view src/cpu/sparc/vm/assembler_sparc.hpp @ 2488:e1162778c1c8

7009266: G1: assert(obj->is_oop_or_null(true )) failed: Error Summary: A referent object that is only weakly reachable at the start of concurrent marking but is re-attached to the strongly reachable object graph during marking may not be marked as live. This can cause the reference object to be processed prematurely and leave dangling pointers to the referent object. Implement a read barrier for the java.lang.ref.Reference::referent field by intrinsifying the Reference.get() method, and intercepting accesses though JNI, reflection, and Unsafe, so that when a non-null referent object is read it is also logged in an SATB buffer. Reviewed-by: kvn, iveresov, never, tonyp, dholmes
author johnc
date Thu, 07 Apr 2011 09:53:20 -0700
parents 28bf941f445e
children f7d55ea6ee56
line wrap: on
line source
/*
 * Copyright (c) 1997, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
 *
 * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
 * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
 * published by the Free Software Foundation.
 *
 * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
 * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
 * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
 * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
 * accompanied this code).
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
 * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
 * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
 *
 * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
 * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
 * questions.
 *
 */

#ifndef CPU_SPARC_VM_ASSEMBLER_SPARC_HPP
#define CPU_SPARC_VM_ASSEMBLER_SPARC_HPP

class BiasedLockingCounters;

// <sys/trap.h> promises that the system will not use traps 16-31
#define ST_RESERVED_FOR_USER_0 0x10

/* Written: David Ungar 4/19/97 */

// Contains all the definitions needed for sparc assembly code generation.

// Register aliases for parts of the system:

// 64 bit values can be kept in g1-g5, o1-o5 and o7 and all 64 bits are safe
// across context switches in V8+ ABI.  Of course, there are no 64 bit regs
// in V8 ABI. All 64 bits are preserved in V9 ABI for all registers.

// g2-g4 are scratch registers called "application globals".  Their
// meaning is reserved to the "compilation system"--which means us!
// They are are not supposed to be touched by ordinary C code, although
// highly-optimized C code might steal them for temps.  They are safe
// across thread switches, and the ABI requires that they be safe
// across function calls.
//
// g1 and g3 are touched by more modules.  V8 allows g1 to be clobbered
// across func calls, and V8+ also allows g5 to be clobbered across
// func calls.  Also, g1 and g5 can get touched while doing shared
// library loading.
//
// We must not touch g7 (it is the thread-self register) and g6 is
// reserved for certain tools.  g0, of course, is always zero.
//
// (Sources:  SunSoft Compilers Group, thread library engineers.)

// %%%% The interpreter should be revisited to reduce global scratch regs.

// This global always holds the current JavaThread pointer:

REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, G2_thread , G2);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, G6_heapbase , G6);

// The following globals are part of the Java calling convention:

REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, G5_method             , G5);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, G5_megamorphic_method , G5_method);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, G5_inline_cache_reg   , G5_method);

// The following globals are used for the new C1 & interpreter calling convention:
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, Gargs        , G4); // pointing to the last argument

// This local is used to preserve G2_thread in the interpreter and in stubs:
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, L7_thread_cache , L7);

// These globals are used as scratch registers in the interpreter:

REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, Gframe_size   , G1); // SAME REG as G1_scratch
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, G1_scratch    , G1); // also SAME
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, G3_scratch    , G3);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, G4_scratch    , G4);

// These globals are used as short-lived scratch registers in the compiler:

REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, Gtemp  , G5);

// JSR 292 fixed register usages:
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, G5_method_type        , G5);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, G3_method_handle      , G3);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, L7_mh_SP_save         , L7);

// The compiler requires that G5_megamorphic_method is G5_inline_cache_klass,
// because a single patchable "set" instruction (NativeMovConstReg,
// or NativeMovConstPatching for compiler1) instruction
// serves to set up either quantity, depending on whether the compiled
// call site is an inline cache or is megamorphic.  See the function
// CompiledIC::set_to_megamorphic.
//
// If a inline cache targets an interpreted method, then the
// G5 register will be used twice during the call.  First,
// the call site will be patched to load a compiledICHolder
// into G5. (This is an ordered pair of ic_klass, method.)
// The c2i adapter will first check the ic_klass, then load
// G5_method with the method part of the pair just before
// jumping into the interpreter.
//
// Note that G5_method is only the method-self for the interpreter,
// and is logically unrelated to G5_megamorphic_method.
//
// Invariants on G2_thread (the JavaThread pointer):
//  - it should not be used for any other purpose anywhere
//  - it must be re-initialized by StubRoutines::call_stub()
//  - it must be preserved around every use of call_VM

// We can consider using g2/g3/g4 to cache more values than the
// JavaThread, such as the card-marking base or perhaps pointers into
// Eden.  It's something of a waste to use them as scratch temporaries,
// since they are not supposed to be volatile.  (Of course, if we find
// that Java doesn't benefit from application globals, then we can just
// use them as ordinary temporaries.)
//
// Since g1 and g5 (and/or g6) are the volatile (caller-save) registers,
// it makes sense to use them routinely for procedure linkage,
// whenever the On registers are not applicable.  Examples:  G5_method,
// G5_inline_cache_klass, and a double handful of miscellaneous compiler
// stubs.  This means that compiler stubs, etc., should be kept to a
// maximum of two or three G-register arguments.


// stub frames

REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, Lentry_args      , L0); // pointer to args passed to callee (interpreter) not stub itself

// Interpreter frames

#ifdef CC_INTERP
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, Lstate           , L0); // interpreter state object pointer
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, L1_scratch       , L1); // scratch
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, Lmirror          , L1); // mirror (for native methods only)
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, L2_scratch       , L2);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, L3_scratch       , L3);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, L4_scratch       , L4);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, Lscratch         , L5); // C1 uses
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, Lscratch2        , L6); // C1 uses
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, L7_scratch       , L7); // constant pool cache
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, O5_savedSP       , O5);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, I5_savedSP       , I5); // Saved SP before bumping for locals.  This is simply
                                                       // a copy SP, so in 64-bit it's a biased value.  The bias
                                                       // is added and removed as needed in the frame code.
// Interface to signature handler
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, Llocals          , L7); // pointer to locals for signature handler
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, Lmethod          , L6); // methodOop when calling signature handler

#else
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, Lesp             , L0); // expression stack pointer
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, Lbcp             , L1); // pointer to next bytecode
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, Lmethod          , L2);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, Llocals          , L3);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, Largs            , L3); // pointer to locals for signature handler
                                                       // must match Llocals in asm interpreter
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, Lmonitors        , L4);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, Lbyte_code       , L5);
// When calling out from the interpreter we record SP so that we can remove any extra stack
// space allocated during adapter transitions. This register is only live from the point
// of the call until we return.
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, Llast_SP         , L5);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, Lscratch         , L5);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, Lscratch2        , L6);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, LcpoolCache      , L6); // constant pool cache

REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, O5_savedSP       , O5);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, I5_savedSP       , I5); // Saved SP before bumping for locals.  This is simply
                                                       // a copy SP, so in 64-bit it's a biased value.  The bias
                                                       // is added and removed as needed in the frame code.
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, IdispatchTables  , I4); // Base address of the bytecode dispatch tables
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, IdispatchAddress , I3); // Register which saves the dispatch address for each bytecode
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, ImethodDataPtr   , I2); // Pointer to the current method data
#endif /* CC_INTERP */

// NOTE: Lscratch2 and LcpoolCache point to the same registers in
//       the interpreter code. If Lscratch2 needs to be used for some
//       purpose than LcpoolCache should be restore after that for
//       the interpreter to work right
// (These assignments must be compatible with L7_thread_cache; see above.)

// Since Lbcp points into the middle of the method object,
// it is temporarily converted into a "bcx" during GC.

// Exception processing
// These registers are passed into exception handlers.
// All exception handlers require the exception object being thrown.
// In addition, an nmethod's exception handler must be passed
// the address of the call site within the nmethod, to allow
// proper selection of the applicable catch block.
// (Interpreter frames use their own bcp() for this purpose.)
//
// The Oissuing_pc value is not always needed.  When jumping to a
// handler that is known to be interpreted, the Oissuing_pc value can be
// omitted.  An actual catch block in compiled code receives (from its
// nmethod's exception handler) the thrown exception in the Oexception,
// but it doesn't need the Oissuing_pc.
//
// If an exception handler (either interpreted or compiled)
// discovers there is no applicable catch block, it updates
// the Oissuing_pc to the continuation PC of its own caller,
// pops back to that caller's stack frame, and executes that
// caller's exception handler.  Obviously, this process will
// iterate until the control stack is popped back to a method
// containing an applicable catch block.  A key invariant is
// that the Oissuing_pc value is always a value local to
// the method whose exception handler is currently executing.
//
// Note:  The issuing PC value is __not__ a raw return address (I7 value).
// It is a "return pc", the address __following__ the call.
// Raw return addresses are converted to issuing PCs by frame::pc(),
// or by stubs.  Issuing PCs can be used directly with PC range tables.
//
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, Oexception  , O0); // exception being thrown
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, Oissuing_pc , O1); // where the exception is coming from


// These must occur after the declarations above
#ifndef DONT_USE_REGISTER_DEFINES

#define Gthread             AS_REGISTER(Register, Gthread)
#define Gmethod             AS_REGISTER(Register, Gmethod)
#define Gmegamorphic_method AS_REGISTER(Register, Gmegamorphic_method)
#define Ginline_cache_reg   AS_REGISTER(Register, Ginline_cache_reg)
#define Gargs               AS_REGISTER(Register, Gargs)
#define Lthread_cache       AS_REGISTER(Register, Lthread_cache)
#define Gframe_size         AS_REGISTER(Register, Gframe_size)
#define Gtemp               AS_REGISTER(Register, Gtemp)

#ifdef CC_INTERP
#define Lstate              AS_REGISTER(Register, Lstate)
#define Lesp                AS_REGISTER(Register, Lesp)
#define L1_scratch          AS_REGISTER(Register, L1_scratch)
#define Lmirror             AS_REGISTER(Register, Lmirror)
#define L2_scratch          AS_REGISTER(Register, L2_scratch)
#define L3_scratch          AS_REGISTER(Register, L3_scratch)
#define L4_scratch          AS_REGISTER(Register, L4_scratch)
#define Lscratch            AS_REGISTER(Register, Lscratch)
#define Lscratch2           AS_REGISTER(Register, Lscratch2)
#define L7_scratch          AS_REGISTER(Register, L7_scratch)
#define Ostate              AS_REGISTER(Register, Ostate)
#else
#define Lesp                AS_REGISTER(Register, Lesp)
#define Lbcp                AS_REGISTER(Register, Lbcp)
#define Lmethod             AS_REGISTER(Register, Lmethod)
#define Llocals             AS_REGISTER(Register, Llocals)
#define Lmonitors           AS_REGISTER(Register, Lmonitors)
#define Lbyte_code          AS_REGISTER(Register, Lbyte_code)
#define Lscratch            AS_REGISTER(Register, Lscratch)
#define Lscratch2           AS_REGISTER(Register, Lscratch2)
#define LcpoolCache         AS_REGISTER(Register, LcpoolCache)
#endif /* ! CC_INTERP */

#define Lentry_args         AS_REGISTER(Register, Lentry_args)
#define I5_savedSP          AS_REGISTER(Register, I5_savedSP)
#define O5_savedSP          AS_REGISTER(Register, O5_savedSP)
#define IdispatchAddress    AS_REGISTER(Register, IdispatchAddress)
#define ImethodDataPtr      AS_REGISTER(Register, ImethodDataPtr)
#define IdispatchTables     AS_REGISTER(Register, IdispatchTables)

#define Oexception          AS_REGISTER(Register, Oexception)
#define Oissuing_pc         AS_REGISTER(Register, Oissuing_pc)


#endif

// Address is an abstraction used to represent a memory location.
//
// Note: A register location is represented via a Register, not
//       via an address for efficiency & simplicity reasons.

class Address VALUE_OBJ_CLASS_SPEC {
 private:
  Register           _base;           // Base register.
  RegisterOrConstant _index_or_disp;  // Index register or constant displacement.
  RelocationHolder   _rspec;

 public:
  Address() : _base(noreg), _index_or_disp(noreg) {}

  Address(Register base, RegisterOrConstant index_or_disp)
    : _base(base),
      _index_or_disp(index_or_disp) {
  }

  Address(Register base, Register index)
    : _base(base),
      _index_or_disp(index) {
  }

  Address(Register base, int disp)
    : _base(base),
      _index_or_disp(disp) {
  }

#ifdef ASSERT
  // ByteSize is only a class when ASSERT is defined, otherwise it's an int.
  Address(Register base, ByteSize disp)
    : _base(base),
      _index_or_disp(in_bytes(disp)) {
  }
#endif

  // accessors
  Register base()      const { return _base; }
  Register index()     const { return _index_or_disp.as_register(); }
  int      disp()      const { return _index_or_disp.as_constant(); }

  bool     has_index() const { return _index_or_disp.is_register(); }
  bool     has_disp()  const { return _index_or_disp.is_constant(); }

  const relocInfo::relocType rtype() { return _rspec.type(); }
  const RelocationHolder&    rspec() { return _rspec; }

  RelocationHolder rspec(int offset) const {
    return offset == 0 ? _rspec : _rspec.plus(offset);
  }

  inline bool is_simm13(int offset = 0);  // check disp+offset for overflow

  Address plus_disp(int plusdisp) const {     // bump disp by a small amount
    assert(_index_or_disp.is_constant(), "must have a displacement");
    Address a(base(), disp() + plusdisp);
    return a;
  }

  Address after_save() const {
    Address a = (*this);
    a._base = a._base->after_save();
    return a;
  }

  Address after_restore() const {
    Address a = (*this);
    a._base = a._base->after_restore();
    return a;
  }

  // Convert the raw encoding form into the form expected by the
  // constructor for Address.
  static Address make_raw(int base, int index, int scale, int disp, bool disp_is_oop);

  friend class Assembler;
};


class AddressLiteral VALUE_OBJ_CLASS_SPEC {
 private:
  address          _address;
  RelocationHolder _rspec;

  RelocationHolder rspec_from_rtype(relocInfo::relocType rtype, address addr) {
    switch (rtype) {
    case relocInfo::external_word_type:
      return external_word_Relocation::spec(addr);
    case relocInfo::internal_word_type:
      return internal_word_Relocation::spec(addr);
#ifdef _LP64
    case relocInfo::opt_virtual_call_type:
      return opt_virtual_call_Relocation::spec();
    case relocInfo::static_call_type:
      return static_call_Relocation::spec();
    case relocInfo::runtime_call_type:
      return runtime_call_Relocation::spec();
#endif
    case relocInfo::none:
      return RelocationHolder();
    default:
      ShouldNotReachHere();
      return RelocationHolder();
    }
  }

 protected:
  // creation
  AddressLiteral() : _address(NULL), _rspec(NULL) {}

 public:
  AddressLiteral(address addr, RelocationHolder const& rspec)
    : _address(addr),
      _rspec(rspec) {}

  // Some constructors to avoid casting at the call site.
  AddressLiteral(jobject obj, RelocationHolder const& rspec)
    : _address((address) obj),
      _rspec(rspec) {}

  AddressLiteral(intptr_t value, RelocationHolder const& rspec)
    : _address((address) value),
      _rspec(rspec) {}

  AddressLiteral(address addr, relocInfo::relocType rtype = relocInfo::none)
    : _address((address) addr),
    _rspec(rspec_from_rtype(rtype, (address) addr)) {}

  // Some constructors to avoid casting at the call site.
  AddressLiteral(address* addr, relocInfo::relocType rtype = relocInfo::none)
    : _address((address) addr),
    _rspec(rspec_from_rtype(rtype, (address) addr)) {}

  AddressLiteral(bool* addr, relocInfo::relocType rtype = relocInfo::none)
    : _address((address) addr),
      _rspec(rspec_from_rtype(rtype, (address) addr)) {}

  AddressLiteral(const bool* addr, relocInfo::relocType rtype = relocInfo::none)
    : _address((address) addr),
      _rspec(rspec_from_rtype(rtype, (address) addr)) {}

  AddressLiteral(signed char* addr, relocInfo::relocType rtype = relocInfo::none)
    : _address((address) addr),
      _rspec(rspec_from_rtype(rtype, (address) addr)) {}

  AddressLiteral(int* addr, relocInfo::relocType rtype = relocInfo::none)
    : _address((address) addr),
      _rspec(rspec_from_rtype(rtype, (address) addr)) {}

  AddressLiteral(intptr_t addr, relocInfo::relocType rtype = relocInfo::none)
    : _address((address) addr),
      _rspec(rspec_from_rtype(rtype, (address) addr)) {}

#ifdef _LP64
  // 32-bit complains about a multiple declaration for int*.
  AddressLiteral(intptr_t* addr, relocInfo::relocType rtype = relocInfo::none)
    : _address((address) addr),
      _rspec(rspec_from_rtype(rtype, (address) addr)) {}
#endif

  AddressLiteral(oop addr, relocInfo::relocType rtype = relocInfo::none)
    : _address((address) addr),
      _rspec(rspec_from_rtype(rtype, (address) addr)) {}

  AddressLiteral(float* addr, relocInfo::relocType rtype = relocInfo::none)
    : _address((address) addr),
      _rspec(rspec_from_rtype(rtype, (address) addr)) {}

  AddressLiteral(double* addr, relocInfo::relocType rtype = relocInfo::none)
    : _address((address) addr),
      _rspec(rspec_from_rtype(rtype, (address) addr)) {}

  intptr_t value() const { return (intptr_t) _address; }
  int      low10() const;

  const relocInfo::relocType rtype() const { return _rspec.type(); }
  const RelocationHolder&    rspec() const { return _rspec; }

  RelocationHolder rspec(int offset) const {
    return offset == 0 ? _rspec : _rspec.plus(offset);
  }
};


inline Address RegisterImpl::address_in_saved_window() const {
   return (Address(SP, (sp_offset_in_saved_window() * wordSize) + STACK_BIAS));
}



// Argument is an abstraction used to represent an outgoing
// actual argument or an incoming formal parameter, whether
// it resides in memory or in a register, in a manner consistent
// with the SPARC Application Binary Interface, or ABI.  This is
// often referred to as the native or C calling convention.

class Argument VALUE_OBJ_CLASS_SPEC {
 private:
  int _number;
  bool _is_in;

 public:
#ifdef _LP64
  enum {
    n_register_parameters = 6,          // only 6 registers may contain integer parameters
    n_float_register_parameters = 16    // Can have up to 16 floating registers
  };
#else
  enum {
    n_register_parameters = 6           // only 6 registers may contain integer parameters
  };
#endif

  // creation
  Argument(int number, bool is_in) : _number(number), _is_in(is_in) {}

  int  number() const  { return _number;  }
  bool is_in()  const  { return _is_in;   }
  bool is_out() const  { return !is_in(); }

  Argument successor() const  { return Argument(number() + 1, is_in()); }
  Argument as_in()     const  { return Argument(number(), true ); }
  Argument as_out()    const  { return Argument(number(), false); }

  // locating register-based arguments:
  bool is_register() const { return _number < n_register_parameters; }

#ifdef _LP64
  // locating Floating Point register-based arguments:
  bool is_float_register() const { return _number < n_float_register_parameters; }

  FloatRegister as_float_register() const {
    assert(is_float_register(), "must be a register argument");
    return as_FloatRegister(( number() *2 ) + 1);
  }
  FloatRegister as_double_register() const {
    assert(is_float_register(), "must be a register argument");
    return as_FloatRegister(( number() *2 ));
  }
#endif

  Register as_register() const {
    assert(is_register(), "must be a register argument");
    return is_in() ? as_iRegister(number()) : as_oRegister(number());
  }

  // locating memory-based arguments
  Address as_address() const {
    assert(!is_register(), "must be a memory argument");
    return address_in_frame();
  }

  // When applied to a register-based argument, give the corresponding address
  // into the 6-word area "into which callee may store register arguments"
  // (This is a different place than the corresponding register-save area location.)
  Address address_in_frame() const;

  // debugging
  const char* name() const;

  friend class Assembler;
};


// The SPARC Assembler: Pure assembler doing NO optimizations on the instruction
// level; i.e., what you write
// is what you get. The Assembler is generating code into a CodeBuffer.

class Assembler : public AbstractAssembler  {
 protected:

  static void print_instruction(int inst);
  static int  patched_branch(int dest_pos, int inst, int inst_pos);
  static int  branch_destination(int inst, int pos);


  friend class AbstractAssembler;
  friend class AddressLiteral;

  // code patchers need various routines like inv_wdisp()
  friend class NativeInstruction;
  friend class NativeGeneralJump;
  friend class Relocation;
  friend class Label;

 public:
  // op carries format info; see page 62 & 267

  enum ops {
    call_op   = 1, // fmt 1
    branch_op = 0, // also sethi (fmt2)
    arith_op  = 2, // fmt 3, arith & misc
    ldst_op   = 3  // fmt 3, load/store
  };

  enum op2s {
    bpr_op2   = 3,
    fb_op2    = 6,
    fbp_op2   = 5,
    br_op2    = 2,
    bp_op2    = 1,
    cb_op2    = 7, // V8
    sethi_op2 = 4
  };

  enum op3s {
    // selected op3s
    add_op3      = 0x00,
    and_op3      = 0x01,
    or_op3       = 0x02,
    xor_op3      = 0x03,
    sub_op3      = 0x04,
    andn_op3     = 0x05,
    orn_op3      = 0x06,
    xnor_op3     = 0x07,
    addc_op3     = 0x08,
    mulx_op3     = 0x09,
    umul_op3     = 0x0a,
    smul_op3     = 0x0b,
    subc_op3     = 0x0c,
    udivx_op3    = 0x0d,
    udiv_op3     = 0x0e,
    sdiv_op3     = 0x0f,

    addcc_op3    = 0x10,
    andcc_op3    = 0x11,
    orcc_op3     = 0x12,
    xorcc_op3    = 0x13,
    subcc_op3    = 0x14,
    andncc_op3   = 0x15,
    orncc_op3    = 0x16,
    xnorcc_op3   = 0x17,
    addccc_op3   = 0x18,
    umulcc_op3   = 0x1a,
    smulcc_op3   = 0x1b,
    subccc_op3   = 0x1c,
    udivcc_op3   = 0x1e,
    sdivcc_op3   = 0x1f,

    taddcc_op3   = 0x20,
    tsubcc_op3   = 0x21,
    taddcctv_op3 = 0x22,
    tsubcctv_op3 = 0x23,
    mulscc_op3   = 0x24,
    sll_op3      = 0x25,
    sllx_op3     = 0x25,
    srl_op3      = 0x26,
    srlx_op3     = 0x26,
    sra_op3      = 0x27,
    srax_op3     = 0x27,
    rdreg_op3    = 0x28,
    membar_op3   = 0x28,

    flushw_op3   = 0x2b,
    movcc_op3    = 0x2c,
    sdivx_op3    = 0x2d,
    popc_op3     = 0x2e,
    movr_op3     = 0x2f,

    sir_op3      = 0x30,
    wrreg_op3    = 0x30,
    saved_op3    = 0x31,

    fpop1_op3    = 0x34,
    fpop2_op3    = 0x35,
    impdep1_op3  = 0x36,
    impdep2_op3  = 0x37,
    jmpl_op3     = 0x38,
    rett_op3     = 0x39,
    trap_op3     = 0x3a,
    flush_op3    = 0x3b,
    save_op3     = 0x3c,
    restore_op3  = 0x3d,
    done_op3     = 0x3e,
    retry_op3    = 0x3e,

    lduw_op3     = 0x00,
    ldub_op3     = 0x01,
    lduh_op3     = 0x02,
    ldd_op3      = 0x03,
    stw_op3      = 0x04,
    stb_op3      = 0x05,
    sth_op3      = 0x06,
    std_op3      = 0x07,
    ldsw_op3     = 0x08,
    ldsb_op3     = 0x09,
    ldsh_op3     = 0x0a,
    ldx_op3      = 0x0b,

    ldstub_op3   = 0x0d,
    stx_op3      = 0x0e,
    swap_op3     = 0x0f,

    stwa_op3     = 0x14,
    stxa_op3     = 0x1e,

    ldf_op3      = 0x20,
    ldfsr_op3    = 0x21,
    ldqf_op3     = 0x22,
    lddf_op3     = 0x23,
    stf_op3      = 0x24,
    stfsr_op3    = 0x25,
    stqf_op3     = 0x26,
    stdf_op3     = 0x27,

    prefetch_op3 = 0x2d,


    ldc_op3      = 0x30,
    ldcsr_op3    = 0x31,
    lddc_op3     = 0x33,
    stc_op3      = 0x34,
    stcsr_op3    = 0x35,
    stdcq_op3    = 0x36,
    stdc_op3     = 0x37,

    casa_op3     = 0x3c,
    casxa_op3    = 0x3e,

    alt_bit_op3  = 0x10,
     cc_bit_op3  = 0x10
  };

  enum opfs {
    // selected opfs
    fmovs_opf   = 0x01,
    fmovd_opf   = 0x02,

    fnegs_opf   = 0x05,
    fnegd_opf   = 0x06,

    fadds_opf   = 0x41,
    faddd_opf   = 0x42,
    fsubs_opf   = 0x45,
    fsubd_opf   = 0x46,

    fmuls_opf   = 0x49,
    fmuld_opf   = 0x4a,
    fdivs_opf   = 0x4d,
    fdivd_opf   = 0x4e,

    fcmps_opf   = 0x51,
    fcmpd_opf   = 0x52,

    fstox_opf   = 0x81,
    fdtox_opf   = 0x82,
    fxtos_opf   = 0x84,
    fxtod_opf   = 0x88,
    fitos_opf   = 0xc4,
    fdtos_opf   = 0xc6,
    fitod_opf   = 0xc8,
    fstod_opf   = 0xc9,
    fstoi_opf   = 0xd1,
    fdtoi_opf   = 0xd2
  };

  enum RCondition {  rc_z = 1,  rc_lez = 2,  rc_lz = 3, rc_nz = 5, rc_gz = 6, rc_gez = 7  };

  enum Condition {
     // for FBfcc & FBPfcc instruction
    f_never                     = 0,
    f_notEqual                  = 1,
    f_notZero                   = 1,
    f_lessOrGreater             = 2,
    f_unorderedOrLess           = 3,
    f_less                      = 4,
    f_unorderedOrGreater        = 5,
    f_greater                   = 6,
    f_unordered                 = 7,
    f_always                    = 8,
    f_equal                     = 9,
    f_zero                      = 9,
    f_unorderedOrEqual          = 10,
    f_greaterOrEqual            = 11,
    f_unorderedOrGreaterOrEqual = 12,
    f_lessOrEqual               = 13,
    f_unorderedOrLessOrEqual    = 14,
    f_ordered                   = 15,

    // V8 coproc, pp 123 v8 manual

    cp_always  = 8,
    cp_never   = 0,
    cp_3       = 7,
    cp_2       = 6,
    cp_2or3    = 5,
    cp_1       = 4,
    cp_1or3    = 3,
    cp_1or2    = 2,
    cp_1or2or3 = 1,
    cp_0       = 9,
    cp_0or3    = 10,
    cp_0or2    = 11,
    cp_0or2or3 = 12,
    cp_0or1    = 13,
    cp_0or1or3 = 14,
    cp_0or1or2 = 15,


    // for integers

    never                 =  0,
    equal                 =  1,
    zero                  =  1,
    lessEqual             =  2,
    less                  =  3,
    lessEqualUnsigned     =  4,
    lessUnsigned          =  5,
    carrySet              =  5,
    negative              =  6,
    overflowSet           =  7,
    always                =  8,
    notEqual              =  9,
    notZero               =  9,
    greater               =  10,
    greaterEqual          =  11,
    greaterUnsigned       =  12,
    greaterEqualUnsigned  =  13,
    carryClear            =  13,
    positive              =  14,
    overflowClear         =  15
  };

  enum CC {
    icc  = 0,  xcc  = 2,
    // ptr_cc is the correct condition code for a pointer or intptr_t:
    ptr_cc = NOT_LP64(icc) LP64_ONLY(xcc),
    fcc0 = 0,  fcc1 = 1, fcc2 = 2, fcc3 = 3
  };

  enum PrefetchFcn {
    severalReads = 0,  oneRead = 1,  severalWritesAndPossiblyReads = 2, oneWrite = 3, page = 4
  };

 public:
  // Helper functions for groups of instructions

  enum Predict { pt = 1, pn = 0 }; // pt = predict taken

  enum Membar_mask_bits { // page 184, v9
    StoreStore = 1 << 3,
    LoadStore  = 1 << 2,
    StoreLoad  = 1 << 1,
    LoadLoad   = 1 << 0,

    Sync       = 1 << 6,
    MemIssue   = 1 << 5,
    Lookaside  = 1 << 4
  };

  // test if x is within signed immediate range for nbits
  static bool is_simm(intptr_t x, int nbits) { return -( intptr_t(1) << nbits-1 )  <= x   &&   x  <  ( intptr_t(1) << nbits-1 ); }

  // test if -4096 <= x <= 4095
  static bool is_simm13(intptr_t x) { return is_simm(x, 13); }

  static bool is_in_wdisp_range(address a, address b, int nbits) {
    intptr_t d = intptr_t(b) - intptr_t(a);
    return is_simm(d, nbits + 2);
  }

  // test if label is in simm16 range in words (wdisp16).
  bool is_in_wdisp16_range(Label& L) {
    return is_in_wdisp_range(target(L), pc(), 16);
  }
  // test if the distance between two addresses fits in simm30 range in words
  static bool is_in_wdisp30_range(address a, address b) {
    return is_in_wdisp_range(a, b, 30);
  }

  enum ASIs { // page 72, v9
    ASI_PRIMARY        = 0x80,
    ASI_PRIMARY_LITTLE = 0x88
    // add more from book as needed
  };

 protected:
  // helpers

  // x is supposed to fit in a field "nbits" wide
  // and be sign-extended. Check the range.

  static void assert_signed_range(intptr_t x, int nbits) {
    assert( nbits == 32
        ||  -(1 << nbits-1) <= x  &&  x < ( 1 << nbits-1),
      "value out of range");
  }

  static void assert_signed_word_disp_range(intptr_t x, int nbits) {
    assert( (x & 3) == 0, "not word aligned");
    assert_signed_range(x, nbits + 2);
  }

  static void assert_unsigned_const(int x, int nbits) {
    assert( juint(x)  <  juint(1 << nbits), "unsigned constant out of range");
  }

  // fields: note bits numbered from LSB = 0,
  //  fields known by inclusive bit range

  static int fmask(juint hi_bit, juint lo_bit) {
    assert( hi_bit >= lo_bit  &&  0 <= lo_bit  &&  hi_bit < 32, "bad bits");
    return (1 << ( hi_bit-lo_bit + 1 )) - 1;
  }

  // inverse of u_field

  static int inv_u_field(int x, int hi_bit, int lo_bit) {
    juint r = juint(x) >> lo_bit;
    r &= fmask( hi_bit, lo_bit);
    return int(r);
  }


  // signed version: extract from field and sign-extend

  static int inv_s_field(int x, int hi_bit, int lo_bit) {
    int sign_shift = 31 - hi_bit;
    return inv_u_field( ((x << sign_shift) >> sign_shift), hi_bit, lo_bit);
  }

  // given a field that ranges from hi_bit to lo_bit (inclusive,
  // LSB = 0), and an unsigned value for the field,
  // shift it into the field

#ifdef ASSERT
  static int u_field(int x, int hi_bit, int lo_bit) {
    assert( ( x & ~fmask(hi_bit, lo_bit))  == 0,
            "value out of range");
    int r = x << lo_bit;
    assert( inv_u_field(r, hi_bit, lo_bit) == x, "just checking");
    return r;
  }
#else
  // make sure this is inlined as it will reduce code size significantly
  #define u_field(x, hi_bit, lo_bit)   ((x) << (lo_bit))
#endif

  static int inv_op(  int x ) { return inv_u_field(x, 31, 30); }
  static int inv_op2( int x ) { return inv_u_field(x, 24, 22); }
  static int inv_op3( int x ) { return inv_u_field(x, 24, 19); }
  static int inv_cond( int x ){ return inv_u_field(x, 28, 25); }

  static bool inv_immed( int x ) { return (x & Assembler::immed(true)) != 0; }

  static Register inv_rd(  int x ) { return as_Register(inv_u_field(x, 29, 25)); }
  static Register inv_rs1( int x ) { return as_Register(inv_u_field(x, 18, 14)); }
  static Register inv_rs2( int x ) { return as_Register(inv_u_field(x,  4,  0)); }

  static int op(       int         x)  { return  u_field(x,             31, 30); }
  static int rd(       Register    r)  { return  u_field(r->encoding(), 29, 25); }
  static int fcn(      int         x)  { return  u_field(x,             29, 25); }
  static int op3(      int         x)  { return  u_field(x,             24, 19); }
  static int rs1(      Register    r)  { return  u_field(r->encoding(), 18, 14); }
  static int rs2(      Register    r)  { return  u_field(r->encoding(),  4,  0); }
  static int annul(    bool        a)  { return  u_field(a ? 1 : 0,     29, 29); }
  static int cond(     int         x)  { return  u_field(x,             28, 25); }
  static int cond_mov( int         x)  { return  u_field(x,             17, 14); }
  static int rcond(    RCondition  x)  { return  u_field(x,             12, 10); }
  static int op2(      int         x)  { return  u_field(x,             24, 22); }
  static int predict(  bool        p)  { return  u_field(p ? 1 : 0,     19, 19); }
  static int branchcc( CC       fcca)  { return  u_field(fcca,          21, 20); }
  static int cmpcc(    CC       fcca)  { return  u_field(fcca,          26, 25); }
  static int imm_asi(  int         x)  { return  u_field(x,             12,  5); }
  static int immed(    bool        i)  { return  u_field(i ? 1 : 0,     13, 13); }
  static int opf_low6( int         w)  { return  u_field(w,             10,  5); }
  static int opf_low5( int         w)  { return  u_field(w,              9,  5); }
  static int trapcc(   CC         cc)  { return  u_field(cc,            12, 11); }
  static int sx(       int         i)  { return  u_field(i,             12, 12); } // shift x=1 means 64-bit
  static int opf(      int         x)  { return  u_field(x,             13,  5); }

  static int opf_cc(   CC          c, bool useFloat ) { return u_field((useFloat ? 0 : 4) + c, 13, 11); }
  static int mov_cc(   CC          c, bool useFloat ) { return u_field(useFloat ? 0 : 1,  18, 18) | u_field(c, 12, 11); }

  static int fd( FloatRegister r,  FloatRegisterImpl::Width fwa) { return u_field(r->encoding(fwa), 29, 25); };
  static int fs1(FloatRegister r,  FloatRegisterImpl::Width fwa) { return u_field(r->encoding(fwa), 18, 14); };
  static int fs2(FloatRegister r,  FloatRegisterImpl::Width fwa) { return u_field(r->encoding(fwa),  4,  0); };

  // some float instructions use this encoding on the op3 field
  static int alt_op3(int op, FloatRegisterImpl::Width w) {
    int r;
    switch(w) {
     case FloatRegisterImpl::S: r = op + 0;  break;
     case FloatRegisterImpl::D: r = op + 3;  break;
     case FloatRegisterImpl::Q: r = op + 2;  break;
     default: ShouldNotReachHere(); break;
    }
    return op3(r);
  }


  // compute inverse of simm
  static int inv_simm(int x, int nbits) {
    return (int)(x << (32 - nbits)) >> (32 - nbits);
  }

  static int inv_simm13( int x ) { return inv_simm(x, 13); }

  // signed immediate, in low bits, nbits long
  static int simm(int x, int nbits) {
    assert_signed_range(x, nbits);
    return x  &  (( 1 << nbits ) - 1);
  }

  // compute inverse of wdisp16
  static intptr_t inv_wdisp16(int x, intptr_t pos) {
    int lo = x & (( 1 << 14 ) - 1);
    int hi = (x >> 20) & 3;
    if (hi >= 2) hi |= ~1;
    return (((hi << 14) | lo) << 2) + pos;
  }

  // word offset, 14 bits at LSend, 2 bits at B21, B20
  static int wdisp16(intptr_t x, intptr_t off) {
    intptr_t xx = x - off;
    assert_signed_word_disp_range(xx, 16);
    int r =  (xx >> 2) & ((1 << 14) - 1)
           |  (  ( (xx>>(2+14)) & 3 )  <<  20 );
    assert( inv_wdisp16(r, off) == x,  "inverse is not inverse");
    return r;
  }


  // word displacement in low-order nbits bits

  static intptr_t inv_wdisp( int x, intptr_t pos, int nbits ) {
    int pre_sign_extend = x & (( 1 << nbits ) - 1);
    int r =  pre_sign_extend >= ( 1 << (nbits-1) )
       ?   pre_sign_extend | ~(( 1 << nbits ) - 1)
       :   pre_sign_extend;
    return (r << 2) + pos;
  }

  static int wdisp( intptr_t x, intptr_t off, int nbits ) {
    intptr_t xx = x - off;
    assert_signed_word_disp_range(xx, nbits);
    int r =  (xx >> 2) & (( 1 << nbits ) - 1);
    assert( inv_wdisp( r, off, nbits )  ==  x, "inverse not inverse");
    return r;
  }


  // Extract the top 32 bits in a 64 bit word
  static int32_t hi32( int64_t x ) {
    int32_t r = int32_t( (uint64_t)x >> 32 );
    return r;
  }

  // given a sethi instruction, extract the constant, left-justified
  static int inv_hi22( int x ) {
    return x << 10;
  }

  // create an imm22 field, given a 32-bit left-justified constant
  static int hi22( int x ) {
    int r = int( juint(x) >> 10 );
    assert( (r & ~((1 << 22) - 1))  ==  0, "just checkin'");
    return r;
  }

  // create a low10 __value__ (not a field) for a given a 32-bit constant
  static int low10( int x ) {
    return x & ((1 << 10) - 1);
  }

  // instruction only in v9
  static void v9_only() { assert( VM_Version::v9_instructions_work(), "This instruction only works on SPARC V9"); }

  // instruction only in v8
  static void v8_only() { assert( VM_Version::v8_instructions_work(), "This instruction only works on SPARC V8"); }

  // instruction deprecated in v9
  static void v9_dep()  { } // do nothing for now

  // some float instructions only exist for single prec. on v8
  static void v8_s_only(FloatRegisterImpl::Width w)  { if (w != FloatRegisterImpl::S)  v9_only(); }

  // v8 has no CC field
  static void v8_no_cc(CC cc)  { if (cc)  v9_only(); }

 protected:
  // Simple delay-slot scheme:
  // In order to check the programmer, the assembler keeps track of deley slots.
  // It forbids CTIs in delay slots (conservative, but should be OK).
  // Also, when putting an instruction into a delay slot, you must say
  // asm->delayed()->add(...), in order to check that you don't omit
  // delay-slot instructions.
  // To implement this, we use a simple FSA

#ifdef ASSERT
  #define CHECK_DELAY
#endif
#ifdef CHECK_DELAY
  enum Delay_state { no_delay, at_delay_slot, filling_delay_slot } delay_state;
#endif

 public:
  // Tells assembler next instruction must NOT be in delay slot.
  // Use at start of multinstruction macros.
  void assert_not_delayed() {
    // This is a separate overloading to avoid creation of string constants
    // in non-asserted code--with some compilers this pollutes the object code.
#ifdef CHECK_DELAY
    assert_not_delayed("next instruction should not be a delay slot");
#endif
  }
  void assert_not_delayed(const char* msg) {
#ifdef CHECK_DELAY
    assert(delay_state == no_delay, msg);
#endif
  }

 protected:
  // Delay slot helpers
  // cti is called when emitting control-transfer instruction,
  // BEFORE doing the emitting.
  // Only effective when assertion-checking is enabled.
  void cti() {
#ifdef CHECK_DELAY
    assert_not_delayed("cti should not be in delay slot");
#endif
  }

  // called when emitting cti with a delay slot, AFTER emitting
  void has_delay_slot() {
#ifdef CHECK_DELAY
    assert_not_delayed("just checking");
    delay_state = at_delay_slot;
#endif
  }

public:
  // Tells assembler you know that next instruction is delayed
  Assembler* delayed() {
#ifdef CHECK_DELAY
    assert ( delay_state == at_delay_slot, "delayed instruction is not in delay slot");
    delay_state = filling_delay_slot;
#endif
    return this;
  }

  void flush() {
#ifdef CHECK_DELAY
    assert ( delay_state == no_delay, "ending code with a delay slot");
#endif
    AbstractAssembler::flush();
  }

  inline void emit_long(int);  // shadows AbstractAssembler::emit_long
  inline void emit_data(int x) { emit_long(x); }
  inline void emit_data(int, RelocationHolder const&);
  inline void emit_data(int, relocInfo::relocType rtype);
  // helper for above fcns
  inline void check_delay();


 public:
  // instructions, refer to page numbers in the SPARC Architecture Manual, V9

  // pp 135 (addc was addx in v8)

  inline void add(Register s1, Register s2, Register d );
  inline void add(Register s1, int simm13a, Register d, relocInfo::relocType rtype = relocInfo::none);
  inline void add(Register s1, int simm13a, Register d, RelocationHolder const& rspec);
  inline void add(Register s1, RegisterOrConstant s2, Register d, int offset = 0);
  inline void add(const Address& a, Register d, int offset = 0);

  void addcc(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(add_op3  | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void addcc(  Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(add_op3  | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void addc(   Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(addc_op3             ) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void addc(   Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(addc_op3             ) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void addccc( Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(addc_op3 | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void addccc( Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(addc_op3 | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  // pp 136

  inline void bpr( RCondition c, bool a, Predict p, Register s1, address d, relocInfo::relocType rt = relocInfo::none );
  inline void bpr( RCondition c, bool a, Predict p, Register s1, Label& L);

 protected: // use MacroAssembler::br instead

  // pp 138

  inline void fb( Condition c, bool a, address d, relocInfo::relocType rt = relocInfo::none );
  inline void fb( Condition c, bool a, Label& L );

  // pp 141

  inline void fbp( Condition c, bool a, CC cc, Predict p, address d, relocInfo::relocType rt = relocInfo::none );
  inline void fbp( Condition c, bool a, CC cc, Predict p, Label& L );

 public:

  // pp 144

  inline void br( Condition c, bool a, address d, relocInfo::relocType rt = relocInfo::none );
  inline void br( Condition c, bool a, Label& L );

  // pp 146

  inline void bp( Condition c, bool a, CC cc, Predict p, address d, relocInfo::relocType rt = relocInfo::none );
  inline void bp( Condition c, bool a, CC cc, Predict p, Label& L );

  // pp 121 (V8)

  inline void cb( Condition c, bool a, address d, relocInfo::relocType rt = relocInfo::none );
  inline void cb( Condition c, bool a, Label& L );

  // pp 149

  inline void call( address d,  relocInfo::relocType rt = relocInfo::runtime_call_type );
  inline void call( Label& L,   relocInfo::relocType rt = relocInfo::runtime_call_type );

  // pp 150

  // These instructions compare the contents of s2 with the contents of
  // memory at address in s1. If the values are equal, the contents of memory
  // at address s1 is swapped with the data in d. If the values are not equal,
  // the the contents of memory at s1 is loaded into d, without the swap.

  void casa(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d, int ia = -1 ) { v9_only();  emit_long( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(casa_op3 ) | rs1(s1) | (ia == -1  ? immed(true) : imm_asi(ia)) | rs2(s2)); }
  void casxa( Register s1, Register s2, Register d, int ia = -1 ) { v9_only();  emit_long( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(casxa_op3) | rs1(s1) | (ia == -1  ? immed(true) : imm_asi(ia)) | rs2(s2)); }

  // pp 152

  void udiv(   Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(udiv_op3             ) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2)); }
  void udiv(   Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(udiv_op3             ) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void sdiv(   Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sdiv_op3             ) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2)); }
  void sdiv(   Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sdiv_op3             ) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void udivcc( Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(udiv_op3 | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2)); }
  void udivcc( Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(udiv_op3 | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void sdivcc( Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sdiv_op3 | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2)); }
  void sdivcc( Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sdiv_op3 | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  // pp 155

  void done()  { v9_only();  cti();  emit_long( op(arith_op) | fcn(0) | op3(done_op3) ); }
  void retry() { v9_only();  cti();  emit_long( op(arith_op) | fcn(1) | op3(retry_op3) ); }

  // pp 156

  void fadd( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister s1, FloatRegister s2, FloatRegister d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | fd(d, w) | op3(fpop1_op3) | fs1(s1, w) | opf(0x40 + w) | fs2(s2, w)); }
  void fsub( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister s1, FloatRegister s2, FloatRegister d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | fd(d, w) | op3(fpop1_op3) | fs1(s1, w) | opf(0x44 + w) | fs2(s2, w)); }

  // pp 157

  void fcmp(  FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, CC cc, FloatRegister s1, FloatRegister s2) { v8_no_cc(cc);  emit_long( op(arith_op) | cmpcc(cc) | op3(fpop2_op3) | fs1(s1, w) | opf(0x50 + w) | fs2(s2, w)); }
  void fcmpe( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, CC cc, FloatRegister s1, FloatRegister s2) { v8_no_cc(cc);  emit_long( op(arith_op) | cmpcc(cc) | op3(fpop2_op3) | fs1(s1, w) | opf(0x54 + w) | fs2(s2, w)); }

  // pp 159

  void ftox( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister s, FloatRegister d ) { v9_only();  emit_long( op(arith_op) | fd(d, w) | op3(fpop1_op3) | opf(0x80 + w) | fs2(s, w)); }
  void ftoi( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister s, FloatRegister d ) {             emit_long( op(arith_op) | fd(d, w) | op3(fpop1_op3) | opf(0xd0 + w) | fs2(s, w)); }

  // pp 160

  void ftof( FloatRegisterImpl::Width sw, FloatRegisterImpl::Width dw, FloatRegister s, FloatRegister d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | fd(d, dw) | op3(fpop1_op3) | opf(0xc0 + sw + dw*4) | fs2(s, sw)); }

  // pp 161

  void fxtof( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister s, FloatRegister d ) { v9_only();  emit_long( op(arith_op) | fd(d, w) | op3(fpop1_op3) | opf(0x80 + w*4) | fs2(s, w)); }
  void fitof( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister s, FloatRegister d ) {             emit_long( op(arith_op) | fd(d, w) | op3(fpop1_op3) | opf(0xc0 + w*4) | fs2(s, w)); }

  // pp 162

  void fmov( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister s, FloatRegister d ) { v8_s_only(w);  emit_long( op(arith_op) | fd(d, w) | op3(fpop1_op3) | opf(0x00 + w) | fs2(s, w)); }

  void fneg( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister s, FloatRegister d ) { v8_s_only(w);  emit_long( op(arith_op) | fd(d, w) | op3(fpop1_op3) | opf(0x04 + w) | fs2(s, w)); }

  // page 144 sparc v8 architecture (double prec works on v8 if the source and destination registers are the same). fnegs is the only instruction available
  // on v8 to do negation of single, double and quad precision floats.

  void fneg( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister sd ) { if (VM_Version::v9_instructions_work()) emit_long( op(arith_op) | fd(sd, w) | op3(fpop1_op3) | opf(0x04 + w) | fs2(sd, w)); else emit_long( op(arith_op) | fd(sd, w) | op3(fpop1_op3) |  opf(0x05) | fs2(sd, w)); }

  void fabs( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister s, FloatRegister d ) { v8_s_only(w);  emit_long( op(arith_op) | fd(d, w) | op3(fpop1_op3) | opf(0x08 + w) | fs2(s, w)); }

  // page 144 sparc v8 architecture (double prec works on v8 if the source and destination registers are the same). fabss is the only instruction available
  // on v8 to do abs operation on single/double/quad precision floats.

  void fabs( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister sd ) { if (VM_Version::v9_instructions_work()) emit_long( op(arith_op) | fd(sd, w) | op3(fpop1_op3) | opf(0x08 + w) | fs2(sd, w)); else emit_long( op(arith_op) | fd(sd, w) | op3(fpop1_op3) | opf(0x09) | fs2(sd, w)); }

  // pp 163

  void fmul( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w,                            FloatRegister s1, FloatRegister s2, FloatRegister d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | fd(d, w)  | op3(fpop1_op3) | fs1(s1, w)  | opf(0x48 + w)         | fs2(s2, w)); }
  void fmul( FloatRegisterImpl::Width sw, FloatRegisterImpl::Width dw,  FloatRegister s1, FloatRegister s2, FloatRegister d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | fd(d, dw) | op3(fpop1_op3) | fs1(s1, sw) | opf(0x60 + sw + dw*4) | fs2(s2, sw)); }
  void fdiv( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w,                            FloatRegister s1, FloatRegister s2, FloatRegister d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | fd(d, w)  | op3(fpop1_op3) | fs1(s1, w)  | opf(0x4c + w)         | fs2(s2, w)); }

  // pp 164

  void fsqrt( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister s, FloatRegister d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | fd(d, w) | op3(fpop1_op3) | opf(0x28 + w) | fs2(s, w)); }

  // pp 165

  inline void flush( Register s1, Register s2 );
  inline void flush( Register s1, int simm13a);

  // pp 167

  void flushw() { v9_only();  emit_long( op(arith_op) | op3(flushw_op3) ); }

  // pp 168

  void illtrap( int const22a) { if (const22a != 0) v9_only();  emit_long( op(branch_op) | u_field(const22a, 21, 0) ); }
  // v8 unimp == illtrap(0)

  // pp 169

  void impdep1( int id1, int const19a ) { v9_only();  emit_long( op(arith_op) | fcn(id1) | op3(impdep1_op3) | u_field(const19a, 18, 0)); }
  void impdep2( int id1, int const19a ) { v9_only();  emit_long( op(arith_op) | fcn(id1) | op3(impdep2_op3) | u_field(const19a, 18, 0)); }

  // pp 149 (v8)

  void cpop1( int opc, int cr1, int cr2, int crd ) { v8_only();  emit_long( op(arith_op) | fcn(crd) | op3(impdep1_op3) | u_field(cr1, 18, 14) | opf(opc) | u_field(cr2, 4, 0)); }
  void cpop2( int opc, int cr1, int cr2, int crd ) { v8_only();  emit_long( op(arith_op) | fcn(crd) | op3(impdep2_op3) | u_field(cr1, 18, 14) | opf(opc) | u_field(cr2, 4, 0)); }

  // pp 170

  void jmpl( Register s1, Register s2, Register d );
  void jmpl( Register s1, int simm13a, Register d, RelocationHolder const& rspec = RelocationHolder() );

  // 171

  inline void ldf(FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, Register s1, RegisterOrConstant s2, FloatRegister d);
  inline void ldf(FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, Register s1, Register s2, FloatRegister d);
  inline void ldf(FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, Register s1, int simm13a, FloatRegister d, RelocationHolder const& rspec = RelocationHolder());

  inline void ldf(FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, const Address& a, FloatRegister d, int offset = 0);


  inline void ldfsr(  Register s1, Register s2 );
  inline void ldfsr(  Register s1, int simm13a);
  inline void ldxfsr( Register s1, Register s2 );
  inline void ldxfsr( Register s1, int simm13a);

  // pp 94 (v8)

  inline void ldc(   Register s1, Register s2, int crd );
  inline void ldc(   Register s1, int simm13a, int crd);
  inline void lddc(  Register s1, Register s2, int crd );
  inline void lddc(  Register s1, int simm13a, int crd);
  inline void ldcsr( Register s1, Register s2, int crd );
  inline void ldcsr( Register s1, int simm13a, int crd);


  // 173

  void ldfa(  FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, Register s1, Register s2, int ia, FloatRegister d ) { v9_only();  emit_long( op(ldst_op) | fd(d, w) | alt_op3(ldf_op3 | alt_bit_op3, w) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void ldfa(  FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, Register s1, int simm13a,         FloatRegister d ) { v9_only();  emit_long( op(ldst_op) | fd(d, w) | alt_op3(ldf_op3 | alt_bit_op3, w) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  // pp 175, lduw is ld on v8

  inline void ldsb(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d );
  inline void ldsb(  Register s1, int simm13a, Register d);
  inline void ldsh(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d );
  inline void ldsh(  Register s1, int simm13a, Register d);
  inline void ldsw(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d );
  inline void ldsw(  Register s1, int simm13a, Register d);
  inline void ldub(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d );
  inline void ldub(  Register s1, int simm13a, Register d);
  inline void lduh(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d );
  inline void lduh(  Register s1, int simm13a, Register d);
  inline void lduw(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d );
  inline void lduw(  Register s1, int simm13a, Register d);
  inline void ldx(   Register s1, Register s2, Register d );
  inline void ldx(   Register s1, int simm13a, Register d);
  inline void ld(    Register s1, Register s2, Register d );
  inline void ld(    Register s1, int simm13a, Register d);
  inline void ldd(   Register s1, Register s2, Register d );
  inline void ldd(   Register s1, int simm13a, Register d);

#ifdef ASSERT
  // ByteSize is only a class when ASSERT is defined, otherwise it's an int.
  inline void ld(    Register s1, ByteSize simm13a, Register d);
#endif

  inline void ldsb(const Address& a, Register d, int offset = 0);
  inline void ldsh(const Address& a, Register d, int offset = 0);
  inline void ldsw(const Address& a, Register d, int offset = 0);
  inline void ldub(const Address& a, Register d, int offset = 0);
  inline void lduh(const Address& a, Register d, int offset = 0);
  inline void lduw(const Address& a, Register d, int offset = 0);
  inline void ldx( const Address& a, Register d, int offset = 0);
  inline void ld(  const Address& a, Register d, int offset = 0);
  inline void ldd( const Address& a, Register d, int offset = 0);

  inline void ldub(  Register s1, RegisterOrConstant s2, Register d );
  inline void ldsb(  Register s1, RegisterOrConstant s2, Register d );
  inline void lduh(  Register s1, RegisterOrConstant s2, Register d );
  inline void ldsh(  Register s1, RegisterOrConstant s2, Register d );
  inline void lduw(  Register s1, RegisterOrConstant s2, Register d );
  inline void ldsw(  Register s1, RegisterOrConstant s2, Register d );
  inline void ldx(   Register s1, RegisterOrConstant s2, Register d );
  inline void ld(    Register s1, RegisterOrConstant s2, Register d );
  inline void ldd(   Register s1, RegisterOrConstant s2, Register d );

  // pp 177

  void ldsba(  Register s1, Register s2, int ia, Register d ) {             emit_long( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(ldsb_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void ldsba(  Register s1, int simm13a,         Register d ) {             emit_long( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(ldsb_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void ldsha(  Register s1, Register s2, int ia, Register d ) {             emit_long( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(ldsh_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void ldsha(  Register s1, int simm13a,         Register d ) {             emit_long( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(ldsh_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void ldswa(  Register s1, Register s2, int ia, Register d ) { v9_only();  emit_long( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(ldsw_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void ldswa(  Register s1, int simm13a,         Register d ) { v9_only();  emit_long( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(ldsw_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void lduba(  Register s1, Register s2, int ia, Register d ) {             emit_long( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(ldub_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void lduba(  Register s1, int simm13a,         Register d ) {             emit_long( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(ldub_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void lduha(  Register s1, Register s2, int ia, Register d ) {             emit_long( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(lduh_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void lduha(  Register s1, int simm13a,         Register d ) {             emit_long( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(lduh_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void lduwa(  Register s1, Register s2, int ia, Register d ) {             emit_long( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(lduw_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void lduwa(  Register s1, int simm13a,         Register d ) {             emit_long( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(lduw_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void ldxa(   Register s1, Register s2, int ia, Register d ) { v9_only();  emit_long( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(ldx_op3  | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void ldxa(   Register s1, int simm13a,         Register d ) { v9_only();  emit_long( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(ldx_op3  | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void ldda(   Register s1, Register s2, int ia, Register d ) { v9_dep();   emit_long( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(ldd_op3  | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void ldda(   Register s1, int simm13a,         Register d ) { v9_dep();   emit_long( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(ldd_op3  | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  // pp 179

  inline void ldstub(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d );
  inline void ldstub(  Register s1, int simm13a, Register d);

  // pp 180

  void ldstuba( Register s1, Register s2, int ia, Register d ) { emit_long( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(ldstub_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void ldstuba( Register s1, int simm13a,         Register d ) { emit_long( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(ldstub_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  // pp 181

  void and3(    Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(and_op3              ) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void and3(    Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(and_op3              ) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void andcc(   Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(and_op3  | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void andcc(   Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(and_op3  | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void andn(    Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(andn_op3             ) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void andn(    Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(andn_op3             ) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void andn(    Register s1, RegisterOrConstant s2, Register d);
  void andncc(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(andn_op3 | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void andncc(  Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(andn_op3 | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void or3(     Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(or_op3               ) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void or3(     Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(or_op3               ) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void orcc(    Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(or_op3   | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void orcc(    Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(or_op3   | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void orn(     Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(orn_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void orn(     Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(orn_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void orncc(   Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(orn_op3  | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void orncc(   Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(orn_op3  | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void xor3(    Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(xor_op3              ) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void xor3(    Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(xor_op3              ) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void xorcc(   Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(xor_op3  | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void xorcc(   Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(xor_op3  | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void xnor(    Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(xnor_op3             ) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void xnor(    Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(xnor_op3             ) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void xnorcc(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(xnor_op3 | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void xnorcc(  Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(xnor_op3 | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  // pp 183

  void membar( Membar_mask_bits const7a ) { v9_only(); emit_long( op(arith_op) | op3(membar_op3) | rs1(O7) | immed(true) | u_field( int(const7a), 6, 0)); }

  // pp 185

  void fmov( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, Condition c,  bool floatCC, CC cca, FloatRegister s2, FloatRegister d ) { v9_only();  emit_long( op(arith_op) | fd(d, w) | op3(fpop2_op3) | cond_mov(c) | opf_cc(cca, floatCC) | opf_low6(w) | fs2(s2, w)); }

  // pp 189

  void fmov( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, RCondition c, Register s1,  FloatRegister s2, FloatRegister d ) { v9_only();  emit_long( op(arith_op) | fd(d, w) | op3(fpop2_op3) | rs1(s1) | rcond(c) | opf_low5(4 + w) | fs2(s2, w)); }

  // pp 191

  void movcc( Condition c, bool floatCC, CC cca, Register s2, Register d ) { v9_only();  emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(movcc_op3) | mov_cc(cca, floatCC) | cond_mov(c) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void movcc( Condition c, bool floatCC, CC cca, int simm11a, Register d ) { v9_only();  emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(movcc_op3) | mov_cc(cca, floatCC) | cond_mov(c) | immed(true) | simm(simm11a, 11) ); }

  // pp 195

  void movr( RCondition c, Register s1, Register s2,  Register d ) { v9_only();  emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(movr_op3) | rs1(s1) | rcond(c) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void movr( RCondition c, Register s1, int simm10a,  Register d ) { v9_only();  emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(movr_op3) | rs1(s1) | rcond(c) | immed(true) | simm(simm10a, 10) ); }

  // pp 196

  void mulx(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { v9_only(); emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(mulx_op3 ) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void mulx(  Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { v9_only(); emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(mulx_op3 ) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void sdivx( Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { v9_only(); emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sdivx_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void sdivx( Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { v9_only(); emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sdivx_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void udivx( Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { v9_only(); emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(udivx_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void udivx( Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { v9_only(); emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(udivx_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  // pp 197

  void umul(   Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(umul_op3             ) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void umul(   Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(umul_op3             ) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void smul(   Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(smul_op3             ) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void smul(   Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(smul_op3             ) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void umulcc( Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(umul_op3 | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void umulcc( Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(umul_op3 | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void smulcc( Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(smul_op3 | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void smulcc( Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(smul_op3 | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  // pp 199

  void mulscc(   Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { v9_dep();  emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(mulscc_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void mulscc(   Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { v9_dep();  emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(mulscc_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  // pp 201

  void nop() { emit_long( op(branch_op) | op2(sethi_op2) ); }


  // pp 202

  void popc( Register s,  Register d) { v9_only();  emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(popc_op3) | rs2(s)); }
  void popc( int simm13a, Register d) { v9_only();  emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(popc_op3) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13)); }

  // pp 203

  void prefetch(   Register s1, Register s2,         PrefetchFcn f);
  void prefetch(   Register s1, int simm13a,         PrefetchFcn f);
  void prefetcha(  Register s1, Register s2, int ia, PrefetchFcn f ) { v9_only();  emit_long( op(ldst_op) | fcn(f) | op3(prefetch_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void prefetcha(  Register s1, int simm13a,         PrefetchFcn f ) { v9_only();  emit_long( op(ldst_op) | fcn(f) | op3(prefetch_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  inline void prefetch(const Address& a, PrefetchFcn F, int offset = 0);

  // pp 208

  // not implementing read privileged register

  inline void rdy(    Register d) { v9_dep();  emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(rdreg_op3) | u_field(0, 18, 14)); }
  inline void rdccr(  Register d) { v9_only(); emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(rdreg_op3) | u_field(2, 18, 14)); }
  inline void rdasi(  Register d) { v9_only(); emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(rdreg_op3) | u_field(3, 18, 14)); }
  inline void rdtick( Register d) { v9_only(); emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(rdreg_op3) | u_field(4, 18, 14)); } // Spoon!
  inline void rdpc(   Register d) { v9_only(); emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(rdreg_op3) | u_field(5, 18, 14)); }
  inline void rdfprs( Register d) { v9_only(); emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(rdreg_op3) | u_field(6, 18, 14)); }

  // pp 213

  inline void rett( Register s1, Register s2);
  inline void rett( Register s1, int simm13a, relocInfo::relocType rt = relocInfo::none);

  // pp 214

  void save(    Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(save_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void save(    Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) {
    // make sure frame is at least large enough for the register save area
    assert(-simm13a >= 16 * wordSize, "frame too small");
    emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(save_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) );
  }

  void restore( Register s1 = G0,  Register s2 = G0, Register d = G0 ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(restore_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void restore( Register s1,       int simm13a,      Register d      ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(restore_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  // pp 216

  void saved()    { v9_only();  emit_long( op(arith_op) | fcn(0) | op3(saved_op3)); }
  void restored() { v9_only();  emit_long( op(arith_op) | fcn(1) | op3(saved_op3)); }

  // pp 217

  inline void sethi( int imm22a, Register d, RelocationHolder const& rspec = RelocationHolder() );
  // pp 218

  void sll(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sll_op3) | rs1(s1) | sx(0) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void sll(  Register s1, int imm5a,   Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sll_op3) | rs1(s1) | sx(0) | immed(true) | u_field(imm5a, 4, 0) ); }
  void srl(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(srl_op3) | rs1(s1) | sx(0) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void srl(  Register s1, int imm5a,   Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(srl_op3) | rs1(s1) | sx(0) | immed(true) | u_field(imm5a, 4, 0) ); }
  void sra(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sra_op3) | rs1(s1) | sx(0) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void sra(  Register s1, int imm5a,   Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sra_op3) | rs1(s1) | sx(0) | immed(true) | u_field(imm5a, 4, 0) ); }

  void sllx( Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { v9_only();  emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sll_op3) | rs1(s1) | sx(1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void sllx( Register s1, int imm6a,   Register d ) { v9_only();  emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sll_op3) | rs1(s1) | sx(1) | immed(true) | u_field(imm6a, 5, 0) ); }
  void srlx( Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { v9_only();  emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(srl_op3) | rs1(s1) | sx(1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void srlx( Register s1, int imm6a,   Register d ) { v9_only();  emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(srl_op3) | rs1(s1) | sx(1) | immed(true) | u_field(imm6a, 5, 0) ); }
  void srax( Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { v9_only();  emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sra_op3) | rs1(s1) | sx(1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void srax( Register s1, int imm6a,   Register d ) { v9_only();  emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sra_op3) | rs1(s1) | sx(1) | immed(true) | u_field(imm6a, 5, 0) ); }

  // pp 220

  void sir( int simm13a ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | fcn(15) | op3(sir_op3) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13)); }

  // pp 221

  void stbar() { emit_long( op(arith_op) | op3(membar_op3) | u_field(15, 18, 14)); }

  // pp 222

  inline void stf(    FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister d, Register s1, RegisterOrConstant s2);
  inline void stf(    FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister d, Register s1, Register s2);
  inline void stf(    FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister d, Register s1, int simm13a);
  inline void stf(    FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister d, const Address& a, int offset = 0);

  inline void stfsr(  Register s1, Register s2 );
  inline void stfsr(  Register s1, int simm13a);
  inline void stxfsr( Register s1, Register s2 );
  inline void stxfsr( Register s1, int simm13a);

  //  pp 224

  void stfa(  FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister d, Register s1, Register s2, int ia ) { v9_only();  emit_long( op(ldst_op) | fd(d, w) | alt_op3(stf_op3 | alt_bit_op3, w) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void stfa(  FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister d, Register s1, int simm13a         ) { v9_only();  emit_long( op(ldst_op) | fd(d, w) | alt_op3(stf_op3 | alt_bit_op3, w) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  // p 226

  inline void stb(  Register d, Register s1, Register s2 );
  inline void stb(  Register d, Register s1, int simm13a);
  inline void sth(  Register d, Register s1, Register s2 );
  inline void sth(  Register d, Register s1, int simm13a);
  inline void stw(  Register d, Register s1, Register s2 );
  inline void stw(  Register d, Register s1, int simm13a);
  inline void st(   Register d, Register s1, Register s2 );
  inline void st(   Register d, Register s1, int simm13a);
  inline void stx(  Register d, Register s1, Register s2 );
  inline void stx(  Register d, Register s1, int simm13a);
  inline void std(  Register d, Register s1, Register s2 );
  inline void std(  Register d, Register s1, int simm13a);

#ifdef ASSERT
  // ByteSize is only a class when ASSERT is defined, otherwise it's an int.
  inline void st(   Register d, Register s1, ByteSize simm13a);
#endif

  inline void stb(  Register d, const Address& a, int offset = 0 );
  inline void sth(  Register d, const Address& a, int offset = 0 );
  inline void stw(  Register d, const Address& a, int offset = 0 );
  inline void stx(  Register d, const Address& a, int offset = 0 );
  inline void st(   Register d, const Address& a, int offset = 0 );
  inline void std(  Register d, const Address& a, int offset = 0 );

  inline void stb(  Register d, Register s1, RegisterOrConstant s2 );
  inline void sth(  Register d, Register s1, RegisterOrConstant s2 );
  inline void stw(  Register d, Register s1, RegisterOrConstant s2 );
  inline void stx(  Register d, Register s1, RegisterOrConstant s2 );
  inline void std(  Register d, Register s1, RegisterOrConstant s2 );
  inline void st(   Register d, Register s1, RegisterOrConstant s2 );

  // pp 177

  void stba(  Register d, Register s1, Register s2, int ia ) {             emit_long( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(stb_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void stba(  Register d, Register s1, int simm13a         ) {             emit_long( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(stb_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void stha(  Register d, Register s1, Register s2, int ia ) {             emit_long( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(sth_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void stha(  Register d, Register s1, int simm13a         ) {             emit_long( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(sth_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void stwa(  Register d, Register s1, Register s2, int ia ) {             emit_long( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(stw_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void stwa(  Register d, Register s1, int simm13a         ) {             emit_long( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(stw_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void stxa(  Register d, Register s1, Register s2, int ia ) { v9_only();  emit_long( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(stx_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void stxa(  Register d, Register s1, int simm13a         ) { v9_only();  emit_long( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(stx_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void stda(  Register d, Register s1, Register s2, int ia ) {             emit_long( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(std_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void stda(  Register d, Register s1, int simm13a         ) {             emit_long( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(std_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  // pp 97 (v8)

  inline void stc(   int crd, Register s1, Register s2 );
  inline void stc(   int crd, Register s1, int simm13a);
  inline void stdc(  int crd, Register s1, Register s2 );
  inline void stdc(  int crd, Register s1, int simm13a);
  inline void stcsr( int crd, Register s1, Register s2 );
  inline void stcsr( int crd, Register s1, int simm13a);
  inline void stdcq( int crd, Register s1, Register s2 );
  inline void stdcq( int crd, Register s1, int simm13a);

  // pp 230

  void sub(    Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sub_op3              ) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void sub(    Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sub_op3              ) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  // Note: offset is added to s2.
  inline void sub(Register s1, RegisterOrConstant s2, Register d, int offset = 0);

  void subcc(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sub_op3 | cc_bit_op3 ) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void subcc(  Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sub_op3 | cc_bit_op3 ) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void subc(   Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(subc_op3             ) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void subc(   Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(subc_op3             ) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void subccc( Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(subc_op3 | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void subccc( Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(subc_op3 | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  // pp 231

  inline void swap( Register s1, Register s2, Register d );
  inline void swap( Register s1, int simm13a, Register d);
  inline void swap( Address& a,               Register d, int offset = 0 );

  // pp 232

  void swapa(   Register s1, Register s2, int ia, Register d ) { v9_dep();  emit_long( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(swap_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void swapa(   Register s1, int simm13a,         Register d ) { v9_dep();  emit_long( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(swap_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  // pp 234, note op in book is wrong, see pp 268

  void taddcc(    Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) {            emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(taddcc_op3  ) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void taddcc(    Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) {            emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(taddcc_op3  ) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void taddcctv(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { v9_dep();  emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(taddcctv_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void taddcctv(  Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { v9_dep();  emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(taddcctv_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  // pp 235

  void tsubcc(    Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(tsubcc_op3  ) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void tsubcc(    Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(tsubcc_op3  ) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void tsubcctv(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(tsubcctv_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void tsubcctv(  Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_long( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(tsubcctv_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  // pp 237

  void trap( Condition c, CC cc, Register s1, Register s2 ) { v8_no_cc(cc);  emit_long( op(arith_op) | cond(c) | op3(trap_op3) | rs1(s1) | trapcc(cc) | rs2(s2)); }
  void trap( Condition c, CC cc, Register s1, int trapa   ) { v8_no_cc(cc);  emit_long( op(arith_op) | cond(c) | op3(trap_op3) | rs1(s1) | trapcc(cc) | immed(true) | u_field(trapa, 6, 0)); }
  // simple uncond. trap
  void trap( int trapa ) { trap( always, icc, G0, trapa ); }

  // pp 239 omit write priv register for now

  inline void wry(    Register d) { v9_dep();  emit_long( op(arith_op) | rs1(d) | op3(wrreg_op3) | u_field(0, 29, 25)); }
  inline void wrccr(Register s) { v9_only(); emit_long( op(arith_op) | rs1(s) | op3(wrreg_op3) | u_field(2, 29, 25)); }
  inline void wrccr(Register s, int simm13a) { v9_only(); emit_long( op(arith_op) |
                                                                           rs1(s) |
                                                                           op3(wrreg_op3) |
                                                                           u_field(2, 29, 25) |
                                                                           u_field(1, 13, 13) |
                                                                           simm(simm13a, 13)); }
  inline void wrasi(  Register d) { v9_only(); emit_long( op(arith_op) | rs1(d) | op3(wrreg_op3) | u_field(3, 29, 25)); }
  inline void wrfprs( Register d) { v9_only(); emit_long( op(arith_op) | rs1(d) | op3(wrreg_op3) | u_field(6, 29, 25)); }

  // For a given register condition, return the appropriate condition code
  // Condition (the one you would use to get the same effect after "tst" on
  // the target register.)
  Assembler::Condition reg_cond_to_cc_cond(RCondition in);


  // Creation
  Assembler(CodeBuffer* code) : AbstractAssembler(code) {
#ifdef CHECK_DELAY
    delay_state = no_delay;
#endif
  }

  // Testing
#ifndef PRODUCT
  void test_v9();
  void test_v8_onlys();
#endif
};


class RegistersForDebugging : public StackObj {
 public:
  intptr_t i[8], l[8], o[8], g[8];
  float    f[32];
  double   d[32];

  void print(outputStream* s);

  static int i_offset(int j) { return offset_of(RegistersForDebugging, i[j]); }
  static int l_offset(int j) { return offset_of(RegistersForDebugging, l[j]); }
  static int o_offset(int j) { return offset_of(RegistersForDebugging, o[j]); }
  static int g_offset(int j) { return offset_of(RegistersForDebugging, g[j]); }
  static int f_offset(int j) { return offset_of(RegistersForDebugging, f[j]); }
  static int d_offset(int j) { return offset_of(RegistersForDebugging, d[j / 2]); }

  // gen asm code to save regs
  static void save_registers(MacroAssembler* a);

  // restore global registers in case C code disturbed them
  static void restore_registers(MacroAssembler* a, Register r);


};


// MacroAssembler extends Assembler by a few frequently used macros.
//
// Most of the standard SPARC synthetic ops are defined here.
// Instructions for which a 'better' code sequence exists depending
// on arguments should also go in here.

#define JMP2(r1, r2) jmp(r1, r2, __FILE__, __LINE__)
#define JMP(r1, off) jmp(r1, off, __FILE__, __LINE__)
#define JUMP(a, temp, off)     jump(a, temp, off, __FILE__, __LINE__)
#define JUMPL(a, temp, d, off) jumpl(a, temp, d, off, __FILE__, __LINE__)


class MacroAssembler: public Assembler {
 protected:
  // Support for VM calls
  // This is the base routine called by the different versions of call_VM_leaf. The interpreter
  // may customize this version by overriding it for its purposes (e.g., to save/restore
  // additional registers when doing a VM call).
#ifdef CC_INTERP
  #define VIRTUAL
#else
  #define VIRTUAL virtual
#endif

  VIRTUAL void call_VM_leaf_base(Register thread_cache, address entry_point, int number_of_arguments);

  //
  // It is imperative that all calls into the VM are handled via the call_VM macros.
  // They make sure that the stack linkage is setup correctly. call_VM's correspond
  // to ENTRY/ENTRY_X entry points while call_VM_leaf's correspond to LEAF entry points.
  //
  // This is the base routine called by the different versions of call_VM. The interpreter
  // may customize this version by overriding it for its purposes (e.g., to save/restore
  // additional registers when doing a VM call).
  //
  // A non-volatile java_thread_cache register should be specified so
  // that the G2_thread value can be preserved across the call.
  // (If java_thread_cache is noreg, then a slow get_thread call
  // will re-initialize the G2_thread.) call_VM_base returns the register that contains the
  // thread.
  //
  // If no last_java_sp is specified (noreg) than SP will be used instead.

  virtual void call_VM_base(
    Register        oop_result,             // where an oop-result ends up if any; use noreg otherwise
    Register        java_thread_cache,      // the thread if computed before     ; use noreg otherwise
    Register        last_java_sp,           // to set up last_Java_frame in stubs; use noreg otherwise
    address         entry_point,            // the entry point
    int             number_of_arguments,    // the number of arguments (w/o thread) to pop after call
    bool            check_exception=true    // flag which indicates if exception should be checked
  );

  // This routine should emit JVMTI PopFrame and ForceEarlyReturn handling code.
  // The implementation is only non-empty for the InterpreterMacroAssembler,
  // as only the interpreter handles and ForceEarlyReturn PopFrame requests.
  virtual void check_and_handle_popframe(Register scratch_reg);
  virtual void check_and_handle_earlyret(Register scratch_reg);

 public:
  MacroAssembler(CodeBuffer* code) : Assembler(code) {}

  // Support for NULL-checks
  //
  // Generates code that causes a NULL OS exception if the content of reg is NULL.
  // If the accessed location is M[reg + offset] and the offset is known, provide the
  // offset.  No explicit code generation is needed if the offset is within a certain
  // range (0 <= offset <= page_size).
  //
  // %%%%%% Currently not done for SPARC

  void null_check(Register reg, int offset = -1);
  static bool needs_explicit_null_check(intptr_t offset);

  // support for delayed instructions
  MacroAssembler* delayed() { Assembler::delayed();  return this; }

  // branches that use right instruction for v8 vs. v9
  inline void br( Condition c, bool a, Predict p, address d, relocInfo::relocType rt = relocInfo::none );
  inline void br( Condition c, bool a, Predict p, Label& L );

  inline void fb( Condition c, bool a, Predict p, address d, relocInfo::relocType rt = relocInfo::none );
  inline void fb( Condition c, bool a, Predict p, Label& L );

  // compares register with zero and branches (V9 and V8 instructions)
  void br_zero( Condition c, bool a, Predict p, Register s1, Label& L);
  // Compares a pointer register with zero and branches on (not)null.
  // Does a test & branch on 32-bit systems and a register-branch on 64-bit.
  void br_null   ( Register s1, bool a, Predict p, Label& L );
  void br_notnull( Register s1, bool a, Predict p, Label& L );

  // These versions will do the most efficient thing on v8 and v9.  Perhaps
  // this is what the routine above was meant to do, but it didn't (and
  // didn't cover both target address kinds.)
  void br_on_reg_cond( RCondition c, bool a, Predict p, Register s1, address d, relocInfo::relocType rt = relocInfo::none );
  void br_on_reg_cond( RCondition c, bool a, Predict p, Register s1, Label& L);

  inline void bp( Condition c, bool a, CC cc, Predict p, address d, relocInfo::relocType rt = relocInfo::none );
  inline void bp( Condition c, bool a, CC cc, Predict p, Label& L );

  // Branch that tests xcc in LP64 and icc in !LP64
  inline void brx( Condition c, bool a, Predict p, address d, relocInfo::relocType rt = relocInfo::none );
  inline void brx( Condition c, bool a, Predict p, Label& L );

  // unconditional short branch
  inline void ba( bool a, Label& L );

  // Branch that tests fp condition codes
  inline void fbp( Condition c, bool a, CC cc, Predict p, address d, relocInfo::relocType rt = relocInfo::none );
  inline void fbp( Condition c, bool a, CC cc, Predict p, Label& L );

  // get PC the best way
  inline int get_pc( Register d );

  // Sparc shorthands(pp 85, V8 manual, pp 289 V9 manual)
  inline void cmp(  Register s1, Register s2 ) { subcc( s1, s2, G0 ); }
  inline void cmp(  Register s1, int simm13a ) { subcc( s1, simm13a, G0 ); }

  inline void jmp( Register s1, Register s2 );
  inline void jmp( Register s1, int simm13a, RelocationHolder const& rspec = RelocationHolder() );

  // Check if the call target is out of wdisp30 range (relative to the code cache)
  static inline bool is_far_target(address d);
  inline void call( address d,  relocInfo::relocType rt = relocInfo::runtime_call_type );
  inline void call( Label& L,   relocInfo::relocType rt = relocInfo::runtime_call_type );
  inline void callr( Register s1, Register s2 );
  inline void callr( Register s1, int simm13a, RelocationHolder const& rspec = RelocationHolder() );

  // Emits nothing on V8
  inline void iprefetch( address d, relocInfo::relocType rt = relocInfo::none );
  inline void iprefetch( Label& L);

  inline void tst( Register s ) { orcc( G0, s, G0 ); }

#ifdef PRODUCT
  inline void ret(  bool trace = TraceJumps )   { if (trace) {
                                                    mov(I7, O7); // traceable register
                                                    JMP(O7, 2 * BytesPerInstWord);
                                                  } else {
                                                    jmpl( I7, 2 * BytesPerInstWord, G0 );
                                                  }
                                                }

  inline void retl( bool trace = TraceJumps )  { if (trace) JMP(O7, 2 * BytesPerInstWord);
                                                 else jmpl( O7, 2 * BytesPerInstWord, G0 ); }
#else
  void ret(  bool trace = TraceJumps );
  void retl( bool trace = TraceJumps );
#endif /* PRODUCT */

  // Required platform-specific helpers for Label::patch_instructions.
  // They _shadow_ the declarations in AbstractAssembler, which are undefined.
  void pd_patch_instruction(address branch, address target);
#ifndef PRODUCT
  static void pd_print_patched_instruction(address branch);
#endif

  // sethi Macro handles optimizations and relocations
private:
  void internal_sethi(const AddressLiteral& addrlit, Register d, bool ForceRelocatable);
public:
  void sethi(const AddressLiteral& addrlit, Register d);
  void patchable_sethi(const AddressLiteral& addrlit, Register d);

  // compute the number of instructions for a sethi/set
  static int  insts_for_sethi( address a, bool worst_case = false );
  static int  worst_case_insts_for_set();

  // set may be either setsw or setuw (high 32 bits may be zero or sign)
private:
  void internal_set(const AddressLiteral& al, Register d, bool ForceRelocatable);
  static int insts_for_internal_set(intptr_t value);
public:
  void set(const AddressLiteral& addrlit, Register d);
  void set(intptr_t value, Register d);
  void set(address addr, Register d, RelocationHolder const& rspec);
  static int insts_for_set(intptr_t value) { return insts_for_internal_set(value); }

  void patchable_set(const AddressLiteral& addrlit, Register d);
  void patchable_set(intptr_t value, Register d);
  void set64(jlong value, Register d, Register tmp);
  static int insts_for_set64(jlong value);

  // sign-extend 32 to 64
  inline void signx( Register s, Register d ) { sra( s, G0, d); }
  inline void signx( Register d )             { sra( d, G0, d); }

  inline void not1( Register s, Register d ) { xnor( s, G0, d ); }
  inline void not1( Register d )             { xnor( d, G0, d ); }

  inline void neg( Register s, Register d ) { sub( G0, s, d ); }
  inline void neg( Register d )             { sub( G0, d, d ); }

  inline void cas(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d) { casa( s1, s2, d, ASI_PRIMARY); }
  inline void casx( Register s1, Register s2, Register d) { casxa(s1, s2, d, ASI_PRIMARY); }
  // Functions for isolating 64 bit atomic swaps for LP64
  // cas_ptr will perform cas for 32 bit VM's and casx for 64 bit VM's
  inline void cas_ptr(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d) {
#ifdef _LP64
    casx( s1, s2, d );
#else
    cas( s1, s2, d );
#endif
  }

  // Functions for isolating 64 bit shifts for LP64
  inline void sll_ptr( Register s1, Register s2, Register d );
  inline void sll_ptr( Register s1, int imm6a,   Register d );
  inline void sll_ptr( Register s1, RegisterOrConstant s2, Register d );
  inline void srl_ptr( Register s1, Register s2, Register d );
  inline void srl_ptr( Register s1, int imm6a,   Register d );

  // little-endian
  inline void casl(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d) { casa( s1, s2, d, ASI_PRIMARY_LITTLE); }
  inline void casxl( Register s1, Register s2, Register d) { casxa(s1, s2, d, ASI_PRIMARY_LITTLE); }

  inline void inc(   Register d,  int const13 = 1 ) { add(   d, const13, d); }
  inline void inccc( Register d,  int const13 = 1 ) { addcc( d, const13, d); }

  inline void dec(   Register d,  int const13 = 1 ) { sub(   d, const13, d); }
  inline void deccc( Register d,  int const13 = 1 ) { subcc( d, const13, d); }

  inline void btst( Register s1,  Register s2 ) { andcc( s1, s2, G0 ); }
  inline void btst( int simm13a,  Register s )  { andcc( s,  simm13a, G0 ); }

  inline void bset( Register s1,  Register s2 ) { or3( s1, s2, s2 ); }
  inline void bset( int simm13a,  Register s )  { or3( s,  simm13a, s ); }

  inline void bclr( Register s1,  Register s2 ) { andn( s1, s2, s2 ); }
  inline void bclr( int simm13a,  Register s )  { andn( s,  simm13a, s ); }

  inline void btog( Register s1,  Register s2 ) { xor3( s1, s2, s2 ); }
  inline void btog( int simm13a,  Register s )  { xor3( s,  simm13a, s ); }

  inline void clr( Register d ) { or3( G0, G0, d ); }

  inline void clrb( Register s1, Register s2);
  inline void clrh( Register s1, Register s2);
  inline void clr(  Register s1, Register s2);
  inline void clrx( Register s1, Register s2);

  inline void clrb( Register s1, int simm13a);
  inline void clrh( Register s1, int simm13a);
  inline void clr(  Register s1, int simm13a);
  inline void clrx( Register s1, int simm13a);

  // copy & clear upper word
  inline void clruw( Register s, Register d ) { srl( s, G0, d); }
  // clear upper word
  inline void clruwu( Register d ) { srl( d, G0, d); }

  // membar psuedo instruction.  takes into account target memory model.
  inline void membar( Assembler::Membar_mask_bits const7a );

  // returns if membar generates anything.
  inline bool membar_has_effect( Assembler::Membar_mask_bits const7a );

  // mov pseudo instructions
  inline void mov( Register s,  Register d) {
    if ( s != d )    or3( G0, s, d);
    else             assert_not_delayed();  // Put something useful in the delay slot!
  }

  inline void mov_or_nop( Register s,  Register d) {
    if ( s != d )    or3( G0, s, d);
    else             nop();
  }

  inline void mov( int simm13a, Register d) { or3( G0, simm13a, d); }

  // address pseudos: make these names unlike instruction names to avoid confusion
  inline intptr_t load_pc_address( Register reg, int bytes_to_skip );
  inline void load_contents(const AddressLiteral& addrlit, Register d, int offset = 0);
  inline void load_ptr_contents(const AddressLiteral& addrlit, Register d, int offset = 0);
  inline void store_contents(Register s, const AddressLiteral& addrlit, Register temp, int offset = 0);
  inline void store_ptr_contents(Register s, const AddressLiteral& addrlit, Register temp, int offset = 0);
  inline void jumpl_to(const AddressLiteral& addrlit, Register temp, Register d, int offset = 0);
  inline void jump_to(const AddressLiteral& addrlit, Register temp, int offset = 0);
  inline void jump_indirect_to(Address& a, Register temp, int ld_offset = 0, int jmp_offset = 0);

  // ring buffer traceable jumps

  void jmp2( Register r1, Register r2, const char* file, int line );
  void jmp ( Register r1, int offset,  const char* file, int line );

  void jumpl(const AddressLiteral& addrlit, Register temp, Register d, int offset, const char* file, int line);
  void jump (const AddressLiteral& addrlit, Register temp,             int offset, const char* file, int line);


  // argument pseudos:

  inline void load_argument( Argument& a, Register  d );
  inline void store_argument( Register s, Argument& a );
  inline void store_ptr_argument( Register s, Argument& a );
  inline void store_float_argument( FloatRegister s, Argument& a );
  inline void store_double_argument( FloatRegister s, Argument& a );
  inline void store_long_argument( Register s, Argument& a );

  // handy macros:

  inline void round_to( Register r, int modulus ) {
    assert_not_delayed();
    inc( r, modulus - 1 );
    and3( r, -modulus, r );
  }

  // --------------------------------------------------

  // Functions for isolating 64 bit loads for LP64
  // ld_ptr will perform ld for 32 bit VM's and ldx for 64 bit VM's
  // st_ptr will perform st for 32 bit VM's and stx for 64 bit VM's
  inline void ld_ptr(Register s1, Register s2, Register d);
  inline void ld_ptr(Register s1, int simm13a, Register d);
  inline void ld_ptr(Register s1, RegisterOrConstant s2, Register d);
  inline void ld_ptr(const Address& a, Register d, int offset = 0);
  inline void st_ptr(Register d, Register s1, Register s2);
  inline void st_ptr(Register d, Register s1, int simm13a);
  inline void st_ptr(Register d, Register s1, RegisterOrConstant s2);
  inline void st_ptr(Register d, const Address& a, int offset = 0);

#ifdef ASSERT
  // ByteSize is only a class when ASSERT is defined, otherwise it's an int.
  inline void ld_ptr(Register s1, ByteSize simm13a, Register d);
  inline void st_ptr(Register d, Register s1, ByteSize simm13a);
#endif

  // ld_long will perform ldd for 32 bit VM's and ldx for 64 bit VM's
  // st_long will perform std for 32 bit VM's and stx for 64 bit VM's
  inline void ld_long(Register s1, Register s2, Register d);
  inline void ld_long(Register s1, int simm13a, Register d);
  inline void ld_long(Register s1, RegisterOrConstant s2, Register d);
  inline void ld_long(const Address& a, Register d, int offset = 0);
  inline void st_long(Register d, Register s1, Register s2);
  inline void st_long(Register d, Register s1, int simm13a);
  inline void st_long(Register d, Register s1, RegisterOrConstant s2);
  inline void st_long(Register d, const Address& a, int offset = 0);

  // Helpers for address formation.
  // - They emit only a move if s2 is a constant zero.
  // - If dest is a constant and either s1 or s2 is a register, the temp argument is required and becomes the result.
  // - If dest is a register and either s1 or s2 is a non-simm13 constant, the temp argument is required and used to materialize the constant.
  RegisterOrConstant regcon_andn_ptr(RegisterOrConstant s1, RegisterOrConstant s2, RegisterOrConstant d, Register temp = noreg);
  RegisterOrConstant regcon_inc_ptr( RegisterOrConstant s1, RegisterOrConstant s2, RegisterOrConstant d, Register temp = noreg);
  RegisterOrConstant regcon_sll_ptr( RegisterOrConstant s1, RegisterOrConstant s2, RegisterOrConstant d, Register temp = noreg);

  RegisterOrConstant ensure_simm13_or_reg(RegisterOrConstant src, Register temp) {
    if (is_simm13(src.constant_or_zero()))
      return src;               // register or short constant
    guarantee(temp != noreg, "constant offset overflow");
    set(src.as_constant(), temp);
    return temp;
  }

  // --------------------------------------------------

 public:
  // traps as per trap.h (SPARC ABI?)

  void breakpoint_trap();
  void breakpoint_trap(Condition c, CC cc = icc);
  void flush_windows_trap();
  void clean_windows_trap();
  void get_psr_trap();
  void set_psr_trap();

  // V8/V9 flush_windows
  void flush_windows();

  // Support for serializing memory accesses between threads
  void serialize_memory(Register thread, Register tmp1, Register tmp2);

  // Stack frame creation/removal
  void enter();
  void leave();

  // V8/V9 integer multiply
  void mult(Register s1, Register s2, Register d);
  void mult(Register s1, int simm13a, Register d);

  // V8/V9 read and write of condition codes.
  void read_ccr(Register d);
  void write_ccr(Register s);

  // Manipulation of C++ bools
  // These are idioms to flag the need for care with accessing bools but on
  // this platform we assume byte size

  inline void stbool(Register d, const Address& a) { stb(d, a); }
  inline void ldbool(const Address& a, Register d) { ldsb(a, d); }
  inline void tstbool( Register s ) { tst(s); }
  inline void movbool( bool boolconst, Register d) { mov( (int) boolconst, d); }

  // klass oop manipulations if compressed
  void load_klass(Register src_oop, Register klass);
  void store_klass(Register klass, Register dst_oop);
  void store_klass_gap(Register s, Register dst_oop);

   // oop manipulations
  void load_heap_oop(const Address& s, Register d);
  void load_heap_oop(Register s1, Register s2, Register d);
  void load_heap_oop(Register s1, int simm13a, Register d);
  void load_heap_oop(Register s1, RegisterOrConstant s2, Register d);
  void store_heap_oop(Register d, Register s1, Register s2);
  void store_heap_oop(Register d, Register s1, int simm13a);
  void store_heap_oop(Register d, const Address& a, int offset = 0);

  void encode_heap_oop(Register src, Register dst);
  void encode_heap_oop(Register r) {
    encode_heap_oop(r, r);
  }
  void decode_heap_oop(Register src, Register dst);
  void decode_heap_oop(Register r) {
    decode_heap_oop(r, r);
  }
  void encode_heap_oop_not_null(Register r);
  void decode_heap_oop_not_null(Register r);
  void encode_heap_oop_not_null(Register src, Register dst);
  void decode_heap_oop_not_null(Register src, Register dst);

  // Support for managing the JavaThread pointer (i.e.; the reference to
  // thread-local information).
  void get_thread();                                // load G2_thread
  void verify_thread();                             // verify G2_thread contents
  void save_thread   (const Register threache); // save to cache
  void restore_thread(const Register thread_cache); // restore from cache

  // Support for last Java frame (but use call_VM instead where possible)
  void set_last_Java_frame(Register last_java_sp, Register last_Java_pc);
  void reset_last_Java_frame(void);

  // Call into the VM.
  // Passes the thread pointer (in O0) as a prepended argument.
  // Makes sure oop return values are visible to the GC.
  void call_VM(Register oop_result, address entry_point, int number_of_arguments = 0, bool check_exceptions = true);
  void call_VM(Register oop_result, address entry_point, Register arg_1, bool check_exceptions = true);
  void call_VM(Register oop_result, address entry_point, Register arg_1, Register arg_2, bool check_exceptions = true);
  void call_VM(Register oop_result, address entry_point, Register arg_1, Register arg_2, Register arg_3, bool check_exceptions = true);

  // these overloadings are not presently used on SPARC:
  void call_VM(Register oop_result, Register last_java_sp, address entry_point, int number_of_arguments = 0, bool check_exceptions = true);
  void call_VM(Register oop_result, Register last_java_sp, address entry_point, Register arg_1, bool check_exceptions = true);
  void call_VM(Register oop_result, Register last_java_sp, address entry_point, Register arg_1, Register arg_2, bool check_exceptions = true);
  void call_VM(Register oop_result, Register last_java_sp, address entry_point, Register arg_1, Register arg_2, Register arg_3, bool check_exceptions = true);

  void call_VM_leaf(Register thread_cache, address entry_point, int number_of_arguments = 0);
  void call_VM_leaf(Register thread_cache, address entry_point, Register arg_1);
  void call_VM_leaf(Register thread_cache, address entry_point, Register arg_1, Register arg_2);
  void call_VM_leaf(Register thread_cache, address entry_point, Register arg_1, Register arg_2, Register arg_3);

  void get_vm_result  (Register oop_result);
  void get_vm_result_2(Register oop_result);

  // vm result is currently getting hijacked to for oop preservation
  void set_vm_result(Register oop_result);

  // if call_VM_base was called with check_exceptions=false, then call
  // check_and_forward_exception to handle exceptions when it is safe
  void check_and_forward_exception(Register scratch_reg);

 private:
  // For V8
  void read_ccr_trap(Register ccr_save);
  void write_ccr_trap(Register ccr_save1, Register scratch1, Register scratch2);

#ifdef ASSERT
  // For V8 debugging.  Uses V8 instruction sequence and checks
  // result with V9 insturctions rdccr and wrccr.
  // Uses Gscatch and Gscatch2
  void read_ccr_v8_assert(Register ccr_save);
  void write_ccr_v8_assert(Register ccr_save);
#endif // ASSERT

 public:

  // Write to card table for - register is destroyed afterwards.
  void card_table_write(jbyte* byte_map_base, Register tmp, Register obj);

  void card_write_barrier_post(Register store_addr, Register new_val, Register tmp);

#ifndef SERIALGC
  // General G1 pre-barrier generator.
  void g1_write_barrier_pre(Register obj, Register index, int offset, Register pre_val, Register tmp, bool preserve_o_regs);

  // General G1 post-barrier generator
  void g1_write_barrier_post(Register store_addr, Register new_val, Register tmp);
#endif // SERIALGC

  // pushes double TOS element of FPU stack on CPU stack; pops from FPU stack
  void push_fTOS();

  // pops double TOS element from CPU stack and pushes on FPU stack
  void pop_fTOS();

  void empty_FPU_stack();

  void push_IU_state();
  void pop_IU_state();

  void push_FPU_state();
  void pop_FPU_state();

  void push_CPU_state();
  void pop_CPU_state();

  // if heap base register is used - reinit it with the correct value
  void reinit_heapbase();

  // Debugging
  void _verify_oop(Register reg, const char * msg, const char * file, int line);
  void _verify_oop_addr(Address addr, const char * msg, const char * file, int line);

#define verify_oop(reg) _verify_oop(reg, "broken oop " #reg, __FILE__, __LINE__)
#define verify_oop_addr(addr) _verify_oop_addr(addr, "broken oop addr ", __FILE__, __LINE__)

        // only if +VerifyOops
  void verify_FPU(int stack_depth, const char* s = "illegal FPU state");
        // only if +VerifyFPU
  void stop(const char* msg);                          // prints msg, dumps registers and stops execution
  void warn(const char* msg);                          // prints msg, but don't stop
  void untested(const char* what = "");
  void unimplemented(const char* what = "")      { char* b = new char[1024];  jio_snprintf(b, 1024, "unimplemented: %s", what);  stop(b); }
  void should_not_reach_here()                   { stop("should not reach here"); }
  void print_CPU_state();

  // oops in code
  AddressLiteral allocate_oop_address(jobject obj);                          // allocate_index
  AddressLiteral constant_oop_address(jobject obj);                          // find_index
  inline void    set_oop             (jobject obj, Register d);              // uses allocate_oop_address
  inline void    set_oop_constant    (jobject obj, Register d);              // uses constant_oop_address
  inline void    set_oop             (const AddressLiteral& obj_addr, Register d); // same as load_address

  void set_narrow_oop( jobject obj, Register d );

  // nop padding
  void align(int modulus);

  // declare a safepoint
  void safepoint();

  // factor out part of stop into subroutine to save space
  void stop_subroutine();
  // factor out part of verify_oop into subroutine to save space
  void verify_oop_subroutine();

  // side-door communication with signalHandler in os_solaris.cpp
  static address _verify_oop_implicit_branch[3];

#ifndef PRODUCT
  static void test();
#endif

  // convert an incoming arglist to varargs format; put the pointer in d
  void set_varargs( Argument a, Register d );

  int total_frame_size_in_bytes(int extraWords);

  // used when extraWords known statically
  void save_frame(int extraWords);
  void save_frame_c1(int size_in_bytes);
  // make a frame, and simultaneously pass up one or two register value
  // into the new register window
  void save_frame_and_mov(int extraWords, Register s1, Register d1, Register s2 = Register(), Register d2 = Register());

  // give no. (outgoing) params, calc # of words will need on frame
  void calc_mem_param_words(Register Rparam_words, Register Rresult);

  // used to calculate frame size dynamically
  // result is in bytes and must be negated for save inst
  void calc_frame_size(Register extraWords, Register resultReg);

  // calc and also save
  void calc_frame_size_and_save(Register extraWords, Register resultReg);

  static void debug(char* msg, RegistersForDebugging* outWindow);

  // implementations of bytecodes used by both interpreter and compiler

  void lcmp( Register Ra_hi, Register Ra_low,
             Register Rb_hi, Register Rb_low,
             Register Rresult);

  void lneg( Register Rhi, Register Rlow );

  void lshl(  Register Rin_high,  Register Rin_low,  Register Rcount,
              Register Rout_high, Register Rout_low, Register Rtemp );

  void lshr(  Register Rin_high,  Register Rin_low,  Register Rcount,
              Register Rout_high, Register Rout_low, Register Rtemp );

  void lushr( Register Rin_high,  Register Rin_low,  Register Rcount,
              Register Rout_high, Register Rout_low, Register Rtemp );

#ifdef _LP64
  void lcmp( Register Ra, Register Rb, Register Rresult);
#endif

  // Load and store values by size and signed-ness
  void load_sized_value( Address src, Register dst, size_t size_in_bytes, bool is_signed);
  void store_sized_value(Register src, Address dst, size_t size_in_bytes);

  void float_cmp( bool is_float, int unordered_result,
                  FloatRegister Fa, FloatRegister Fb,
                  Register Rresult);

  void fneg( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister s, FloatRegister d);
  void fneg( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister sd ) { Assembler::fneg(w, sd); }
  void fmov( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister s, FloatRegister d);
  void fabs( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister s, FloatRegister d);

  void save_all_globals_into_locals();
  void restore_globals_from_locals();

  void casx_under_lock(Register top_ptr_reg, Register top_reg, Register ptr_reg,
    address lock_addr=0, bool use_call_vm=false);
  void cas_under_lock(Register top_ptr_reg, Register top_reg, Register ptr_reg,
    address lock_addr=0, bool use_call_vm=false);
  void casn (Register addr_reg, Register cmp_reg, Register set_reg) ;

  // These set the icc condition code to equal if the lock succeeded
  // and notEqual if it failed and requires a slow case
  void compiler_lock_object(Register Roop, Register Rmark, Register Rbox,
                            Register Rscratch,
                            BiasedLockingCounters* counters = NULL,
                            bool try_bias = UseBiasedLocking);
  void compiler_unlock_object(Register Roop, Register Rmark, Register Rbox,
                              Register Rscratch,
                              bool try_bias = UseBiasedLocking);

  // Biased locking support
  // Upon entry, lock_reg must point to the lock record on the stack,
  // obj_reg must contain the target object, and mark_reg must contain
  // the target object's header.
  // Destroys mark_reg if an attempt is made to bias an anonymously
  // biased lock. In this case a failure will go either to the slow
  // case or fall through with the notEqual condition code set with
  // the expectation that the slow case in the runtime will be called.
  // In the fall-through case where the CAS-based lock is done,
  // mark_reg is not destroyed.
  void biased_locking_enter(Register obj_reg, Register mark_reg, Register temp_reg,
                            Label& done, Label* slow_case = NULL,
                            BiasedLockingCounters* counters = NULL);
  // Upon entry, the base register of mark_addr must contain the oop.
  // Destroys temp_reg.

  // If allow_delay_slot_filling is set to true, the next instruction
  // emitted after this one will go in an annulled delay slot if the
  // biased locking exit case failed.
  void biased_locking_exit(Address mark_addr, Register temp_reg, Label& done, bool allow_delay_slot_filling = false);

  // allocation
  void eden_allocate(
    Register obj,                      // result: pointer to object after successful allocation
    Register var_size_in_bytes,        // object size in bytes if unknown at compile time; invalid otherwise
    int      con_size_in_bytes,        // object size in bytes if   known at compile time
    Register t1,                       // temp register
    Register t2,                       // temp register
    Label&   slow_case                 // continuation point if fast allocation fails
  );
  void tlab_allocate(
    Register obj,                      // result: pointer to object after successful allocation
    Register var_size_in_bytes,        // object size in bytes if unknown at compile time; invalid otherwise
    int      con_size_in_bytes,        // object size in bytes if   known at compile time
    Register t1,                       // temp register
    Label&   slow_case                 // continuation point if fast allocation fails
  );
  void tlab_refill(Label& retry_tlab, Label& try_eden, Label& slow_case);
  void incr_allocated_bytes(RegisterOrConstant size_in_bytes,
                            Register t1, Register t2);

  // interface method calling
  void lookup_interface_method(Register recv_klass,
                               Register intf_klass,
                               RegisterOrConstant itable_index,
                               Register method_result,
                               Register temp_reg, Register temp2_reg,
                               Label& no_such_interface);

  // Test sub_klass against super_klass, with fast and slow paths.

  // The fast path produces a tri-state answer: yes / no / maybe-slow.
  // One of the three labels can be NULL, meaning take the fall-through.
  // If super_check_offset is -1, the value is loaded up from super_klass.
  // No registers are killed, except temp_reg and temp2_reg.
  // If super_check_offset is not -1, temp2_reg is not used and can be noreg.
  void check_klass_subtype_fast_path(Register sub_klass,
                                     Register super_klass,
                                     Register temp_reg,
                                     Register temp2_reg,
                                     Label* L_success,
                                     Label* L_failure,
                                     Label* L_slow_path,
                RegisterOrConstant super_check_offset = RegisterOrConstant(-1),
                Register instanceof_hack = noreg);

  // The rest of the type check; must be wired to a corresponding fast path.
  // It does not repeat the fast path logic, so don't use it standalone.
  // The temp_reg can be noreg, if no temps are available.
  // It can also be sub_klass or super_klass, meaning it's OK to kill that one.
  // Updates the sub's secondary super cache as necessary.
  void check_klass_subtype_slow_path(Register sub_klass,
                                     Register super_klass,
                                     Register temp_reg,
                                     Register temp2_reg,
                                     Register temp3_reg,
                                     Register temp4_reg,
                                     Label* L_success,
                                     Label* L_failure);

  // Simplified, combined version, good for typical uses.
  // Falls through on failure.
  void check_klass_subtype(Register sub_klass,
                           Register super_klass,
                           Register temp_reg,
                           Register temp2_reg,
                           Label& L_success);

  // method handles (JSR 292)
  void check_method_handle_type(Register mtype_reg, Register mh_reg,
                                Register temp_reg,
                                Label& wrong_method_type);
  void load_method_handle_vmslots(Register vmslots_reg, Register mh_reg,
                                  Register temp_reg);
  void jump_to_method_handle_entry(Register mh_reg, Register temp_reg, bool emit_delayed_nop = true);
  // offset relative to Gargs of argument at tos[arg_slot].
  // (arg_slot == 0 means the last argument, not the first).
  RegisterOrConstant argument_offset(RegisterOrConstant arg_slot,
                                     int extra_slot_offset = 0);
  // Address of Gargs and argument_offset.
  Address            argument_address(RegisterOrConstant arg_slot,
                                      int extra_slot_offset = 0);

  // Stack overflow checking

  // Note: this clobbers G3_scratch
  void bang_stack_with_offset(int offset) {
    // stack grows down, caller passes positive offset
    assert(offset > 0, "must bang with negative offset");
    set((-offset)+STACK_BIAS, G3_scratch);
    st(G0, SP, G3_scratch);
  }

  // Writes to stack successive pages until offset reached to check for
  // stack overflow + shadow pages.  Clobbers tsp and scratch registers.
  void bang_stack_size(Register Rsize, Register Rtsp, Register Rscratch);

  virtual RegisterOrConstant delayed_value_impl(intptr_t* delayed_value_addr, Register tmp, int offset);

  void verify_tlab();

  Condition negate_condition(Condition cond);

  // Helper functions for statistics gathering.
  // Conditionally (non-atomically) increments passed counter address, preserving condition codes.
  void cond_inc(Condition cond, address counter_addr, Register Rtemp1, Register Rtemp2);
  // Unconditional increment.
  void inc_counter(address counter_addr, Register Rtmp1, Register Rtmp2);
  void inc_counter(int*    counter_addr, Register Rtmp1, Register Rtmp2);

  // Compare char[] arrays aligned to 4 bytes.
  void char_arrays_equals(Register ary1, Register ary2,
                          Register limit, Register result,
                          Register chr1, Register chr2, Label& Ldone);

#undef VIRTUAL

};

/**
 * class SkipIfEqual:
 *
 * Instantiating this class will result in assembly code being output that will
 * jump around any code emitted between the creation of the instance and it's
 * automatic destruction at the end of a scope block, depending on the value of
 * the flag passed to the constructor, which will be checked at run-time.
 */
class SkipIfEqual : public StackObj {
 private:
  MacroAssembler* _masm;
  Label _label;

 public:
   // 'temp' is a temp register that this object can use (and trash)
   SkipIfEqual(MacroAssembler*, Register temp,
               const bool* flag_addr, Assembler::Condition condition);
   ~SkipIfEqual();
};

#ifdef ASSERT
// On RISC, there's no benefit to verifying instruction boundaries.
inline bool AbstractAssembler::pd_check_instruction_mark() { return false; }
#endif

#endif // CPU_SPARC_VM_ASSEMBLER_SPARC_HPP