtmlTree.DIV(HtmlStyle.indexContainer, heading);
         HtmlTree ul = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.UL);
-        ul.setTitle(modulesLabel);
+        ul.setTitle(contents.modulesLabel);
         for (ModuleElement mdle: modules.keySet()) {
             ul.addContent(getModuleLink(mdle));
         }
@@ -150,7 +150,7 @@
      */
     protected void addAllClassesLink(Content ul) {
         Content linkContent = getHyperLink(DocPaths.ALLCLASSES_FRAME,
-                allclassesLabel, "", "packageFrame");
+                contents.allClassesLabel, "", "packageFrame");
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(linkContent);
         ul.addContent(li);
     }
@@ -163,7 +163,7 @@
      */
     protected void addAllPackagesLink(Content ul) {
         Content linkContent = getHyperLink(DocPaths.OVERVIEW_FRAME,
-                allpackagesLabel, "", "packageListFrame");
+                contents.allPackagesLabel, "", "packageListFrame");
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(linkContent);
         ul.addContent(li);
     }
@@ -172,7 +172,7 @@
      * {@inheritDoc}
      */
     protected void addNavigationBarFooter(Content body) {
-        Content p = HtmlTree.P(getSpace());
+        Content p = HtmlTree.P(Contents.SPACE);
         body.addContent(p);
     }
 
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/ModuleIndexWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/ModuleIndexWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -32,12 +32,14 @@
 import javax.lang.model.element.PackageElement;
 
 import jdk.javadoc.doclet.DocletEnvironment;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.ContentBuilder;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.HtmlStyle;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.HtmlTag;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.HtmlTree;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.RawHtml;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.StringContent;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Content;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Messages;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPath;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPaths;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocletAbortException;
@@ -90,9 +92,9 @@
         try {
             mdlgen = new ModuleIndexWriter(configuration, filename);
             mdlgen.buildModuleIndexFile("doclet.Window_Overview_Summary", true);
-            mdlgen.close();
         } catch (IOException exc) {
-            configuration.standardmessage.error(
+            Messages messages = configuration.getMessages();
+            messages.error(
                         "doclet.exception_encountered",
                         exc.toString(), filename);
             throw new DocletAbortException(exc);
@@ -195,12 +197,13 @@
             subTitleDiv.addStyle(HtmlStyle.subTitle);
             addSummaryComment(configuration.overviewElement, subTitleDiv);
             Content div = HtmlTree.DIV(HtmlStyle.header, subTitleDiv);
-            Content see = seeLabel;
+            Content see = new ContentBuilder();
+            see.addContent(contents.seeLabel);
             see.addContent(" ");
             Content descPara = HtmlTree.P(see);
             Content descLink = getHyperLink(getDocLink(
                     SectionName.OVERVIEW_DESCRIPTION),
-                    descriptionLabel, "", "");
+                    contents.descriptionLabel, "", "");
             descPara.addContent(descLink);
             div.addContent(descPara);
             if (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.MAIN)) {
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/ModulePackageIndexFrameWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/ModulePackageIndexFrameWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -41,6 +41,7 @@
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.RawHtml;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.StringContent;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Content;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Messages;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPath;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPaths;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocletAbortException;
@@ -82,10 +83,9 @@
         try {
             modpackgen = new ModulePackageIndexFrameWriter(configuration, filename);
             modpackgen.buildModulePackagesIndexFile("doclet.Window_Overview", false, mdle);
-            modpackgen.close();
         } catch (IOException exc) {
-            configuration.standardmessage.error(
-                        "doclet.exception_encountered",
+            Messages messages = configuration.getMessages();
+            messages.error("doclet.exception_encountered",
                         exc.toString(), filename);
             throw new DocletAbortException(exc);
         }
@@ -99,13 +99,13 @@
         Content profNameContent = new StringContent(mdle.getQualifiedName().toString());
         Content heading = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.PACKAGE_HEADING, true,
                 getTargetModuleLink("classFrame", profNameContent, mdle));
-        heading.addContent(getSpace());
-        heading.addContent(packagesLabel);
+        heading.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
+        heading.addContent(contents.packagesLabel);
         HtmlTree htmlTree = (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.MAIN))
                 ? HtmlTree.MAIN(HtmlStyle.indexContainer, heading)
                 : HtmlTree.DIV(HtmlStyle.indexContainer, heading);
         HtmlTree ul = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.UL);
-        ul.setTitle(packagesLabel);
+        ul.setTitle(contents.packagesLabel);
         List<PackageElement> packages = new ArrayList<>(modules.get(mdle));
         for (PackageElement pkg : packages) {
             if ((!(configuration.nodeprecated && utils.isDeprecated(pkg)))) {
@@ -124,13 +124,13 @@
         Content moduleNameContent = new StringContent(mdle.getQualifiedName().toString());
         Content heading = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.PACKAGE_HEADING, true,
                 getTargetModuleLink("classFrame", moduleNameContent, mdle));
-        heading.addContent(getSpace());
-        heading.addContent(packagesLabel);
+        heading.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
+        heading.addContent(contents.packagesLabel);
         HtmlTree htmlTree = (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.MAIN))
                 ? HtmlTree.MAIN(HtmlStyle.indexContainer, heading)
                 : HtmlTree.DIV(HtmlStyle.indexContainer, heading);
         HtmlTree ul = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.UL);
-        ul.setTitle(packagesLabel);
+        ul.setTitle(contents.packagesLabel);
         Set<PackageElement> modulePackages = configuration.modulePackages.get(mdle);
         for (PackageElement pkg: modulePackages) {
             if ((!(configuration.nodeprecated && utils.isDeprecated(pkg)))) {
@@ -198,7 +198,7 @@
      */
     protected void addAllClassesLink(Content ul) {
         Content linkContent = getHyperLink(DocPaths.ALLCLASSES_FRAME,
-                allclassesLabel, "", "packageFrame");
+                contents.allClassesLabel, "", "packageFrame");
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(linkContent);
         ul.addContent(li);
     }
@@ -211,7 +211,7 @@
      */
     protected void addAllPackagesLink(Content ul) {
         Content linkContent = getHyperLink(DocPaths.OVERVIEW_FRAME,
-                allpackagesLabel, "", "packageListFrame");
+                contents.allPackagesLabel, "", "packageListFrame");
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(linkContent);
         ul.addContent(li);
     }
@@ -224,7 +224,7 @@
      */
     protected void addAllModulesLink(Content ul) {
         Content linkContent = getHyperLink(DocPaths.MODULE_OVERVIEW_FRAME,
-                allmodulesLabel, "", "packageListFrame");
+                contents.allModulesLabel, "", "packageListFrame");
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(linkContent);
         ul.addContent(li);
     }
@@ -233,7 +233,7 @@
      * {@inheritDoc}
      */
     protected void addNavigationBarFooter(Content body) {
-        Content p = HtmlTree.P(getSpace());
+        Content p = HtmlTree.P(Contents.SPACE);
         body.addContent(p);
     }
 }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/ModuleWriterImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/ModuleWriterImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -102,8 +102,7 @@
      * @param nextModule   Next module in the sorted array.
      */
     public ModuleWriterImpl(ConfigurationImpl configuration,
-            ModuleElement mdle, ModuleElement prevModule, ModuleElement nextModule)
-            throws IOException {
+            ModuleElement mdle, ModuleElement prevModule, ModuleElement nextModule) {
         super(configuration, DocPaths.moduleSummary(mdle));
         this.prevModule = prevModule;
         this.nextModule = nextModule;
@@ -129,8 +128,8 @@
         HtmlTree div = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.DIV);
         div.addStyle(HtmlStyle.header);
         Content tHeading = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.TITLE_HEADING, true,
-                HtmlStyle.title, moduleLabel);
-        tHeading.addContent(getSpace());
+                HtmlStyle.title, contents.moduleLabel);
+        tHeading.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
         Content moduleHead = new RawHtml(heading);
         tHeading.addContent(moduleHead);
         div.addContent(tHeading);
@@ -262,7 +261,7 @@
             HtmlTree li = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.LI);
             li.addStyle(HtmlStyle.blockList);
             addSummaryHeader(HtmlConstants.START_OF_MODULES_SUMMARY, SectionName.MODULES,
-                    getResource("doclet.navModules"), li);
+                    contents.navModules, li);
             String text = configuration.getText("doclet.Requires_Summary");
             String tableSummary = configuration.getText("doclet.Member_Table_Summary",
                     configuration.getText("doclet.Requires_Summary"),
@@ -315,7 +314,7 @@
             HtmlTree li = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.LI);
             li.addStyle(HtmlStyle.blockList);
             addSummaryHeader(HtmlConstants.START_OF_PACKAGES_SUMMARY, SectionName.PACKAGES,
-                    getResource("doclet.navPackages"), li);
+                    contents.navPackages, li);
             String text = configuration.getText("doclet.Exported_Packages_Summary");
             String tableSummary = configuration.getText("doclet.Member_Table_Summary",
                     configuration.getText("doclet.Exported_Packages_Summary"),
@@ -385,7 +384,7 @@
             HtmlTree li = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.LI);
             li.addStyle(HtmlStyle.blockList);
             addSummaryHeader(HtmlConstants.START_OF_SERVICES_SUMMARY, SectionName.SERVICES,
-                    getResource("doclet.navServices"), li);
+                    contents.navServices, li);
             String text;
             String tableSummary;
             if (usesDirs != null && !usesDirs.isEmpty()) {
@@ -468,9 +467,9 @@
         HtmlTree tdType = HtmlTree.TD(HtmlStyle.colFirst, srvLinkContent);
         tdType.addContent(new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.BR));
         tdType.addContent("(");
-        HtmlTree implSpan = HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.implementationLabel, getResource("doclet.Implementation"));
+        HtmlTree implSpan = HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.implementationLabel, contents.implementation);
         tdType.addContent(implSpan);
-        tdType.addContent(getSpace());
+        tdType.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
         tdType.addContent(implLinkContent);
         tdType.addContent(")");
         HtmlTree tdDesc = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.TD);
@@ -530,25 +529,25 @@
      * @return the content tree for the navigation summary links
      */
     protected Content getNavSummaryLinks() throws Exception {
-        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(moduleSubNavLabel);
-        li.addContent(getSpace());
+        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(contents.moduleSubNavLabel);
+        li.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
         Content ulNav = HtmlTree.UL(HtmlStyle.subNavList, li);
         Content liNav = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.LI);
         liNav.addContent(!utils.getBody(mdle).isEmpty() && !configuration.nocomment
-                ? getHyperLink(SectionName.MODULE_DESCRIPTION, getResource("doclet.navModuleDescription"))
-                : getResource("doclet.navModuleDescription"));
+                ? getHyperLink(SectionName.MODULE_DESCRIPTION, contents.navModuleDescription)
+                : contents.navModuleDescription);
         addNavGap(liNav);
         liNav.addContent(showDirectives(DirectiveKind.REQUIRES)
-                ? getHyperLink(SectionName.MODULES, getResource("doclet.navModules"))
-                : getResource("doclet.navModules"));
+                ? getHyperLink(SectionName.MODULES, contents.navModules)
+                : contents.navModules);
         addNavGap(liNav);
         liNav.addContent(showDirectives(DirectiveKind.EXPORTS)
-                ? getHyperLink(SectionName.PACKAGES, getResource("doclet.navPackages"))
-                : getResource("doclet.navPackages"));
+                ? getHyperLink(SectionName.PACKAGES, contents.navPackages)
+                : contents.navPackages);
         addNavGap(liNav);
         liNav.addContent((showDirectives(DirectiveKind.USES) || showDirectives(DirectiveKind.PROVIDES))
-                ? getHyperLink(SectionName.SERVICES, getResource("doclet.navServices"))
-                : getResource("doclet.navServices"));
+                ? getHyperLink(SectionName.SERVICES, contents.navServices)
+                : contents.navServices);
         ulNav.addContent(liNav);
         return ulNav;
     }
@@ -609,7 +608,7 @@
             deprs = utils.getDeprecatedTrees(pkg);
             HtmlTree deprDiv = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.DIV);
             deprDiv.addStyle(HtmlStyle.deprecatedContent);
-            Content deprPhrase = HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.deprecatedLabel, deprecatedPhrase);
+            Content deprPhrase = HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.deprecatedLabel, contents.deprecatedPhrase);
             deprDiv.addContent(deprPhrase);
             if (!deprs.isEmpty()) {
                 CommentHelper ch = utils.getCommentHelper(pkg);
@@ -629,7 +628,7 @@
      */
     @Override
     protected Content getNavLinkModule() {
-        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.navBarCell1Rev, moduleLabel);
+        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.navBarCell1Rev, contents.moduleLabel);
         return li;
     }
 
@@ -641,10 +640,10 @@
     public Content getNavLinkPrevious() {
         Content li;
         if (prevModule == null) {
-            li = HtmlTree.LI(prevmoduleLabel);
+            li = HtmlTree.LI(contents.prevModuleLabel);
         } else {
             li = HtmlTree.LI(getHyperLink(pathToRoot.resolve(DocPaths.moduleSummary(
-                    prevModule)), prevmoduleLabel, "", ""));
+                    prevModule)), contents.prevModuleLabel, "", ""));
         }
         return li;
     }
@@ -657,10 +656,10 @@
     public Content getNavLinkNext() {
         Content li;
         if (nextModule == null) {
-            li = HtmlTree.LI(nextmoduleLabel);
+            li = HtmlTree.LI(contents.nextModuleLabel);
         } else {
             li = HtmlTree.LI(getHyperLink(pathToRoot.resolve(DocPaths.moduleSummary(
-                    nextModule)), nextmoduleLabel, "", ""));
+                    nextModule)), contents.nextModuleLabel, "", ""));
         }
         return li;
     }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/NestedClassWriterImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/NestedClassWriterImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -84,20 +84,12 @@
     }
 
     /**
-     * Close the writer.
-     */
-    @Override
-    public void close() throws IOException {
-        writer.close();
-    }
-
-    /**
      * {@inheritDoc}
      */
     @Override
     public void addSummaryLabel(Content memberTree) {
         Content label = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.SUMMARY_HEADING,
-                writer.getResource("doclet.Nested_Class_Summary"));
+                contents.nestedClassSummary);
         memberTree.addContent(label);
     }
 
@@ -106,9 +98,9 @@
      */
     @Override
     public String getTableSummary() {
-        return configuration.getText("doclet.Member_Table_Summary",
-                configuration.getText("doclet.Nested_Class_Summary"),
-                configuration.getText("doclet.nested_classes"));
+        return resources.getText("doclet.Member_Table_Summary",
+                resources.getText("doclet.Nested_Class_Summary"),
+                resources.getText("doclet.nested_classes"));
     }
 
     /**
@@ -116,7 +108,7 @@
      */
     @Override
     public Content getCaption() {
-        return configuration.getResource("doclet.Nested_Classes");
+        return configuration.getContent("doclet.Nested_Classes");
     }
 
     /**
@@ -169,7 +161,7 @@
                 : configuration.getText("doclet.Nested_Classes_Interfaces_Inherited_From_Class"));
         Content labelHeading = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.INHERITED_SUMMARY_HEADING,
                 label);
-        labelHeading.addContent(writer.getSpace());
+        labelHeading.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
         labelHeading.addContent(classLink);
         inheritedTree.addContent(labelHeading);
     }
@@ -221,14 +213,14 @@
             if (typeElement == null) {
                 return writer.getHyperLink(
                         SectionName.NESTED_CLASS_SUMMARY,
-                        writer.getResource("doclet.navNested"));
+                        contents.navNested);
             } else {
                 return writer.getHyperLink(
                         SectionName.NESTED_CLASSES_INHERITANCE,
-                        utils.getFullyQualifiedName(typeElement), writer.getResource("doclet.navNested"));
+                        utils.getFullyQualifiedName(typeElement), contents.navNested);
             }
         } else {
-            return writer.getResource("doclet.navNested");
+            return contents.navNested;
         }
     }
 
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/PackageFrameWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/PackageFrameWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -38,6 +38,7 @@
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.StringContent;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Configuration;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Content;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Messages;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPath;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPaths;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocletAbortException;
@@ -80,8 +81,7 @@
      * @param configuration the configuration of the doclet.
      * @param packageElement PackageElement under consideration.
      */
-    public PackageFrameWriter(ConfigurationImpl configuration, PackageElement packageElement)
-            throws IOException {
+    public PackageFrameWriter(ConfigurationImpl configuration, PackageElement packageElement) {
         super(configuration, DocPath.forPackage(packageElement).resolve(DocPaths.PACKAGE_FRAME));
         this.packageElement = packageElement;
         if (utils.getSpecifiedPackages().isEmpty()) {
@@ -119,10 +119,9 @@
             }
             packgen.printHtmlDocument(
                     configuration.metakeywords.getMetaKeywords(packageElement), false, body);
-            packgen.close();
         } catch (IOException exc) {
-            configuration.standardmessage.error(
-                    "doclet.exception_encountered",
+            Messages messages = configuration.getMessages();
+            messages.error("doclet.exception_encountered",
                     exc.toString(), DocPaths.PACKAGE_FRAME.getPath());
             throw new DocletAbortException(exc);
         }
@@ -139,30 +138,30 @@
         Configuration config = configuration;
         if (utils.isIncluded(packageElement)) {
             addClassKindListing(utils.getInterfaces(packageElement),
-                getResource("doclet.Interfaces"), contentTree);
+                contents.interfaces, contentTree);
             addClassKindListing(utils.getOrdinaryClasses(packageElement),
-                getResource("doclet.Classes"), contentTree);
+                contents.classes, contentTree);
             addClassKindListing(utils.getEnums(packageElement),
-                getResource("doclet.Enums"), contentTree);
+                contents.enums, contentTree);
             addClassKindListing(utils.getExceptions(packageElement),
-                getResource("doclet.Exceptions"), contentTree);
+                contents.exceptions, contentTree);
             addClassKindListing(utils.getErrors(packageElement),
-                getResource("doclet.Errors"), contentTree);
+                contents.errors, contentTree);
             addClassKindListing(utils.getAnnotationTypes(packageElement),
-                getResource("doclet.AnnotationTypes"), contentTree);
+                contents.annotationTypes, contentTree);
         } else {
             addClassKindListing(config.typeElementCatalog.interfaces(packageElement),
-                getResource("doclet.Interfaces"), contentTree);
+                contents.interfaces, contentTree);
             addClassKindListing(config.typeElementCatalog.ordinaryClasses(packageElement),
-                getResource("doclet.Classes"), contentTree);
+                contents.classes, contentTree);
             addClassKindListing(config.typeElementCatalog.enums(packageElement),
-                getResource("doclet.Enums"), contentTree);
+                contents.enums, contentTree);
             addClassKindListing(config.typeElementCatalog.exceptions(packageElement),
-                getResource("doclet.Exceptions"), contentTree);
+                contents.exceptions, contentTree);
             addClassKindListing(config.typeElementCatalog.errors(packageElement),
-                getResource("doclet.Errors"), contentTree);
+                contents.errors, contentTree);
             addClassKindListing(config.typeElementCatalog.annotationTypes(packageElement),
-                getResource("doclet.AnnotationTypes"), contentTree);
+                contents.annotationTypes, contentTree);
         }
     }
 
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/PackageIndexFrameWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/PackageIndexFrameWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -37,6 +37,7 @@
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.RawHtml;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.StringContent;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Content;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Messages;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPath;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPaths;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocletAbortException;
@@ -76,10 +77,9 @@
         try {
             packgen = new PackageIndexFrameWriter(configuration, filename);
             packgen.buildPackageIndexFile("doclet.Window_Overview", false);
-            packgen.close();
         } catch (IOException exc) {
-            configuration.standardmessage.error(
-                        "doclet.exception_encountered",
+            Messages messages = configuration.getMessages();
+            messages.error("doclet.exception_encountered",
                         exc.toString(), filename);
             throw new DocletAbortException(exc);
         }
@@ -91,12 +91,12 @@
     protected void addPackagesList(Collection<PackageElement> packages, String text,
             String tableSummary, Content body) {
         Content heading = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.PACKAGE_HEADING, true,
-                packagesLabel);
+                contents.packagesLabel);
         HtmlTree htmlTree = (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.MAIN))
                 ? HtmlTree.MAIN(HtmlStyle.indexContainer, heading)
                 : HtmlTree.DIV(HtmlStyle.indexContainer, heading);
         HtmlTree ul = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.UL);
-        ul.setTitle(packagesLabel);
+        ul.setTitle(contents.packagesLabel);
         for (PackageElement aPackage : packages) {
             // Do not list the package if -nodeprecated option is set and the
             // package is marked as deprecated.
@@ -161,7 +161,7 @@
      */
     protected void addAllClassesLink(Content ul) {
         Content linkContent = getHyperLink(DocPaths.ALLCLASSES_FRAME,
-                allclassesLabel, "", "packageFrame");
+                contents.allClassesLabel, "", "packageFrame");
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(linkContent);
         ul.addContent(li);
     }
@@ -174,7 +174,7 @@
      */
     protected void addAllModulesLink(Content ul) {
         Content linkContent = getHyperLink(DocPaths.MODULE_OVERVIEW_FRAME,
-                allmodulesLabel, "", "packageListFrame");
+                contents.allModulesLabel, "", "packageListFrame");
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(linkContent);
         ul.addContent(li);
     }
@@ -183,7 +183,7 @@
      * {@inheritDoc}
      */
     protected void addNavigationBarFooter(Content body) {
-        Content p = HtmlTree.P(getSpace());
+        Content p = HtmlTree.P(Contents.SPACE);
         body.addContent(p);
     }
 }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/PackageIndexWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/PackageIndexWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -31,11 +31,13 @@
 import javax.lang.model.element.PackageElement;
 
 import jdk.javadoc.doclet.DocletEnvironment;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.ContentBuilder;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.HtmlStyle;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.HtmlTag;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.HtmlTree;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.RawHtml;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Content;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Messages;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPath;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPaths;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocletAbortException;
@@ -103,10 +105,9 @@
         try {
             packgen = new PackageIndexWriter(configuration, filename);
             packgen.buildPackageIndexFile("doclet.Window_Overview_Summary", true);
-            packgen.close();
         } catch (IOException exc) {
-            configuration.standardmessage.error(
-                        "doclet.exception_encountered",
+            Messages messages = configuration.getMessages();
+            messages.error("doclet.exception_encountered",
                         exc.toString(), filename);
             throw new DocletAbortException(exc);
         }
@@ -189,12 +190,13 @@
             subTitleDiv.addStyle(HtmlStyle.subTitle);
             addSummaryComment(configuration.overviewElement, subTitleDiv);
             Content div = HtmlTree.DIV(HtmlStyle.header, subTitleDiv);
-            Content see = seeLabel;
-            see.addContent(" ");
-            Content descPara = HtmlTree.P(see);
+            Content descBody = new ContentBuilder();
+            descBody.addContent(contents.seeLabel);
+            descBody.addContent(" ");
+            Content descPara = HtmlTree.P(descBody);
             Content descLink = getHyperLink(getDocLink(
                     SectionName.OVERVIEW_DESCRIPTION),
-                    descriptionLabel, "", "");
+                    contents.descriptionLabel, "", "");
             descPara.addContent(descLink);
             div.addContent(descPara);
             if (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.MAIN)) {
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/PackageTreeWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/PackageTreeWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -34,6 +34,7 @@
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.HtmlTag;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.HtmlTree;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Content;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Messages;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.ClassTree;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPath;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPaths;
@@ -112,10 +113,9 @@
             packgen = new PackageTreeWriter(configuration, path, pkg,
                 prev, next);
             packgen.generatePackageTreeFile();
-            packgen.close();
         } catch (IOException exc) {
-            configuration.standardmessage.error(
-                        "doclet.exception_encountered",
+            Messages messages = configuration.getMessages();
+            messages.error("doclet.exception_encountered",
                         exc.toString(), path.getPath());
             throw new DocletAbortException(exc);
         }
@@ -130,7 +130,7 @@
         HtmlTree htmlTree = (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.MAIN))
                 ? HtmlTree.MAIN()
                 : body;
-        Content headContent = getResource("doclet.Hierarchy_For_Package",
+        Content headContent = contents.getContent("doclet.Hierarchy_For_Package",
                 utils.getPackageName(packageElement));
         Content heading = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.TITLE_HEADING, false,
                 HtmlStyle.title, headContent);
@@ -187,7 +187,7 @@
      */
     protected void addLinkToMainTree(Content div) {
         Content span = HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.packageHierarchyLabel,
-                getResource("doclet.Package_Hierarchies"));
+                contents.packageHierarchies);
         div.addContent(span);
         HtmlTree ul = new HtmlTree (HtmlTag.UL);
         ul.addStyle(HtmlStyle.horizontal);
@@ -231,7 +231,7 @@
     @Override
     protected Content getNavLinkModule() {
         Content linkContent = getModuleLink(utils.elementUtils.getModuleOf(packageElement),
-                moduleLabel);
+                contents.moduleLabel);
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(linkContent);
         return li;
     }
@@ -243,7 +243,7 @@
      */
     protected Content getNavLinkPackage() {
         Content linkContent = getHyperLink(DocPaths.PACKAGE_SUMMARY,
-                packageLabel);
+                contents.packageLabel);
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(linkContent);
         return li;
     }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/PackageUseWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/PackageUseWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -38,6 +38,7 @@
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.HtmlTree;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.StringContent;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Content;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Messages;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.ClassUseMapper;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPath;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPaths;
@@ -108,11 +109,9 @@
         try {
             pkgusegen = new PackageUseWriter(configuration, mapper, filename, pkgElement);
             pkgusegen.generatePackageUseFile();
-            pkgusegen.close();
         } catch (IOException exc) {
-            configuration.standardmessage.error(
-                "doclet.exception_encountered",
-                exc.toString(), filename);
+            Messages messages = configuration.getMessages();
+            messages.error(exc.toString(), filename);
             throw new DocletAbortException(exc);
         }
     }
@@ -125,7 +124,7 @@
         HtmlTree div = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.DIV);
         div.addStyle(HtmlStyle.contentContainer);
         if (usingPackageToUsedClasses.isEmpty()) {
-            div.addContent(getResource("doclet.ClassUse_No.usage.of.0", utils.getPackageName(packageElement)));
+            div.addContent(contents.getContent("doclet.ClassUse_No.usage.of.0", utils.getPackageName(packageElement)));
         } else {
             addPackageUse(div);
         }
@@ -167,7 +166,7 @@
      * @param contentTree the content tree to which the package list will be added
      */
     protected void addPackageList(Content contentTree) throws IOException {
-        Content caption = getTableCaption(configuration.getResource(
+        Content caption = getTableCaption(configuration.getContent(
                 "doclet.ClassUse_Packages.that.use.0",
                 getPackageLink(packageElement, utils.getPackageName(packageElement))));
         Content table = (configuration.isOutputHtml5())
@@ -208,7 +207,7 @@
             }
             String tableSummary = configuration.getText("doclet.Use_Table_Summary",
                                                         configuration.getText("doclet.classes"));
-            Content caption = getTableCaption(configuration.getResource(
+            Content caption = getTableCaption(configuration.getContent(
                     "doclet.ClassUse_Classes.in.0.used.by.1",
                     getPackageLink(packageElement, utils.getPackageName(packageElement)),
                     getPackageLink(usingPackage, utils.getPackageName(usingPackage))));
@@ -265,7 +264,7 @@
         if (pkg != null && !pkg.isUnnamed()) {
             addSummaryComment(pkg, tdLast);
         } else {
-            tdLast.addContent(getSpace());
+            tdLast.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
         }
         contentTree.addContent(tdLast);
     }
@@ -289,7 +288,7 @@
             bodyTree.addContent(htmlTree);
         }
         ContentBuilder headContent = new ContentBuilder();
-        headContent.addContent(getResource("doclet.ClassUse_Title", packageText));
+        headContent.addContent(contents.getContent("doclet.ClassUse_Title", packageText));
         headContent.addContent(new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.BR));
         headContent.addContent(name);
         Content heading = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.TITLE_HEADING, true,
@@ -311,7 +310,7 @@
     @Override
     protected Content getNavLinkModule() {
         Content linkContent = getModuleLink(utils.elementUtils.getModuleOf(packageElement),
-                moduleLabel);
+                contents.moduleLabel);
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(linkContent);
         return li;
     }
@@ -323,7 +322,7 @@
      */
     protected Content getNavLinkPackage() {
         Content linkContent = getHyperLink(DocPaths.PACKAGE_SUMMARY,
-                packageLabel);
+                contents.packageLabel);
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(linkContent);
         return li;
     }
@@ -334,7 +333,7 @@
      * @return a content tree for the use link
      */
     protected Content getNavLinkClassUse() {
-        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.navBarCell1Rev, useLabel);
+        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.navBarCell1Rev, contents.useLabel);
         return li;
     }
 
@@ -345,7 +344,7 @@
      */
     protected Content getNavLinkTree() {
         Content linkContent = getHyperLink(DocPaths.PACKAGE_TREE,
-                treeLabel);
+                contents.treeLabel);
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(linkContent);
         return li;
     }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/PackageWriterImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/PackageWriterImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -100,8 +100,7 @@
      * @param next            Next package in the sorted array.
      */
     public PackageWriterImpl(ConfigurationImpl configuration,
-            PackageElement packageElement, PackageElement prev, PackageElement next)
-            throws IOException {
+            PackageElement packageElement, PackageElement prev, PackageElement next) {
         super(configuration, DocPath
                 .forPackage(packageElement)
                 .resolve(DocPaths.PACKAGE_SUMMARY));
@@ -127,9 +126,9 @@
         div.addStyle(HtmlStyle.header);
         ModuleElement mdle = configuration.docEnv.getElementUtils().getModuleOf(packageElement);
         if (mdle != null && !mdle.isUnnamed()) {
-            Content classModuleLabel = HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.moduleLabelInClass, moduleLabel);
+            Content classModuleLabel = HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.moduleLabelInClass, contents.moduleLabel);
             Content moduleNameDiv = HtmlTree.DIV(HtmlStyle.subTitle, classModuleLabel);
-            moduleNameDiv.addContent(getSpace());
+            moduleNameDiv.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
             moduleNameDiv.addContent(getModuleLink(mdle,
                     new StringContent(mdle.getQualifiedName().toString())));
             div.addContent(moduleNameDiv);
@@ -138,8 +137,8 @@
         addAnnotationInfo(packageElement, annotationContent);
         div.addContent(annotationContent);
         Content tHeading = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.TITLE_HEADING, true,
-                HtmlStyle.title, packageLabel);
-        tHeading.addContent(getSpace());
+                HtmlStyle.title, contents.packageLabel);
+        tHeading.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
         Content packageHead = new StringContent(heading);
         tHeading.addContent(packageHead);
         div.addContent(tHeading);
@@ -149,11 +148,11 @@
             docSummaryDiv.addStyle(HtmlStyle.docSummary);
             addSummaryComment(packageElement, docSummaryDiv);
             div.addContent(docSummaryDiv);
-            Content space = getSpace();
+            Content space = Contents.SPACE;
             Content descLink = getHyperLink(getDocLink(
                     SectionName.PACKAGE_DESCRIPTION),
-                    descriptionLabel, "", "");
-            Content descPara = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.P, seeLabel, space, descLink);
+                    contents.descriptionLabel, "", "");
+            Content descPara = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.P, contents.seeLabel, space, descLink);
             div.addContent(descPara);
         }
         if (configuration.allowTag(HtmlTag.MAIN)) {
@@ -184,7 +183,7 @@
             CommentHelper ch = utils.getCommentHelper(packageElement);
             HtmlTree deprDiv = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.DIV);
             deprDiv.addStyle(HtmlStyle.deprecatedContent);
-            Content deprPhrase = HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.deprecatedLabel, deprecatedPhrase);
+            Content deprPhrase = HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.deprecatedLabel, contents.deprecatedPhrase);
             deprDiv.addContent(deprPhrase);
             if (!deprs.isEmpty()) {
                 List<? extends DocTree> commentTags = ch.getDescription(configuration, deprs.get(0));
@@ -233,7 +232,7 @@
                 HtmlTree tdClassDescription = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.TD);
                 tdClassDescription.addStyle(HtmlStyle.colLast);
                 if (utils.isDeprecated(klass)) {
-                    tdClassDescription.addContent(deprecatedLabel);
+                    tdClassDescription.addContent(contents.deprecatedLabel);
                     List<? extends DocTree> tags = utils.getDeprecatedTrees(klass);
                     if (!tags.isEmpty()) {
                         addSummaryDeprecatedComment(klass, tags.get(0), tdClassDescription);
@@ -323,7 +322,7 @@
      */
     protected Content getNavLinkClassUse() {
         Content useLink = getHyperLink(DocPaths.PACKAGE_USE,
-                useLabel, "", "");
+                contents.useLabel, "", "");
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(useLink);
         return li;
     }
@@ -336,11 +335,11 @@
     public Content getNavLinkPrevious() {
         Content li;
         if (prev == null) {
-            li = HtmlTree.LI(prevpackageLabel);
+            li = HtmlTree.LI(contents.prevPackageLabel);
         } else {
             DocPath path = DocPath.relativePath(packageElement, prev);
             li = HtmlTree.LI(getHyperLink(path.resolve(DocPaths.PACKAGE_SUMMARY),
-                prevpackageLabel, "", ""));
+                contents.prevPackageLabel, "", ""));
         }
         return li;
     }
@@ -353,11 +352,11 @@
     public Content getNavLinkNext() {
         Content li;
         if (next == null) {
-            li = HtmlTree.LI(nextpackageLabel);
+            li = HtmlTree.LI(contents.nextPackageLabel);
         } else {
             DocPath path = DocPath.relativePath(packageElement, next);
             li = HtmlTree.LI(getHyperLink(path.resolve(DocPaths.PACKAGE_SUMMARY),
-                nextpackageLabel, "", ""));
+                contents.nextPackageLabel, "", ""));
         }
         return li;
     }
@@ -370,7 +369,7 @@
      */
     protected Content getNavLinkTree() {
         Content useLink = getHyperLink(DocPaths.PACKAGE_TREE,
-                treeLabel, "", "");
+                contents.treeLabel, "", "");
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(useLink);
         return li;
     }
@@ -383,7 +382,7 @@
     @Override
     protected Content getNavLinkModule() {
         Content linkContent = getModuleLink(utils.elementUtils.getModuleOf(packageElement),
-                moduleLabel);
+                contents.moduleLabel);
         Content li = HtmlTree.LI(linkContent);
         return li;
     }
@@ -394,7 +393,7 @@
      * @return a content tree for the package link
      */
     protected Content getNavLinkPackage() {
-        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.navBarCell1Rev, packageLabel);
+        Content li = HtmlTree.LI(HtmlStyle.navBarCell1Rev, contents.packageLabel);
         return li;
     }
 }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/PropertyWriterImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/PropertyWriterImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -94,7 +94,7 @@
         propertyDetailsTree.addContent(writer.getMarkerAnchor(
                 SectionName.PROPERTY_DETAIL));
         Content heading = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.DETAILS_HEADING,
-                writer.propertyDetailsLabel);
+                contents.propertyDetailsLabel);
         propertyDetailsTree.addContent(heading);
         return propertyDetailsTree;
     }
@@ -163,9 +163,9 @@
                 Content codeLink = HtmlTree.CODE(link);
                 Content descfrmLabel = HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.descfrmTypeLabel,
                         utils.isClass(holder)
-                                ? writer.descfrmClassLabel
-                                : writer.descfrmInterfaceLabel);
-                descfrmLabel.addContent(writer.getSpace());
+                                ? contents.descfrmClassLabel
+                                : contents.descfrmInterfaceLabel);
+                descfrmLabel.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
                 descfrmLabel.addContent(codeLink);
                 propertyDocTree.addContent(HtmlTree.DIV(HtmlStyle.block, descfrmLabel));
                 writer.addInlineComment(property, propertyDocTree);
@@ -203,20 +203,12 @@
     }
 
     /**
-     * Close the writer.
-     */
-    @Override
-    public void close() throws IOException {
-        writer.close();
-    }
-
-    /**
      * {@inheritDoc}
      */
     @Override
     public void addSummaryLabel(Content memberTree) {
         Content label = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.SUMMARY_HEADING,
-                writer.getResource("doclet.Property_Summary"));
+                contents.propertySummary);
         memberTree.addContent(label);
     }
 
@@ -225,9 +217,9 @@
      */
     @Override
     public String getTableSummary() {
-        return configuration.getText("doclet.Member_Table_Summary",
-                configuration.getText("doclet.Property_Summary"),
-                configuration.getText("doclet.properties"));
+        return resources.getText("doclet.Member_Table_Summary",
+                resources.getText("doclet.Property_Summary"),
+                resources.getText("doclet.properties"));
     }
 
     /**
@@ -235,7 +227,7 @@
      */
     @Override
     public Content getCaption() {
-        return configuration.getResource("doclet.Properties");
+        return contents.properties;
     }
 
     /**
@@ -282,7 +274,7 @@
                        : configuration.getText("doclet.Properties_Inherited_From_Interface"));
         Content labelHeading = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.INHERITED_SUMMARY_HEADING,
                 label);
-        labelHeading.addContent(writer.getSpace());
+        labelHeading.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
         labelHeading.addContent(classLink);
         inheritedTree.addContent(labelHeading);
     }
@@ -342,14 +334,14 @@
             if (typeElement == null) {
                 return writer.getHyperLink(
                 SectionName.PROPERTY_SUMMARY,
-                writer.getResource("doclet.navProperty"));
+                contents.navProperty);
             } else {
                 return writer.getHyperLink(
                 SectionName.PROPERTIES_INHERITANCE,
-                configuration.getClassName(typeElement), writer.getResource("doclet.navProperty"));
+                configuration.getClassName(typeElement), contents.navProperty);
             }
         } else {
-            return writer.getResource("doclet.navProperty");
+            return contents.navProperty;
         }
     }
 
@@ -361,9 +353,9 @@
         if (link) {
             liNav.addContent(writer.getHyperLink(
                     SectionName.PROPERTY_DETAIL,
-                    writer.getResource("doclet.navProperty")));
+                    contents.navProperty));
         } else {
-            liNav.addContent(writer.getResource("doclet.navProperty"));
+            liNav.addContent(contents.navProperty);
         }
     }
 }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/SerializedFormWriterImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/SerializedFormWriterImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -136,8 +136,8 @@
      */
     public Content getPackageHeader(String packageName) {
         Content heading = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.PACKAGE_HEADING, true,
-                packageLabel);
-        heading.addContent(getSpace());
+                contents.packageLabel);
+        heading.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
         heading.addContent(packageName);
         return heading;
     }
@@ -183,9 +183,9 @@
 
         //Print the heading.
         Content className = superClassLink == null ?
-            configuration.getResource(
+            configuration.getContent(
             "doclet.Class_0_implements_serializable", classLink) :
-            configuration.getResource(
+            configuration.getContent(
             "doclet.Class_0_extends_implements_serializable", classLink,
             superClassLink);
         li.addContent(HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.SERIALIZED_MEMBER_HEADING,
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/SingleIndexWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/SingleIndexWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 1998, 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1998, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -33,6 +33,7 @@
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.HtmlTree;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.StringContent;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Content;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Messages;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPath;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPaths;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocletAbortException;
@@ -84,10 +85,9 @@
             indexgen = new SingleIndexWriter(configuration,
                                              filename, indexbuilder);
             indexgen.generateIndexFile();
-            indexgen.close();
         } catch (IOException exc) {
-            configuration.standardmessage.error(
-                        "doclet.exception_encountered",
+            Messages messages = configuration.getMessages();
+            messages.error("doclet.exception_encountered",
                         exc.toString(), filename);
             throw new DocletAbortException(exc);
         }
@@ -150,7 +150,7 @@
             contentTree.addContent(
                     getHyperLink(getNameForIndex(unicode),
                             new StringContent(unicode)));
-            contentTree.addContent(getSpace());
+            contentTree.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
         }
     }
 }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/SourceToHTMLConverter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/SourceToHTMLConverter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -40,6 +40,7 @@
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.HtmlTree;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.StringContent;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Content;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Messages;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocFile;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPath;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPaths;
@@ -73,6 +74,7 @@
     private static final String NEW_LINE = DocletConstants.NL;
 
     private final ConfigurationImpl configuration;
+    private final Messages messages;
     private final Utils utils;
 
     private final DocletEnvironment docEnv;
@@ -88,6 +90,7 @@
     private SourceToHTMLConverter(ConfigurationImpl configuration, DocletEnvironment rd,
             DocPath outputdir) {
         this.configuration  = configuration;
+        this.messages = configuration.getMessages();
         this.utils = configuration.utils;
         this.docEnv = rd;
         this.outputdir = outputdir;
@@ -200,7 +203,7 @@
         Content htmlTree = HtmlTree.HTML(configuration.getLocale().getLanguage(),
                 head, body);
         Content htmlDocument = new HtmlDocument(htmlDocType, htmlTree);
-        configuration.message.notice("doclet.Generating_0", path.getPath());
+        messages.notice("doclet.Generating_0", path.getPath());
         DocFile df = DocFile.createFileForOutput(configuration, path);
         try (Writer w = df.openWriter()) {
             htmlDocument.write(w, true);
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/SplitIndexWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/SplitIndexWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 1998, 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1998, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -32,11 +32,13 @@
 import java.util.ListIterator;
 import java.util.Set;
 import java.util.TreeSet;
+
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.HtmlStyle;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.HtmlTag;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.HtmlTree;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.StringContent;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Content;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Messages;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPath;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPaths;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocletAbortException;
@@ -115,11 +117,10 @@
                 if (!li.hasNext()) {
                     indexgen.createSearchIndexFiles();
                 }
-                indexgen.close();
             }
         } catch (IOException exc) {
-            configuration.standardmessage.error(
-                        "doclet.exception_encountered",
+            Messages messages = configuration.getMessages();
+            messages.error("doclet.exception_encountered",
                         exc.toString(), filename.getPath());
             throw new DocletAbortException(exc);
         }
@@ -178,7 +179,7 @@
             int j = i + 1;
             contentTree.addContent(getHyperLink(DocPaths.indexN(j),
                     new StringContent(indexElements.get(i).toString())));
-            contentTree.addContent(getSpace());
+            contentTree.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
         }
     }
 
@@ -188,7 +189,7 @@
      * @return a content tree for the link
      */
     public Content getNavLinkPrevious() {
-        Content prevletterLabel = getResource("doclet.Prev_Letter");
+        Content prevletterLabel = contents.prevLetter;
         if (prev == -1) {
             return HtmlTree.LI(prevletterLabel);
         }
@@ -205,7 +206,7 @@
      * @return a content tree for the link
      */
     public Content getNavLinkNext() {
-        Content nextletterLabel = getResource("doclet.Next_Letter");
+        Content nextletterLabel = contents.nextLetter;
         if (next == -1) {
             return HtmlTree.LI(nextletterLabel);
         }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/SubWriterHolderWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/SubWriterHolderWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -35,7 +35,6 @@
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.HtmlStyle;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.HtmlTag;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.HtmlTree;
-import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.StringContent;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Content;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPath;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.MethodTypes;
@@ -67,8 +66,7 @@
      */
     protected HtmlTree mainTree = HtmlTree.MAIN();
 
-    public SubWriterHolderWriter(ConfigurationImpl configuration, DocPath filename)
-            throws IOException {
+    public SubWriterHolderWriter(ConfigurationImpl configuration, DocPath filename) {
         super(configuration, filename);
     }
 
@@ -126,7 +124,7 @@
             Content captionSpan;
             Content span;
             if (type.isDefaultTab()) {
-                captionSpan = HtmlTree.SPAN(configuration.getResource(type.resourceKey()));
+                captionSpan = HtmlTree.SPAN(configuration.getContent(type.resourceKey()));
                 span = HtmlTree.SPAN(type.tabId(),
                         HtmlStyle.activeTableTab, captionSpan);
             } else {
@@ -134,7 +132,7 @@
                 span = HtmlTree.SPAN(type.tabId(),
                         HtmlStyle.tableTab, captionSpan);
             }
-            Content tabSpan = HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.tabEnd, getSpace());
+            Content tabSpan = HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.tabEnd, Contents.SPACE);
             span.addContent(tabSpan);
             tabbedCaption.addContent(span);
         }
@@ -149,7 +147,7 @@
      */
     public Content getMethodTypeLinks(MethodTypes methodType) {
         String jsShow = "javascript:show(" + methodType.value() +");";
-        HtmlTree link = HtmlTree.A(jsShow, configuration.getResource(methodType.resourceKey()));
+        HtmlTree link = HtmlTree.A(jsShow, configuration.getContent(methodType.resourceKey()));
         return link;
     }
 
@@ -189,9 +187,9 @@
         List<? extends DocTree> deprs = utils.getBlockTags(member, DocTree.Kind.DEPRECATED);
         Content div;
         if (utils.isDeprecated(member)) {
-            Content deprLabel = HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.deprecatedLabel, deprecatedPhrase);
+            Content deprLabel = HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.deprecatedLabel, contents.deprecatedPhrase);
             div = HtmlTree.DIV(HtmlStyle.block, deprLabel);
-            div.addContent(getSpace());
+            div.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
             if (!deprs.isEmpty()) {
                 addInlineDeprecatedComment(member, deprs.get(0), div);
             }
@@ -200,9 +198,9 @@
         } else {
             Element te = member.getEnclosingElement();
             if (te != null &&  utils.isTypeElement(te) && utils.isDeprecated(te)) {
-                Content deprLabel = HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.deprecatedLabel, deprecatedPhrase);
+                Content deprLabel = HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.deprecatedLabel, contents.deprecatedPhrase);
                 div = HtmlTree.DIV(HtmlStyle.block, deprLabel);
-                div.addContent(getSpace());
+                div.addContent(Contents.SPACE);
                 tdSummary.addContent(div);
             }
         }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/TagletWriterImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/TagletWriterImpl.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -26,6 +26,7 @@
 package jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html;
 
 import java.util.List;
+
 import javax.lang.model.element.Element;
 import javax.lang.model.element.PackageElement;
 import javax.lang.model.element.TypeElement;
@@ -51,7 +52,6 @@
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPath;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPaths;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocletConstants;
-import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.MessageRetriever;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.Utils;
 
 /**
@@ -144,7 +144,7 @@
                     return null;
                 }
             }.visit(element);
-            si.setCategory(configuration.getResource("doclet.SearchTags").toString());
+            si.setCategory(configuration.getContent("doclet.SearchTags").toString());
             configuration.tagSearchIndex.add(si);
         }
         return result;
@@ -215,13 +215,6 @@
     /**
      * {@inheritDoc}
      */
-    public MessageRetriever getMsgRetriever() {
-        return configuration.message;
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * {@inheritDoc}
-     */
     public Content getParamHeader(String header) {
         HtmlTree result = HtmlTree.DT(HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.paramLabel,
                 new StringContent(header)));
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/TreeWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/TreeWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 1997, 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1997, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -36,6 +36,7 @@
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.HtmlTree;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup.StringContent;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Content;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Messages;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.ClassTree;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPath;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPaths;
@@ -96,10 +97,9 @@
         try {
             treegen = new TreeWriter(configuration, filename, classtree);
             treegen.generateTreeFile();
-            treegen.close();
         } catch (IOException exc) {
-            configuration.standardmessage.error(
-                        "doclet.exception_encountered",
+            Messages messages = configuration.getMessages();
+            messages.error("doclet.exception_encountered",
                         exc.toString(), filename);
             throw new DocletAbortException(exc);
         }
@@ -110,7 +110,7 @@
      */
     public void generateTreeFile() throws IOException {
         HtmlTree body = getTreeHeader();
-        Content headContent = getResource("doclet.Hierarchy_For_All_Packages");
+        Content headContent = contents.hierarchyForAllPackages;
         Content heading = HtmlTree.HEADING(HtmlConstants.TITLE_HEADING, false,
                 HtmlStyle.title, headContent);
         Content div = HtmlTree.DIV(HtmlStyle.header, heading);
@@ -154,7 +154,7 @@
         }
         if (!classesonly) {
             Content span = HtmlTree.SPAN(HtmlStyle.packageHierarchyLabel,
-                    getResource("doclet.Package_Hierarchies"));
+                    contents.packageHierarchies);
             contentTree.addContent(span);
             HtmlTree ul = new HtmlTree(HtmlTag.UL);
             ul.addStyle(HtmlStyle.horizontal);
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/markup/FixedStringContent.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -0,0 +1,138 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2010, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+ *
+ * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+ * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
+ * particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
+ * by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
+ *
+ * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+ * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+ * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
+ * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+ * accompanied this code).
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+ * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+ * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+ *
+ * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
+ * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
+ * questions.
+ */
+package jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.markup;
+
+import java.io.IOException;
+import java.io.Writer;
+
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Content;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocletAbortException;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocletConstants;
+
+/**
+ * Class for containing fixed string content for HTML tags of javadoc output.
+ *
+ *  <p><b>This is NOT part of any supported API.
+ *  If you write code that depends on this, you do so at your own risk.
+ *  This code and its internal interfaces are subject to change or
+ *  deletion without notice.</b>
+ */
+public class FixedStringContent extends Content {
+    private final String string;
+
+    /**
+     * Constructor to construct FixedStringContent object.
+     *
+     * @param content content for the object
+     */
+    public FixedStringContent(CharSequence content) {
+        string = needEscape(content)
+                ? escape(content)
+                : content.toString();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * This method is not supported by the class.
+     *
+     * @param content content that needs to be added
+     * @throws DocletAbortException this method will always throw a
+     *                              DocletAbortException because it
+     *                              is not supported.
+     */
+    @Override
+    public void addContent(Content content) {
+        throw new DocletAbortException("not supported");
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Adds content for the StringContent object.  The method escapes
+     * HTML characters for the string content that is added.
+     *
+     * @param strContent string content to be added
+     * @throws DocletAbortException this method will always throw a
+     *                              DocletAbortException because it
+     *                              is not supported.
+     */
+    @Override
+    public void addContent(CharSequence strContent) {
+        throw new DocletAbortException("not supported");
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * {@inheritDoc}
+     */
+    @Override
+    public boolean isEmpty() {
+        return string.isEmpty();
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public int charCount() {
+        return RawHtml.charCount(string);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * {@inheritDoc}
+     */
+    @Override
+    public String toString() {
+        return string;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * {@inheritDoc}
+     */
+    @Override
+    public boolean write(Writer out, boolean atNewline) throws IOException {
+        out.write(string);
+        return string.endsWith(DocletConstants.NL);
+    }
+
+    private boolean needEscape(CharSequence cs) {
+        for (int i = 0; i < cs.length(); i++) {
+            switch (cs.charAt(i)) {
+                case '<':
+                case '>':
+                case '&':
+                    return true;
+            }
+        }
+        return false;
+    }
+    private String escape(CharSequence s) {
+        StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
+        for (int i = 0; i < s.length(); i++) {
+            char ch = s.charAt(i);
+            switch (ch) {
+                case '<': sb.append("&lt;");  break;
+                case '>': sb.append("&gt;");  break;
+                case '&': sb.append("&amp;"); break;
+                default:  sb.append(ch);      break;
+            }
+        }
+        return sb.toString();
+    }
+
+}
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/markup/HtmlDocWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/markup/HtmlDocWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -36,6 +36,7 @@
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.formats.html.SectionName;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Configuration;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Content;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Messages;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocFile;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocLink;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPath;
@@ -67,11 +68,11 @@
      *
      * @param filename String file name.
      */
-    public HtmlDocWriter(Configuration configuration, DocPath filename)
-            throws IOException {
+    public HtmlDocWriter(Configuration configuration, DocPath filename) {
         super(configuration, filename);
         this.pathToRoot = filename.parent().invert();
-        configuration.message.notice("doclet.Generating_0",
+        Messages messages = configuration.getMessages();
+        messages.notice("doclet.Generating_0",
             DocFile.createFileForOutput(configuration, filename).getPath());
     }
 
@@ -310,10 +311,6 @@
         return (encl.isUnnamed()) ? "" : (encl.getQualifiedName() + ".");
     }
 
-    public boolean getMemberDetailsListPrinted() {
-        return memberDetailsListPrinted;
-    }
-
     /**
      * Print the frames version of the Html file header.
      * Called only when generating an HTML frames file.
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/markup/HtmlWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/markup/HtmlWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -30,6 +30,7 @@
 
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Configuration;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Content;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Resources;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocFile;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocPath;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocletConstants;
@@ -62,11 +63,6 @@
     protected Configuration configuration;
 
     /**
-     * The flag to indicate whether a member details list is printed or not.
-     */
-    protected boolean memberDetailsListPrinted;
-
-    /**
      * Header for table displaying modules and description..
      */
     protected final List<String> moduleTableHeader;
@@ -106,89 +102,7 @@
      */
     protected final String modifierTypeHeader;
 
-    public final Content overviewLabel;
-
-    public final Content defaultPackageLabel;
-
-    public final Content packageLabel;
-
-    public final Content moduleLabel;
-
-    public final Content useLabel;
-
-    public final Content prevLabel;
-
-    public final Content nextLabel;
-
-    public final Content prevclassLabel;
-
-    public final Content nextclassLabel;
-
-    public final Content summaryLabel;
-
-    public final Content detailLabel;
-
-    public final Content moduleSubNavLabel;
-
-    public final Content framesLabel;
-
-    public final Content noframesLabel;
-
-    public final Content treeLabel;
-
-    public final Content classLabel;
-
-    public final Content deprecatedLabel;
-
-    public final Content deprecatedPhrase;
-
-    public final Content allclassesLabel;
-
-    public final Content allpackagesLabel;
-
-    public final Content allmodulesLabel;
-
-    public final Content indexLabel;
-
-    public final Content helpLabel;
-
-    public final Content seeLabel;
-
-    public final Content descriptionLabel;
-
-    public final Content prevpackageLabel;
-
-    public final Content nextpackageLabel;
-
-    public final Content prevmoduleLabel;
-
-    public final Content nextmoduleLabel;
-
-    public final Content packagesLabel;
-
-    public final Content modulesLabel;
-
-    public final Content methodDetailsLabel;
-
-    public final Content annotationTypeDetailsLabel;
-
-    public final Content fieldDetailsLabel;
-
-    public final Content propertyDetailsLabel;
-
-    public final Content constructorDetailsLabel;
-
-    public final Content enumConstantsDetailsLabel;
-
-    public final Content specifiedByLabel;
-
-    public final Content overridesLabel;
-
-    public final Content descfrmClassLabel;
-
-    public final Content descfrmInterfaceLabel;
-
-    private final Writer writer;
+    private final DocFile docFile;
 
     protected Content script;
 
@@ -198,143 +112,45 @@
      *
      * @param path The directory path to be created for this file
      *             or null if none to be created.
-     * @exception IOException Exception raised by the FileWriter is passed on
-     * to next level.
-     * @exception UnsupportedEncodingException Exception raised by the
-     * OutputStreamWriter is passed on to next level.
      */
-    public HtmlWriter(Configuration configuration, DocPath path)
-            throws IOException, UnsupportedEncodingException {
-        writer = DocFile.createFileForOutput(configuration, path).openWriter();
+    public HtmlWriter(Configuration configuration, DocPath path) {
+        docFile = DocFile.createFileForOutput(configuration, path);
         this.configuration = configuration;
-        this.memberDetailsListPrinted = false;
+
+        // The following should be converted to shared Content objects
+        // and moved to Contents, but that will require additional
+        // changes at the use sites.
+        Resources resources = configuration.getResources();
         moduleTableHeader = Arrays.asList(
-            configuration.getText("doclet.Module"),
-            configuration.getText("doclet.Description"));
+            resources.getText("doclet.Module"),
+            resources.getText("doclet.Description"));
         packageTableHeader = new ArrayList<>();
-        packageTableHeader.add(configuration.getText("doclet.Package"));
-        packageTableHeader.add(configuration.getText("doclet.Description"));
+        packageTableHeader.add(resources.getText("doclet.Package"));
+        packageTableHeader.add(resources.getText("doclet.Description"));
         requiresTableHeader = new ArrayList<>();
-        requiresTableHeader.add(configuration.getText("doclet.Module"));
-        requiresTableHeader.add(configuration.getText("doclet.Description"));
+        requiresTableHeader.add(resources.getText("doclet.Module"));
+        requiresTableHeader.add(resources.getText("doclet.Description"));
         exportedPackagesTableHeader = new ArrayList<>();
-        exportedPackagesTableHeader.add(configuration.getText("doclet.Package"));
-        exportedPackagesTableHeader.add(configuration.getText("doclet.Module"));
-        exportedPackagesTableHeader.add(configuration.getText("doclet.Description"));
+        exportedPackagesTableHeader.add(resources.getText("doclet.Package"));
+        exportedPackagesTableHeader.add(resources.getText("doclet.Module"));
+        exportedPackagesTableHeader.add(resources.getText("doclet.Description"));
         usesTableHeader = new ArrayList<>();
-        usesTableHeader.add(configuration.getText("doclet.Type"));
-        usesTableHeader.add(configuration.getText("doclet.Description"));
+        usesTableHeader.add(resources.getText("doclet.Type"));
+        usesTableHeader.add(resources.getText("doclet.Description"));
         providesTableHeader = new ArrayList<>();
-        providesTableHeader.add(configuration.getText("doclet.Type"));
-        providesTableHeader.add(configuration.getText("doclet.Description"));
-        useTableSummary = configuration.getText("doclet.Use_Table_Summary",
-                configuration.getText("doclet.packages"));
-        modifierTypeHeader = configuration.getText("doclet.0_and_1",
-                configuration.getText("doclet.Modifier"),
-                configuration.getText("doclet.Type"));
-        overviewLabel = getResource("doclet.Overview");
-        defaultPackageLabel = new StringContent(DocletConstants.DEFAULT_PACKAGE_NAME);
-        packageLabel = getResource("doclet.Package");
-        moduleLabel = getResource("doclet.Module");
-        useLabel = getResource("doclet.navClassUse");
-        prevLabel = getResource("doclet.Prev");
-        nextLabel = getResource("doclet.Next");
-        prevclassLabel = getNonBreakResource("doclet.Prev_Class");
-        nextclassLabel = getNonBreakResource("doclet.Next_Class");
-        summaryLabel = getResource("doclet.Summary");
-        detailLabel = getResource("doclet.Detail");
-        moduleSubNavLabel = getResource("doclet.Module_Sub_Nav");
-        framesLabel = getResource("doclet.Frames");
-        noframesLabel = getNonBreakResource("doclet.No_Frames");
-        treeLabel = getResource("doclet.Tree");
-        classLabel = getResource("doclet.Class");
-        deprecatedLabel = getResource("doclet.navDeprecated");
-        deprecatedPhrase = getResource("doclet.Deprecated");
-        allclassesLabel = getNonBreakResource("doclet.All_Classes");
-        allpackagesLabel = getNonBreakResource("doclet.All_Packages");
-        allmodulesLabel = getNonBreakResource("doclet.All_Modules");
-        indexLabel = getResource("doclet.Index");
-        helpLabel = getResource("doclet.Help");
-        seeLabel = getResource("doclet.See");
-        descriptionLabel = getResource("doclet.Description");
-        prevpackageLabel = getNonBreakResource("doclet.Prev_Package");
-        nextpackageLabel = getNonBreakResource("doclet.Next_Package");
-        prevmoduleLabel = getNonBreakResource("doclet.Prev_Module");
-        nextmoduleLabel = getNonBreakResource("doclet.Next_Module");
-        packagesLabel = getResource("doclet.Packages");
-        modulesLabel = getResource("doclet.Modules");
-        methodDetailsLabel = getResource("doclet.Method_Detail");
-        annotationTypeDetailsLabel = getResource("doclet.Annotation_Type_Member_Detail");
-        fieldDetailsLabel = getResource("doclet.Field_Detail");
-        propertyDetailsLabel = getResource("doclet.Property_Detail");
-        constructorDetailsLabel = getResource("doclet.Constructor_Detail");
-        enumConstantsDetailsLabel = getResource("doclet.Enum_Constant_Detail");
-        specifiedByLabel = getResource("doclet.Specified_By");
-        overridesLabel = getResource("doclet.Overrides");
-        descfrmClassLabel = getResource("doclet.Description_From_Class");
-        descfrmInterfaceLabel = getResource("doclet.Description_From_Interface");
+        providesTableHeader.add(resources.getText("doclet.Type"));
+        providesTableHeader.add(resources.getText("doclet.Description"));
+        useTableSummary = resources.getText("doclet.Use_Table_Summary",
+                resources.getText("doclet.packages"));
+        modifierTypeHeader = resources.getText("doclet.0_and_1",
+                resources.getText("doclet.Modifier"),
+                resources.getText("doclet.Type"));
     }
 
     public void write(Content c) throws IOException {
-        c.write(writer, true);
-    }
-
-    public void close() throws IOException {
-        writer.close();
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Get the configuration string as a content.
-     *
-     * @param key the key to look for in the configuration file
-     * @return a content tree for the text
-     */
-    public Content getResource(String key) {
-        return configuration.getResource(key);
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Get the configuration string as a content, replacing spaces
-     * with non-breaking spaces.
-     *
-     * @param key the key to look for in the configuration file
-     * @return a content tree for the text
-     */
-    public Content getNonBreakResource(String key) {
-        String text = configuration.getText(key);
-        Content c = configuration.newContent();
-        int start = 0;
-        int p;
-        while ((p = text.indexOf(" ", start)) != -1) {
-            c.addContent(text.substring(start, p));
-            c.addContent(RawHtml.nbsp);
-            start = p + 1;
+        try (Writer writer = docFile.openWriter()) {
+            c.write(writer, true);
         }
-        c.addContent(text.substring(start));
-        return c;
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Get the configuration string as a content.
-     *
-     * @param key the key to look for in the configuration file
-     * @param o   string or content argument added to configuration text
-     * @return a content tree for the text
-     */
-    public Content getResource(String key, Object o) {
-        return configuration.getResource(key, o);
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Get the configuration string as a content.
-     *
-     * @param key the key to look for in the configuration file
-     * @param o1  string or content argument added to configuration text
-     * @param o2  string or content argument added to configuration text
-     * @return a content tree for the text
-     */
-    public Content getResource(String key, Object o0, Object o1) {
-        return configuration.getResource(key, o0, o1);
     }
 
     /**
@@ -343,21 +159,21 @@
      * @return an HtmlTree for the SCRIPT tag
      */
     protected HtmlTree getWinTitleScript(){
-        HtmlTree script = HtmlTree.SCRIPT();
+        HtmlTree scriptTree = HtmlTree.SCRIPT();
         if(winTitle != null && winTitle.length() > 0) {
-            String scriptCode = "<!--" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                    "    try {" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                    "        if (location.href.indexOf('is-external=true') == -1) {" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                    "            parent.document.title=\"" + escapeJavaScriptChars(winTitle) + "\";" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                    "        }" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                    "    }" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                    "    catch(err) {" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                    "    }" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                    "//-->" + DocletConstants.NL;
-            RawHtml scriptContent = new RawHtml(scriptCode);
-            script.addContent(scriptContent);
+            String scriptCode = "<!--\n" +
+                    "    try {\n" +
+                    "        if (location.href.indexOf('is-external=true') == -1) {\n" +
+                    "            parent.document.title=\"" + escapeJavaScriptChars(winTitle) + "\";\n" +
+                    "        }\n" +
+                    "    }\n" +
+                    "    catch(err) {\n" +
+                    "    }\n" +
+                    "//-->\n";
+            RawHtml scriptContent = new RawHtml(scriptCode.replace("\n", DocletConstants.NL));
+            scriptTree.addContent(scriptContent);
         }
-        return script;
+        return scriptTree;
     }
 
     /**
@@ -413,61 +229,61 @@
      * @return a content for the SCRIPT tag
      */
     protected Content getFramesJavaScript() {
-        HtmlTree script = HtmlTree.SCRIPT();
-        String scriptCode = DocletConstants.NL +
-                "    targetPage = \"\" + window.location.search;" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "    if (targetPage != \"\" && targetPage != \"undefined\")" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "        targetPage = targetPage.substring(1);" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "    if (targetPage.indexOf(\":\") != -1 || (targetPage != \"\" && !validURL(targetPage)))" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "        targetPage = \"undefined\";" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "    function validURL(url) {" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "        try {" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "            url = decodeURIComponent(url);" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "        }" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "        catch (error) {" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "            return false;" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "        }" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "        var pos = url.indexOf(\".html\");" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "        if (pos == -1 || pos != url.length - 5)" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "            return false;" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "        var allowNumber = false;" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "        var allowSep = false;" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "        var seenDot = false;" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "        for (var i = 0; i < url.length - 5; i++) {" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "            var ch = url.charAt(i);" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "            if ('a' <= ch && ch <= 'z' ||" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "                    'A' <= ch && ch <= 'Z' ||" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "                    ch == '$' ||" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "                    ch == '_' ||" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "                    ch.charCodeAt(0) > 127) {" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "                allowNumber = true;" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "                allowSep = true;" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "            } else if ('0' <= ch && ch <= '9'" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "                    || ch == '-') {" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "                if (!allowNumber)" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "                     return false;" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "            } else if (ch == '/' || ch == '.') {" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "                if (!allowSep)" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "                    return false;" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "                allowNumber = false;" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "                allowSep = false;" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "                if (ch == '.')" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "                     seenDot = true;" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "                if (ch == '/' && seenDot)" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "                     return false;" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "            } else {" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "                return false;"+ DocletConstants.NL +
-                "            }" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "        }" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "        return true;" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "    }" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "    function loadFrames() {" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "        if (targetPage != \"\" && targetPage != \"undefined\")" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "             top.classFrame.location = top.targetPage;" + DocletConstants.NL +
-                "    }" + DocletConstants.NL;
-        RawHtml scriptContent = new RawHtml(scriptCode);
-        script.addContent(scriptContent);
-        return script;
+        HtmlTree scriptTree = HtmlTree.SCRIPT();
+        String scriptCode = "\n" +
+                "    targetPage = \"\" + window.location.search;\n" +
+                "    if (targetPage != \"\" && targetPage != \"undefined\")\n" +
+                "        targetPage = targetPage.substring(1);\n" +
+                "    if (targetPage.indexOf(\":\") != -1 || (targetPage != \"\" && !validURL(targetPage)))\n" +
+                "        targetPage = \"undefined\";\n" +
+                "    function validURL(url) {\n" +
+                "        try {\n" +
+                "            url = decodeURIComponent(url);\n" +
+                "        }\n" +
+                "        catch (error) {\n" +
+                "            return false;\n" +
+                "        }\n" +
+                "        var pos = url.indexOf(\".html\");\n" +
+                "        if (pos == -1 || pos != url.length - 5)\n" +
+                "            return false;\n" +
+                "        var allowNumber = false;\n" +
+                "        var allowSep = false;\n" +
+                "        var seenDot = false;\n" +
+                "        for (var i = 0; i < url.length - 5; i++) {\n" +
+                "            var ch = url.charAt(i);\n" +
+                "            if ('a' <= ch && ch <= 'z' ||\n" +
+                "                    'A' <= ch && ch <= 'Z' ||\n" +
+                "                    ch == '$' ||\n" +
+                "                    ch == '_' ||\n" +
+                "                    ch.charCodeAt(0) > 127) {\n" +
+                "                allowNumber = true;\n" +
+                "                allowSep = true;\n" +
+                "            } else if ('0' <= ch && ch <= '9'\n" +
+                "                    || ch == '-') {\n" +
+                "                if (!allowNumber)\n" +
+                "                     return false;\n" +
+                "            } else if (ch == '/' || ch == '.') {\n" +
+                "                if (!allowSep)\n" +
+                "                    return false;\n" +
+                "                allowNumber = false;\n" +
+                "                allowSep = false;\n" +
+                "                if (ch == '.')\n" +
+                "                     seenDot = true;\n" +
+                "                if (ch == '/' && seenDot)\n" +
+                "                     return false;\n" +
+                "            } else {\n" +
+                "                return false;\n" +
+                "            }\n" +
+                "        }\n" +
+                "        return true;\n" +
+                "    }\n" +
+                "    function loadFrames() {\n" +
+                "        if (targetPage != \"\" && targetPage != \"undefined\")\n" +
+                "             top.classFrame.location = top.targetPage;\n" +
+                "    }\n";
+        RawHtml scriptContent = new RawHtml(scriptCode.replace("\n", DocletConstants.NL));
+        scriptTree.addContent(scriptContent);
+        return scriptTree;
     }
 
     /**
@@ -487,7 +303,7 @@
             this.script = getWinTitleScript();
             body.addContent(script);
             Content noScript = HtmlTree.NOSCRIPT(
-                    HtmlTree.DIV(getResource("doclet.No_Script_Message")));
+                    HtmlTree.DIV(configuration.getContent("doclet.No_Script_Message")));
             body.addContent(noScript);
         }
         return body;
@@ -558,17 +374,6 @@
         return title;
     }
 
-    public String codeText(String text) {
-        return "<code>" + text + "</code>";
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Return "&#38;nbsp;", non-breaking space.
-     */
-    public Content getSpace() {
-        return RawHtml.nbsp;
-    }
-
     /*
      * Returns a header for Modifier and Type column of a table.
      */
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/markup/RawHtml.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/formats/html/markup/RawHtml.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -44,7 +44,7 @@
  */
 public class RawHtml extends Content {
 
-    private String rawHtmlContent;
+    private final String rawHtmlContent;
 
     public static final Content nbsp = new RawHtml("&nbsp;");
 
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/AbstractDoclet.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/AbstractDoclet.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -58,7 +58,10 @@
     /**
      * The global configuration information for this run.
      */
-    public Configuration configuration;
+    private Configuration configuration;
+
+    protected Messages messages;
+
     /*
      *  a handle to our utility methods
      */
@@ -76,7 +79,7 @@
      */
     private boolean isValidDoclet() {
         if (!getClass().getName().equals(TOOLKIT_DOCLET_NAME)) {
-            configuration.message.error("doclet.Toolkit_Usage_Violation",
+            messages.error("doclet.Toolkit_Usage_Violation",
                 TOOLKIT_DOCLET_NAME);
             return false;
         }
@@ -96,6 +99,8 @@
         configuration.utils = new Utils(configuration);
         utils = configuration.utils;
         configuration.workArounds = new WorkArounds(configuration);
+        messages = configuration.getMessages();
+
         if (!isValidDoclet()) {
             return false;
         }
@@ -116,6 +121,7 @@
             }
             return false;
         } catch (Exception exc) {
+            exc.printStackTrace(System.err);
             return false;
         }
         return true;
@@ -146,14 +152,13 @@
      */
     private void startGeneration(DocletEnvironment root) throws Configuration.Fault, Exception {
         if (root.getIncludedClasses().isEmpty()) {
-            configuration.message.
-                error("doclet.No_Public_Classes_To_Document");
+            messages.error("doclet.No_Public_Classes_To_Document");
             return;
         }
         if (!configuration.setOptions()) {
             return;
         }
-        configuration.getDocletSpecificMsg().notice("doclet.build_version",
+        messages.notice("doclet.build_version",
             configuration.getDocletSpecificBuildDate());
         ClassTree classtree = new ClassTree(configuration, configuration.nodeprecated);
 
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/AnnotationTypeFieldWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/AnnotationTypeFieldWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -124,9 +124,4 @@
      * @param annotationDocTree the content tree to which the tags will be added
      */
     public void addTags(Element member, Content annotationDocTree);
-
-    /**
-     * Close the writer.
-     */
-    public void close() throws IOException;
 }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/AnnotationTypeRequiredMemberWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/AnnotationTypeRequiredMemberWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -125,9 +125,4 @@
      * @param annotationDocTree the content tree to which the tags will be added
      */
     public void addTags(Element member, Content annotationDocTree);
-
-    /**
-     * Close the writer.
-     */
-    public void close() throws IOException;
 }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/AnnotationTypeWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/AnnotationTypeWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -156,11 +156,6 @@
     public void printDocument(Content contentTree) throws IOException;
 
     /**
-     * Close the writer.
-     */
-    public void close() throws IOException;
-
-    /**
      * Return the {@link TypeElement} being documented.
      *
      * @return the TypeElement representing the annotation being documented.
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/ClassWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/ClassWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -197,11 +197,6 @@
     public void printDocument(Content contentTree) throws IOException;
 
     /**
-     * Close the writer.
-     */
-    public void close() throws IOException;
-
-    /**
      * Return the TypeElement being documented.
      *
      * @return the TypeElement being documented.
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/Configuration.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/Configuration.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -27,8 +27,6 @@
 
 import java.io.*;
 import java.util.*;
-import java.util.regex.Matcher;
-import java.util.regex.Pattern;
 
 import javax.lang.model.element.Element;
 import javax.lang.model.element.ModuleElement;
@@ -50,7 +48,6 @@
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocletConstants;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.Extern;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.Group;
-import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.MessageRetriever;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.MetaKeywords;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.TypeElementCatalog;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.Utils;
@@ -266,15 +263,6 @@
     public TypeElementCatalog typeElementCatalog;
 
     /**
-     * Message Retriever for the doclet, to retrieve message from the resource
-     * file for this Configuration, which is common for 1.1 and standard
-     * doclets.
-     *
-     * TODO:  Make this private!!!
-     */
-    public MessageRetriever message = null;
-
-    /**
      * True if user wants to suppress time stamp in output.
      * Default is false.
      */
@@ -309,6 +297,9 @@
 
     private List<GroupContainer> groups;
 
+    public abstract Messages getMessages();
+    public abstract Resources getResources();
+
     /**
      * Return the build date for the doclet.
      */
@@ -322,12 +313,6 @@
 
     public abstract boolean finishOptionSettings();
 
-    /**
-     * Return the doclet specific {@link MessageRetriever}
-     * @return the doclet specific MessageRetriever.
-     */
-    public abstract MessageRetriever getDocletSpecificMsg();
-
     public CommentUtils cmtUtils;
     public SortedSet<ModuleElement> modules;
 
@@ -354,11 +339,12 @@
      */
     public Map<ModuleElement, Set<PackageElement>> modulePackages;
 
+    protected static final String sharedResourceBundleName =
+            "jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.resources.doclets";
     /**
      * Constructor. Constructs the message retriever with resource file.
      */
     public Configuration() {
-        message = new MessageRetriever(this, "jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.resources.doclets");
         excludedDocFileDirs = new HashSet<>();
         excludedQualifiers = new HashSet<>();
         setTabWidth(DocletConstants.DEFAULT_TAB_STOP_LENGTH);
@@ -578,7 +564,7 @@
                         sourcetab = -1;
                     }
                     if (sourcetab <= 0) {
-                        message.warning("doclet.sourcetab_warning");
+                        getMessages().warning("doclet.sourcetab_warning");
                         setTabWidth(DocletConstants.DEFAULT_TAB_STOP_LENGTH);
                     }
                     return true;
@@ -696,7 +682,7 @@
      */
     private void initTagletManager(Set<List<String>> customTagStrs) {
         tagletManager = tagletManager == null ?
-            new TagletManager(nosince, showversion, showauthor, javafx, message) :
+            new TagletManager(nosince, showversion, showauthor, javafx, this) :
             tagletManager;
         for (List<String> args : customTagStrs) {
             if (args.get(0).equals("-taglet")) {
@@ -721,7 +707,8 @@
             } else if (tokens.size() >= 3) {
                 tagletManager.addNewSimpleCustomTag(tokens.get(0), tokens.get(2), tokens.get(1));
             } else {
-                message.error("doclet.Error_invalid_custom_tag_argument", args.get(1));
+                Messages messages = getMessages();
+                messages.error("doclet.Error_invalid_custom_tag_argument", args.get(1));
             }
         }
     }
@@ -893,123 +880,69 @@
                 : utils.getFullyQualifiedName(te);
     }
 
-    public String getText(String key) {
-        // Check the doclet specific properties file.
-        MessageRetriever docletMessage = getDocletSpecificMsg();
-        if (docletMessage.containsKey(key)) {
-            return docletMessage.getText(key);
-        }
-        // Check the shared properties file.
-        return message.getText(key);
-    }
+    /**
+     * Convenience method to obtain a resource from the doclet's
+     * {@link Resources resources}.
+     * Equivalent to <code>getResources.getText(key);</code>.
+     * @param key the key for the desired string
+     * @return the string for the given key
+     * @throws MissingResourceException if the key is not found in either
+     *  bundle.
+     */
+    public abstract String getText(String key);
 
-    public String getText(String key, String a1) {
-        // Check the doclet specific properties file.
-        MessageRetriever docletMessage = getDocletSpecificMsg();
-        if (docletMessage.containsKey(key)) {
-            return docletMessage.getText(key, a1);
-        }
-        // Check the shared properties file.
-        return message.getText(key, a1);
-    }
+    /**
+     * Convenience method to obtain a resource from the doclet's
+     * {@link Resources resources}.
+     * Equivalent to <code>getResources.getText(key, args);</code>.
+     * @param key the key for the desired string
+     * @param args values to be substituted into the resulting string
+     * @return the string for the given key
+     * @throws MissingResourceException if the key is not found in either
+     *  bundle.
+     */
+    public abstract String getText(String key, String... args);
 
-    public String getText(String key, String a1, String a2) {
-        // Check the doclet specific properties file.
-        MessageRetriever docletMessage = getDocletSpecificMsg();
-        if (docletMessage.containsKey(key)) {
-            return docletMessage.getText(key, a1, a2);
-        }
-        // Check the shared properties file.
-        return message.getText(key, a1, a2);
-    }
+    /**
+     * Convenience method to obtain a resource from the doclet's
+     * {@link Resources resources} as a {@code Content} object.
+     *
+     * @param key the key for the desired string
+     * @return a content tree for the text
+     */
+    public abstract Content getContent(String key);
 
-    public String getText(String key, String a1, String a2, String a3) {
-        // Check the doclet specific properties file.
-        MessageRetriever docletMessage = getDocletSpecificMsg();
-        if (docletMessage.containsKey(key)) {
-            return docletMessage.getText(key, a1, a2, a3);
-        }
-        // Check the shared properties file.
-        return message.getText(key, a1, a2, a3);
-    }
+    /**
+     * Convenience method to obtain a resource from the doclet's
+     * {@link Resources resources} as a {@code Content} object.
+     *
+     * @param key the key for the desired string
+     * @param o   string or content argument added to configuration text
+     * @return a content tree for the text
+     */
+    public abstract Content getContent(String key, Object o);
 
-    public abstract Content newContent();
+    /**
+     * Convenience method to obtain a resource from the doclet's
+     * {@link Resources resources} as a {@code Content} object.
+     *
+     * @param key the key for the desired string
+     * @param o1 resource argument
+     * @param o2 resource argument
+     * @return a content tree for the text
+     */
+    public abstract Content getContent(String key, Object o1, Object o2);
 
     /**
      * Get the configuration string as a content.
      *
-     * @param key the key to look for in the configuration file
-     * @return a content tree for the text
-     */
-    public Content getResource(String key) {
-        Content c = newContent();
-        c.addContent(getText(key));
-        return c;
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Get the configuration string as a content.
-     *
-     * @param key the key to look for in the configuration file
-     * @param o   string or content argument added to configuration text
-     * @return a content tree for the text
-     */
-    public Content getResource(String key, Object o) {
-        return getResource(key, o, null, null);
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Get the configuration string as a content.
-     *
-     * @param key the key to look for in the configuration file
-     * @param o1 resource argument
-     * @param o2 resource argument
-     * @return a content tree for the text
-     */
-    public Content getResource(String key, Object o1, Object o2) {
-        return getResource(key, o1, o2, null);
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Get the configuration string as a content.
-     *
-     * @param key the key to look for in the configuration file
+     * @param key the key for the desired string
      * @param o0  string or content argument added to configuration text
      * @param o1  string or content argument added to configuration text
      * @param o2  string or content argument added to configuration text
      * @return a content tree for the text
      */
-    public Content getResource(String key, Object o0, Object o1, Object o2) {
-        Content c = newContent();
-        Pattern p = Pattern.compile("\\{([012])\\}");
-        String text = getText(key);
-        Matcher m = p.matcher(text);
-        int start = 0;
-        while (m.find(start)) {
-            c.addContent(text.substring(start, m.start()));
-
-            Object o = null;
-            switch (m.group(1).charAt(0)) {
-                case '0': o = o0; break;
-                case '1': o = o1; break;
-                case '2': o = o2; break;
-            }
-
-            if (o == null) {
-                c.addContent("{" + m.group(1) + "}");
-            } else if (o instanceof String) {
-                c.addContent((String) o);
-            } else if (o instanceof Content) {
-                c.addContent((Content) o);
-            }
-
-            start = m.end();
-        }
-
-        c.addContent(text.substring(start));
-        return c;
-    }
-
+    public abstract Content getContent(String key, Object o0, Object o1, Object o2);
 
     /**
      * Return true if the TypeElement element is getting documented, depending upon
@@ -1110,7 +1043,7 @@
 
         private String getOptionsMessage(String key) {
             try {
-                return c.getDocletSpecificMsg().getText(key, (Object[]) null);
+                return c.getResources().getText(key);
             } catch (MissingResourceException ignore) {
                 return "";
             }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/ConstantsSummaryWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/ConstantsSummaryWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -47,11 +47,6 @@
 public interface ConstantsSummaryWriter {
 
     /**
-     * Close the writer.
-     */
-    public abstract void close() throws IOException;
-
-    /**
      * Get the header for the constant summary documentation.
      *
      * @return header that needs to be added to the documentation
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/ConstructorWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/ConstructorWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -119,9 +119,4 @@
      * @param foundNonPubConstructor true if we found a non public constructor.
      */
     public void setFoundNonPubConstructor(boolean foundNonPubConstructor);
-
-    /**
-     * Close the writer.
-     */
-    public void close() throws IOException;
 }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/EnumConstantWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/EnumConstantWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -112,9 +112,4 @@
      * @return content tree for the enum constants documentation
      */
     public Content getEnumConstants(Content enumConstantsTree, boolean isLastContent);
-
-    /**
-     * Close the writer.
-     */
-    public void close() throws IOException;
 }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/FieldWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/FieldWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -113,9 +113,4 @@
      * @return content tree for the field documentation
      */
     public Content getFieldDoc(Content fieldDocTree, boolean isLastContent);
-
-    /**
-     * Close the writer.
-     */
-    public void close() throws IOException;
 }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/MemberSummaryWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/MemberSummaryWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -122,9 +122,4 @@
      * @return a content tree for the member
      */
     public Content getMemberTree(Content memberTree);
-
-    /**
-     * Close the writer.
-     */
-    public void close() throws IOException;
 }
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/Messages.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -0,0 +1,164 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+ *
+ * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+ * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
+ * particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
+ * by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
+ *
+ * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+ * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+ * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
+ * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+ * accompanied this code).
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+ * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+ * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+ *
+ * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
+ * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
+ * questions.
+ */
+package jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit;
+
+import javax.lang.model.element.Element;
+import javax.tools.Diagnostic;
+
+import com.sun.source.util.DocTreePath;
+import jdk.javadoc.doclet.Reporter;
+
+import static javax.tools.Diagnostic.Kind.*;
+
+/**
+ * Provides standardized access to the diagnostic reporting facilities
+ * for a doclet.
+ *
+ * Messages are specified by resource keys to be found in the doclet's
+ * {@link Resources resources}.  Values can be substituted into the
+ * strings obtained from the resource files.
+ *
+ * Messages are reported to the doclet's {@link Reporter reporter}.
+ */
+public class Messages {
+    private final Configuration configuration;
+    private final Resources resources;
+    private Reporter reporter;
+
+    /**
+     * Creates a {@code Messages} object to provide standardized access to
+     * the doclet's diagnostic reporting mechanisms.
+     *
+     * @param configuration the doclet's configuration, used to access
+     *  the doclet's resources, reporter, and additional methods and state
+     *  used to filter out messages, if any, which should be suppressed.
+     */
+    public Messages(Configuration configuration) {
+        this.configuration = configuration;
+        resources = configuration.getResources();
+    }
+
+    // ***** Errors *****
+
+    /**
+     * Reports an error message to the doclet's reporter.
+     *
+     * @param key the name of a resource containing the message to be printed
+     * @param args optional arguments to be replaced in the message.
+     */
+    public void error(String key, Object... args) {
+        report(ERROR, resources.getText(key, args));
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Reports an error message to the doclet's reporter.
+     *
+     * @param path a path identifying the position to be included with
+     *  the message
+     * @param key the name of a resource containing the message to be printed
+     * @param args optional arguments to be replaced in the message.
+     */
+    public void error(DocTreePath path, String key, Object... args) {
+        report(ERROR, path, resources.getText(key, args));
+    }
+
+    // ***** Warnings *****
+
+    /**
+     * Reports a warning message to the doclet's reporter.
+     *
+     * @param key the name of a resource containing the message to be printed
+     * @param args optional arguments to be replaced in the message.
+     */
+    public void warning(String key, Object... args) {
+        report(WARNING, resources.getText(key, args));
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Reports a warning message to the doclet's reporter.
+     *
+     * @param path a path identifying the position to be included with
+     *  the message
+     * @param key the name of a resource containing the message to be printed
+     * @param args optional arguments to be replaced in the message.
+     */
+    public void warning(DocTreePath path, String key, Object... args) {
+        if (configuration.showMessage(path, key))
+            report(WARNING, path, resources.getText(key, args));
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Reports a warning message to the doclet's reporter.
+     *
+     * @param e an element identifying the declaration whose position should
+     *  to be included with the message
+     * @param key the name of a resource containing the message to be printed
+     * @param args optional arguments to be replaced in the message.
+     */
+    public void warning(Element e, String key, Object... args) {
+        if (configuration.showMessage(e, key)) {
+            report(WARNING, e, resources.getText(key, args));
+        }
+    }
+
+    // ***** Notices *****
+
+    /**
+     * Reports an informational notice to the doclet's reporter.
+     *
+     * @param key the name of a resource containing the message to be printed
+     * @param args optional arguments to be replaced in the message.
+     */
+    public void notice(String key, Object... args) {
+        if (!configuration.quiet) {
+            report(NOTE, resources.getText(key, args));
+        }
+    }
+
+    // ***** Internal support *****
+
+    private void report(Diagnostic.Kind k, String msg) {
+        initReporter();
+        reporter.print(k, msg);
+    }
+
+    private void report(Diagnostic.Kind k, DocTreePath p, String msg) {
+        initReporter();
+        reporter.print(k, p, msg);
+    }
+
+    private void report(Diagnostic.Kind k, Element e, String msg) {
+        initReporter();
+        reporter.print(k, e, msg);
+    }
+
+    // Lazy init the reporter for now, until we can fix/improve
+    // the init of ConfigurationImpl in HtmlDoclet (and similar.)
+    private void initReporter() {
+        if (reporter == null) {
+            reporter = configuration.reporter;
+        }
+    }
+}
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/MethodWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/MethodWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -114,9 +114,4 @@
      * @return content tree for the method documentation
      */
     public Content getMethodDoc(Content methodDocTree, boolean isLastContent);
-
-    /**
-     * Close the writer.
-     */
-    public void close() throws IOException;
 }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/ModuleSummaryWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/ModuleSummaryWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -132,10 +132,4 @@
      * @param contentTree the content tree that will be printed
      */
     public abstract void printDocument(Content contentTree) throws IOException;
-
-    /**
-     * Close the writer.
-     */
-    public abstract void close() throws IOException;
-
 }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/NestedClassWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/NestedClassWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -40,9 +40,4 @@
  */
 
 public interface NestedClassWriter {
-
-    /**
-     * Close the writer.
-     */
-    public void close() throws IOException;
 }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/PackageSummaryWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/PackageSummaryWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -121,9 +121,4 @@
      */
     public abstract void printDocument(Content contentTree) throws IOException;
 
-    /**
-     * Close the writer.
-     */
-    public abstract void close() throws IOException;
-
 }
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/PropertyWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/PropertyWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -112,9 +112,4 @@
      * @return content tree for the property documentation
      */
     public Content getPropertyDoc(Content propertyDocTree, boolean isLastContent);
-
-    /**
-     * Close the writer.
-     */
-    public void close() throws IOException;
 }
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/Resources.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -0,0 +1,116 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+ *
+ * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+ * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
+ * particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
+ * by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
+ *
+ * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+ * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+ * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
+ * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+ * accompanied this code).
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+ * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+ * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+ *
+ * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
+ * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
+ * questions.
+ */
+
+package jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit;
+
+import java.text.MessageFormat;
+import java.util.Locale;
+import java.util.MissingResourceException;
+import java.util.ResourceBundle;
+
+/**
+ * Access to the localizable resources used by a doclet.
+ * The resources are split across two resource bundles:
+ * one that contains format-neutral strings common to
+ * all supported formats, and one that contains strings
+ * specific to the selected doclet, such as the standard
+ * HTML doclet.
+ */
+public class Resources {
+    private final Configuration configuration;
+    private final String commonBundleName;
+    private final String docletBundleName;
+
+    protected ResourceBundle commonBundle;
+    protected ResourceBundle docletBundle;
+
+    /**
+     * Creates a {@code Resources} to provide access the resource
+     * bundles used by a doclet.
+     *
+     * @param configuration the configuration for the doclet,
+     *  to provide access the locale to be used when accessing the
+     *  names resource bundles.
+     * @param commonBundleName the name of the bundle containing the strings
+     *  common to all output formats
+     * @param docletBundleName the name of the bundle containing the strings
+     *  specific to a particular format
+     */
+    public Resources(Configuration configuration, String commonBundleName, String docletBundleName) {
+        this.configuration = configuration;
+        this.commonBundleName = commonBundleName;
+        this.docletBundleName = docletBundleName;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Gets the string for the given key from one of the doclet's
+     * resource bundles.
+     *
+     * The more specific bundle is checked first;
+     * if it is not there, the common bundle is then checked.
+     *
+     * @param key the key for the desired string
+     * @return the string for the given key
+     * @throws MissingResourceException if the key is not found in either
+     *  bundle.
+     */
+    public String getText(String key) throws MissingResourceException {
+        initBundles();
+
+        if (docletBundle.containsKey(key))
+            return docletBundle.getString(key);
+
+        return commonBundle.getString(key);
+    }
+    /**
+     * Gets the string for the given key from one of the doclet's
+     * resource bundles, substituting additional arguments into
+     * into the resulting string with {@link MessageFormat#format}.
+     *
+     * The more specific bundle is checked first;
+     * if it is not there, the common bundle is then checked.
+     *
+     * @param key the key for the desired string
+     * @param args values to be substituted into the resulting string
+     * @return the string for the given key
+     * @throws MissingResourceException if the key is not found in either
+     *  bundle.
+     */
+    public String getText(String key, Object... args) throws MissingResourceException {
+        return MessageFormat.format(getText(key), args);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Lazily initializes the bundles. This is (currently) necessary because
+     * this object may be created before the locale to be used is known.
+     */
+    protected void initBundles() {
+        if (commonBundle == null) {
+            Locale locale = configuration.getLocale();
+            this.commonBundle = ResourceBundle.getBundle(commonBundleName, locale);
+            this.docletBundle = ResourceBundle.getBundle(docletBundleName, locale);
+        }
+    }
+}
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/SerializedFormWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/SerializedFormWriter.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -138,11 +138,6 @@
     public SerialMethodWriter getSerialMethodWriter(TypeElement typeElement);
 
     /**
-     * Close the writer.
-     */
-    public abstract void close() throws IOException;
-
-    /**
      * Get the serialized content.
      *
      * @param serializedTreeContent content for serialized data
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/builders/AbstractBuilder.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/builders/AbstractBuilder.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -33,6 +33,7 @@
 
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Configuration;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Content;
+import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.Messages;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.DocletAbortException;
 import jdk.javadoc.internal.doclets.toolkit.util.Utils;
 
@@ -89,6 +90,7 @@
      */
     protected final Configuration configuration;
 
+    protected final Messages messages;
     protected final Utils utils;
 
     /**
@@ -112,6 +114,7 @@
      */
     public AbstractBuilder(Context c) {
         this.configuration = c.configuration;
+        this.messages = configuration.getMessages();
         this.utils = configuration.utils;
         this.containingPackagesSeen = c.containingPackagesSeen;
         this.layoutParser = c.layoutParser;
@@ -144,13 +147,18 @@
                     new Class<?>[]{XMLNode.class, Content.class},
                     new Object[]{node, contentTree});
         } catch (NoSuchMethodException e) {
-            e.printStackTrace();
+            e.printStackTrace(System.err);
             configuration.reporter.print(ERROR, "Unknown element: " + component);
             throw new DocletAbortException(e);
         } catch (InvocationTargetException e) {
-            throw new DocletAbortException(e.getCause());
+            Throwable cause = e.getCause();
+            if (cause instanceof DocletAbortException) {
+                throw (DocletAbortException) cause;
+            } else {
+                throw new DocletAbortException(e.getCause());
+            }
         } catch (Exception e) {
-            e.printStackTrace();
+            e.printStackTrace(System.err);
             configuration.reporter.print(ERROR, "Exception " +
                     e.getClass().getName() +
                     " thrown while processing element: " + component);
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/builders/AnnotationTypeBuilder.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/builders/AnnotationTypeBuilder.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -124,7 +124,6 @@
          writer.addAnnotationContentTree(contentTree, annotationContentTree);
          writer.addFooter(contentTree);
          writer.printDocument(contentTree);
-         writer.close();
          copyDocFiles();
      }
 
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/builders/ClassBuilder.java	Thu Aug 11 15:47:10 2016 +0000
+++ b/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/builders/ClassBuilder.java	Thu Aug 11 17:02:00 2016 +0000
@@ -152,7 +152,6 @@
          writer.addClassContentTree(contentTree, classContentTree);
          writer.addFooter(contentTree);
          writer.printDocument(contentTree);
-         writer.close();
          copyDocFiles();
      }
 
--- a/langtools/src/jdk.javadoc/share/classes/jdk/javadoc/internal/doclets/toolkit/builders/ConstantsSu