view src/share/vm/prims/jni.cpp @ 2488:e1162778c1c8

7009266: G1: assert(obj->is_oop_or_null(true )) failed: Error Summary: A referent object that is only weakly reachable at the start of concurrent marking but is re-attached to the strongly reachable object graph during marking may not be marked as live. This can cause the reference object to be processed prematurely and leave dangling pointers to the referent object. Implement a read barrier for the java.lang.ref.Reference::referent field by intrinsifying the Reference.get() method, and intercepting accesses though JNI, reflection, and Unsafe, so that when a non-null referent object is read it is also logged in an SATB buffer. Reviewed-by: kvn, iveresov, never, tonyp, dholmes
author johnc
date Thu, 07 Apr 2011 09:53:20 -0700
parents c7f3d0b4570f
children 6569616f62d3 04760e41b01e
line wrap: on
line source
/*
 * Copyright (c) 1997, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
 *
 * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
 * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
 * published by the Free Software Foundation.
 *
 * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
 * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
 * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
 * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
 * accompanied this code).
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
 * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
 * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
 *
 * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
 * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
 * questions.
 *
 */

#include "precompiled.hpp"
#include "classfile/classLoader.hpp"
#include "classfile/javaClasses.hpp"
#include "classfile/symbolTable.hpp"
#include "classfile/systemDictionary.hpp"
#include "classfile/vmSymbols.hpp"
#include "interpreter/linkResolver.hpp"
#ifndef SERIALGC
#include "gc_implementation/g1/g1SATBCardTableModRefBS.hpp"
#endif // SERIALGC
#include "memory/allocation.inline.hpp"
#include "memory/gcLocker.inline.hpp"
#include "memory/oopFactory.hpp"
#include "memory/universe.inline.hpp"
#include "oops/instanceKlass.hpp"
#include "oops/instanceOop.hpp"
#include "oops/markOop.hpp"
#include "oops/methodOop.hpp"
#include "oops/objArrayKlass.hpp"
#include "oops/objArrayOop.hpp"
#include "oops/oop.inline.hpp"
#include "oops/symbol.hpp"
#include "oops/typeArrayKlass.hpp"
#include "oops/typeArrayOop.hpp"
#include "prims/jni.h"
#include "prims/jniCheck.hpp"
#include "prims/jniFastGetField.hpp"
#include "prims/jvm.h"
#include "prims/jvm_misc.hpp"
#include "prims/jvmtiExport.hpp"
#include "prims/jvmtiThreadState.hpp"
#include "runtime/compilationPolicy.hpp"
#include "runtime/fieldDescriptor.hpp"
#include "runtime/fprofiler.hpp"
#include "runtime/handles.inline.hpp"
#include "runtime/interfaceSupport.hpp"
#include "runtime/java.hpp"
#include "runtime/javaCalls.hpp"
#include "runtime/jfieldIDWorkaround.hpp"
#include "runtime/reflection.hpp"
#include "runtime/sharedRuntime.hpp"
#include "runtime/signature.hpp"
#include "runtime/vm_operations.hpp"
#include "services/runtimeService.hpp"
#include "utilities/defaultStream.hpp"
#include "utilities/dtrace.hpp"
#include "utilities/events.hpp"
#include "utilities/histogram.hpp"
#ifdef TARGET_ARCH_x86
# include "jniTypes_x86.hpp"
#endif
#ifdef TARGET_ARCH_sparc
# include "jniTypes_sparc.hpp"
#endif
#ifdef TARGET_ARCH_zero
# include "jniTypes_zero.hpp"
#endif
#ifdef TARGET_OS_FAMILY_linux
# include "os_linux.inline.hpp"
# include "thread_linux.inline.hpp"
#endif
#ifdef TARGET_OS_FAMILY_solaris
# include "os_solaris.inline.hpp"
# include "thread_solaris.inline.hpp"
#endif
#ifdef TARGET_OS_FAMILY_windows
# include "os_windows.inline.hpp"
# include "thread_windows.inline.hpp"
#endif

static jint CurrentVersion = JNI_VERSION_1_6;


// The DT_RETURN_MARK macros create a scoped object to fire the dtrace
// '-return' probe regardless of the return path is taken out of the function.
// Methods that have multiple return paths use this to avoid having to
// instrument each return path.  Methods that use CHECK or THROW must use this
// since those macros can cause an immedate uninstrumented return.
//
// In order to get the return value, a reference to the variable containing
// the return value must be passed to the contructor of the object, and
// the return value must be set before return (since the mark object has
// a reference to it).
//
// Example:
// DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL(SomeFunc, int);
// JNI_ENTRY(int, SomeFunc, ...)
//   int return_value = 0;
//   DT_RETURN_MARK(SomeFunc, int, (const int&)return_value);
//   foo(CHECK_0)
//   return_value = 5;
//   return return_value;
// JNI_END
#define DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL(name, type)                                    \
  HS_DTRACE_PROBE_DECL1(hotspot_jni, name##__return, type);                \
  DTRACE_ONLY(                                                             \
    class DTraceReturnProbeMark_##name {                                   \
     public:                                                               \
      const type& _ret_ref;                                                \
      DTraceReturnProbeMark_##name(const type& v) : _ret_ref(v) {}         \
      ~DTraceReturnProbeMark_##name() {                                    \
        HS_DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, name##__return, _ret_ref);           \
      }                                                                    \
    }                                                                      \
  )
// Void functions are simpler since there's no return value
#define DT_VOID_RETURN_MARK_DECL(name)                                     \
  HS_DTRACE_PROBE_DECL0(hotspot_jni, name##__return);                      \
  DTRACE_ONLY(                                                             \
    class DTraceReturnProbeMark_##name {                                   \
     public:                                                               \
      ~DTraceReturnProbeMark_##name() {                                    \
        HS_DTRACE_PROBE0(hotspot_jni, name##__return);                     \
      }                                                                    \
    }                                                                      \
  )


// Place these macros in the function to mark the return.  Non-void
// functions need the type and address of the return value.
#define DT_RETURN_MARK(name, type, ref) \
  DTRACE_ONLY( DTraceReturnProbeMark_##name dtrace_return_mark(ref) )
#define DT_VOID_RETURN_MARK(name) \
  DTRACE_ONLY( DTraceReturnProbeMark_##name dtrace_return_mark )


// Use these to select distinct code for floating-point vs. non-floating point
// situations.  Used from within common macros where we need slightly
// different behavior for Float/Double
#define FP_SELECT_Boolean(intcode, fpcode) intcode
#define FP_SELECT_Byte(intcode, fpcode)    intcode
#define FP_SELECT_Char(intcode, fpcode)    intcode
#define FP_SELECT_Short(intcode, fpcode)   intcode
#define FP_SELECT_Object(intcode, fpcode)  intcode
#define FP_SELECT_Int(intcode, fpcode)     intcode
#define FP_SELECT_Long(intcode, fpcode)    intcode
#define FP_SELECT_Float(intcode, fpcode)   fpcode
#define FP_SELECT_Double(intcode, fpcode)  fpcode
#define FP_SELECT(TypeName, intcode, fpcode) \
  FP_SELECT_##TypeName(intcode, fpcode)

#define COMMA ,

// Choose DT_RETURN_MARK macros  based on the type: float/double -> void
// (dtrace doesn't do FP yet)
#define DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL_FOR(TypeName, name, type) \
  FP_SELECT(TypeName, \
    DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL(name, type), DT_VOID_RETURN_MARK_DECL(name) )
#define DT_RETURN_MARK_FOR(TypeName, name, type, ref) \
  FP_SELECT(TypeName, \
    DT_RETURN_MARK(name, type, ref), DT_VOID_RETURN_MARK(name) )


// out-of-line helpers for class jfieldIDWorkaround:

bool jfieldIDWorkaround::is_valid_jfieldID(klassOop k, jfieldID id) {
  if (jfieldIDWorkaround::is_instance_jfieldID(k, id)) {
    uintptr_t as_uint = (uintptr_t) id;
    intptr_t offset = raw_instance_offset(id);
    if (is_checked_jfieldID(id)) {
      if (!klass_hash_ok(k, id)) {
        return false;
      }
    }
    return instanceKlass::cast(k)->contains_field_offset(offset);
  } else {
    JNIid* result = (JNIid*) id;
#ifdef ASSERT
    return result != NULL && result->is_static_field_id();
#else
    return result != NULL;
#endif
  }
}


intptr_t jfieldIDWorkaround::encode_klass_hash(klassOop k, intptr_t offset) {
  if (offset <= small_offset_mask) {
    klassOop field_klass = k;
    klassOop super_klass = Klass::cast(field_klass)->super();
    // With compressed oops the most super class with nonstatic fields would
    // be the owner of fields embedded in the header.
    while (instanceKlass::cast(super_klass)->has_nonstatic_fields() &&
           instanceKlass::cast(super_klass)->contains_field_offset(offset)) {
      field_klass = super_klass;   // super contains the field also
      super_klass = Klass::cast(field_klass)->super();
    }
    debug_only(No_Safepoint_Verifier nosafepoint;)
    uintptr_t klass_hash = field_klass->identity_hash();
    return ((klass_hash & klass_mask) << klass_shift) | checked_mask_in_place;
  } else {
#if 0
    #ifndef PRODUCT
    {
      ResourceMark rm;
      warning("VerifyJNIFields: long offset %d in %s", offset, Klass::cast(k)->external_name());
    }
    #endif
#endif
    return 0;
  }
}

bool jfieldIDWorkaround::klass_hash_ok(klassOop k, jfieldID id) {
  uintptr_t as_uint = (uintptr_t) id;
  intptr_t klass_hash = (as_uint >> klass_shift) & klass_mask;
  do {
    debug_only(No_Safepoint_Verifier nosafepoint;)
    // Could use a non-blocking query for identity_hash here...
    if ((k->identity_hash() & klass_mask) == klass_hash)
      return true;
    k = Klass::cast(k)->super();
  } while (k != NULL);
  return false;
}

void jfieldIDWorkaround::verify_instance_jfieldID(klassOop k, jfieldID id) {
  guarantee(jfieldIDWorkaround::is_instance_jfieldID(k, id), "must be an instance field" );
  uintptr_t as_uint = (uintptr_t) id;
  intptr_t offset = raw_instance_offset(id);
  if (VerifyJNIFields) {
    if (is_checked_jfieldID(id)) {
      guarantee(klass_hash_ok(k, id),
    "Bug in native code: jfieldID class must match object");
    } else {
#if 0
      #ifndef PRODUCT
      if (Verbose) {
  ResourceMark rm;
  warning("VerifyJNIFields: unverified offset %d for %s", offset, Klass::cast(k)->external_name());
      }
      #endif
#endif
    }
  }
  guarantee(instanceKlass::cast(k)->contains_field_offset(offset),
      "Bug in native code: jfieldID offset must address interior of object");
}

// Pick a reasonable higher bound for local capacity requested
// for EnsureLocalCapacity and PushLocalFrame.  We don't want it too
// high because a test (or very unusual application) may try to allocate
// that many handles and run out of swap space.  An implementation is
// permitted to allocate more handles than the ensured capacity, so this
// value is set high enough to prevent compatibility problems.
const int MAX_REASONABLE_LOCAL_CAPACITY = 4*K;


// Wrapper to trace JNI functions

#ifdef ASSERT
  Histogram* JNIHistogram;
  static volatile jint JNIHistogram_lock = 0;

  class JNITraceWrapper : public StackObj {
   public:
    JNITraceWrapper(const char* format, ...) {
      if (TraceJNICalls) {
        va_list ap;
        va_start(ap, format);
        tty->print("JNI ");
        tty->vprint_cr(format, ap);
        va_end(ap);
      }
    }
  };

  class JNIHistogramElement : public HistogramElement {
    public:
     JNIHistogramElement(const char* name);
  };

  JNIHistogramElement::JNIHistogramElement(const char* elementName) {
    _name = elementName;
    uintx count = 0;

    while (Atomic::cmpxchg(1, &JNIHistogram_lock, 0) != 0) {
      while (OrderAccess::load_acquire(&JNIHistogram_lock) != 0) {
        count +=1;
        if ( (WarnOnStalledSpinLock > 0)
          && (count % WarnOnStalledSpinLock == 0)) {
          warning("JNIHistogram_lock seems to be stalled");
        }
      }
     }


    if(JNIHistogram == NULL)
      JNIHistogram = new Histogram("JNI Call Counts",100);

    JNIHistogram->add_element(this);
    Atomic::dec(&JNIHistogram_lock);
  }

  #define JNICountWrapper(arg)                                     \
     static JNIHistogramElement* e = new JNIHistogramElement(arg); \
      /* There is a MT-race condition in VC++. So we need to make sure that that e has been initialized */ \
     if (e != NULL) e->increment_count()
  #define JNIWrapper(arg) JNICountWrapper(arg); JNITraceWrapper(arg)
#else
  #define JNIWrapper(arg)
#endif


// Implementation of JNI entries

DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL(DefineClass, jclass);

JNI_ENTRY(jclass, jni_DefineClass(JNIEnv *env, const char *name, jobject loaderRef,
                                  const jbyte *buf, jsize bufLen))
  JNIWrapper("DefineClass");

  DTRACE_PROBE5(hotspot_jni, DefineClass__entry,
    env, name, loaderRef, buf, bufLen);
  jclass cls = NULL;
  DT_RETURN_MARK(DefineClass, jclass, (const jclass&)cls);

  // Since exceptions can be thrown, class initialization can take place
  // if name is NULL no check for class name in .class stream has to be made.
  if (name != NULL) {
    const int str_len = (int)strlen(name);
    if (str_len > Symbol::max_length()) {
      // It's impossible to create this class;  the name cannot fit
      // into the constant pool.
      THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_NoClassDefFoundError(), name);
    }
  }
  TempNewSymbol class_name = SymbolTable::new_symbol(name, THREAD);

  ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
  ClassFileStream st((u1*) buf, bufLen, NULL);
  Handle class_loader (THREAD, JNIHandles::resolve(loaderRef));

  if (UsePerfData && !class_loader.is_null()) {
    // check whether the current caller thread holds the lock or not.
    // If not, increment the corresponding counter
    if (ObjectSynchronizer::
        query_lock_ownership((JavaThread*)THREAD, class_loader) !=
        ObjectSynchronizer::owner_self) {
      ClassLoader::sync_JNIDefineClassLockFreeCounter()->inc();
    }
  }
  klassOop k = SystemDictionary::resolve_from_stream(class_name, class_loader,
                                                     Handle(), &st, true,
                                                     CHECK_NULL);

  if (TraceClassResolution && k != NULL) {
    trace_class_resolution(k);
  }

  cls = (jclass)JNIHandles::make_local(
    env, Klass::cast(k)->java_mirror());
  return cls;
JNI_END



static bool first_time_FindClass = true;

DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL(FindClass, jclass);

JNI_ENTRY(jclass, jni_FindClass(JNIEnv *env, const char *name))
  JNIWrapper("FindClass");
  DTRACE_PROBE2(hotspot_jni, FindClass__entry, env, name);

  jclass result = NULL;
  DT_RETURN_MARK(FindClass, jclass, (const jclass&)result);

  // Remember if we are the first invocation of jni_FindClass
  bool first_time = first_time_FindClass;
  first_time_FindClass = false;

  // Sanity check the name:  it cannot be null or larger than the maximum size
  // name we can fit in the constant pool.
  if (name == NULL || (int)strlen(name) > Symbol::max_length()) {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_NoClassDefFoundError(), name);
  }

  //%note jni_3
  Handle loader;
  Handle protection_domain;
  // Find calling class
  instanceKlassHandle k (THREAD, thread->security_get_caller_class(0));
  if (k.not_null()) {
    loader = Handle(THREAD, k->class_loader());
    // Special handling to make sure JNI_OnLoad and JNI_OnUnload are executed
    // in the correct class context.
    if (loader.is_null() &&
        k->name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_ClassLoader_NativeLibrary()) {
      JavaValue result(T_OBJECT);
      JavaCalls::call_static(&result, k,
                                      vmSymbols::getFromClass_name(),
                                      vmSymbols::void_class_signature(),
                                      thread);
      if (HAS_PENDING_EXCEPTION) {
        Handle ex(thread, thread->pending_exception());
        CLEAR_PENDING_EXCEPTION;
        THROW_HANDLE_0(ex);
      }
      oop mirror = (oop) result.get_jobject();
      loader = Handle(THREAD,
        instanceKlass::cast(java_lang_Class::as_klassOop(mirror))->class_loader());
      protection_domain = Handle(THREAD,
        instanceKlass::cast(java_lang_Class::as_klassOop(mirror))->protection_domain());
    }
  } else {
    // We call ClassLoader.getSystemClassLoader to obtain the system class loader.
    loader = Handle(THREAD, SystemDictionary::java_system_loader());
  }

  TempNewSymbol sym = SymbolTable::new_symbol(name, CHECK_NULL);
  result = find_class_from_class_loader(env, sym, true, loader,
                                        protection_domain, true, thread);

  if (TraceClassResolution && result != NULL) {
    trace_class_resolution(java_lang_Class::as_klassOop(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(result)));
  }

  // If we were the first invocation of jni_FindClass, we enable compilation again
  // rather than just allowing invocation counter to overflow and decay.
  // Controlled by flag DelayCompilationDuringStartup.
  if (first_time && !CompileTheWorld)
    CompilationPolicy::completed_vm_startup();

  return result;
JNI_END

DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL(FromReflectedMethod, jmethodID);

JNI_ENTRY(jmethodID, jni_FromReflectedMethod(JNIEnv *env, jobject method))
  JNIWrapper("FromReflectedMethod");
  DTRACE_PROBE2(hotspot_jni, FromReflectedMethod__entry, env, method);
  jmethodID ret = NULL;
  DT_RETURN_MARK(FromReflectedMethod, jmethodID, (const jmethodID&)ret);

  // method is a handle to a java.lang.reflect.Method object
  oop reflected  = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(method);
  oop mirror     = NULL;
  int slot       = 0;

  if (reflected->klass() == SystemDictionary::reflect_Constructor_klass()) {
    mirror = java_lang_reflect_Constructor::clazz(reflected);
    slot   = java_lang_reflect_Constructor::slot(reflected);
  } else {
    assert(reflected->klass() == SystemDictionary::reflect_Method_klass(), "wrong type");
    mirror = java_lang_reflect_Method::clazz(reflected);
    slot   = java_lang_reflect_Method::slot(reflected);
  }
  klassOop k     = java_lang_Class::as_klassOop(mirror);

  KlassHandle k1(THREAD, k);
  // Make sure class is initialized before handing id's out to methods
  Klass::cast(k1())->initialize(CHECK_NULL);
  methodOop m = instanceKlass::cast(k1())->method_with_idnum(slot);
  ret = m==NULL? NULL : m->jmethod_id();  // return NULL if reflected method deleted
  return ret;
JNI_END

DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL(FromReflectedField, jfieldID);

JNI_ENTRY(jfieldID, jni_FromReflectedField(JNIEnv *env, jobject field))
  JNIWrapper("FromReflectedField");
  DTRACE_PROBE2(hotspot_jni, FromReflectedField__entry, env, field);
  jfieldID ret = NULL;
  DT_RETURN_MARK(FromReflectedField, jfieldID, (const jfieldID&)ret);

  // field is a handle to a java.lang.reflect.Field object
  oop reflected   = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(field);
  oop mirror      = java_lang_reflect_Field::clazz(reflected);
  klassOop k      = java_lang_Class::as_klassOop(mirror);
  int slot        = java_lang_reflect_Field::slot(reflected);
  int modifiers   = java_lang_reflect_Field::modifiers(reflected);

  KlassHandle k1(THREAD, k);
  // Make sure class is initialized before handing id's out to fields
  Klass::cast(k1())->initialize(CHECK_NULL);

  // First check if this is a static field
  if (modifiers & JVM_ACC_STATIC) {
    intptr_t offset = instanceKlass::cast(k1())->offset_from_fields( slot );
    JNIid* id = instanceKlass::cast(k1())->jni_id_for(offset);
    assert(id != NULL, "corrupt Field object");
    debug_only(id->set_is_static_field_id();)
    // A jfieldID for a static field is a JNIid specifying the field holder and the offset within the klassOop
    ret = jfieldIDWorkaround::to_static_jfieldID(id);
    return ret;
  }

  // The slot is the index of the field description in the field-array
  // The jfieldID is the offset of the field within the object
  // It may also have hash bits for k, if VerifyJNIFields is turned on.
  intptr_t offset = instanceKlass::cast(k1())->offset_from_fields( slot );
  assert(instanceKlass::cast(k1())->contains_field_offset(offset), "stay within object");
  ret = jfieldIDWorkaround::to_instance_jfieldID(k1(), offset);
  return ret;
JNI_END

DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL(ToReflectedMethod, jobject);

JNI_ENTRY(jobject, jni_ToReflectedMethod(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, jmethodID method_id, jboolean isStatic))
  JNIWrapper("ToReflectedMethod");
  DTRACE_PROBE4(hotspot_jni, ToReflectedMethod__entry, env, cls, method_id, isStatic);
  jobject ret = NULL;
  DT_RETURN_MARK(ToReflectedMethod, jobject, (const jobject&)ret);

  methodHandle m (THREAD, JNIHandles::resolve_jmethod_id(method_id));
  assert(m->is_static() == (isStatic != 0), "jni_ToReflectedMethod access flags doesn't match");
  oop reflection_method;
  if (m->is_initializer()) {
    reflection_method = Reflection::new_constructor(m, CHECK_NULL);
  } else {
    reflection_method = Reflection::new_method(m, UseNewReflection, false, CHECK_NULL);
  }
  ret = JNIHandles::make_local(env, reflection_method);
  return ret;
JNI_END

DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL(GetSuperclass, jclass);

JNI_ENTRY(jclass, jni_GetSuperclass(JNIEnv *env, jclass sub))
  JNIWrapper("GetSuperclass");
  DTRACE_PROBE2(hotspot_jni, GetSuperclass__entry, env, sub);
  jclass obj = NULL;
  DT_RETURN_MARK(GetSuperclass, jclass, (const jclass&)obj);

  oop mirror = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(sub);
  // primitive classes return NULL
  if (java_lang_Class::is_primitive(mirror)) return NULL;

  // Rules of Class.getSuperClass as implemented by KLass::java_super:
  // arrays return Object
  // interfaces return NULL
  // proper classes return Klass::super()
  klassOop k = java_lang_Class::as_klassOop(mirror);
  if (Klass::cast(k)->is_interface()) return NULL;

  // return mirror for superclass
  klassOop super = Klass::cast(k)->java_super();
  // super2 is the value computed by the compiler's getSuperClass intrinsic:
  debug_only(klassOop super2 = ( Klass::cast(k)->oop_is_javaArray()
                                 ? SystemDictionary::Object_klass()
                                 : Klass::cast(k)->super() ) );
  assert(super == super2,
         "java_super computation depends on interface, array, other super");
  obj = (super == NULL) ? NULL : (jclass) JNIHandles::make_local(Klass::cast(super)->java_mirror());
  return obj;
JNI_END

JNI_QUICK_ENTRY(jboolean, jni_IsAssignableFrom(JNIEnv *env, jclass sub, jclass super))
  JNIWrapper("IsSubclassOf");
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, IsAssignableFrom__entry, env, sub, super);
  oop sub_mirror   = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(sub);
  oop super_mirror = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(super);
  if (java_lang_Class::is_primitive(sub_mirror) ||
      java_lang_Class::is_primitive(super_mirror)) {
    jboolean ret = (sub_mirror == super_mirror);
    DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, IsAssignableFrom__return, ret);
    return ret;
  }
  klassOop sub_klass   = java_lang_Class::as_klassOop(sub_mirror);
  klassOop super_klass = java_lang_Class::as_klassOop(super_mirror);
  assert(sub_klass != NULL && super_klass != NULL, "invalid arguments to jni_IsAssignableFrom");
  jboolean ret = Klass::cast(sub_klass)->is_subtype_of(super_klass) ?
                   JNI_TRUE : JNI_FALSE;
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, IsAssignableFrom__return, ret);
  return ret;
JNI_END

DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL(Throw, jint);

JNI_ENTRY(jint, jni_Throw(JNIEnv *env, jthrowable obj))
  JNIWrapper("Throw");
  DTRACE_PROBE2(hotspot_jni, Throw__entry, env, obj);
  jint ret = JNI_OK;
  DT_RETURN_MARK(Throw, jint, (const jint&)ret);

  THROW_OOP_(JNIHandles::resolve(obj), JNI_OK);
  ShouldNotReachHere();
JNI_END

DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL(ThrowNew, jint);

JNI_ENTRY(jint, jni_ThrowNew(JNIEnv *env, jclass clazz, const char *message))
  JNIWrapper("ThrowNew");
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, ThrowNew__entry, env, clazz, message);
  jint ret = JNI_OK;
  DT_RETURN_MARK(ThrowNew, jint, (const jint&)ret);

  instanceKlass* k = instanceKlass::cast(java_lang_Class::as_klassOop(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(clazz)));
  Symbol*  name = k->name();
  Handle class_loader (THREAD,  k->class_loader());
  Handle protection_domain (THREAD, k->protection_domain());
  THROW_MSG_LOADER_(name, (char *)message, class_loader, protection_domain, JNI_OK);
  ShouldNotReachHere();
JNI_END


// JNI functions only transform a pending async exception to a synchronous
// exception in ExceptionOccurred and ExceptionCheck calls, since
// delivering an async exception in other places won't change the native
// code's control flow and would be harmful when native code further calls
// JNI functions with a pending exception. Async exception is also checked
// during the call, so ExceptionOccurred/ExceptionCheck won't return
// false but deliver the async exception at the very end during
// state transition.

static void jni_check_async_exceptions(JavaThread *thread) {
  assert(thread == Thread::current(), "must be itself");
  thread->check_and_handle_async_exceptions();
}

JNI_ENTRY_NO_PRESERVE(jthrowable, jni_ExceptionOccurred(JNIEnv *env))
  JNIWrapper("ExceptionOccurred");
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, ExceptionOccurred__entry, env);
  jni_check_async_exceptions(thread);
  oop exception = thread->pending_exception();
  jthrowable ret = (jthrowable) JNIHandles::make_local(env, exception);
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, ExceptionOccurred__return, ret);
  return ret;
JNI_END


JNI_ENTRY_NO_PRESERVE(void, jni_ExceptionDescribe(JNIEnv *env))
  JNIWrapper("ExceptionDescribe");
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, ExceptionDescribe__entry, env);
  if (thread->has_pending_exception()) {
    Handle ex(thread, thread->pending_exception());
    thread->clear_pending_exception();
    if (ex->is_a(SystemDictionary::ThreadDeath_klass())) {
      // Don't print anything if we are being killed.
    } else {
      jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(), "Exception ");
      if (thread != NULL && thread->threadObj() != NULL) {
        ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
        jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
        "in thread \"%s\" ", thread->get_thread_name());
      }
      if (ex->is_a(SystemDictionary::Throwable_klass())) {
        JavaValue result(T_VOID);
        JavaCalls::call_virtual(&result,
                                ex,
                                KlassHandle(THREAD,
                                  SystemDictionary::Throwable_klass()),
                                vmSymbols::printStackTrace_name(),
                                vmSymbols::void_method_signature(),
                                THREAD);
        // If an exception is thrown in the call it gets thrown away. Not much
        // we can do with it. The native code that calls this, does not check
        // for the exception - hence, it might still be in the thread when DestroyVM gets
        // called, potentially causing a few asserts to trigger - since no pending exception
        // is expected.
        CLEAR_PENDING_EXCEPTION;
      } else {
        ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
        jio_fprintf(defaultStream::error_stream(),
        ". Uncaught exception of type %s.",
        Klass::cast(ex->klass())->external_name());
      }
    }
  }
  DTRACE_PROBE(hotspot_jni, ExceptionDescribe__return);
JNI_END


JNI_QUICK_ENTRY(void, jni_ExceptionClear(JNIEnv *env))
  JNIWrapper("ExceptionClear");
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, ExceptionClear__entry, env);

  // The jni code might be using this API to clear java thrown exception.
  // So just mark jvmti thread exception state as exception caught.
  JvmtiThreadState *state = JavaThread::current()->jvmti_thread_state();
  if (state != NULL && state->is_exception_detected()) {
    state->set_exception_caught();
  }
  thread->clear_pending_exception();
  DTRACE_PROBE(hotspot_jni, ExceptionClear__return);
JNI_END


JNI_ENTRY(void, jni_FatalError(JNIEnv *env, const char *msg))
  JNIWrapper("FatalError");
  DTRACE_PROBE2(hotspot_jni, FatalError__entry, env, msg);
  tty->print_cr("FATAL ERROR in native method: %s", msg);
  thread->print_stack();
  os::abort(); // Dump core and abort
JNI_END


JNI_ENTRY(jint, jni_PushLocalFrame(JNIEnv *env, jint capacity))
  JNIWrapper("PushLocalFrame");
  DTRACE_PROBE2(hotspot_jni, PushLocalFrame__entry, env, capacity);
  //%note jni_11
  if (capacity < 0 && capacity > MAX_REASONABLE_LOCAL_CAPACITY) {
    DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, PushLocalFrame__return, JNI_ERR);
    return JNI_ERR;
  }
  JNIHandleBlock* old_handles = thread->active_handles();
  JNIHandleBlock* new_handles = JNIHandleBlock::allocate_block(thread);
  assert(new_handles != NULL, "should not be NULL");
  new_handles->set_pop_frame_link(old_handles);
  thread->set_active_handles(new_handles);
  jint ret = JNI_OK;
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, PushLocalFrame__return, ret);
  return ret;
JNI_END


JNI_ENTRY(jobject, jni_PopLocalFrame(JNIEnv *env, jobject result))
  JNIWrapper("PopLocalFrame");
  DTRACE_PROBE2(hotspot_jni, PopLocalFrame__entry, env, result);
  //%note jni_11
  Handle result_handle(thread, JNIHandles::resolve(result));
  JNIHandleBlock* old_handles = thread->active_handles();
  JNIHandleBlock* new_handles = old_handles->pop_frame_link();
  if (new_handles != NULL) {
    // As a sanity check we only release the handle blocks if the pop_frame_link is not NULL.
    // This way code will still work if PopLocalFrame is called without a corresponding
    // PushLocalFrame call. Note that we set the pop_frame_link to NULL explicitly, otherwise
    // the release_block call will release the blocks.
    thread->set_active_handles(new_handles);
    old_handles->set_pop_frame_link(NULL);              // clear link we won't release new_handles below
    JNIHandleBlock::release_block(old_handles, thread); // may block
    result = JNIHandles::make_local(thread, result_handle());
  }
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, PopLocalFrame__return, result);
  return result;
JNI_END


JNI_ENTRY(jobject, jni_NewGlobalRef(JNIEnv *env, jobject ref))
  JNIWrapper("NewGlobalRef");
  DTRACE_PROBE2(hotspot_jni, NewGlobalRef__entry, env, ref);
  Handle ref_handle(thread, JNIHandles::resolve(ref));
  jobject ret = JNIHandles::make_global(ref_handle);
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, NewGlobalRef__return, ret);
  return ret;
JNI_END

// Must be JNI_ENTRY (with HandleMark)
JNI_ENTRY_NO_PRESERVE(void, jni_DeleteGlobalRef(JNIEnv *env, jobject ref))
  JNIWrapper("DeleteGlobalRef");
  DTRACE_PROBE2(hotspot_jni, DeleteGlobalRef__entry, env, ref);
  JNIHandles::destroy_global(ref);
  DTRACE_PROBE(hotspot_jni, DeleteGlobalRef__return);
JNI_END

JNI_QUICK_ENTRY(void, jni_DeleteLocalRef(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj))
  JNIWrapper("DeleteLocalRef");
  DTRACE_PROBE2(hotspot_jni, DeleteLocalRef__entry, env, obj);
  JNIHandles::destroy_local(obj);
  DTRACE_PROBE(hotspot_jni, DeleteLocalRef__return);
JNI_END

JNI_QUICK_ENTRY(jboolean, jni_IsSameObject(JNIEnv *env, jobject r1, jobject r2))
  JNIWrapper("IsSameObject");
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, IsSameObject__entry, env, r1, r2);
  oop a = JNIHandles::resolve(r1);
  oop b = JNIHandles::resolve(r2);
  jboolean ret = (a == b) ? JNI_TRUE : JNI_FALSE;
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, IsSameObject__return, ret);
  return ret;
JNI_END


JNI_ENTRY(jobject, jni_NewLocalRef(JNIEnv *env, jobject ref))
  JNIWrapper("NewLocalRef");
  DTRACE_PROBE2(hotspot_jni, NewLocalRef__entry, env, ref);
  jobject ret = JNIHandles::make_local(env, JNIHandles::resolve(ref));
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, NewLocalRef__return, ret);
  return ret;
JNI_END

JNI_LEAF(jint, jni_EnsureLocalCapacity(JNIEnv *env, jint capacity))
  JNIWrapper("EnsureLocalCapacity");
  DTRACE_PROBE2(hotspot_jni, EnsureLocalCapacity__entry, env, capacity);
  jint ret;
  if (capacity >= 0 && capacity <= MAX_REASONABLE_LOCAL_CAPACITY) {
    ret = JNI_OK;
  } else {
    ret = JNI_ERR;
  }
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, EnsureLocalCapacity__return, ret);
  return ret;
JNI_END

// Return the Handle Type
JNI_LEAF(jobjectRefType, jni_GetObjectRefType(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj))
  JNIWrapper("GetObjectRefType");
  DTRACE_PROBE2(hotspot_jni, GetObjectRefType__entry, env, obj);
  jobjectRefType ret;
  if (JNIHandles::is_local_handle(thread, obj) ||
      JNIHandles::is_frame_handle(thread, obj))
    ret = JNILocalRefType;
  else if (JNIHandles::is_global_handle(obj))
    ret = JNIGlobalRefType;
  else if (JNIHandles::is_weak_global_handle(obj))
    ret = JNIWeakGlobalRefType;
  else
    ret = JNIInvalidRefType;
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, GetObjectRefType__return, ret);
  return ret;
JNI_END


class JNI_ArgumentPusher : public SignatureIterator {
 protected:
  JavaCallArguments*  _arguments;

  virtual void get_bool   () = 0;
  virtual void get_char   () = 0;
  virtual void get_short  () = 0;
  virtual void get_byte   () = 0;
  virtual void get_int    () = 0;
  virtual void get_long   () = 0;
  virtual void get_float  () = 0;
  virtual void get_double () = 0;
  virtual void get_object () = 0;

  JNI_ArgumentPusher(Symbol* signature) : SignatureIterator(signature) {
    this->_return_type = T_ILLEGAL;
    _arguments = NULL;
  }

 public:
  virtual void iterate( uint64_t fingerprint ) = 0;

  void set_java_argument_object(JavaCallArguments *arguments) { _arguments = arguments; }

  inline void do_bool()                     { if (!is_return_type()) get_bool();   }
  inline void do_char()                     { if (!is_return_type()) get_char();   }
  inline void do_short()                    { if (!is_return_type()) get_short();  }
  inline void do_byte()                     { if (!is_return_type()) get_byte();   }
  inline void do_int()                      { if (!is_return_type()) get_int();    }
  inline void do_long()                     { if (!is_return_type()) get_long();   }
  inline void do_float()                    { if (!is_return_type()) get_float();  }
  inline void do_double()                   { if (!is_return_type()) get_double(); }
  inline void do_object(int begin, int end) { if (!is_return_type()) get_object(); }
  inline void do_array(int begin, int end)  { if (!is_return_type()) get_object(); } // do_array uses get_object -- there is no get_array
  inline void do_void()                     { }

  JavaCallArguments* arguments()     { return _arguments; }
  void push_receiver(Handle h)       { _arguments->push_oop(h); }
};


class JNI_ArgumentPusherVaArg : public JNI_ArgumentPusher {
 protected:
  va_list _ap;

  inline void get_bool()   { _arguments->push_int(va_arg(_ap, jint)); } // bool is coerced to int when using va_arg
  inline void get_char()   { _arguments->push_int(va_arg(_ap, jint)); } // char is coerced to int when using va_arg
  inline void get_short()  { _arguments->push_int(va_arg(_ap, jint)); } // short is coerced to int when using va_arg
  inline void get_byte()   { _arguments->push_int(va_arg(_ap, jint)); } // byte is coerced to int when using va_arg
  inline void get_int()    { _arguments->push_int(va_arg(_ap, jint)); }

  // each of these paths is exercized by the various jck Call[Static,Nonvirtual,][Void,Int,..]Method[A,V,] tests

  inline void get_long()   { _arguments->push_long(va_arg(_ap, jlong)); }
  inline void get_float()  { _arguments->push_float((jfloat)va_arg(_ap, jdouble)); } // float is coerced to double w/ va_arg
  inline void get_double() { _arguments->push_double(va_arg(_ap, jdouble)); }
  inline void get_object() { jobject l = va_arg(_ap, jobject);
                             _arguments->push_oop(Handle((oop *)l, false)); }

  inline void set_ap(va_list rap) {
#ifdef va_copy
    va_copy(_ap, rap);
#elif defined (__va_copy)
    __va_copy(_ap, rap);
#else
    _ap = rap;
#endif
  }

 public:
  JNI_ArgumentPusherVaArg(Symbol* signature, va_list rap)
       : JNI_ArgumentPusher(signature) {
    set_ap(rap);
  }
  JNI_ArgumentPusherVaArg(jmethodID method_id, va_list rap)
      : JNI_ArgumentPusher(JNIHandles::resolve_jmethod_id(method_id)->signature()) {
    set_ap(rap);
  }

  // Optimized path if we have the bitvector form of signature
  void iterate( uint64_t fingerprint ) {
    if ( fingerprint == UCONST64(-1) ) SignatureIterator::iterate();// Must be too many arguments
    else {
      _return_type = (BasicType)((fingerprint >> static_feature_size) &
                                  result_feature_mask);

      assert(fingerprint, "Fingerprint should not be 0");
      fingerprint = fingerprint >> (static_feature_size + result_feature_size);
      while ( 1 ) {
        switch ( fingerprint & parameter_feature_mask ) {
          case bool_parm:
          case char_parm:
          case short_parm:
          case byte_parm:
          case int_parm:
            get_int();
            break;
          case obj_parm:
            get_object();
            break;
          case long_parm:
            get_long();
            break;
          case float_parm:
            get_float();
            break;
          case double_parm:
            get_double();
            break;
          case done_parm:
            return;
            break;
          default:
            ShouldNotReachHere();
            break;
        }
        fingerprint >>= parameter_feature_size;
      }
    }
  }
};


class JNI_ArgumentPusherArray : public JNI_ArgumentPusher {
 protected:
  const jvalue *_ap;

  inline void get_bool()   { _arguments->push_int((jint)(_ap++)->z); }
  inline void get_char()   { _arguments->push_int((jint)(_ap++)->c); }
  inline void get_short()  { _arguments->push_int((jint)(_ap++)->s); }
  inline void get_byte()   { _arguments->push_int((jint)(_ap++)->b); }
  inline void get_int()    { _arguments->push_int((jint)(_ap++)->i); }

  inline void get_long()   { _arguments->push_long((_ap++)->j);  }
  inline void get_float()  { _arguments->push_float((_ap++)->f); }
  inline void get_double() { _arguments->push_double((_ap++)->d);}
  inline void get_object() { _arguments->push_oop(Handle((oop *)(_ap++)->l, false)); }

  inline void set_ap(const jvalue *rap) { _ap = rap; }

 public:
  JNI_ArgumentPusherArray(Symbol* signature, const jvalue *rap)
       : JNI_ArgumentPusher(signature) {
    set_ap(rap);
  }
  JNI_ArgumentPusherArray(jmethodID method_id, const jvalue *rap)
      : JNI_ArgumentPusher(JNIHandles::resolve_jmethod_id(method_id)->signature()) {
    set_ap(rap);
  }

  // Optimized path if we have the bitvector form of signature
  void iterate( uint64_t fingerprint ) {
    if ( fingerprint == UCONST64(-1) ) SignatureIterator::iterate(); // Must be too many arguments
    else {
      _return_type = (BasicType)((fingerprint >> static_feature_size) &
                                  result_feature_mask);
      assert(fingerprint, "Fingerprint should not be 0");
      fingerprint = fingerprint >> (static_feature_size + result_feature_size);
      while ( 1 ) {
        switch ( fingerprint & parameter_feature_mask ) {
          case bool_parm:
            get_bool();
            break;
          case char_parm:
            get_char();
            break;
          case short_parm:
            get_short();
            break;
          case byte_parm:
            get_byte();
            break;
          case int_parm:
            get_int();
            break;
          case obj_parm:
            get_object();
            break;
          case long_parm:
            get_long();
            break;
          case float_parm:
            get_float();
            break;
          case double_parm:
            get_double();
            break;
          case done_parm:
            return;
            break;
          default:
            ShouldNotReachHere();
            break;
        }
        fingerprint >>= parameter_feature_size;
      }
    }
  }
};


enum JNICallType {
  JNI_STATIC,
  JNI_VIRTUAL,
  JNI_NONVIRTUAL
};

static methodHandle jni_resolve_interface_call(Handle recv, methodHandle method, TRAPS) {
  assert(!method.is_null() , "method should not be null");

  KlassHandle recv_klass; // Default to NULL (use of ?: can confuse gcc)
  if (recv.not_null()) recv_klass = KlassHandle(THREAD, recv->klass());
  KlassHandle spec_klass (THREAD, method->method_holder());
  Symbol*  name  = method->name();
  Symbol*  signature  = method->signature();
  CallInfo info;
  LinkResolver::resolve_interface_call(info, recv, recv_klass,  spec_klass, name, signature, KlassHandle(), false, true, CHECK_(methodHandle()));
  return info.selected_method();
}

static methodHandle jni_resolve_virtual_call(Handle recv, methodHandle method, TRAPS) {
  assert(!method.is_null() , "method should not be null");

  KlassHandle recv_klass; // Default to NULL (use of ?: can confuse gcc)
  if (recv.not_null()) recv_klass = KlassHandle(THREAD, recv->klass());
  KlassHandle spec_klass (THREAD, method->method_holder());
  Symbol*  name  = method->name();
  Symbol*  signature  = method->signature();
  CallInfo info;
  LinkResolver::resolve_virtual_call(info, recv, recv_klass,  spec_klass, name, signature, KlassHandle(), false, true, CHECK_(methodHandle()));
  return info.selected_method();
}



static void jni_invoke_static(JNIEnv *env, JavaValue* result, jobject receiver, JNICallType call_type, jmethodID method_id, JNI_ArgumentPusher *args, TRAPS) {
  methodHandle method(THREAD, JNIHandles::resolve_jmethod_id(method_id));

  // Create object to hold arguments for the JavaCall, and associate it with
  // the jni parser
  ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
  int number_of_parameters = method->size_of_parameters();
  JavaCallArguments java_args(number_of_parameters);
  args->set_java_argument_object(&java_args);

  assert(method->is_static(), "method should be static");

  // Fill out JavaCallArguments object
  args->iterate( Fingerprinter(method).fingerprint() );
  // Initialize result type
  result->set_type(args->get_ret_type());

  // Invoke the method. Result is returned as oop.
  JavaCalls::call(result, method, &java_args, CHECK);

  // Convert result
  if (result->get_type() == T_OBJECT || result->get_type() == T_ARRAY) {
    result->set_jobject(JNIHandles::make_local(env, (oop) result->get_jobject()));
  }
}


static void jni_invoke_nonstatic(JNIEnv *env, JavaValue* result, jobject receiver, JNICallType call_type, jmethodID method_id, JNI_ArgumentPusher *args, TRAPS) {
  oop recv = JNIHandles::resolve(receiver);
  if (recv == NULL) {
    THROW(vmSymbols::java_lang_NullPointerException());
  }
  Handle h_recv(THREAD, recv);

  int number_of_parameters;
  methodOop selected_method;
  {
    methodOop m = JNIHandles::resolve_jmethod_id(method_id);
    number_of_parameters = m->size_of_parameters();
    klassOop holder = m->method_holder();
    if (!(Klass::cast(holder))->is_interface()) {
      // non-interface call -- for that little speed boost, don't handlize
      debug_only(No_Safepoint_Verifier nosafepoint;)
      if (call_type == JNI_VIRTUAL) {
        // jni_GetMethodID makes sure class is linked and initialized
        // so m should have a valid vtable index.
        int vtbl_index = m->vtable_index();
        if (vtbl_index != methodOopDesc::nonvirtual_vtable_index) {
          klassOop k = h_recv->klass();
          // k might be an arrayKlassOop but all vtables start at
          // the same place. The cast is to avoid virtual call and assertion.
          instanceKlass *ik = (instanceKlass*)k->klass_part();
          selected_method = ik->method_at_vtable(vtbl_index);
        } else {
          // final method
          selected_method = m;
        }
      } else {
        // JNI_NONVIRTUAL call
        selected_method = m;
      }
    } else {
      // interface call
      KlassHandle h_holder(THREAD, holder);

      int itbl_index = m->cached_itable_index();
      if (itbl_index == -1) {
        itbl_index = klassItable::compute_itable_index(m);
        m->set_cached_itable_index(itbl_index);
        // the above may have grabbed a lock, 'm' and anything non-handlized can't be used again
      }
      klassOop k = h_recv->klass();
      selected_method = instanceKlass::cast(k)->method_at_itable(h_holder(), itbl_index, CHECK);
    }
  }

  methodHandle method(THREAD, selected_method);

  // Create object to hold arguments for the JavaCall, and associate it with
  // the jni parser
  ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
  JavaCallArguments java_args(number_of_parameters);
  args->set_java_argument_object(&java_args);

  // handle arguments
  assert(!method->is_static(), "method should not be static");
  args->push_receiver(h_recv); // Push jobject handle

  // Fill out JavaCallArguments object
  args->iterate( Fingerprinter(method).fingerprint() );
  // Initialize result type
  result->set_type(args->get_ret_type());

  // Invoke the method. Result is returned as oop.
  JavaCalls::call(result, method, &java_args, CHECK);

  // Convert result
  if (result->get_type() == T_OBJECT || result->get_type() == T_ARRAY) {
    result->set_jobject(JNIHandles::make_local(env, (oop) result->get_jobject()));
  }
}


static instanceOop alloc_object(jclass clazz, TRAPS) {
  KlassHandle k(THREAD, java_lang_Class::as_klassOop(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(clazz)));
  Klass::cast(k())->check_valid_for_instantiation(false, CHECK_NULL);
  instanceKlass::cast(k())->initialize(CHECK_NULL);
  instanceOop ih = instanceKlass::cast(k())->allocate_instance(THREAD);
  return ih;
}

DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL(AllocObject, jobject);

JNI_ENTRY(jobject, jni_AllocObject(JNIEnv *env, jclass clazz))
  JNIWrapper("AllocObject");

  DTRACE_PROBE2(hotspot_jni, AllocObject__entry, env, clazz);
  jobject ret = NULL;
  DT_RETURN_MARK(AllocObject, jobject, (const jobject&)ret);

  instanceOop i = alloc_object(clazz, CHECK_NULL);
  ret = JNIHandles::make_local(env, i);
  return ret;
JNI_END

DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL(NewObjectA, jobject);

JNI_ENTRY(jobject, jni_NewObjectA(JNIEnv *env, jclass clazz, jmethodID methodID, const jvalue *args))
  JNIWrapper("NewObjectA");
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, NewObjectA__entry, env, clazz, methodID);
  jobject obj = NULL;
  DT_RETURN_MARK(NewObjectA, jobject, (const jobject)obj);

  instanceOop i = alloc_object(clazz, CHECK_NULL);
  obj = JNIHandles::make_local(env, i);
  JavaValue jvalue(T_VOID);
  JNI_ArgumentPusherArray ap(methodID, args);
  jni_invoke_nonstatic(env, &jvalue, obj, JNI_NONVIRTUAL, methodID, &ap, CHECK_NULL);
  return obj;
JNI_END

DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL(NewObjectV, jobject);

JNI_ENTRY(jobject, jni_NewObjectV(JNIEnv *env, jclass clazz, jmethodID methodID, va_list args))
  JNIWrapper("NewObjectV");
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, NewObjectV__entry, env, clazz, methodID);
  jobject obj = NULL;
  DT_RETURN_MARK(NewObjectV, jobject, (const jobject&)obj);

  instanceOop i = alloc_object(clazz, CHECK_NULL);
  obj = JNIHandles::make_local(env, i);
  JavaValue jvalue(T_VOID);
  JNI_ArgumentPusherVaArg ap(methodID, args);
  jni_invoke_nonstatic(env, &jvalue, obj, JNI_NONVIRTUAL, methodID, &ap, CHECK_NULL);
  return obj;
JNI_END

DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL(NewObject, jobject);

JNI_ENTRY(jobject, jni_NewObject(JNIEnv *env, jclass clazz, jmethodID methodID, ...))
  JNIWrapper("NewObject");
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, NewObject__entry, env, clazz, methodID);
  jobject obj = NULL;
  DT_RETURN_MARK(NewObject, jobject, (const jobject&)obj);

  instanceOop i = alloc_object(clazz, CHECK_NULL);
  obj = JNIHandles::make_local(env, i);
  va_list args;
  va_start(args, methodID);
  JavaValue jvalue(T_VOID);
  JNI_ArgumentPusherVaArg ap(methodID, args);
  jni_invoke_nonstatic(env, &jvalue, obj, JNI_NONVIRTUAL, methodID, &ap, CHECK_NULL);
  va_end(args);
  return obj;
JNI_END


JNI_ENTRY(jclass, jni_GetObjectClass(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj))
  JNIWrapper("GetObjectClass");
  DTRACE_PROBE2(hotspot_jni, GetObjectClass__entry, env, obj);
  klassOop k = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(obj)->klass();
  jclass ret =
    (jclass) JNIHandles::make_local(env, Klass::cast(k)->java_mirror());
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, GetObjectClass__return, ret);
  return ret;
JNI_END

JNI_QUICK_ENTRY(jboolean, jni_IsInstanceOf(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jclass clazz))
  JNIWrapper("IsInstanceOf");
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, IsInstanceOf__entry, env, obj, clazz);
  jboolean ret = JNI_TRUE;
  if (obj != NULL) {
    ret = JNI_FALSE;
    klassOop k = java_lang_Class::as_klassOop(
      JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(clazz));
    if (k != NULL) {
      ret = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(obj)->is_a(k) ? JNI_TRUE : JNI_FALSE;
    }
  }
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, IsInstanceOf__return, ret);
  return ret;
JNI_END


static jmethodID get_method_id(JNIEnv *env, jclass clazz, const char *name_str,
                               const char *sig, bool is_static, TRAPS) {
  // %%%% This code should probably just call into a method in the LinkResolver
  //
  // The class should have been loaded (we have an instance of the class
  // passed in) so the method and signature should already be in the symbol
  // table.  If they're not there, the method doesn't exist.
  const char *name_to_probe = (name_str == NULL)
                        ? vmSymbols::object_initializer_name()->as_C_string()
                        : name_str;
  TempNewSymbol name = SymbolTable::probe(name_to_probe, (int)strlen(name_to_probe));
  TempNewSymbol signature = SymbolTable::probe(sig, (int)strlen(sig));

  if (name == NULL || signature == NULL) {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_NoSuchMethodError(), name_str);
  }

  // Throw a NoSuchMethodError exception if we have an instance of a
  // primitive java.lang.Class
  if (java_lang_Class::is_primitive(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(clazz))) {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_NoSuchMethodError(), name_str);
  }

  KlassHandle klass(THREAD,
               java_lang_Class::as_klassOop(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(clazz)));

  // Make sure class is linked and initialized before handing id's out to
  // methodOops.
  Klass::cast(klass())->initialize(CHECK_NULL);

  methodOop m;
  if (name == vmSymbols::object_initializer_name() ||
      name == vmSymbols::class_initializer_name()) {
    // Never search superclasses for constructors
    if (klass->oop_is_instance()) {
      m = instanceKlass::cast(klass())->find_method(name, signature);
    } else {
      m = NULL;
    }
  } else {
    m = klass->lookup_method(name, signature);
    // Look up interfaces
    if (m == NULL && klass->oop_is_instance()) {
      m = instanceKlass::cast(klass())->lookup_method_in_all_interfaces(name,
                                                                   signature);
    }
  }
  if (m == NULL || (m->is_static() != is_static)) {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_NoSuchMethodError(), name_str);
  }
  return m->jmethod_id();
}


JNI_ENTRY(jmethodID, jni_GetMethodID(JNIEnv *env, jclass clazz,
          const char *name, const char *sig))
  JNIWrapper("GetMethodID");
  DTRACE_PROBE4(hotspot_jni, GetMethodID__entry, env, clazz, name, sig);
  jmethodID ret = get_method_id(env, clazz, name, sig, false, thread);
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, GetMethodID__return, ret);
  return ret;
JNI_END


JNI_ENTRY(jmethodID, jni_GetStaticMethodID(JNIEnv *env, jclass clazz,
          const char *name, const char *sig))
  JNIWrapper("GetStaticMethodID");
  DTRACE_PROBE4(hotspot_jni, GetStaticMethodID__entry, env, clazz, name, sig);
  jmethodID ret = get_method_id(env, clazz, name, sig, true, thread);
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, GetStaticMethodID__return, ret);
  return ret;
JNI_END



//
// Calling Methods
//


#define DEFINE_CALLMETHOD(ResultType, Result, Tag) \
\
  DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL_FOR(Result, Call##Result##Method, ResultType);\
  DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL_FOR(Result, Call##Result##MethodV, ResultType);\
  DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL_FOR(Result, Call##Result##MethodA, ResultType);\
\
JNI_ENTRY(ResultType, \
          jni_Call##Result##Method(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jmethodID methodID, ...)) \
  JNIWrapper("Call" XSTR(Result) "Method"); \
\
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, Call##Result##Method__entry, env, obj, methodID);\
  ResultType ret = 0;\
  DT_RETURN_MARK_FOR(Result, Call##Result##Method, ResultType, \
                     (const ResultType&)ret);\
\
  va_list args; \
  va_start(args, methodID); \
  JavaValue jvalue(Tag); \
  JNI_ArgumentPusherVaArg ap(methodID, args); \
  jni_invoke_nonstatic(env, &jvalue, obj, JNI_VIRTUAL, methodID, &ap, CHECK_0); \
  va_end(args); \
  ret = jvalue.get_##ResultType(); \
  return ret;\
JNI_END \
\
\
JNI_ENTRY(ResultType, \
          jni_Call##Result##MethodV(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jmethodID methodID, va_list args)) \
  JNIWrapper("Call" XSTR(Result) "MethodV"); \
\
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, Call##Result##MethodV__entry, env, obj, methodID);\
  ResultType ret = 0;\
  DT_RETURN_MARK_FOR(Result, Call##Result##MethodV, ResultType, \
                     (const ResultType&)ret);\
\
  JavaValue jvalue(Tag); \
  JNI_ArgumentPusherVaArg ap(methodID, args); \
  jni_invoke_nonstatic(env, &jvalue, obj, JNI_VIRTUAL, methodID, &ap, CHECK_0); \
  ret = jvalue.get_##ResultType(); \
  return ret;\
JNI_END \
\
\
JNI_ENTRY(ResultType, \
          jni_Call##Result##MethodA(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jmethodID methodID, const jvalue *args)) \
  JNIWrapper("Call" XSTR(Result) "MethodA"); \
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, Call##Result##MethodA__entry, env, obj, methodID);\
  ResultType ret = 0;\
  DT_RETURN_MARK_FOR(Result, Call##Result##MethodA, ResultType, \
                     (const ResultType&)ret);\
\
  JavaValue jvalue(Tag); \
  JNI_ArgumentPusherArray ap(methodID, args); \
  jni_invoke_nonstatic(env, &jvalue, obj, JNI_VIRTUAL, methodID, &ap, CHECK_0); \
  ret = jvalue.get_##ResultType(); \
  return ret;\
JNI_END

// the runtime type of subword integral basic types is integer
DEFINE_CALLMETHOD(jboolean, Boolean, T_BOOLEAN)
DEFINE_CALLMETHOD(jbyte,    Byte,    T_BYTE)
DEFINE_CALLMETHOD(jchar,    Char,    T_CHAR)
DEFINE_CALLMETHOD(jshort,   Short,   T_SHORT)

DEFINE_CALLMETHOD(jobject,  Object,  T_OBJECT)
DEFINE_CALLMETHOD(jint,     Int,     T_INT)
DEFINE_CALLMETHOD(jlong,    Long,    T_LONG)
DEFINE_CALLMETHOD(jfloat,   Float,   T_FLOAT)
DEFINE_CALLMETHOD(jdouble,  Double,  T_DOUBLE)

DT_VOID_RETURN_MARK_DECL(CallVoidMethod);
DT_VOID_RETURN_MARK_DECL(CallVoidMethodV);
DT_VOID_RETURN_MARK_DECL(CallVoidMethodA);

JNI_ENTRY(void, jni_CallVoidMethod(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jmethodID methodID, ...))
  JNIWrapper("CallVoidMethod");
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, CallVoidMethod__entry, env, obj, methodID);
  DT_VOID_RETURN_MARK(CallVoidMethod);

  va_list args;
  va_start(args, methodID);
  JavaValue jvalue(T_VOID);
  JNI_ArgumentPusherVaArg ap(methodID, args);
  jni_invoke_nonstatic(env, &jvalue, obj, JNI_VIRTUAL, methodID, &ap, CHECK);
  va_end(args);
JNI_END


JNI_ENTRY(void, jni_CallVoidMethodV(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jmethodID methodID, va_list args))
  JNIWrapper("CallVoidMethodV");
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, CallVoidMethodV__entry, env, obj, methodID);
  DT_VOID_RETURN_MARK(CallVoidMethodV);

  JavaValue jvalue(T_VOID);
  JNI_ArgumentPusherVaArg ap(methodID, args);
  jni_invoke_nonstatic(env, &jvalue, obj, JNI_VIRTUAL, methodID, &ap, CHECK);
JNI_END


JNI_ENTRY(void, jni_CallVoidMethodA(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jmethodID methodID, const jvalue *args))
  JNIWrapper("CallVoidMethodA");
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, CallVoidMethodA__entry, env, obj, methodID);
  DT_VOID_RETURN_MARK(CallVoidMethodA);

  JavaValue jvalue(T_VOID);
  JNI_ArgumentPusherArray ap(methodID, args);
  jni_invoke_nonstatic(env, &jvalue, obj, JNI_VIRTUAL, methodID, &ap, CHECK);
JNI_END


#define DEFINE_CALLNONVIRTUALMETHOD(ResultType, Result, Tag) \
\
  DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL_FOR(Result, CallNonvirtual##Result##Method, ResultType);\
  DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL_FOR(Result, CallNonvirtual##Result##MethodV, ResultType);\
  DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL_FOR(Result, CallNonvirtual##Result##MethodA, ResultType);\
\
JNI_ENTRY(ResultType, \
          jni_CallNonvirtual##Result##Method(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jclass cls, jmethodID methodID, ...)) \
  JNIWrapper("CallNonvitual" XSTR(Result) "Method"); \
\
  DTRACE_PROBE4(hotspot_jni, CallNonvirtual##Result##Method__entry, env, obj, cls, methodID);\
  ResultType ret;\
  DT_RETURN_MARK_FOR(Result, CallNonvirtual##Result##Method, ResultType, \
                     (const ResultType&)ret);\
\
  va_list args; \
  va_start(args, methodID); \
  JavaValue jvalue(Tag); \
  JNI_ArgumentPusherVaArg ap(methodID, args); \
  jni_invoke_nonstatic(env, &jvalue, obj, JNI_NONVIRTUAL, methodID, &ap, CHECK_0); \
  va_end(args); \
  ret = jvalue.get_##ResultType(); \
  return ret;\
JNI_END \
\
JNI_ENTRY(ResultType, \
          jni_CallNonvirtual##Result##MethodV(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jclass cls, jmethodID methodID, va_list args)) \
  JNIWrapper("CallNonvitual" XSTR(Result) "#MethodV"); \
  DTRACE_PROBE4(hotspot_jni, CallNonvirtual##Result##MethodV__entry, env, obj, cls, methodID);\
  ResultType ret;\
  DT_RETURN_MARK_FOR(Result, CallNonvirtual##Result##MethodV, ResultType, \
                     (const ResultType&)ret);\
\
  JavaValue jvalue(Tag); \
  JNI_ArgumentPusherVaArg ap(methodID, args); \
  jni_invoke_nonstatic(env, &jvalue, obj, JNI_NONVIRTUAL, methodID, &ap, CHECK_0); \
  ret = jvalue.get_##ResultType(); \
  return ret;\
JNI_END \
\
JNI_ENTRY(ResultType, \
          jni_CallNonvirtual##Result##MethodA(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jclass cls, jmethodID methodID, const jvalue *args)) \
  JNIWrapper("CallNonvitual" XSTR(Result) "MethodA"); \
  DTRACE_PROBE4(hotspot_jni, CallNonvirtual##Result##MethodA__entry, env, obj, cls, methodID);\
  ResultType ret;\
  DT_RETURN_MARK_FOR(Result, CallNonvirtual##Result##MethodA, ResultType, \
                     (const ResultType&)ret);\
\
  JavaValue jvalue(Tag); \
  JNI_ArgumentPusherArray ap(methodID, args); \
  jni_invoke_nonstatic(env, &jvalue, obj, JNI_NONVIRTUAL, methodID, &ap, CHECK_0); \
  ret = jvalue.get_##ResultType(); \
  return ret;\
JNI_END

// the runtime type of subword integral basic types is integer
DEFINE_CALLNONVIRTUALMETHOD(jboolean, Boolean, T_BOOLEAN)
DEFINE_CALLNONVIRTUALMETHOD(jbyte,    Byte,    T_BYTE)
DEFINE_CALLNONVIRTUALMETHOD(jchar,    Char,    T_CHAR)
DEFINE_CALLNONVIRTUALMETHOD(jshort,   Short,   T_SHORT)

DEFINE_CALLNONVIRTUALMETHOD(jobject,  Object,  T_OBJECT)
DEFINE_CALLNONVIRTUALMETHOD(jint,     Int,     T_INT)
DEFINE_CALLNONVIRTUALMETHOD(jlong,    Long,    T_LONG)
DEFINE_CALLNONVIRTUALMETHOD(jfloat,   Float,   T_FLOAT)
DEFINE_CALLNONVIRTUALMETHOD(jdouble,  Double,  T_DOUBLE)


DT_VOID_RETURN_MARK_DECL(CallNonvirtualVoidMethod);
DT_VOID_RETURN_MARK_DECL(CallNonvirtualVoidMethodV);
DT_VOID_RETURN_MARK_DECL(CallNonvirtualVoidMethodA);

JNI_ENTRY(void, jni_CallNonvirtualVoidMethod(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jclass cls, jmethodID methodID, ...))
  JNIWrapper("CallNonvirtualVoidMethod");

  DTRACE_PROBE4(hotspot_jni, CallNonvirtualVoidMethod__entry,
               env, obj, cls, methodID);
  DT_VOID_RETURN_MARK(CallNonvirtualVoidMethod);

  va_list args;
  va_start(args, methodID);
  JavaValue jvalue(T_VOID);
  JNI_ArgumentPusherVaArg ap(methodID, args);
  jni_invoke_nonstatic(env, &jvalue, obj, JNI_NONVIRTUAL, methodID, &ap, CHECK);
  va_end(args);
JNI_END


JNI_ENTRY(void, jni_CallNonvirtualVoidMethodV(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jclass cls, jmethodID methodID, va_list args))
  JNIWrapper("CallNonvirtualVoidMethodV");

  DTRACE_PROBE4(hotspot_jni, CallNonvirtualVoidMethodV__entry,
               env, obj, cls, methodID);
  DT_VOID_RETURN_MARK(CallNonvirtualVoidMethodV);

  JavaValue jvalue(T_VOID);
  JNI_ArgumentPusherVaArg ap(methodID, args);
  jni_invoke_nonstatic(env, &jvalue, obj, JNI_NONVIRTUAL, methodID, &ap, CHECK);
JNI_END


JNI_ENTRY(void, jni_CallNonvirtualVoidMethodA(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jclass cls, jmethodID methodID, const jvalue *args))
  JNIWrapper("CallNonvirtualVoidMethodA");
  DTRACE_PROBE4(hotspot_jni, CallNonvirtualVoidMethodA__entry,
                env, obj, cls, methodID);
  DT_VOID_RETURN_MARK(CallNonvirtualVoidMethodA);
  JavaValue jvalue(T_VOID);
  JNI_ArgumentPusherArray ap(methodID, args);
  jni_invoke_nonstatic(env, &jvalue, obj, JNI_NONVIRTUAL, methodID, &ap, CHECK);
JNI_END


#define DEFINE_CALLSTATICMETHOD(ResultType, Result, Tag) \
\
  DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL_FOR(Result, CallStatic##Result##Method, ResultType);\
  DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL_FOR(Result, CallStatic##Result##MethodV, ResultType);\
  DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL_FOR(Result, CallStatic##Result##MethodA, ResultType);\
\
JNI_ENTRY(ResultType, \
          jni_CallStatic##Result##Method(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, jmethodID methodID, ...)) \
  JNIWrapper("CallStatic" XSTR(Result) "Method"); \
\
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, CallStatic##Result##Method__entry, env, cls, methodID);\
  ResultType ret = 0;\
  DT_RETURN_MARK_FOR(Result, CallStatic##Result##Method, ResultType, \
                     (const ResultType&)ret);\
\
  va_list args; \
  va_start(args, methodID); \
  JavaValue jvalue(Tag); \
  JNI_ArgumentPusherVaArg ap(methodID, args); \
  jni_invoke_static(env, &jvalue, NULL, JNI_STATIC, methodID, &ap, CHECK_0); \
  va_end(args); \
  ret = jvalue.get_##ResultType(); \
  return ret;\
JNI_END \
\
JNI_ENTRY(ResultType, \
          jni_CallStatic##Result##MethodV(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, jmethodID methodID, va_list args)) \
  JNIWrapper("CallStatic" XSTR(Result) "MethodV"); \
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, CallStatic##Result##MethodV__entry, env, cls, methodID);\
  ResultType ret = 0;\
  DT_RETURN_MARK_FOR(Result, CallStatic##Result##MethodV, ResultType, \
                     (const ResultType&)ret);\
\
  JavaValue jvalue(Tag); \
  JNI_ArgumentPusherVaArg ap(methodID, args); \
  jni_invoke_static(env, &jvalue, NULL, JNI_STATIC, methodID, &ap, CHECK_0); \
  ret = jvalue.get_##ResultType(); \
  return ret;\
JNI_END \
\
JNI_ENTRY(ResultType, \
          jni_CallStatic##Result##MethodA(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, jmethodID methodID, const jvalue *args)) \
  JNIWrapper("CallStatic" XSTR(Result) "MethodA"); \
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, CallStatic##Result##MethodA__entry, env, cls, methodID);\
  ResultType ret = 0;\
  DT_RETURN_MARK_FOR(Result, CallStatic##Result##MethodA, ResultType, \
                     (const ResultType&)ret);\
\
  JavaValue jvalue(Tag); \
  JNI_ArgumentPusherArray ap(methodID, args); \
  jni_invoke_static(env, &jvalue, NULL, JNI_STATIC, methodID, &ap, CHECK_0); \
  ret = jvalue.get_##ResultType(); \
  return ret;\
JNI_END

// the runtime type of subword integral basic types is integer
DEFINE_CALLSTATICMETHOD(jboolean, Boolean, T_BOOLEAN)
DEFINE_CALLSTATICMETHOD(jbyte,    Byte,    T_BYTE)
DEFINE_CALLSTATICMETHOD(jchar,    Char,    T_CHAR)
DEFINE_CALLSTATICMETHOD(jshort,   Short,   T_SHORT)

DEFINE_CALLSTATICMETHOD(jobject,  Object,  T_OBJECT)
DEFINE_CALLSTATICMETHOD(jint,     Int,     T_INT)
DEFINE_CALLSTATICMETHOD(jlong,    Long,    T_LONG)
DEFINE_CALLSTATICMETHOD(jfloat,   Float,   T_FLOAT)
DEFINE_CALLSTATICMETHOD(jdouble,  Double,  T_DOUBLE)


DT_VOID_RETURN_MARK_DECL(CallStaticVoidMethod);
DT_VOID_RETURN_MARK_DECL(CallStaticVoidMethodV);
DT_VOID_RETURN_MARK_DECL(CallStaticVoidMethodA);

JNI_ENTRY(void, jni_CallStaticVoidMethod(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, jmethodID methodID, ...))
  JNIWrapper("CallStaticVoidMethod");
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, CallStaticVoidMethod__entry, env, cls, methodID);
  DT_VOID_RETURN_MARK(CallStaticVoidMethod);

  va_list args;
  va_start(args, methodID);
  JavaValue jvalue(T_VOID);
  JNI_ArgumentPusherVaArg ap(methodID, args);
  jni_invoke_static(env, &jvalue, NULL, JNI_STATIC, methodID, &ap, CHECK);
  va_end(args);
JNI_END


JNI_ENTRY(void, jni_CallStaticVoidMethodV(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, jmethodID methodID, va_list args))
  JNIWrapper("CallStaticVoidMethodV");
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, CallStaticVoidMethodV__entry, env, cls, methodID);
  DT_VOID_RETURN_MARK(CallStaticVoidMethodV);

  JavaValue jvalue(T_VOID);
  JNI_ArgumentPusherVaArg ap(methodID, args);
  jni_invoke_static(env, &jvalue, NULL, JNI_STATIC, methodID, &ap, CHECK);
JNI_END


JNI_ENTRY(void, jni_CallStaticVoidMethodA(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, jmethodID methodID, const jvalue *args))
  JNIWrapper("CallStaticVoidMethodA");
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, CallStaticVoidMethodA__entry, env, cls, methodID);
  DT_VOID_RETURN_MARK(CallStaticVoidMethodA);

  JavaValue jvalue(T_VOID);
  JNI_ArgumentPusherArray ap(methodID, args);
  jni_invoke_static(env, &jvalue, NULL, JNI_STATIC, methodID, &ap, CHECK);
JNI_END


//
// Accessing Fields
//


DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL(GetFieldID, jfieldID);

JNI_ENTRY(jfieldID, jni_GetFieldID(JNIEnv *env, jclass clazz,
          const char *name, const char *sig))
  JNIWrapper("GetFieldID");
  DTRACE_PROBE4(hotspot_jni, GetFieldID__entry, env, clazz, name, sig);
  jfieldID ret = 0;
  DT_RETURN_MARK(GetFieldID, jfieldID, (const jfieldID&)ret);

  // The class should have been loaded (we have an instance of the class
  // passed in) so the field and signature should already be in the symbol
  // table.  If they're not there, the field doesn't exist.
  TempNewSymbol fieldname = SymbolTable::probe(name, (int)strlen(name));
  TempNewSymbol signame = SymbolTable::probe(sig, (int)strlen(sig));
  if (fieldname == NULL || signame == NULL) {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_NoSuchFieldError(), (char*) name);
  }
  KlassHandle k(THREAD,
                java_lang_Class::as_klassOop(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(clazz)));
  // Make sure class is initialized before handing id's out to fields
  Klass::cast(k())->initialize(CHECK_NULL);

  fieldDescriptor fd;
  if (!Klass::cast(k())->oop_is_instance() ||
      !instanceKlass::cast(k())->find_field(fieldname, signame, false, &fd)) {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_NoSuchFieldError(), (char*) name);
  }

  // A jfieldID for a non-static field is simply the offset of the field within the instanceOop
  // It may also have hash bits for k, if VerifyJNIFields is turned on.
  ret = jfieldIDWorkaround::to_instance_jfieldID(k(), fd.offset());
  return ret;
JNI_END


JNI_ENTRY(jobject, jni_GetObjectField(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jfieldID fieldID))
  JNIWrapper("GetObjectField");
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, GetObjectField__entry, env, obj, fieldID);
  oop o = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(obj);
  klassOop k = o->klass();
  int offset = jfieldIDWorkaround::from_instance_jfieldID(k, fieldID);
  // Keep JVMTI addition small and only check enabled flag here.
  // jni_GetField_probe() assumes that is okay to create handles.
  if (JvmtiExport::should_post_field_access()) {
    o = JvmtiExport::jni_GetField_probe(thread, obj, o, k, fieldID, false);
  }
  jobject ret = JNIHandles::make_local(env, o->obj_field(offset));
#ifndef SERIALGC
  // If G1 is enabled and we are accessing the value of the referent
  // field in a reference object then we need to register a non-null
  // referent with the SATB barrier.
  if (UseG1GC) {
    bool needs_barrier = false;

    if (ret != NULL &&
        offset == java_lang_ref_Reference::referent_offset &&
        instanceKlass::cast(k)->reference_type() != REF_NONE) {
      assert(instanceKlass::cast(k)->is_subclass_of(SystemDictionary::Reference_klass()), "sanity");
      needs_barrier = true;
    }

    if (needs_barrier) {
      oop referent = JNIHandles::resolve(ret);
      G1SATBCardTableModRefBS::enqueue(referent);
    }
  }
#endif // SERIALGC
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, GetObjectField__return, ret);
  return ret;
JNI_END


#define DEFINE_GETFIELD(Return,Fieldname,Result) \
\
  DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL_FOR(Result, Get##Result##Field, Return);\
\
JNI_QUICK_ENTRY(Return, jni_Get##Result##Field(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jfieldID fieldID)) \
  JNIWrapper("Get" XSTR(Result) "Field"); \
\
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, Get##Result##Field__entry, env, obj, fieldID);\
  Return ret = 0;\
  DT_RETURN_MARK_FOR(Result, Get##Result##Field, Return, (const Return&)ret);\
\
  oop o = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(obj); \
  klassOop k = o->klass(); \
  int offset = jfieldIDWorkaround::from_instance_jfieldID(k, fieldID);  \
  /* Keep JVMTI addition small and only check enabled flag here.       */ \
  /* jni_GetField_probe_nh() assumes that is not okay to create handles */ \
  /* and creates a ResetNoHandleMark.                                   */ \
  if (JvmtiExport::should_post_field_access()) { \
    o = JvmtiExport::jni_GetField_probe_nh(thread, obj, o, k, fieldID, false); \
  } \
  ret = o->Fieldname##_field(offset); \
  return ret; \
JNI_END

DEFINE_GETFIELD(jboolean, bool,   Boolean)
DEFINE_GETFIELD(jbyte,    byte,   Byte)
DEFINE_GETFIELD(jchar,    char,   Char)
DEFINE_GETFIELD(jshort,   short,  Short)
DEFINE_GETFIELD(jint,     int,    Int)
DEFINE_GETFIELD(jlong,    long,   Long)
DEFINE_GETFIELD(jfloat,   float,  Float)
DEFINE_GETFIELD(jdouble,  double, Double)

address jni_GetBooleanField_addr() {
  return (address)jni_GetBooleanField;
}
address jni_GetByteField_addr() {
  return (address)jni_GetByteField;
}
address jni_GetCharField_addr() {
  return (address)jni_GetCharField;
}
address jni_GetShortField_addr() {
  return (address)jni_GetShortField;
}
address jni_GetIntField_addr() {
  return (address)jni_GetIntField;
}
address jni_GetLongField_addr() {
  return (address)jni_GetLongField;
}
address jni_GetFloatField_addr() {
  return (address)jni_GetFloatField;
}
address jni_GetDoubleField_addr() {
  return (address)jni_GetDoubleField;
}

JNI_QUICK_ENTRY(void, jni_SetObjectField(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jfieldID fieldID, jobject value))
  JNIWrapper("SetObjectField");
  DTRACE_PROBE4(hotspot_jni, SetObjectField__entry, env, obj, fieldID, value);
  oop o = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(obj);
  klassOop k = o->klass();
  int offset = jfieldIDWorkaround::from_instance_jfieldID(k, fieldID);
  // Keep JVMTI addition small and only check enabled flag here.
  // jni_SetField_probe_nh() assumes that is not okay to create handles
  // and creates a ResetNoHandleMark.
  if (JvmtiExport::should_post_field_modification()) {
    jvalue field_value;
    field_value.l = value;
    o = JvmtiExport::jni_SetField_probe_nh(thread, obj, o, k, fieldID, false, 'L', (jvalue *)&field_value);
  }
  o->obj_field_put(offset, JNIHandles::resolve(value));
  DTRACE_PROBE(hotspot_jni, SetObjectField__return);
JNI_END

#define DEFINE_SETFIELD(Argument,Fieldname,Result,SigType,unionType) \
\
JNI_QUICK_ENTRY(void, jni_Set##Result##Field(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jfieldID fieldID, Argument value)) \
  JNIWrapper("Set" XSTR(Result) "Field"); \
\
  HS_DTRACE_PROBE_CDECL_N(hotspot_jni, Set##Result##Field__entry, \
    ( JNIEnv*, jobject, jfieldID FP_SELECT_##Result(COMMA Argument,/*empty*/) ) ); \
  HS_DTRACE_PROBE_N(hotspot_jni, Set##Result##Field__entry, \
    ( env, obj, fieldID FP_SELECT_##Result(COMMA value,/*empty*/) ) ); \
\
  oop o = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(obj); \
  klassOop k = o->klass(); \
  int offset = jfieldIDWorkaround::from_instance_jfieldID(k, fieldID);  \
  /* Keep JVMTI addition small and only check enabled flag here.       */ \
  /* jni_SetField_probe_nh() assumes that is not okay to create handles */ \
  /* and creates a ResetNoHandleMark.                                   */ \
  if (JvmtiExport::should_post_field_modification()) { \
    jvalue field_value; \
    field_value.unionType = value; \
    o = JvmtiExport::jni_SetField_probe_nh(thread, obj, o, k, fieldID, false, SigType, (jvalue *)&field_value); \
  } \
  o->Fieldname##_field_put(offset, value); \
  DTRACE_PROBE(hotspot_jni, Set##Result##Field__return);\
JNI_END

DEFINE_SETFIELD(jboolean, bool,   Boolean, 'Z', z)
DEFINE_SETFIELD(jbyte,    byte,   Byte,    'B', b)
DEFINE_SETFIELD(jchar,    char,   Char,    'C', c)
DEFINE_SETFIELD(jshort,   short,  Short,   'S', s)
DEFINE_SETFIELD(jint,     int,    Int,     'I', i)
DEFINE_SETFIELD(jlong,    long,   Long,    'J', j)
DEFINE_SETFIELD(jfloat,   float,  Float,   'F', f)
DEFINE_SETFIELD(jdouble,  double, Double,  'D', d)

DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL(ToReflectedField, jobject);

JNI_ENTRY(jobject, jni_ToReflectedField(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, jfieldID fieldID, jboolean isStatic))
  JNIWrapper("ToReflectedField");
  DTRACE_PROBE4(hotspot_jni, ToReflectedField__entry,
                env, cls, fieldID, isStatic);
  jobject ret = NULL;
  DT_RETURN_MARK(ToReflectedField, jobject, (const jobject&)ret);

  fieldDescriptor fd;
  bool found = false;
  klassOop k = java_lang_Class::as_klassOop(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));

  assert(jfieldIDWorkaround::is_static_jfieldID(fieldID) == (isStatic != 0), "invalid fieldID");

  if (isStatic) {
    // Static field. The fieldID a JNIid specifying the field holder and the offset within the klassOop.
    JNIid* id = jfieldIDWorkaround::from_static_jfieldID(fieldID);
    assert(id->is_static_field_id(), "invalid static field id");
    found = id->find_local_field(&fd);
  } else {
    // Non-static field. The fieldID is really the offset of the field within the instanceOop.
    int offset = jfieldIDWorkaround::from_instance_jfieldID(k, fieldID);
    found = instanceKlass::cast(k)->find_field_from_offset(offset, false, &fd);
  }
  assert(found, "bad fieldID passed into jni_ToReflectedField");
  oop reflected = Reflection::new_field(&fd, UseNewReflection, CHECK_NULL);
  ret = JNIHandles::make_local(env, reflected);
  return ret;
JNI_END


//
// Accessing Static Fields
//
DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL(GetStaticFieldID, jfieldID);

JNI_ENTRY(jfieldID, jni_GetStaticFieldID(JNIEnv *env, jclass clazz,
          const char *name, const char *sig))
  JNIWrapper("GetStaticFieldID");
  DTRACE_PROBE4(hotspot_jni, GetStaticFieldID__entry, env, clazz, name, sig);
  jfieldID ret = NULL;
  DT_RETURN_MARK(GetStaticFieldID, jfieldID, (const jfieldID&)ret);

  // The class should have been loaded (we have an instance of the class
  // passed in) so the field and signature should already be in the symbol
  // table.  If they're not there, the field doesn't exist.
  TempNewSymbol fieldname = SymbolTable::probe(name, (int)strlen(name));
  TempNewSymbol signame = SymbolTable::probe(sig, (int)strlen(sig));
  if (fieldname == NULL || signame == NULL) {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_NoSuchFieldError(), (char*) name);
  }
  KlassHandle k(THREAD,
                java_lang_Class::as_klassOop(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(clazz)));
  // Make sure class is initialized before handing id's out to static fields
  Klass::cast(k())->initialize(CHECK_NULL);

  fieldDescriptor fd;
  if (!Klass::cast(k())->oop_is_instance() ||
      !instanceKlass::cast(k())->find_field(fieldname, signame, true, &fd)) {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_NoSuchFieldError(), (char*) name);
  }

  // A jfieldID for a static field is a JNIid specifying the field holder and the offset within the klassOop
  JNIid* id = instanceKlass::cast(fd.field_holder())->jni_id_for(fd.offset());
  debug_only(id->set_is_static_field_id();)

  debug_only(id->verify(fd.field_holder()));

  ret = jfieldIDWorkaround::to_static_jfieldID(id);
  return ret;
JNI_END


JNI_ENTRY(jobject, jni_GetStaticObjectField(JNIEnv *env, jclass clazz, jfieldID fieldID))
  JNIWrapper("GetStaticObjectField");
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, GetStaticObjectField__entry, env, clazz, fieldID);
#ifndef JNICHECK_KERNEL
  DEBUG_ONLY(klassOop param_k = jniCheck::validate_class(thread, clazz);)
#endif // JNICHECK_KERNEL
  JNIid* id = jfieldIDWorkaround::from_static_jfieldID(fieldID);
  assert(id->is_static_field_id(), "invalid static field id");
  // Keep JVMTI addition small and only check enabled flag here.
  // jni_GetField_probe() assumes that is okay to create handles.
  if (JvmtiExport::should_post_field_access()) {
    JvmtiExport::jni_GetField_probe(thread, NULL, NULL, id->holder(), fieldID, true);
  }
  jobject ret = JNIHandles::make_local(id->holder()->java_mirror()->obj_field(id->offset()));
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, GetStaticObjectField__return, ret);
  return ret;
JNI_END

#define DEFINE_GETSTATICFIELD(Return,Fieldname,Result) \
\
  DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL_FOR(Result, GetStatic##Result##Field, Return);\
\
JNI_ENTRY(Return, jni_GetStatic##Result##Field(JNIEnv *env, jclass clazz, jfieldID fieldID)) \
  JNIWrapper("GetStatic" XSTR(Result) "Field"); \
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, GetStatic##Result##Field__entry, env, clazz, fieldID);\
  Return ret = 0;\
  DT_RETURN_MARK_FOR(Result, GetStatic##Result##Field, Return, \
                     (const Return&)ret);\
  JNIid* id = jfieldIDWorkaround::from_static_jfieldID(fieldID); \
  assert(id->is_static_field_id(), "invalid static field id"); \
  /* Keep JVMTI addition small and only check enabled flag here. */ \
  /* jni_GetField_probe() assumes that is okay to create handles. */ \
  if (JvmtiExport::should_post_field_access()) { \
    JvmtiExport::jni_GetField_probe(thread, NULL, NULL, id->holder(), fieldID, true); \
  } \
  ret = id->holder()->java_mirror()-> Fieldname##_field (id->offset()); \
  return ret;\
JNI_END

DEFINE_GETSTATICFIELD(jboolean, bool,   Boolean)
DEFINE_GETSTATICFIELD(jbyte,    byte,   Byte)
DEFINE_GETSTATICFIELD(jchar,    char,   Char)
DEFINE_GETSTATICFIELD(jshort,   short,  Short)
DEFINE_GETSTATICFIELD(jint,     int,    Int)
DEFINE_GETSTATICFIELD(jlong,    long,   Long)
DEFINE_GETSTATICFIELD(jfloat,   float,  Float)
DEFINE_GETSTATICFIELD(jdouble,  double, Double)


JNI_ENTRY(void, jni_SetStaticObjectField(JNIEnv *env, jclass clazz, jfieldID fieldID, jobject value))
  JNIWrapper("SetStaticObjectField");
  DTRACE_PROBE4(hotspot_jni, SetStaticObjectField__entry, env, clazz, fieldID, value);
  JNIid* id = jfieldIDWorkaround::from_static_jfieldID(fieldID);
  assert(id->is_static_field_id(), "invalid static field id");
  // Keep JVMTI addition small and only check enabled flag here.
  // jni_SetField_probe() assumes that is okay to create handles.
  if (JvmtiExport::should_post_field_modification()) {
    jvalue field_value;
    field_value.l = value;
    JvmtiExport::jni_SetField_probe(thread, NULL, NULL, id->holder(), fieldID, true, 'L', (jvalue *)&field_value);
  }
  id->holder()->java_mirror()->obj_field_put(id->offset(), JNIHandles::resolve(value));
  DTRACE_PROBE(hotspot_jni, SetStaticObjectField__return);
JNI_END


#define DEFINE_SETSTATICFIELD(Argument,Fieldname,Result,SigType,unionType) \
\
JNI_ENTRY(void, jni_SetStatic##Result##Field(JNIEnv *env, jclass clazz, jfieldID fieldID, Argument value)) \
  JNIWrapper("SetStatic" XSTR(Result) "Field"); \
  HS_DTRACE_PROBE_CDECL_N(hotspot_jni, SetStatic##Result##Field__entry,\
    ( JNIEnv*, jclass, jfieldID FP_SELECT_##Result(COMMA Argument,/*empty*/) ) ); \
  HS_DTRACE_PROBE_N(hotspot_jni, SetStatic##Result##Field__entry, \
    ( env, clazz, fieldID FP_SELECT_##Result(COMMA value,/*empty*/) ) ); \
\
  JNIid* id = jfieldIDWorkaround::from_static_jfieldID(fieldID); \
  assert(id->is_static_field_id(), "invalid static field id"); \
  /* Keep JVMTI addition small and only check enabled flag here. */ \
  /* jni_SetField_probe() assumes that is okay to create handles. */ \
  if (JvmtiExport::should_post_field_modification()) { \
    jvalue field_value; \
    field_value.unionType = value; \
    JvmtiExport::jni_SetField_probe(thread, NULL, NULL, id->holder(), fieldID, true, SigType, (jvalue *)&field_value); \
  } \
  id->holder()->java_mirror()-> Fieldname##_field_put (id->offset(), value); \
  DTRACE_PROBE(hotspot_jni, SetStatic##Result##Field__return);\
JNI_END

DEFINE_SETSTATICFIELD(jboolean, bool,   Boolean, 'Z', z)
DEFINE_SETSTATICFIELD(jbyte,    byte,   Byte,    'B', b)
DEFINE_SETSTATICFIELD(jchar,    char,   Char,    'C', c)
DEFINE_SETSTATICFIELD(jshort,   short,  Short,   'S', s)
DEFINE_SETSTATICFIELD(jint,     int,    Int,     'I', i)
DEFINE_SETSTATICFIELD(jlong,    long,   Long,    'J', j)
DEFINE_SETSTATICFIELD(jfloat,   float,  Float,   'F', f)
DEFINE_SETSTATICFIELD(jdouble,  double, Double,  'D', d)


//
// String Operations
//

// Unicode Interface

DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL(NewString, jstring);

JNI_ENTRY(jstring, jni_NewString(JNIEnv *env, const jchar *unicodeChars, jsize len))
  JNIWrapper("NewString");
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, NewString__entry, env, unicodeChars, len);
  jstring ret = NULL;
  DT_RETURN_MARK(NewString, jstring, (const jstring&)ret);
  oop string=java_lang_String::create_oop_from_unicode((jchar*) unicodeChars, len, CHECK_NULL);
  ret = (jstring) JNIHandles::make_local(env, string);
  return ret;
JNI_END


JNI_QUICK_ENTRY(jsize, jni_GetStringLength(JNIEnv *env, jstring string))
  JNIWrapper("GetStringLength");
  DTRACE_PROBE2(hotspot_jni, GetStringLength__entry, env, string);
  jsize ret = java_lang_String::length(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(string));
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, GetStringLength__return, ret);
  return ret;
JNI_END


JNI_QUICK_ENTRY(const jchar*, jni_GetStringChars(
  JNIEnv *env, jstring string, jboolean *isCopy))
  JNIWrapper("GetStringChars");
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, GetStringChars__entry, env, string, isCopy);
  //%note jni_5
  if (isCopy != NULL) {
    *isCopy = JNI_TRUE;
  }
  oop s = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(string);
  int s_len = java_lang_String::length(s);
  typeArrayOop s_value = java_lang_String::value(s);
  int s_offset = java_lang_String::offset(s);
  jchar* buf = NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(jchar, s_len + 1);  // add one for zero termination
  if (s_len > 0) {
    memcpy(buf, s_value->char_at_addr(s_offset), sizeof(jchar)*s_len);
  }
  buf[s_len] = 0;
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, GetStringChars__return, buf);
  return buf;
JNI_END


JNI_QUICK_ENTRY(void, jni_ReleaseStringChars(JNIEnv *env, jstring str, const jchar *chars))
  JNIWrapper("ReleaseStringChars");
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, ReleaseStringChars__entry, env, str, chars);
  //%note jni_6
  if (chars != NULL) {
    // Since String objects are supposed to be immutable, don't copy any
    // new data back.  A bad user will have to go after the char array.
    FreeHeap((void*) chars);
  }
  DTRACE_PROBE(hotspot_jni, ReleaseStringChars__return);
JNI_END


// UTF Interface

DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL(NewStringUTF, jstring);

JNI_ENTRY(jstring, jni_NewStringUTF(JNIEnv *env, const char *bytes))
  JNIWrapper("NewStringUTF");
  DTRACE_PROBE2(hotspot_jni, NewStringUTF__entry, env, bytes);
  jstring ret;
  DT_RETURN_MARK(NewStringUTF, jstring, (const jstring&)ret);

  oop result = java_lang_String::create_oop_from_str((char*) bytes, CHECK_NULL);
  ret = (jstring) JNIHandles::make_local(env, result);
  return ret;
JNI_END


JNI_ENTRY(jsize, jni_GetStringUTFLength(JNIEnv *env, jstring string))
  JNIWrapper("GetStringUTFLength");
  DTRACE_PROBE2(hotspot_jni, GetStringUTFLength__entry, env, string);
  jsize ret = java_lang_String::utf8_length(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(string));
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, GetStringUTFLength__return, ret);
  return ret;
JNI_END


JNI_ENTRY(const char*, jni_GetStringUTFChars(JNIEnv *env, jstring string, jboolean *isCopy))
  JNIWrapper("GetStringUTFChars");
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, GetStringUTFChars__entry, env, string, isCopy);
  oop java_string = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(string);
  size_t length = java_lang_String::utf8_length(java_string);
  char* result = AllocateHeap(length + 1, "GetStringUTFChars");
  java_lang_String::as_utf8_string(java_string, result, (int) length + 1);
  if (isCopy != NULL) *isCopy = JNI_TRUE;
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, GetStringUTFChars__return, result);
  return result;
JNI_END


JNI_LEAF(void, jni_ReleaseStringUTFChars(JNIEnv *env, jstring str, const char *chars))
  JNIWrapper("ReleaseStringUTFChars");
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, ReleaseStringUTFChars__entry, env, str, chars);
  if (chars != NULL) {
    FreeHeap((char*) chars);
  }
  DTRACE_PROBE(hotspot_jni, ReleaseStringUTFChars__return);
JNI_END


JNI_QUICK_ENTRY(jsize, jni_GetArrayLength(JNIEnv *env, jarray array))
  JNIWrapper("GetArrayLength");
  DTRACE_PROBE2(hotspot_jni, GetArrayLength__entry, env, array);
  arrayOop a = arrayOop(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(array));
  assert(a->is_array(), "must be array");
  jsize ret = a->length();
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, GetArrayLength__return, ret);
  return ret;
JNI_END


//
// Object Array Operations
//

DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL(NewObjectArray, jobjectArray);

JNI_ENTRY(jobjectArray, jni_NewObjectArray(JNIEnv *env, jsize length, jclass elementClass, jobject initialElement))
  JNIWrapper("NewObjectArray");
  DTRACE_PROBE4(hotspot_jni, NewObjectArray__entry, env, length, elementClass, initialElement);
  jobjectArray ret = NULL;
  DT_RETURN_MARK(NewObjectArray, jobjectArray, (const jobjectArray&)ret);
  KlassHandle ek(THREAD, java_lang_Class::as_klassOop(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(elementClass)));
  klassOop ako = Klass::cast(ek())->array_klass(CHECK_NULL);
  KlassHandle ak = KlassHandle(THREAD, ako);
  objArrayKlass::cast(ak())->initialize(CHECK_NULL);
  objArrayOop result = objArrayKlass::cast(ak())->allocate(length, CHECK_NULL);
  oop initial_value = JNIHandles::resolve(initialElement);
  if (initial_value != NULL) {  // array already initialized with NULL
    for (int index = 0; index < length; index++) {
      result->obj_at_put(index, initial_value);
    }
  }
  ret = (jobjectArray) JNIHandles::make_local(env, result);
  return ret;
JNI_END

DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL(GetObjectArrayElement, jobject);

JNI_ENTRY(jobject, jni_GetObjectArrayElement(JNIEnv *env, jobjectArray array, jsize index))
  JNIWrapper("GetObjectArrayElement");
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, GetObjectArrayElement__entry, env, array, index);
  jobject ret = NULL;
  DT_RETURN_MARK(GetObjectArrayElement, jobject, (const jobject&)ret);
  objArrayOop a = objArrayOop(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(array));
  if (a->is_within_bounds(index)) {
    ret = JNIHandles::make_local(env, a->obj_at(index));
    return ret;
  } else {
    char buf[jintAsStringSize];
    sprintf(buf, "%d", index);
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException(), buf);
  }
JNI_END

DT_VOID_RETURN_MARK_DECL(SetObjectArrayElement);

JNI_ENTRY(void, jni_SetObjectArrayElement(JNIEnv *env, jobjectArray array, jsize index, jobject value))
  JNIWrapper("SetObjectArrayElement");
  DTRACE_PROBE4(hotspot_jni, SetObjectArrayElement__entry, env, array, index, value);
  DT_VOID_RETURN_MARK(SetObjectArrayElement);

  objArrayOop a = objArrayOop(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(array));
  oop v = JNIHandles::resolve(value);
  if (a->is_within_bounds(index)) {
    if (v == NULL || v->is_a(objArrayKlass::cast(a->klass())->element_klass())) {
      a->obj_at_put(index, v);
    } else {
      THROW(vmSymbols::java_lang_ArrayStoreException());
    }
  } else {
    char buf[jintAsStringSize];
    sprintf(buf, "%d", index);
    THROW_MSG(vmSymbols::java_lang_ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException(), buf);
  }
JNI_END


#define DEFINE_NEWSCALARARRAY(Return,Allocator,Result) \
\
  DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL(New##Result##Array, Return);\
\
JNI_ENTRY(Return, \
          jni_New##Result##Array(JNIEnv *env, jsize len)) \
  JNIWrapper("New" XSTR(Result) "Array"); \
  DTRACE_PROBE2(hotspot_jni, New##Result##Array__entry, env, len);\
  Return ret = NULL;\
  DT_RETURN_MARK(New##Result##Array, Return, (const Return&)ret);\
\
  oop obj= oopFactory::Allocator(len, CHECK_0); \
  ret = (Return) JNIHandles::make_local(env, obj); \
  return ret;\
JNI_END

DEFINE_NEWSCALARARRAY(jbooleanArray, new_boolArray,   Boolean)
DEFINE_NEWSCALARARRAY(jbyteArray,    new_byteArray,   Byte)
DEFINE_NEWSCALARARRAY(jshortArray,   new_shortArray,  Short)
DEFINE_NEWSCALARARRAY(jcharArray,    new_charArray,   Char)
DEFINE_NEWSCALARARRAY(jintArray,     new_intArray,    Int)
DEFINE_NEWSCALARARRAY(jlongArray,    new_longArray,   Long)
DEFINE_NEWSCALARARRAY(jfloatArray,   new_singleArray, Float)
DEFINE_NEWSCALARARRAY(jdoubleArray,  new_doubleArray, Double)


// Return an address which will fault if the caller writes to it.

static char* get_bad_address() {
  static char* bad_address = NULL;
  if (bad_address == NULL) {
    size_t size = os::vm_allocation_granularity();
    bad_address = os::reserve_memory(size);
    if (bad_address != NULL) {
      os::protect_memory(bad_address, size, os::MEM_PROT_READ,
                         /*is_committed*/false);
    }
  }
  return bad_address;
}


#define DEFINE_GETSCALARARRAYELEMENTS(ElementTag,ElementType,Result, Tag) \
\
JNI_QUICK_ENTRY(ElementType*, \
          jni_Get##Result##ArrayElements(JNIEnv *env, ElementType##Array array, jboolean *isCopy)) \
  JNIWrapper("Get" XSTR(Result) "ArrayElements"); \
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, Get##Result##ArrayElements__entry, env, array, isCopy);\
  /* allocate an chunk of memory in c land */ \
  typeArrayOop a = typeArrayOop(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(array)); \
  ElementType* result; \
  int len = a->length(); \
  if (len == 0) { \
    /* Empty array: legal but useless, can't return NULL. \
     * Return a pointer to something useless. \
     * Avoid asserts in typeArrayOop. */ \
    result = (ElementType*)get_bad_address(); \
  } else { \
    result = NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(ElementType, len); \
    /* copy the array to the c chunk */ \
    memcpy(result, a->Tag##_at_addr(0), sizeof(ElementType)*len); \
  } \
  if (isCopy) *isCopy = JNI_TRUE; \
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, Get##Result##ArrayElements__return, result);\
  return result; \
JNI_END

DEFINE_GETSCALARARRAYELEMENTS(T_BOOLEAN, jboolean, Boolean, bool)
DEFINE_GETSCALARARRAYELEMENTS(T_BYTE,    jbyte,    Byte,    byte)
DEFINE_GETSCALARARRAYELEMENTS(T_SHORT,   jshort,   Short,   short)
DEFINE_GETSCALARARRAYELEMENTS(T_CHAR,    jchar,    Char,    char)
DEFINE_GETSCALARARRAYELEMENTS(T_INT,     jint,     Int,     int)
DEFINE_GETSCALARARRAYELEMENTS(T_LONG,    jlong,    Long,    long)
DEFINE_GETSCALARARRAYELEMENTS(T_FLOAT,   jfloat,   Float,   float)
DEFINE_GETSCALARARRAYELEMENTS(T_DOUBLE,  jdouble,  Double,  double)


#define DEFINE_RELEASESCALARARRAYELEMENTS(ElementTag,ElementType,Result,Tag) \
\
JNI_QUICK_ENTRY(void, \
          jni_Release##Result##ArrayElements(JNIEnv *env, ElementType##Array array, \
                                             ElementType *buf, jint mode)) \
  JNIWrapper("Release" XSTR(Result) "ArrayElements"); \
  DTRACE_PROBE4(hotspot_jni, Release##Result##ArrayElements__entry, env, array, buf, mode);\
  typeArrayOop a = typeArrayOop(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(array)); \
  int len = a->length(); \
  if (len != 0) {   /* Empty array:  nothing to free or copy. */  \
    if ((mode == 0) || (mode == JNI_COMMIT)) { \
      memcpy(a->Tag##_at_addr(0), buf, sizeof(ElementType)*len); \
    } \
    if ((mode == 0) || (mode == JNI_ABORT)) { \
      FreeHeap(buf); \
    } \
  } \
  DTRACE_PROBE(hotspot_jni, Release##Result##ArrayElements__return);\
JNI_END

DEFINE_RELEASESCALARARRAYELEMENTS(T_BOOLEAN, jboolean, Boolean, bool)
DEFINE_RELEASESCALARARRAYELEMENTS(T_BYTE,    jbyte,    Byte,    byte)
DEFINE_RELEASESCALARARRAYELEMENTS(T_SHORT,   jshort,   Short,   short)
DEFINE_RELEASESCALARARRAYELEMENTS(T_CHAR,    jchar,    Char,    char)
DEFINE_RELEASESCALARARRAYELEMENTS(T_INT,     jint,     Int,     int)
DEFINE_RELEASESCALARARRAYELEMENTS(T_LONG,    jlong,    Long,    long)
DEFINE_RELEASESCALARARRAYELEMENTS(T_FLOAT,   jfloat,   Float,   float)
DEFINE_RELEASESCALARARRAYELEMENTS(T_DOUBLE,  jdouble,  Double,  double)

#define DEFINE_GETSCALARARRAYREGION(ElementTag,ElementType,Result, Tag) \
  DT_VOID_RETURN_MARK_DECL(Get##Result##ArrayRegion);\
\
JNI_ENTRY(void, \
jni_Get##Result##ArrayRegion(JNIEnv *env, ElementType##Array array, jsize start, \
             jsize len, ElementType *buf)) \
  JNIWrapper("Get" XSTR(Result) "ArrayRegion"); \
  DTRACE_PROBE5(hotspot_jni, Get##Result##ArrayRegion__entry, env, array, start, len, buf);\
  DT_VOID_RETURN_MARK(Get##Result##ArrayRegion); \
  typeArrayOop src = typeArrayOop(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(array)); \
  if (start < 0 || len < 0 || ((unsigned int)start + (unsigned int)len > (unsigned int)src->length())) { \
    THROW(vmSymbols::java_lang_ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException()); \
  } else { \
    if (len > 0) { \
      int sc = typeArrayKlass::cast(src->klass())->log2_element_size(); \
      memcpy((u_char*) buf, \
             (u_char*) src->Tag##_at_addr(start), \
             len << sc);                          \
    } \
  } \
JNI_END

DEFINE_GETSCALARARRAYREGION(T_BOOLEAN, jboolean,Boolean, bool)
DEFINE_GETSCALARARRAYREGION(T_BYTE,    jbyte,   Byte,    byte)
DEFINE_GETSCALARARRAYREGION(T_SHORT,   jshort,  Short,   short)
DEFINE_GETSCALARARRAYREGION(T_CHAR,    jchar,   Char,    char)
DEFINE_GETSCALARARRAYREGION(T_INT,     jint,    Int,     int)
DEFINE_GETSCALARARRAYREGION(T_LONG,    jlong,   Long,    long)
DEFINE_GETSCALARARRAYREGION(T_FLOAT,   jfloat,  Float,   float)
DEFINE_GETSCALARARRAYREGION(T_DOUBLE,  jdouble, Double,  double)

#define DEFINE_SETSCALARARRAYREGION(ElementTag,ElementType,Result, Tag) \
  DT_VOID_RETURN_MARK_DECL(Set##Result##ArrayRegion);\
\
JNI_ENTRY(void, \
jni_Set##Result##ArrayRegion(JNIEnv *env, ElementType##Array array, jsize start, \
             jsize len, const ElementType *buf)) \
  JNIWrapper("Set" XSTR(Result) "ArrayRegion"); \
  DTRACE_PROBE5(hotspot_jni, Set##Result##ArrayRegion__entry, env, array, start, len, buf);\
  DT_VOID_RETURN_MARK(Set##Result##ArrayRegion); \
  typeArrayOop dst = typeArrayOop(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(array)); \
  if (start < 0 || len < 0 || ((unsigned int)start + (unsigned int)len > (unsigned int)dst->length())) { \
    THROW(vmSymbols::java_lang_ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException()); \
  } else { \
    if (len > 0) { \
      int sc = typeArrayKlass::cast(dst->klass())->log2_element_size(); \
      memcpy((u_char*) dst->Tag##_at_addr(start), \
             (u_char*) buf, \
             len << sc);    \
    } \
  } \
JNI_END

DEFINE_SETSCALARARRAYREGION(T_BOOLEAN, jboolean, Boolean, bool)
DEFINE_SETSCALARARRAYREGION(T_BYTE,    jbyte,    Byte,    byte)
DEFINE_SETSCALARARRAYREGION(T_SHORT,   jshort,   Short,   short)
DEFINE_SETSCALARARRAYREGION(T_CHAR,    jchar,    Char,    char)
DEFINE_SETSCALARARRAYREGION(T_INT,     jint,     Int,     int)
DEFINE_SETSCALARARRAYREGION(T_LONG,    jlong,    Long,    long)
DEFINE_SETSCALARARRAYREGION(T_FLOAT,   jfloat,   Float,   float)
DEFINE_SETSCALARARRAYREGION(T_DOUBLE,  jdouble,  Double,  double)


//
// Interception of natives
//

// The RegisterNatives call being attempted tried to register with a method that
// is not native.  Ask JVM TI what prefixes have been specified.  Then check
// to see if the native method is now wrapped with the prefixes.  See the
// SetNativeMethodPrefix(es) functions in the JVM TI Spec for details.
static methodOop find_prefixed_native(KlassHandle k,
                                      Symbol* name, Symbol* signature, TRAPS) {
  ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
  methodOop method;
  int name_len = name->utf8_length();
  char* name_str = name->as_utf8();
  int prefix_count;
  char** prefixes = JvmtiExport::get_all_native_method_prefixes(&prefix_count);
  for (int i = 0; i < prefix_count; i++) {
    char* prefix = prefixes[i];
    int prefix_len = (int)strlen(prefix);

    // try adding this prefix to the method name and see if it matches another method name
    int trial_len = name_len + prefix_len;
    char* trial_name_str = NEW_RESOURCE_ARRAY(char, trial_len + 1);
    strcpy(trial_name_str, prefix);
    strcat(trial_name_str, name_str);
    TempNewSymbol trial_name = SymbolTable::probe(trial_name_str, trial_len);
    if (trial_name == NULL) {
      continue; // no such symbol, so this prefix wasn't used, try the next prefix
    }
    method = Klass::cast(k())->lookup_method(trial_name, signature);
    if (method == NULL) {
      continue; // signature doesn't match, try the next prefix
    }
    if (method->is_native()) {
      method->set_is_prefixed_native();
      return method; // wahoo, we found a prefixed version of the method, return it
    }
    // found as non-native, so prefix is good, add it, probably just need more prefixes
    name_len = trial_len;
    name_str = trial_name_str;
  }
  return NULL; // not found
}

static bool register_native(KlassHandle k, Symbol* name, Symbol* signature, address entry, TRAPS) {
  methodOop method = Klass::cast(k())->lookup_method(name, signature);
  if (method == NULL) {
    ResourceMark rm;
    stringStream st;
    st.print("Method %s name or signature does not match",
             methodOopDesc::name_and_sig_as_C_string(Klass::cast(k()), name, signature));
    THROW_MSG_(vmSymbols::java_lang_NoSuchMethodError(), st.as_string(), false);
  }
  if (!method->is_native()) {
    // trying to register to a non-native method, see if a JVM TI agent has added prefix(es)
    method = find_prefixed_native(k, name, signature, THREAD);
    if (method == NULL) {
      ResourceMark rm;
      stringStream st;
      st.print("Method %s is not declared as native",
               methodOopDesc::name_and_sig_as_C_string(Klass::cast(k()), name, signature));
      THROW_MSG_(vmSymbols::java_lang_NoSuchMethodError(), st.as_string(), false);
    }
  }

  if (entry != NULL) {
    method->set_native_function(entry,
      methodOopDesc::native_bind_event_is_interesting);
  } else {
    method->clear_native_function();
  }
  if (PrintJNIResolving) {
    ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
    tty->print_cr("[Registering JNI native method %s.%s]",
      Klass::cast(method->method_holder())->external_name(),
      method->name()->as_C_string());
  }
  return true;
}

DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL(RegisterNatives, jint);

JNI_ENTRY(jint, jni_RegisterNatives(JNIEnv *env, jclass clazz,
                                    const JNINativeMethod *methods,
                                    jint nMethods))
  JNIWrapper("RegisterNatives");
  DTRACE_PROBE4(hotspot_jni, RegisterNatives__entry, env, clazz, methods, nMethods);
  jint ret = 0;
  DT_RETURN_MARK(RegisterNatives, jint, (const jint&)ret);

  KlassHandle h_k(thread, java_lang_Class::as_klassOop(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(clazz)));

  for (int index = 0; index < nMethods; index++) {
    const char* meth_name = methods[index].name;
    const char* meth_sig = methods[index].signature;
    int meth_name_len = (int)strlen(meth_name);

    // The class should have been loaded (we have an instance of the class
    // passed in) so the method and signature should already be in the symbol
    // table.  If they're not there, the method doesn't exist.
    TempNewSymbol  name = SymbolTable::probe(meth_name, meth_name_len);
    TempNewSymbol  signature = SymbolTable::probe(meth_sig, (int)strlen(meth_sig));

    if (name == NULL || signature == NULL) {
      ResourceMark rm;
      stringStream st;
      st.print("Method %s.%s%s not found", Klass::cast(h_k())->external_name(), meth_name, meth_sig);
      // Must return negative value on failure
      THROW_MSG_(vmSymbols::java_lang_NoSuchMethodError(), st.as_string(), -1);
    }

    bool res = register_native(h_k, name, signature,
                               (address) methods[index].fnPtr, THREAD);
    if (!res) {
      ret = -1;
      break;
    }
  }
  return ret;
JNI_END


JNI_ENTRY(jint, jni_UnregisterNatives(JNIEnv *env, jclass clazz))
  JNIWrapper("UnregisterNatives");
  DTRACE_PROBE2(hotspot_jni, UnregisterNatives__entry, env, clazz);
  klassOop k   = java_lang_Class::as_klassOop(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(clazz));
  //%note jni_2
  if (Klass::cast(k)->oop_is_instance()) {
    for (int index = 0; index < instanceKlass::cast(k)->methods()->length(); index++) {
      methodOop m = methodOop(instanceKlass::cast(k)->methods()->obj_at(index));
      if (m->is_native()) {
        m->clear_native_function();
        m->set_signature_handler(NULL);
      }
    }
  }
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, UnregisterNatives__return, 0);
  return 0;
JNI_END

//
// Monitor functions
//

DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL(MonitorEnter, jint);

JNI_ENTRY(jint, jni_MonitorEnter(JNIEnv *env, jobject jobj))
  DTRACE_PROBE2(hotspot_jni, MonitorEnter__entry, env, jobj);
  jint ret = JNI_ERR;
  DT_RETURN_MARK(MonitorEnter, jint, (const jint&)ret);

  // If the object is null, we can't do anything with it
  if (jobj == NULL) {
    THROW_(vmSymbols::java_lang_NullPointerException(), JNI_ERR);
  }

  Handle obj(thread, JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(jobj));
  ObjectSynchronizer::jni_enter(obj, CHECK_(JNI_ERR));
  ret = JNI_OK;
  return ret;
JNI_END

DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL(MonitorExit, jint);

JNI_ENTRY(jint, jni_MonitorExit(JNIEnv *env, jobject jobj))
  DTRACE_PROBE2(hotspot_jni, MonitorExit__entry, env, jobj);
  jint ret = JNI_ERR;
  DT_RETURN_MARK(MonitorExit, jint, (const jint&)ret);

  // Don't do anything with a null object
  if (jobj == NULL) {
    THROW_(vmSymbols::java_lang_NullPointerException(), JNI_ERR);
  }

  Handle obj(THREAD, JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(jobj));
  ObjectSynchronizer::jni_exit(obj(), CHECK_(JNI_ERR));

  ret = JNI_OK;
  return ret;
JNI_END

//
// Extensions
//

DT_VOID_RETURN_MARK_DECL(GetStringRegion);

JNI_ENTRY(void, jni_GetStringRegion(JNIEnv *env, jstring string, jsize start, jsize len, jchar *buf))
  JNIWrapper("GetStringRegion");
  DTRACE_PROBE5(hotspot_jni, GetStringRegion__entry, env, string, start, len, buf);
  DT_VOID_RETURN_MARK(GetStringRegion);
  oop s = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(string);
  int s_len = java_lang_String::length(s);
  if (start < 0 || len < 0 || start + len > s_len) {
    THROW(vmSymbols::java_lang_StringIndexOutOfBoundsException());
  } else {
    if (len > 0) {
      int s_offset = java_lang_String::offset(s);
      typeArrayOop s_value = java_lang_String::value(s);
      memcpy(buf, s_value->char_at_addr(s_offset+start), sizeof(jchar)*len);
    }
  }
JNI_END

DT_VOID_RETURN_MARK_DECL(GetStringUTFRegion);

JNI_ENTRY(void, jni_GetStringUTFRegion(JNIEnv *env, jstring string, jsize start, jsize len, char *buf))
  JNIWrapper("GetStringUTFRegion");
  DTRACE_PROBE5(hotspot_jni, GetStringUTFRegion__entry, env, string, start, len, buf);
  DT_VOID_RETURN_MARK(GetStringUTFRegion);
  oop s = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(string);
  int s_len = java_lang_String::length(s);
  if (start < 0 || len < 0 || start + len > s_len) {
    THROW(vmSymbols::java_lang_StringIndexOutOfBoundsException());
  } else {
    //%note jni_7
    if (len > 0) {
      ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
      char *utf_region = java_lang_String::as_utf8_string(s, start, len);
      int utf_len = (int)strlen(utf_region);
      memcpy(buf, utf_region, utf_len);
      buf[utf_len] = 0;
    } else {
      // JDK null-terminates the buffer even in len is zero
      if (buf != NULL) {
        buf[0] = 0;
      }
    }
  }
JNI_END


JNI_ENTRY(void*, jni_GetPrimitiveArrayCritical(JNIEnv *env, jarray array, jboolean *isCopy))
  JNIWrapper("GetPrimitiveArrayCritical");
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, GetPrimitiveArrayCritical__entry, env, array, isCopy);
  GC_locker::lock_critical(thread);
  if (isCopy != NULL) {
    *isCopy = JNI_FALSE;
  }
  oop a = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(array);
  assert(a->is_array(), "just checking");
  BasicType type;
  if (a->is_objArray()) {
    type = T_OBJECT;
  } else {
    type = typeArrayKlass::cast(a->klass())->element_type();
  }
  void* ret = arrayOop(a)->base(type);
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, GetPrimitiveArrayCritical__return, ret);
  return ret;
JNI_END


JNI_ENTRY(void, jni_ReleasePrimitiveArrayCritical(JNIEnv *env, jarray array, void *carray, jint mode))
  JNIWrapper("ReleasePrimitiveArrayCritical");
  DTRACE_PROBE4(hotspot_jni, ReleasePrimitiveArrayCritical__entry, env, array, carray, mode);
  // The array, carray and mode arguments are ignored
  GC_locker::unlock_critical(thread);
  DTRACE_PROBE(hotspot_jni, ReleasePrimitiveArrayCritical__return);
JNI_END


JNI_ENTRY(const jchar*, jni_GetStringCritical(JNIEnv *env, jstring string, jboolean *isCopy))
  JNIWrapper("GetStringCritical");
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, GetStringCritical__entry, env, string, isCopy);
  GC_locker::lock_critical(thread);
  if (isCopy != NULL) {
    *isCopy = JNI_FALSE;
  }
  oop s = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(string);
  int s_len = java_lang_String::length(s);
  typeArrayOop s_value = java_lang_String::value(s);
  int s_offset = java_lang_String::offset(s);
  const jchar* ret;
  if (s_len > 0) {
    ret = s_value->char_at_addr(s_offset);
  } else {
    ret = (jchar*) s_value->base(T_CHAR);
  }
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, GetStringCritical__return, ret);
  return ret;
JNI_END


JNI_ENTRY(void, jni_ReleaseStringCritical(JNIEnv *env, jstring str, const jchar *chars))
  JNIWrapper("ReleaseStringCritical");
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, ReleaseStringCritical__entry, env, str, chars);
  // The str and chars arguments are ignored
  GC_locker::unlock_critical(thread);
  DTRACE_PROBE(hotspot_jni, ReleaseStringCritical__return);
JNI_END


JNI_ENTRY(jweak, jni_NewWeakGlobalRef(JNIEnv *env, jobject ref))
  JNIWrapper("jni_NewWeakGlobalRef");
  DTRACE_PROBE2(hotspot_jni, NewWeakGlobalRef__entry, env, ref);
  Handle ref_handle(thread, JNIHandles::resolve(ref));
  jweak ret = JNIHandles::make_weak_global(ref_handle);
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, NewWeakGlobalRef__return, ret);
  return ret;
JNI_END

// Must be JNI_ENTRY (with HandleMark)
JNI_ENTRY(void, jni_DeleteWeakGlobalRef(JNIEnv *env, jweak ref))
  JNIWrapper("jni_DeleteWeakGlobalRef");
  DTRACE_PROBE2(hotspot_jni, DeleteWeakGlobalRef__entry, env, ref);
  JNIHandles::destroy_weak_global(ref);
  DTRACE_PROBE(hotspot_jni, DeleteWeakGlobalRef__return);
JNI_END


JNI_QUICK_ENTRY(jboolean, jni_ExceptionCheck(JNIEnv *env))
  JNIWrapper("jni_ExceptionCheck");
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, ExceptionCheck__entry, env);
  jni_check_async_exceptions(thread);
  jboolean ret = (thread->has_pending_exception()) ? JNI_TRUE : JNI_FALSE;
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, ExceptionCheck__return, ret);
  return ret;
JNI_END


// Initialization state for three routines below relating to
// java.nio.DirectBuffers
static          jint directBufferSupportInitializeStarted = 0;
static volatile jint directBufferSupportInitializeEnded   = 0;
static volatile jint directBufferSupportInitializeFailed  = 0;
static jclass    bufferClass                 = NULL;
static jclass    directBufferClass           = NULL;
static jclass    directByteBufferClass       = NULL;
static jmethodID directByteBufferConstructor = NULL;
static jfieldID  directBufferAddressField    = NULL;
static jfieldID  bufferCapacityField         = NULL;

static jclass lookupOne(JNIEnv* env, const char* name, TRAPS) {
  Handle loader;            // null (bootstrap) loader
  Handle protection_domain; // null protection domain

  TempNewSymbol sym = SymbolTable::new_symbol(name, CHECK_NULL);
  jclass result =  find_class_from_class_loader(env, sym, true, loader, protection_domain, true, CHECK_NULL);

  if (TraceClassResolution && result != NULL) {
    trace_class_resolution(java_lang_Class::as_klassOop(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(result)));
  }
  return result;
}

// These lookups are done with the NULL (bootstrap) ClassLoader to
// circumvent any security checks that would be done by jni_FindClass.
JNI_ENTRY(bool, lookupDirectBufferClasses(JNIEnv* env))
{
  if ((bufferClass           = lookupOne(env, "java/nio/Buffer", thread))           == NULL) { return false; }
  if ((directBufferClass     = lookupOne(env, "sun/nio/ch/DirectBuffer", thread))   == NULL) { return false; }
  if ((directByteBufferClass = lookupOne(env, "java/nio/DirectByteBuffer", thread)) == NULL) { return false; }
  return true;
}
JNI_END


static bool initializeDirectBufferSupport(JNIEnv* env, JavaThread* thread) {
  if (directBufferSupportInitializeFailed) {
    return false;
  }

  if (Atomic::cmpxchg(1, &directBufferSupportInitializeStarted, 0) == 0) {
    if (!lookupDirectBufferClasses(env)) {
      directBufferSupportInitializeFailed = 1;
      return false;
    }

    // Make global references for these
    bufferClass           = (jclass) env->NewGlobalRef(bufferClass);
    directBufferClass     = (jclass) env->NewGlobalRef(directBufferClass);
    directByteBufferClass = (jclass) env->NewGlobalRef(directByteBufferClass);

    // Get needed field and method IDs
    directByteBufferConstructor = env->GetMethodID(directByteBufferClass, "<init>", "(JI)V");
    directBufferAddressField    = env->GetFieldID(bufferClass, "address", "J");
    bufferCapacityField         = env->GetFieldID(bufferClass, "capacity", "I");

    if ((directByteBufferConstructor == NULL) ||
        (directBufferAddressField    == NULL) ||
        (bufferCapacityField         == NULL)) {
      directBufferSupportInitializeFailed = 1;
      return false;
    }

    directBufferSupportInitializeEnded = 1;
  } else {
    while (!directBufferSupportInitializeEnded && !directBufferSupportInitializeFailed) {
      // Set state as yield_all can call os:sleep. On Solaris, yield_all calls
      // os::sleep which requires the VM state transition. On other platforms, it
      // is not necessary. The following call to change the VM state is purposely
      // put inside the loop to avoid potential deadlock when multiple threads
      // try to call this method. See 6791815 for more details.
      ThreadInVMfromNative tivn(thread);
      os::yield_all();
    }
  }

  return !directBufferSupportInitializeFailed;
}

extern "C" jobject JNICALL jni_NewDirectByteBuffer(JNIEnv *env, void* address, jlong capacity)
{
  // thread_from_jni_environment() will block if VM is gone.
  JavaThread* thread = JavaThread::thread_from_jni_environment(env);

  JNIWrapper("jni_NewDirectByteBuffer");
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, NewDirectByteBuffer__entry, env, address, capacity);

  if (!directBufferSupportInitializeEnded) {
    if (!initializeDirectBufferSupport(env, thread)) {
      DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, NewDirectByteBuffer__return, NULL);
      return NULL;
    }
  }

  // Being paranoid about accidental sign extension on address
  jlong addr = (jlong) ((uintptr_t) address);
  // NOTE that package-private DirectByteBuffer constructor currently
  // takes int capacity
  jint  cap  = (jint)  capacity;
  jobject ret = env->NewObject(directByteBufferClass, directByteBufferConstructor, addr, cap);
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, NewDirectByteBuffer__return, ret);
  return ret;
}

DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL(GetDirectBufferAddress, void*);

extern "C" void* JNICALL jni_GetDirectBufferAddress(JNIEnv *env, jobject buf)
{
  // thread_from_jni_environment() will block if VM is gone.
  JavaThread* thread = JavaThread::thread_from_jni_environment(env);

  JNIWrapper("jni_GetDirectBufferAddress");
  DTRACE_PROBE2(hotspot_jni, GetDirectBufferAddress__entry, env, buf);
  void* ret = NULL;
  DT_RETURN_MARK(GetDirectBufferAddress, void*, (const void*&)ret);

  if (!directBufferSupportInitializeEnded) {
    if (!initializeDirectBufferSupport(env, thread)) {
      return 0;
    }
  }

  if ((buf != NULL) && (!env->IsInstanceOf(buf, directBufferClass))) {
    return 0;
  }

  ret = (void*)(intptr_t)env->GetLongField(buf, directBufferAddressField);
  return ret;
}

DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL(GetDirectBufferCapacity, jlong);

extern "C" jlong JNICALL jni_GetDirectBufferCapacity(JNIEnv *env, jobject buf)
{
  // thread_from_jni_environment() will block if VM is gone.
  JavaThread* thread = JavaThread::thread_from_jni_environment(env);

  JNIWrapper("jni_GetDirectBufferCapacity");
  DTRACE_PROBE2(hotspot_jni, GetDirectBufferCapacity__entry, env, buf);
  jlong ret = -1;
  DT_RETURN_MARK(GetDirectBufferCapacity, jlong, (const jlong&)ret);

  if (!directBufferSupportInitializeEnded) {
    if (!initializeDirectBufferSupport(env, thread)) {
      ret = 0;
      return ret;
    }
  }

  if (buf == NULL) {
    return -1;
  }

  if (!env->IsInstanceOf(buf, directBufferClass)) {
    return -1;
  }

  // NOTE that capacity is currently an int in the implementation
  ret = env->GetIntField(buf, bufferCapacityField);
  return ret;
}


JNI_LEAF(jint, jni_GetVersion(JNIEnv *env))
  JNIWrapper("GetVersion");
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, GetVersion__entry, env);
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, GetVersion__return, CurrentVersion);
  return CurrentVersion;
JNI_END

extern struct JavaVM_ main_vm;

JNI_LEAF(jint, jni_GetJavaVM(JNIEnv *env, JavaVM **vm))
  JNIWrapper("jni_GetJavaVM");
  DTRACE_PROBE2(hotspot_jni, GetJavaVM__entry, env, vm);
  *vm  = (JavaVM *)(&main_vm);
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, GetJavaVM__return, JNI_OK);
  return JNI_OK;
JNI_END

// Structure containing all jni functions
struct JNINativeInterface_ jni_NativeInterface = {
    NULL,
    NULL,
    NULL,

    NULL,

    jni_GetVersion,

    jni_DefineClass,
    jni_FindClass,

    jni_FromReflectedMethod,
    jni_FromReflectedField,

    jni_ToReflectedMethod,

    jni_GetSuperclass,
    jni_IsAssignableFrom,

    jni_ToReflectedField,

    jni_Throw,
    jni_ThrowNew,
    jni_ExceptionOccurred,
    jni_ExceptionDescribe,
    jni_ExceptionClear,
    jni_FatalError,

    jni_PushLocalFrame,
    jni_PopLocalFrame,

    jni_NewGlobalRef,
    jni_DeleteGlobalRef,
    jni_DeleteLocalRef,
    jni_IsSameObject,

    jni_NewLocalRef,
    jni_EnsureLocalCapacity,

    jni_AllocObject,
    jni_NewObject,
    jni_NewObjectV,
    jni_NewObjectA,

    jni_GetObjectClass,
    jni_IsInstanceOf,

    jni_GetMethodID,

    jni_CallObjectMethod,
    jni_CallObjectMethodV,
    jni_CallObjectMethodA,
    jni_CallBooleanMethod,
    jni_CallBooleanMethodV,
    jni_CallBooleanMethodA,
    jni_CallByteMethod,
    jni_CallByteMethodV,
    jni_CallByteMethodA,
    jni_CallCharMethod,
    jni_CallCharMethodV,
    jni_CallCharMethodA,
    jni_CallShortMethod,
    jni_CallShortMethodV,
    jni_CallShortMethodA,
    jni_CallIntMethod,
    jni_CallIntMethodV,
    jni_CallIntMethodA,
    jni_CallLongMethod,
    jni_CallLongMethodV,
    jni_CallLongMethodA,
    jni_CallFloatMethod,
    jni_CallFloatMethodV,
    jni_CallFloatMethodA,
    jni_CallDoubleMethod,
    jni_CallDoubleMethodV,
    jni_CallDoubleMethodA,
    jni_CallVoidMethod,
    jni_CallVoidMethodV,
    jni_CallVoidMethodA,

    jni_CallNonvirtualObjectMethod,
    jni_CallNonvirtualObjectMethodV,
    jni_CallNonvirtualObjectMethodA,
    jni_CallNonvirtualBooleanMethod,
    jni_CallNonvirtualBooleanMethodV,
    jni_CallNonvirtualBooleanMethodA,
    jni_CallNonvirtualByteMethod,
    jni_CallNonvirtualByteMethodV,
    jni_CallNonvirtualByteMethodA,
    jni_CallNonvirtualCharMethod,
    jni_CallNonvirtualCharMethodV,
    jni_CallNonvirtualCharMethodA,
    jni_CallNonvirtualShortMethod,
    jni_CallNonvirtualShortMethodV,
    jni_CallNonvirtualShortMethodA,
    jni_CallNonvirtualIntMethod,
    jni_CallNonvirtualIntMethodV,
    jni_CallNonvirtualIntMethodA,
    jni_CallNonvirtualLongMethod,
    jni_CallNonvirtualLongMethodV,
    jni_CallNonvirtualLongMethodA,
    jni_CallNonvirtualFloatMethod,
    jni_CallNonvirtualFloatMethodV,
    jni_CallNonvirtualFloatMethodA,
    jni_CallNonvirtualDoubleMethod,
    jni_CallNonvirtualDoubleMethodV,
    jni_CallNonvirtualDoubleMethodA,
    jni_CallNonvirtualVoidMethod,
    jni_CallNonvirtualVoidMethodV,
    jni_CallNonvirtualVoidMethodA,

    jni_GetFieldID,

    jni_GetObjectField,
    jni_GetBooleanField,
    jni_GetByteField,
    jni_GetCharField,
    jni_GetShortField,
    jni_GetIntField,
    jni_GetLongField,
    jni_GetFloatField,
    jni_GetDoubleField,

    jni_SetObjectField,
    jni_SetBooleanField,
    jni_SetByteField,
    jni_SetCharField,
    jni_SetShortField,
    jni_SetIntField,
    jni_SetLongField,
    jni_SetFloatField,
    jni_SetDoubleField,

    jni_GetStaticMethodID,

    jni_CallStaticObjectMethod,
    jni_CallStaticObjectMethodV,
    jni_CallStaticObjectMethodA,
    jni_CallStaticBooleanMethod,
    jni_CallStaticBooleanMethodV,
    jni_CallStaticBooleanMethodA,
    jni_CallStaticByteMethod,
    jni_CallStaticByteMethodV,
    jni_CallStaticByteMethodA,
    jni_CallStaticCharMethod,
    jni_CallStaticCharMethodV,
    jni_CallStaticCharMethodA,
    jni_CallStaticShortMethod,
    jni_CallStaticShortMethodV,
    jni_CallStaticShortMethodA,
    jni_CallStaticIntMethod,
    jni_CallStaticIntMethodV,
    jni_CallStaticIntMethodA,
    jni_CallStaticLongMethod,
    jni_CallStaticLongMethodV,
    jni_CallStaticLongMethodA,
    jni_CallStaticFloatMethod,
    jni_CallStaticFloatMethodV,
    jni_CallStaticFloatMethodA,
    jni_CallStaticDoubleMethod,
    jni_CallStaticDoubleMethodV,
    jni_CallStaticDoubleMethodA,
    jni_CallStaticVoidMethod,
    jni_CallStaticVoidMethodV,
    jni_CallStaticVoidMethodA,

    jni_GetStaticFieldID,

    jni_GetStaticObjectField,
    jni_GetStaticBooleanField,
    jni_GetStaticByteField,
    jni_GetStaticCharField,
    jni_GetStaticShortField,
    jni_GetStaticIntField,
    jni_GetStaticLongField,
    jni_GetStaticFloatField,
    jni_GetStaticDoubleField,

    jni_SetStaticObjectField,
    jni_SetStaticBooleanField,
    jni_SetStaticByteField,
    jni_SetStaticCharField,
    jni_SetStaticShortField,
    jni_SetStaticIntField,
    jni_SetStaticLongField,
    jni_SetStaticFloatField,
    jni_SetStaticDoubleField,

    jni_NewString,
    jni_GetStringLength,
    jni_GetStringChars,
    jni_ReleaseStringChars,

    jni_NewStringUTF,
    jni_GetStringUTFLength,
    jni_GetStringUTFChars,
    jni_ReleaseStringUTFChars,

    jni_GetArrayLength,

    jni_NewObjectArray,
    jni_GetObjectArrayElement,
    jni_SetObjectArrayElement,

    jni_NewBooleanArray,
    jni_NewByteArray,
    jni_NewCharArray,
    jni_NewShortArray,
    jni_NewIntArray,
    jni_NewLongArray,
    jni_NewFloatArray,
    jni_NewDoubleArray,

    jni_GetBooleanArrayElements,
    jni_GetByteArrayElements,
    jni_GetCharArrayElements,
    jni_GetShortArrayElements,
    jni_GetIntArrayElements,
    jni_GetLongArrayElements,
    jni_GetFloatArrayElements,
    jni_GetDoubleArrayElements,

    jni_ReleaseBooleanArrayElements,
    jni_ReleaseByteArrayElements,
    jni_ReleaseCharArrayElements,
    jni_ReleaseShortArrayElements,
    jni_ReleaseIntArrayElements,
    jni_ReleaseLongArrayElements,
    jni_ReleaseFloatArrayElements,
    jni_ReleaseDoubleArrayElements,

    jni_GetBooleanArrayRegion,
    jni_GetByteArrayRegion,
    jni_GetCharArrayRegion,
    jni_GetShortArrayRegion,
    jni_GetIntArrayRegion,
    jni_GetLongArrayRegion,
    jni_GetFloatArrayRegion,
    jni_GetDoubleArrayRegion,

    jni_SetBooleanArrayRegion,
    jni_SetByteArrayRegion,
    jni_SetCharArrayRegion,
    jni_SetShortArrayRegion,
    jni_SetIntArrayRegion,
    jni_SetLongArrayRegion,
    jni_SetFloatArrayRegion,
    jni_SetDoubleArrayRegion,

    jni_RegisterNatives,
    jni_UnregisterNatives,

    jni_MonitorEnter,
    jni_MonitorExit,

    jni_GetJavaVM,

    jni_GetStringRegion,
    jni_GetStringUTFRegion,

    jni_GetPrimitiveArrayCritical,
    jni_ReleasePrimitiveArrayCritical,

    jni_GetStringCritical,
    jni_ReleaseStringCritical,

    jni_NewWeakGlobalRef,
    jni_DeleteWeakGlobalRef,

    jni_ExceptionCheck,

    jni_NewDirectByteBuffer,
    jni_GetDirectBufferAddress,
    jni_GetDirectBufferCapacity,

    // New 1_6 features

    jni_GetObjectRefType
};


// For jvmti use to modify jni function table.
// Java threads in native contiues to run until it is transitioned
// to VM at safepoint. Before the transition or before it is blocked
// for safepoint it may access jni function table. VM could crash if
// any java thread access the jni function table in the middle of memcpy.
// To avoid this each function pointers are copied automically.
void copy_jni_function_table(const struct JNINativeInterface_ *new_jni_NativeInterface) {
  assert(SafepointSynchronize::is_at_safepoint(), "must be at safepoint");
  intptr_t *a = (intptr_t *) jni_functions();
  intptr_t *b = (intptr_t *) new_jni_NativeInterface;
  for (uint i=0; i <  sizeof(struct JNINativeInterface_)/sizeof(void *); i++) {
    Atomic::store_ptr(*b++, a++);
  }
}

void quicken_jni_functions() {
  // Replace Get<Primitive>Field with fast versions
  if (UseFastJNIAccessors && !JvmtiExport::can_post_field_access()
      && !VerifyJNIFields && !TraceJNICalls && !CountJNICalls && !CheckJNICalls
#if defined(_WINDOWS) && defined(IA32) && defined(COMPILER2)
      // windows x86 currently needs SEH wrapper and the gain of the fast
      // versions currently isn't certain for server vm on uniprocessor.
      && os::is_MP()
#endif
  ) {
    address func;
    func = JNI_FastGetField::generate_fast_get_boolean_field();
    if (func != (address)-1) {
      jni_NativeInterface.GetBooleanField = (GetBooleanField_t)func;
    }
    func = JNI_FastGetField::generate_fast_get_byte_field();
    if (func != (address)-1) {
      jni_NativeInterface.GetByteField = (GetByteField_t)func;
    }
    func = JNI_FastGetField::generate_fast_get_char_field();
    if (func != (address)-1) {
      jni_NativeInterface.GetCharField = (GetCharField_t)func;
    }
    func = JNI_FastGetField::generate_fast_get_short_field();
    if (func != (address)-1) {
      jni_NativeInterface.GetShortField = (GetShortField_t)func;
    }
    func = JNI_FastGetField::generate_fast_get_int_field();
    if (func != (address)-1) {
      jni_NativeInterface.GetIntField = (GetIntField_t)func;
    }
    func = JNI_FastGetField::generate_fast_get_long_field();
    if (func != (address)-1) {
      jni_NativeInterface.GetLongField = (GetLongField_t)func;
    }
    func = JNI_FastGetField::generate_fast_get_float_field();
    if (func != (address)-1) {
      jni_NativeInterface.GetFloatField = (GetFloatField_t)func;
    }
    func = JNI_FastGetField::generate_fast_get_double_field();
    if (func != (address)-1) {
      jni_NativeInterface.GetDoubleField = (GetDoubleField_t)func;
    }
  }
}

// Returns the function structure
struct JNINativeInterface_* jni_functions() {
#ifndef JNICHECK_KERNEL
  if (CheckJNICalls) return jni_functions_check();
#else  // JNICHECK_KERNEL
  if (CheckJNICalls) warning("-Xcheck:jni is not supported in kernel vm.");
#endif // JNICHECK_KERNEL
  return &jni_NativeInterface;
}

// Returns the function structure
struct JNINativeInterface_* jni_functions_nocheck() {
  return &jni_NativeInterface;
}


// Invocation API


// Forward declaration
extern const struct JNIInvokeInterface_ jni_InvokeInterface;

// Global invocation API vars
volatile jint vm_created = 0;
// Indicate whether it is safe to recreate VM
volatile jint safe_to_recreate_vm = 1;
struct JavaVM_ main_vm = {&jni_InvokeInterface};


#define JAVASTACKSIZE (400 * 1024)    /* Default size of a thread java stack */
enum { VERIFY_NONE, VERIFY_REMOTE, VERIFY_ALL };

HS_DTRACE_PROBE_DECL1(hotspot_jni, GetDefaultJavaVMInitArgs__entry, void*);
DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL(GetDefaultJavaVMInitArgs, jint);

_JNI_IMPORT_OR_EXPORT_ jint JNICALL JNI_GetDefaultJavaVMInitArgs(void *args_) {
  HS_DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, GetDefaultJavaVMInitArgs__entry, args_);
  JDK1_1InitArgs *args = (JDK1_1InitArgs *)args_;
  jint ret = JNI_ERR;
  DT_RETURN_MARK(GetDefaultJavaVMInitArgs, jint, (const jint&)ret);

  if (Threads::is_supported_jni_version(args->version)) {
    ret = JNI_OK;
  }
  // 1.1 style no longer supported in hotspot.
  // According the JNI spec, we should update args->version on return.
  // We also use the structure to communicate with launcher about default
  // stack size.
  if (args->version == JNI_VERSION_1_1) {
    args->version = JNI_VERSION_1_2;
    // javaStackSize is int in arguments structure
    assert(jlong(ThreadStackSize) * K < INT_MAX, "integer overflow");
    args->javaStackSize = (jint)(ThreadStackSize * K);
  }
  return ret;
}

HS_DTRACE_PROBE_DECL3(hotspot_jni, CreateJavaVM__entry, vm, penv, args);
DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL(CreateJavaVM, jint);

_JNI_IMPORT_OR_EXPORT_ jint JNICALL JNI_CreateJavaVM(JavaVM **vm, void **penv, void *args) {
  HS_DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, CreateJavaVM__entry, vm, penv, args);

  jint result = JNI_ERR;
  DT_RETURN_MARK(CreateJavaVM, jint, (const jint&)result);

  // We're about to use Atomic::xchg for synchronization.  Some Zero
  // platforms use the GCC builtin __sync_lock_test_and_set for this,
  // but __sync_lock_test_and_set is not guaranteed to do what we want
  // on all architectures.  So we check it works before relying on it.
#if defined(ZERO) && defined(ASSERT)
  {
    jint a = 0xcafebabe;
    jint b = Atomic::xchg(0xdeadbeef, &a);
    void *c = &a;
    void *d = Atomic::xchg_ptr(&b, &c);
    assert(a == (jint) 0xdeadbeef && b == (jint) 0xcafebabe, "Atomic::xchg() works");
    assert(c == &b && d == &a, "Atomic::xchg_ptr() works");
  }
#endif // ZERO && ASSERT

  // At the moment it's only possible to have one Java VM,
  // since some of the runtime state is in global variables.

  // We cannot use our mutex locks here, since they only work on
  // Threads. We do an atomic compare and exchange to ensure only
  // one thread can call this method at a time

  // We use Atomic::xchg rather than Atomic::add/dec since on some platforms
  // the add/dec implementations are dependent on whether we are running
  // on a multiprocessor, and at this stage of initialization the os::is_MP
  // function used to determine this will always return false. Atomic::xchg
  // does not have this problem.
  if (Atomic::xchg(1, &vm_created) == 1) {
    return JNI_ERR;   // already created, or create attempt in progress
  }
  if (Atomic::xchg(0, &safe_to_recreate_vm) == 0) {
    return JNI_ERR;  // someone tried and failed and retry not allowed.
  }

  assert(vm_created == 1, "vm_created is true during the creation");

  /**
   * Certain errors during initialization are recoverable and do not
   * prevent this method from being called again at a later time
   * (perhaps with different arguments).  However, at a certain
   * point during initialization if an error occurs we cannot allow
   * this function to be called again (or it will crash).  In those
   * situations, the 'canTryAgain' flag is set to false, which atomically
   * sets safe_to_recreate_vm to 1, such that any new call to
   * JNI_CreateJavaVM will immediately fail using the above logic.
   */
  bool can_try_again = true;

  result = Threads::create_vm((JavaVMInitArgs*) args, &can_try_again);
  if (result == JNI_OK) {
    JavaThread *thread = JavaThread::current();
    /* thread is thread_in_vm here */
    *vm = (JavaVM *)(&main_vm);
    *(JNIEnv**)penv = thread->jni_environment();

    // Tracks the time application was running before GC
    RuntimeService::record_application_start();

    // Notify JVMTI
    if (JvmtiExport::should_post_thread_life()) {
       JvmtiExport::post_thread_start(thread);
    }
    // Check if we should compile all classes on bootclasspath
    NOT_PRODUCT(if (CompileTheWorld) ClassLoader::compile_the_world();)
    // Since this is not a JVM_ENTRY we have to set the thread state manually before leaving.
    ThreadStateTransition::transition_and_fence(thread, _thread_in_vm, _thread_in_native);
  } else {
    if (can_try_again) {
      // reset safe_to_recreate_vm to 1 so that retrial would be possible
      safe_to_recreate_vm = 1;
    }

    // Creation failed. We must reset vm_created
    *vm = 0;
    *(JNIEnv**)penv = 0;
    // reset vm_created last to avoid race condition. Use OrderAccess to
    // control both compiler and architectural-based reordering.
    OrderAccess::release_store(&vm_created, 0);
  }

  NOT_PRODUCT(test_error_handler(ErrorHandlerTest));
  return result;
}

HS_DTRACE_PROBE_DECL3(hotspot_jni, GetCreatedJavaVMs__entry, \
  JavaVM**, jsize, jsize*);
HS_DTRACE_PROBE_DECL1(hotspot_jni, GetCreatedJavaVMs__return, jint);

_JNI_IMPORT_OR_EXPORT_ jint JNICALL JNI_GetCreatedJavaVMs(JavaVM **vm_buf, jsize bufLen, jsize *numVMs) {
  // See bug 4367188, the wrapper can sometimes cause VM crashes
  // JNIWrapper("GetCreatedJavaVMs");
  HS_DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, GetCreatedJavaVMs__entry, \
    vm_buf, bufLen, numVMs);
  if (vm_created) {
    if (numVMs != NULL) *numVMs = 1;
    if (bufLen > 0)     *vm_buf = (JavaVM *)(&main_vm);
  } else {
    if (numVMs != NULL) *numVMs = 0;
  }
  HS_DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, GetCreatedJavaVMs__return, JNI_OK);
  return JNI_OK;
}

extern "C" {

DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL(DestroyJavaVM, jint);

jint JNICALL jni_DestroyJavaVM(JavaVM *vm) {
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, DestroyJavaVM__entry, vm);
  jint res = JNI_ERR;
  DT_RETURN_MARK(DestroyJavaVM, jint, (const jint&)res);

  if (!vm_created) {
    res = JNI_ERR;
    return res;
  }

  JNIWrapper("DestroyJavaVM");
  JNIEnv *env;
  JavaVMAttachArgs destroyargs;
  destroyargs.version = CurrentVersion;
  destroyargs.name = (char *)"DestroyJavaVM";
  destroyargs.group = NULL;
  res = vm->AttachCurrentThread((void **)&env, (void *)&destroyargs);
  if (res != JNI_OK) {
    return res;
  }

  // Since this is not a JVM_ENTRY we have to set the thread state manually before entering.
  JavaThread* thread = JavaThread::current();
  ThreadStateTransition::transition_from_native(thread, _thread_in_vm);
  if (Threads::destroy_vm()) {
    // Should not change thread state, VM is gone
    vm_created = false;
    res = JNI_OK;
    return res;
  } else {
    ThreadStateTransition::transition_and_fence(thread, _thread_in_vm, _thread_in_native);
    res = JNI_ERR;
    return res;
  }
}


static jint attach_current_thread(JavaVM *vm, void **penv, void *_args, bool daemon) {
  JavaVMAttachArgs *args = (JavaVMAttachArgs *) _args;

  // Check below commented out from JDK1.2fcs as well
  /*
  if (args && (args->version != JNI_VERSION_1_1 || args->version != JNI_VERSION_1_2)) {
    return JNI_EVERSION;
  }
  */

  Thread* t = ThreadLocalStorage::get_thread_slow();
  if (t != NULL) {
    // If the thread has been attached this operation is a no-op
    *(JNIEnv**)penv = ((JavaThread*) t)->jni_environment();
    return JNI_OK;
  }

  // Create a thread and mark it as attaching so it will be skipped by the
  // ThreadsListEnumerator - see CR 6404306
  JavaThread* thread = new JavaThread(true);

  // Set correct safepoint info. The thread is going to call into Java when
  // initializing the Java level thread object. Hence, the correct state must
  // be set in order for the Safepoint code to deal with it correctly.
  thread->set_thread_state(_thread_in_vm);
  // Must do this before initialize_thread_local_storage
  thread->record_stack_base_and_size();

  thread->initialize_thread_local_storage();

  if (!os::create_attached_thread(thread)) {
    delete thread;
    return JNI_ERR;
  }
  // Enable stack overflow checks
  thread->create_stack_guard_pages();

  thread->initialize_tlab();

  thread->cache_global_variables();

  // Crucial that we do not have a safepoint check for this thread, since it has
  // not been added to the Thread list yet.
  { Threads_lock->lock_without_safepoint_check();
    // This must be inside this lock in order to get FullGCALot to work properly, i.e., to
    // avoid this thread trying to do a GC before it is added to the thread-list
    thread->set_active_handles(JNIHandleBlock::allocate_block());
    Threads::add(thread, daemon);
    Threads_lock->unlock();
  }
  // Create thread group and name info from attach arguments
  oop group = NULL;
  char* thread_name = NULL;
  if (args != NULL && Threads::is_supported_jni_version(args->version)) {
    group = JNIHandles::resolve(args->group);
    thread_name = args->name; // may be NULL
  }
  if (group == NULL) group = Universe::main_thread_group();

  // Create Java level thread object and attach it to this thread
  bool attach_failed = false;
  {
    EXCEPTION_MARK;
    HandleMark hm(THREAD);
    Handle thread_group(THREAD, group);
    thread->allocate_threadObj(thread_group, thread_name, daemon, THREAD);
    if (HAS_PENDING_EXCEPTION) {
      CLEAR_PENDING_EXCEPTION;
      // cleanup outside the handle mark.
      attach_failed = true;
    }
  }

  if (attach_failed) {
    // Added missing cleanup
    thread->cleanup_failed_attach_current_thread();
    return JNI_ERR;
  }

  // mark the thread as no longer attaching
  // this uses a fence to push the change through so we don't have
  // to regrab the threads_lock
  thread->set_attached();

  // Set java thread status.
  java_lang_Thread::set_thread_status(thread->threadObj(),
              java_lang_Thread::RUNNABLE);

  // Notify the debugger
  if (JvmtiExport::should_post_thread_life()) {
    JvmtiExport::post_thread_start(thread);
  }

  *(JNIEnv**)penv = thread->jni_environment();

  // Now leaving the VM, so change thread_state. This is normally automatically taken care
  // of in the JVM_ENTRY. But in this situation we have to do it manually. Notice, that by
  // using ThreadStateTransition::transition, we do a callback to the safepoint code if
  // needed.

  ThreadStateTransition::transition_and_fence(thread, _thread_in_vm, _thread_in_native);

  // Perform any platform dependent FPU setup
  os::setup_fpu();

  return JNI_OK;
}


jint JNICALL jni_AttachCurrentThread(JavaVM *vm, void **penv, void *_args) {
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, AttachCurrentThread__entry, vm, penv, _args);
  if (!vm_created) {
    DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, AttachCurrentThread__return, JNI_ERR);
    return JNI_ERR;
  }

  JNIWrapper("AttachCurrentThread");
  jint ret = attach_current_thread(vm, penv, _args, false);
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, AttachCurrentThread__return, ret);
  return ret;
}


jint JNICALL jni_DetachCurrentThread(JavaVM *vm)  {
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, DetachCurrentThread__entry, vm);
  VM_Exit::block_if_vm_exited();

  JNIWrapper("DetachCurrentThread");

  // If the thread has been deattacted the operations is a no-op
  if (ThreadLocalStorage::thread() == NULL) {
    DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, DetachCurrentThread__return, JNI_OK);
    return JNI_OK;
  }

  JavaThread* thread = JavaThread::current();
  if (thread->has_last_Java_frame()) {
    DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, DetachCurrentThread__return, JNI_ERR);
    // Can't detach a thread that's running java, that can't work.
    return JNI_ERR;
  }

  // Safepoint support. Have to do call-back to safepoint code, if in the
  // middel of a safepoint operation
  ThreadStateTransition::transition_from_native(thread, _thread_in_vm);

  // XXX: Note that JavaThread::exit() call below removes the guards on the
  // stack pages set up via enable_stack_{red,yellow}_zone() calls
  // above in jni_AttachCurrentThread. Unfortunately, while the setting
  // of the guards is visible in jni_AttachCurrentThread above,
  // the removal of the guards is buried below in JavaThread::exit()
  // here. The abstraction should be more symmetrically either exposed
  // or hidden (e.g. it could probably be hidden in the same
  // (platform-dependent) methods where we do alternate stack
  // maintenance work?)
  thread->exit(false, JavaThread::jni_detach);
  delete thread;

  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, DetachCurrentThread__return, JNI_OK);
  return JNI_OK;
}

DT_RETURN_MARK_DECL(GetEnv, jint);

jint JNICALL jni_GetEnv(JavaVM *vm, void **penv, jint version) {
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, GetEnv__entry, vm, penv, version);
  jint ret = JNI_ERR;
  DT_RETURN_MARK(GetEnv, jint, (const jint&)ret);

  if (!vm_created) {
    *penv = NULL;
    ret = JNI_EDETACHED;
    return ret;
  }

  if (JvmtiExport::is_jvmti_version(version)) {
    ret = JvmtiExport::get_jvmti_interface(vm, penv, version);
    return ret;
  }

#ifndef JVMPI_VERSION_1
// need these in order to be polite about older agents
#define JVMPI_VERSION_1   ((jint)0x10000001)
#define JVMPI_VERSION_1_1 ((jint)0x10000002)
#define JVMPI_VERSION_1_2 ((jint)0x10000003)
#endif // !JVMPI_VERSION_1

  Thread* thread = ThreadLocalStorage::thread();
  if (thread != NULL && thread->is_Java_thread()) {
    if (Threads::is_supported_jni_version_including_1_1(version)) {
      *(JNIEnv**)penv = ((JavaThread*) thread)->jni_environment();
      ret = JNI_OK;
      return ret;

    } else if (version == JVMPI_VERSION_1 ||
               version == JVMPI_VERSION_1_1 ||
               version == JVMPI_VERSION_1_2) {
      tty->print_cr("ERROR: JVMPI, an experimental interface, is no longer supported.");
      tty->print_cr("Please use the supported interface: the JVM Tool Interface (JVM TI).");
      ret = JNI_EVERSION;
      return ret;
    } else if (JvmtiExport::is_jvmdi_version(version)) {
      tty->print_cr("FATAL ERROR: JVMDI is no longer supported.");
      tty->print_cr("Please use the supported interface: the JVM Tool Interface (JVM TI).");
      ret = JNI_EVERSION;
      return ret;
    } else {
      *penv = NULL;
      ret = JNI_EVERSION;
      return ret;
    }
  } else {
    *penv = NULL;
    ret = JNI_EDETACHED;
    return ret;
  }
}


jint JNICALL jni_AttachCurrentThreadAsDaemon(JavaVM *vm, void **penv, void *_args) {
  DTRACE_PROBE3(hotspot_jni, AttachCurrentThreadAsDaemon__entry, vm, penv, _args);
  if (!vm_created) {
    DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, AttachCurrentThreadAsDaemon__return, JNI_ERR);
    return JNI_ERR;
  }

  JNIWrapper("AttachCurrentThreadAsDaemon");
  jint ret = attach_current_thread(vm, penv, _args, true);
  DTRACE_PROBE1(hotspot_jni, AttachCurrentThreadAsDaemon__return, ret);
  return ret;
}


} // End extern "C"

const struct JNIInvokeInterface_ jni_InvokeInterface = {
    NULL,
    NULL,
    NULL,

    jni_DestroyJavaVM,
    jni_AttachCurrentThread,
    jni_DetachCurrentThread,
    jni_GetEnv,
    jni_AttachCurrentThreadAsDaemon
};