changeset 6022:aa8fab3bed11

8034171: Remove use of template template parameters from binaryTreeDictionary. Reviewed-by: mgerdin, jmasa Contributed-by: matthias.baesken@sap.com
author goetz
date Tue, 11 Feb 2014 09:34:50 +0100
parents 10c424c5a362
children 7ab49a697539
files src/share/vm/gc_implementation/concurrentMarkSweep/compactibleFreeListSpace.cpp src/share/vm/memory/binaryTreeDictionary.cpp src/share/vm/memory/binaryTreeDictionary.hpp src/share/vm/memory/metaspace.cpp src/share/vm/runtime/vmStructs.cpp
diffstat 5 files changed, 136 insertions(+), 149 deletions(-) [+]
line wrap: on
line diff
--- a/src/share/vm/gc_implementation/concurrentMarkSweep/compactibleFreeListSpace.cpp	Fri Feb 14 09:29:56 2014 +0100
+++ b/src/share/vm/gc_implementation/concurrentMarkSweep/compactibleFreeListSpace.cpp	Tue Feb 11 09:34:50 2014 +0100
@@ -1704,8 +1704,8 @@
   _dictionary->return_chunk(chunk);
 #ifndef PRODUCT
   if (CMSCollector::abstract_state() != CMSCollector::Sweeping) {
-    TreeChunk<FreeChunk, AdaptiveFreeList>* tc = TreeChunk<FreeChunk, AdaptiveFreeList>::as_TreeChunk(chunk);
-    TreeList<FreeChunk, AdaptiveFreeList>* tl = tc->list();
+    TreeChunk<FreeChunk, AdaptiveFreeList<FreeChunk> >* tc = TreeChunk<FreeChunk, AdaptiveFreeList<FreeChunk> >::as_TreeChunk(chunk);
+    TreeList<FreeChunk, AdaptiveFreeList<FreeChunk> >* tl = tc->list();
     tl->verify_stats();
   }
 #endif // PRODUCT
@@ -2515,10 +2515,10 @@
 
 #ifndef PRODUCT
 void CompactibleFreeListSpace::check_free_list_consistency() const {
-  assert((TreeChunk<FreeChunk, AdaptiveFreeList>::min_size() <= IndexSetSize),
+  assert((TreeChunk<FreeChunk, AdaptiveFreeList<FreeChunk> >::min_size() <= IndexSetSize),
     "Some sizes can't be allocated without recourse to"
     " linear allocation buffers");
-  assert((TreeChunk<FreeChunk, AdaptiveFreeList>::min_size()*HeapWordSize == sizeof(TreeChunk<FreeChunk, AdaptiveFreeList>)),
+  assert((TreeChunk<FreeChunk, AdaptiveFreeList<FreeChunk> >::min_size()*HeapWordSize == sizeof(TreeChunk<FreeChunk, AdaptiveFreeList<FreeChunk> >)),
     "else MIN_TREE_CHUNK_SIZE is wrong");
   assert(IndexSetStart != 0, "IndexSetStart not initialized");
   assert(IndexSetStride != 0, "IndexSetStride not initialized");
--- a/src/share/vm/memory/binaryTreeDictionary.cpp	Fri Feb 14 09:29:56 2014 +0100
+++ b/src/share/vm/memory/binaryTreeDictionary.cpp	Tue Feb 11 09:34:50 2014 +0100
@@ -44,16 +44,16 @@
 // This is currently used in the Concurrent Mark&Sweep implementation.
 ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 size_t TreeChunk<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::_min_tree_chunk_size = sizeof(TreeChunk<Chunk_t,  FreeList_t>)/HeapWordSize;
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 TreeChunk<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* TreeChunk<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::as_TreeChunk(Chunk_t* fc) {
   // Do some assertion checking here.
   return (TreeChunk<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>*) fc;
 }
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 void TreeChunk<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::verify_tree_chunk_list() const {
   TreeChunk<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* nextTC = (TreeChunk<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>*)next();
   if (prev() != NULL) { // interior list node shouldn't have tree fields
@@ -67,11 +67,11 @@
   }
 }
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::TreeList() : _parent(NULL),
   _left(NULL), _right(NULL) {}
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>*
 TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::as_TreeList(TreeChunk<Chunk_t,FreeList_t>* tc) {
   // This first free chunk in the list will be the tree list.
@@ -88,20 +88,7 @@
   return tl;
 }
 
-
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
-TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>*
-get_chunk(size_t size, enum FreeBlockDictionary<Chunk_t>::Dither dither) {
-  FreeBlockDictionary<Chunk_t>::verify_par_locked();
-  Chunk_t* res = get_chunk_from_tree(size, dither);
-  assert(res == NULL || res->is_free(),
-         "Should be returning a free chunk");
-  assert(dither != FreeBlockDictionary<Chunk_t>::exactly ||
-         res->size() == size, "Not correct size");
-  return res;
-}
-
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>*
 TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::as_TreeList(HeapWord* addr, size_t size) {
   TreeChunk<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* tc = (TreeChunk<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>*) addr;
@@ -125,17 +112,17 @@
 // an over populated size.  The general get_better_list() just returns
 // the current list.
 template <>
-TreeList<FreeChunk, AdaptiveFreeList>*
-TreeList<FreeChunk, AdaptiveFreeList>::get_better_list(
-  BinaryTreeDictionary<FreeChunk, ::AdaptiveFreeList>* dictionary) {
+TreeList<FreeChunk, AdaptiveFreeList<FreeChunk> >*
+TreeList<FreeChunk, AdaptiveFreeList<FreeChunk> >::get_better_list(
+  BinaryTreeDictionary<FreeChunk, ::AdaptiveFreeList<FreeChunk> >* dictionary) {
   // A candidate chunk has been found.  If it is already under
   // populated, get a chunk associated with the hint for this
   // chunk.
 
-  TreeList<FreeChunk, ::AdaptiveFreeList>* curTL = this;
+  TreeList<FreeChunk, ::AdaptiveFreeList<FreeChunk> >* curTL = this;
   if (surplus() <= 0) {
     /* Use the hint to find a size with a surplus, and reset the hint. */
-    TreeList<FreeChunk, ::AdaptiveFreeList>* hintTL = this;
+    TreeList<FreeChunk, ::AdaptiveFreeList<FreeChunk> >* hintTL = this;
     while (hintTL->hint() != 0) {
       assert(hintTL->hint() > hintTL->size(),
         "hint points in the wrong direction");
@@ -163,14 +150,14 @@
 }
 #endif // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>*
 TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::get_better_list(
   BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* dictionary) {
   return this;
 }
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::remove_chunk_replace_if_needed(TreeChunk<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* tc) {
 
   TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* retTL = this;
@@ -286,7 +273,7 @@
   return retTL;
 }
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 void TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::return_chunk_at_tail(TreeChunk<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* chunk) {
   assert(chunk != NULL, "returning NULL chunk");
   assert(chunk->list() == this, "list should be set for chunk");
@@ -301,7 +288,7 @@
   this->link_tail(chunk);
 
   assert(!tail() || size() == tail()->size(), "Wrong sized chunk in list");
-  FreeList_t<Chunk_t>::increment_count();
+  FreeList_t::increment_count();
   debug_only(this->increment_returned_bytes_by(chunk->size()*sizeof(HeapWord));)
   assert(head() == NULL || head()->prev() == NULL, "list invariant");
   assert(tail() == NULL || tail()->next() == NULL, "list invariant");
@@ -311,7 +298,7 @@
 // is defined to be after the chunk pointer to by head().  This is
 // because the TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t> is embedded in the first TreeChunk<Chunk_t, FreeList_t> in the
 // list.  See the definition of TreeChunk<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>.
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 void TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::return_chunk_at_head(TreeChunk<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* chunk) {
   assert(chunk->list() == this, "list should be set for chunk");
   assert(head() != NULL, "The tree list is embedded in the first chunk");
@@ -329,13 +316,13 @@
   }
   head()->link_after(chunk);
   assert(!head() || size() == head()->size(), "Wrong sized chunk in list");
-  FreeList_t<Chunk_t>::increment_count();
+  FreeList_t::increment_count();
   debug_only(this->increment_returned_bytes_by(chunk->size()*sizeof(HeapWord));)
   assert(head() == NULL || head()->prev() == NULL, "list invariant");
   assert(tail() == NULL || tail()->next() == NULL, "list invariant");
 }
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 void TreeChunk<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::assert_is_mangled() const {
   assert((ZapUnusedHeapArea &&
           SpaceMangler::is_mangled((HeapWord*) Chunk_t::size_addr()) &&
@@ -345,14 +332,14 @@
     "Space should be clear or mangled");
 }
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 TreeChunk<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::head_as_TreeChunk() {
   assert(head() == NULL || (TreeChunk<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::as_TreeChunk(head())->list() == this),
     "Wrong type of chunk?");
   return TreeChunk<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::as_TreeChunk(head());
 }
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 TreeChunk<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::first_available() {
   assert(head() != NULL, "The head of the list cannot be NULL");
   Chunk_t* fc = head()->next();
@@ -369,7 +356,7 @@
 // Returns the block with the largest heap address amongst
 // those in the list for this size; potentially slow and expensive,
 // use with caution!
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 TreeChunk<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::largest_address() {
   assert(head() != NULL, "The head of the list cannot be NULL");
   Chunk_t* fc = head()->next();
@@ -392,7 +379,7 @@
   return retTC;
 }
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::BinaryTreeDictionary(MemRegion mr) {
   assert((mr.byte_size() > min_size()), "minimum chunk size");
 
@@ -405,17 +392,17 @@
   assert(total_free_blocks() == 1, "reset check failed");
 }
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 void BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::inc_total_size(size_t inc) {
   _total_size = _total_size + inc;
 }
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 void BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::dec_total_size(size_t dec) {
   _total_size = _total_size - dec;
 }
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 void BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::reset(MemRegion mr) {
   assert((mr.byte_size() > min_size()), "minimum chunk size");
   set_root(TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::as_TreeList(mr.start(), mr.word_size()));
@@ -423,13 +410,13 @@
   set_total_free_blocks(1);
 }
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 void BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::reset(HeapWord* addr, size_t byte_size) {
   MemRegion mr(addr, heap_word_size(byte_size));
   reset(mr);
 }
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 void BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::reset() {
   set_root(NULL);
   set_total_size(0);
@@ -437,7 +424,7 @@
 }
 
 // Get a free block of size at least size from tree, or NULL.
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 TreeChunk<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>*
 BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::get_chunk_from_tree(
                               size_t size,
@@ -496,7 +483,7 @@
   return retTC;
 }
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::find_list(size_t size) const {
   TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* curTL;
   for (curTL = root(); curTL != NULL;) {
@@ -515,7 +502,7 @@
 }
 
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 bool BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::verify_chunk_in_free_list(Chunk_t* tc) const {
   size_t size = tc->size();
   TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* tl = find_list(size);
@@ -526,7 +513,7 @@
   }
 }
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 Chunk_t* BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::find_largest_dict() const {
   TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t> *curTL = root();
   if (curTL != NULL) {
@@ -541,7 +528,7 @@
 // chunk in a list on a tree node, just unlink it.
 // If it is the last chunk in the list (the next link is NULL),
 // remove the node and repair the tree.
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 TreeChunk<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>*
 BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::remove_chunk_from_tree(TreeChunk<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* tc) {
   assert(tc != NULL, "Should not call with a NULL chunk");
@@ -682,7 +669,7 @@
 // Remove the leftmost node (lm) in the tree and return it.
 // If lm has a right child, link it to the left node of
 // the parent of lm.
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::remove_tree_minimum(TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* tl) {
   assert(tl != NULL && tl->parent() != NULL, "really need a proper sub-tree");
   // locate the subtree minimum by walking down left branches
@@ -717,7 +704,7 @@
   return curTL;
 }
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 void BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::insert_chunk_in_tree(Chunk_t* fc) {
   TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t> *curTL, *prevTL;
   size_t size = fc->size();
@@ -783,7 +770,7 @@
   }
 }
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 size_t BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::max_chunk_size() const {
   FreeBlockDictionary<Chunk_t>::verify_par_locked();
   TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* tc = root();
@@ -792,7 +779,7 @@
   return tc->size();
 }
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 size_t BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::total_list_length(TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* tl) const {
   size_t res;
   res = tl->count();
@@ -805,7 +792,7 @@
   return res;
 }
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 size_t BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::total_size_in_tree(TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* tl) const {
   if (tl == NULL)
     return 0;
@@ -814,7 +801,7 @@
          total_size_in_tree(tl->right());
 }
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 double BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::sum_of_squared_block_sizes(TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* const tl) const {
   if (tl == NULL) {
     return 0.0;
@@ -826,7 +813,7 @@
   return curr;
 }
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 size_t BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::total_free_blocks_in_tree(TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* tl) const {
   if (tl == NULL)
     return 0;
@@ -835,14 +822,14 @@
          total_free_blocks_in_tree(tl->right());
 }
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 size_t BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::num_free_blocks() const {
   assert(total_free_blocks_in_tree(root()) == total_free_blocks(),
          "_total_free_blocks inconsistency");
   return total_free_blocks();
 }
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 size_t BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::tree_height_helper(TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* tl) const {
   if (tl == NULL)
     return 0;
@@ -850,12 +837,12 @@
                   tree_height_helper(tl->right()));
 }
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 size_t BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::tree_height() const {
   return tree_height_helper(root());
 }
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 size_t BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::total_nodes_helper(TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* tl) const {
   if (tl == NULL) {
     return 0;
@@ -864,18 +851,18 @@
     total_nodes_helper(tl->right());
 }
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 size_t BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::total_nodes_in_tree(TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* tl) const {
   return total_nodes_helper(root());
 }
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 void BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::dict_census_update(size_t size, bool split, bool birth){}
 
 #if INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 template <>
-void AFLBinaryTreeDictionary::dict_census_update(size_t size, bool split, bool birth){
-  TreeList<FreeChunk, AdaptiveFreeList>* nd = find_list(size);
+void AFLBinaryTreeDictionary::dict_census_update(size_t size, bool split, bool birth) {
+  TreeList<FreeChunk, AdaptiveFreeList<FreeChunk> >* nd = find_list(size);
   if (nd) {
     if (split) {
       if (birth) {
@@ -903,7 +890,7 @@
 }
 #endif // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 bool BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::coal_dict_over_populated(size_t size) {
   // For the general type of freelists, encourage coalescing by
   // returning true.
@@ -915,7 +902,7 @@
 bool AFLBinaryTreeDictionary::coal_dict_over_populated(size_t size) {
   if (FLSAlwaysCoalesceLarge) return true;
 
-  TreeList<FreeChunk, AdaptiveFreeList>* list_of_size = find_list(size);
+  TreeList<FreeChunk, AdaptiveFreeList<FreeChunk> >* list_of_size = find_list(size);
   // None of requested size implies overpopulated.
   return list_of_size == NULL || list_of_size->coal_desired() <= 0 ||
          list_of_size->count() > list_of_size->coal_desired();
@@ -928,15 +915,15 @@
 //   do_tree() walks the nodes in the binary tree applying do_list()
 //     to each list at each node.
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 class TreeCensusClosure : public StackObj {
  protected:
-  virtual void do_list(FreeList_t<Chunk_t>* fl) = 0;
+  virtual void do_list(FreeList_t* fl) = 0;
  public:
   virtual void do_tree(TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* tl) = 0;
 };
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 class AscendTreeCensusClosure : public TreeCensusClosure<Chunk_t, FreeList_t> {
  public:
   void do_tree(TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* tl) {
@@ -948,7 +935,7 @@
   }
 };
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 class DescendTreeCensusClosure : public TreeCensusClosure<Chunk_t, FreeList_t> {
  public:
   void do_tree(TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* tl) {
@@ -962,7 +949,7 @@
 
 // For each list in the tree, calculate the desired, desired
 // coalesce, count before sweep, and surplus before sweep.
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 class BeginSweepClosure : public AscendTreeCensusClosure<Chunk_t, FreeList_t> {
   double _percentage;
   float _inter_sweep_current;
@@ -995,16 +982,16 @@
 // Similar to TreeCensusClosure but searches the
 // tree and returns promptly when found.
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 class TreeSearchClosure : public StackObj {
  protected:
-  virtual bool do_list(FreeList_t<Chunk_t>* fl) = 0;
+  virtual bool do_list(FreeList_t* fl) = 0;
  public:
   virtual bool do_tree(TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* tl) = 0;
 };
 
 #if 0 //  Don't need this yet but here for symmetry.
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 class AscendTreeSearchClosure : public TreeSearchClosure<Chunk_t> {
  public:
   bool do_tree(TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* tl) {
@@ -1018,7 +1005,7 @@
 };
 #endif
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 class DescendTreeSearchClosure : public TreeSearchClosure<Chunk_t, FreeList_t> {
  public:
   bool do_tree(TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* tl) {
@@ -1033,14 +1020,14 @@
 
 // Searches the tree for a chunk that ends at the
 // specified address.
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 class EndTreeSearchClosure : public DescendTreeSearchClosure<Chunk_t, FreeList_t> {
   HeapWord* _target;
   Chunk_t* _found;
 
  public:
   EndTreeSearchClosure(HeapWord* target) : _target(target), _found(NULL) {}
-  bool do_list(FreeList_t<Chunk_t>* fl) {
+  bool do_list(FreeList_t* fl) {
     Chunk_t* item = fl->head();
     while (item != NULL) {
       if (item->end() == (uintptr_t*) _target) {
@@ -1054,7 +1041,7 @@
   Chunk_t* found() { return _found; }
 };
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 Chunk_t* BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::find_chunk_ends_at(HeapWord* target) const {
   EndTreeSearchClosure<Chunk_t, FreeList_t> etsc(target);
   bool found_target = etsc.do_tree(root());
@@ -1063,7 +1050,7 @@
   return etsc.found();
 }
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 void BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::begin_sweep_dict_census(double coalSurplusPercent,
   float inter_sweep_current, float inter_sweep_estimate, float intra_sweep_estimate) {
   BeginSweepClosure<Chunk_t, FreeList_t> bsc(coalSurplusPercent, inter_sweep_current,
@@ -1075,32 +1062,32 @@
 // Closures and methods for calculating total bytes returned to the
 // free lists in the tree.
 #ifndef PRODUCT
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 class InitializeDictReturnedBytesClosure : public AscendTreeCensusClosure<Chunk_t, FreeList_t> {
    public:
-  void do_list(FreeList_t<Chunk_t>* fl) {
+  void do_list(FreeList_t* fl) {
     fl->set_returned_bytes(0);
   }
 };
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 void BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::initialize_dict_returned_bytes() {
   InitializeDictReturnedBytesClosure<Chunk_t, FreeList_t> idrb;
   idrb.do_tree(root());
 }
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 class ReturnedBytesClosure : public AscendTreeCensusClosure<Chunk_t, FreeList_t> {
   size_t _dict_returned_bytes;
  public:
   ReturnedBytesClosure() { _dict_returned_bytes = 0; }
-  void do_list(FreeList_t<Chunk_t>* fl) {
+  void do_list(FreeList_t* fl) {
     _dict_returned_bytes += fl->returned_bytes();
   }
   size_t dict_returned_bytes() { return _dict_returned_bytes; }
 };
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 size_t BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::sum_dict_returned_bytes() {
   ReturnedBytesClosure<Chunk_t, FreeList_t> rbc;
   rbc.do_tree(root());
@@ -1109,17 +1096,17 @@
 }
 
 // Count the number of entries in the tree.
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 class treeCountClosure : public DescendTreeCensusClosure<Chunk_t, FreeList_t> {
  public:
   uint count;
   treeCountClosure(uint c) { count = c; }
-  void do_list(FreeList_t<Chunk_t>* fl) {
+  void do_list(FreeList_t* fl) {
     count++;
   }
 };
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 size_t BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::total_count() {
   treeCountClosure<Chunk_t, FreeList_t> ctc(0);
   ctc.do_tree(root());
@@ -1128,7 +1115,7 @@
 #endif // PRODUCT
 
 // Calculate surpluses for the lists in the tree.
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 class setTreeSurplusClosure : public AscendTreeCensusClosure<Chunk_t, FreeList_t> {
   double percentage;
  public:
@@ -1144,14 +1131,14 @@
 #endif // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 };
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 void BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::set_tree_surplus(double splitSurplusPercent) {
   setTreeSurplusClosure<Chunk_t, FreeList_t> sts(splitSurplusPercent);
   sts.do_tree(root());
 }
 
 // Set hints for the lists in the tree.
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 class setTreeHintsClosure : public DescendTreeCensusClosure<Chunk_t, FreeList_t> {
   size_t hint;
  public:
@@ -1170,14 +1157,14 @@
 #endif // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 };
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 void BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::set_tree_hints(void) {
   setTreeHintsClosure<Chunk_t, FreeList_t> sth(0);
   sth.do_tree(root());
 }
 
 // Save count before previous sweep and splits and coalesces.
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 class clearTreeCensusClosure : public AscendTreeCensusClosure<Chunk_t, FreeList_t> {
   void do_list(FreeList<Chunk_t>* fl) {}
 
@@ -1192,14 +1179,14 @@
 #endif // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 };
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 void BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::clear_tree_census(void) {
   clearTreeCensusClosure<Chunk_t, FreeList_t> ctc;
   ctc.do_tree(root());
 }
 
 // Do reporting and post sweep clean up.
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 void BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::end_sweep_dict_census(double splitSurplusPercent) {
   // Does walking the tree 3 times hurt?
   set_tree_surplus(splitSurplusPercent);
@@ -1211,7 +1198,7 @@
 }
 
 // Print summary statistics
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 void BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::report_statistics() const {
   FreeBlockDictionary<Chunk_t>::verify_par_locked();
   gclog_or_tty->print("Statistics for BinaryTreeDictionary:\n"
@@ -1230,22 +1217,22 @@
 // Print census information - counts, births, deaths, etc.
 // for each list in the tree.  Also print some summary
 // information.
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 class PrintTreeCensusClosure : public AscendTreeCensusClosure<Chunk_t, FreeList_t> {
   int _print_line;
   size_t _total_free;
-  FreeList_t<Chunk_t> _total;
+  FreeList_t _total;
 
  public:
   PrintTreeCensusClosure() {
     _print_line = 0;
     _total_free = 0;
   }
-  FreeList_t<Chunk_t>* total() { return &_total; }
+  FreeList_t* total() { return &_total; }
   size_t total_free() { return _total_free; }
   void do_list(FreeList<Chunk_t>* fl) {
     if (++_print_line >= 40) {
-      FreeList_t<Chunk_t>::print_labels_on(gclog_or_tty, "size");
+      FreeList_t::print_labels_on(gclog_or_tty, "size");
       _print_line = 0;
     }
     fl->print_on(gclog_or_tty);
@@ -1256,7 +1243,7 @@
 #if INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
   void do_list(AdaptiveFreeList<Chunk_t>* fl) {
     if (++_print_line >= 40) {
-      FreeList_t<Chunk_t>::print_labels_on(gclog_or_tty, "size");
+      FreeList_t::print_labels_on(gclog_or_tty, "size");
       _print_line = 0;
     }
     fl->print_on(gclog_or_tty);
@@ -1275,16 +1262,16 @@
 #endif // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 };
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 void BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::print_dict_census(void) const {
 
   gclog_or_tty->print("\nBinaryTree\n");
-  FreeList_t<Chunk_t>::print_labels_on(gclog_or_tty, "size");
+  FreeList_t::print_labels_on(gclog_or_tty, "size");
   PrintTreeCensusClosure<Chunk_t, FreeList_t> ptc;
   ptc.do_tree(root());
 
-  FreeList_t<Chunk_t>* total = ptc.total();
-  FreeList_t<Chunk_t>::print_labels_on(gclog_or_tty, " ");
+  FreeList_t* total = ptc.total();
+  FreeList_t::print_labels_on(gclog_or_tty, " ");
 }
 
 #if INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
@@ -1293,7 +1280,7 @@
 
   gclog_or_tty->print("\nBinaryTree\n");
   AdaptiveFreeList<FreeChunk>::print_labels_on(gclog_or_tty, "size");
-  PrintTreeCensusClosure<FreeChunk, AdaptiveFreeList> ptc;
+  PrintTreeCensusClosure<FreeChunk, AdaptiveFreeList<FreeChunk> > ptc;
   ptc.do_tree(root());
 
   AdaptiveFreeList<FreeChunk>* total = ptc.total();
@@ -1311,7 +1298,7 @@
 }
 #endif // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 class PrintFreeListsClosure : public AscendTreeCensusClosure<Chunk_t, FreeList_t> {
   outputStream* _st;
   int _print_line;
@@ -1321,9 +1308,9 @@
     _st = st;
     _print_line = 0;
   }
-  void do_list(FreeList_t<Chunk_t>* fl) {
+  void do_list(FreeList_t* fl) {
     if (++_print_line >= 40) {
-      FreeList_t<Chunk_t>::print_labels_on(_st, "size");
+      FreeList_t::print_labels_on(_st, "size");
       _print_line = 0;
     }
     fl->print_on(gclog_or_tty);
@@ -1337,10 +1324,10 @@
   }
 };
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 void BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::print_free_lists(outputStream* st) const {
 
-  FreeList_t<Chunk_t>::print_labels_on(st, "size");
+  FreeList_t::print_labels_on(st, "size");
   PrintFreeListsClosure<Chunk_t, FreeList_t> pflc(st);
   pflc.do_tree(root());
 }
@@ -1349,7 +1336,7 @@
 // . _root has no parent
 // . parent and child point to each other
 // . each node's key correctly related to that of its child(ren)
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 void BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::verify_tree() const {
   guarantee(root() == NULL || total_free_blocks() == 0 ||
     total_size() != 0, "_total_size shouldn't be 0?");
@@ -1357,7 +1344,7 @@
   verify_tree_helper(root());
 }
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 size_t BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::verify_prev_free_ptrs(TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* tl) {
   size_t ct = 0;
   for (Chunk_t* curFC = tl->head(); curFC != NULL; curFC = curFC->next()) {
@@ -1371,7 +1358,7 @@
 // Note: this helper is recursive rather than iterative, so use with
 // caution on very deep trees; and watch out for stack overflow errors;
 // In general, to be used only for debugging.
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 void BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::verify_tree_helper(TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* tl) const {
   if (tl == NULL)
     return;
@@ -1400,25 +1387,25 @@
   verify_tree_helper(tl->right());
 }
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 void BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>::verify() const {
   verify_tree();
   guarantee(total_size() == total_size_in_tree(root()), "Total Size inconsistency");
 }
 
-template class TreeList<Metablock, FreeList>;
-template class BinaryTreeDictionary<Metablock, FreeList>;
-template class TreeChunk<Metablock, FreeList>;
+template class TreeList<Metablock, FreeList<Metablock> >;
+template class BinaryTreeDictionary<Metablock, FreeList<Metablock> >;
+template class TreeChunk<Metablock, FreeList<Metablock> >;
 
-template class TreeList<Metachunk, FreeList>;
-template class BinaryTreeDictionary<Metachunk, FreeList>;
-template class TreeChunk<Metachunk, FreeList>;
+template class TreeList<Metachunk, FreeList<Metachunk> >;
+template class BinaryTreeDictionary<Metachunk, FreeList<Metachunk> >;
+template class TreeChunk<Metachunk, FreeList<Metachunk> >;
 
 
 #if INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
 // Explicitly instantiate these types for FreeChunk.
-template class TreeList<FreeChunk, AdaptiveFreeList>;
-template class BinaryTreeDictionary<FreeChunk, AdaptiveFreeList>;
-template class TreeChunk<FreeChunk, AdaptiveFreeList>;
+template class TreeList<FreeChunk, AdaptiveFreeList<FreeChunk> >;
+template class BinaryTreeDictionary<FreeChunk, AdaptiveFreeList<FreeChunk> >;
+template class TreeChunk<FreeChunk, AdaptiveFreeList<FreeChunk> >;
 
 #endif // INCLUDE_ALL_GCS
--- a/src/share/vm/memory/binaryTreeDictionary.hpp	Fri Feb 14 09:29:56 2014 +0100
+++ b/src/share/vm/memory/binaryTreeDictionary.hpp	Tue Feb 11 09:34:50 2014 +0100
@@ -37,18 +37,18 @@
 // A TreeList is a FreeList which can be used to maintain a
 // binary tree of free lists.
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t> class TreeChunk;
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t> class BinaryTreeDictionary;
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t> class AscendTreeCensusClosure;
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t> class DescendTreeCensusClosure;
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t> class DescendTreeSearchClosure;
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t> class TreeChunk;
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t> class BinaryTreeDictionary;
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t> class AscendTreeCensusClosure;
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t> class DescendTreeCensusClosure;
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t> class DescendTreeSearchClosure;
 
 class FreeChunk;
 template <class> class AdaptiveFreeList;
-typedef BinaryTreeDictionary<FreeChunk, AdaptiveFreeList> AFLBinaryTreeDictionary;
+typedef BinaryTreeDictionary<FreeChunk, AdaptiveFreeList<FreeChunk> > AFLBinaryTreeDictionary;
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
-class TreeList : public FreeList_t<Chunk_t> {
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
+class TreeList : public FreeList_t {
   friend class TreeChunk<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>;
   friend class BinaryTreeDictionary<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>;
   friend class AscendTreeCensusClosure<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>;
@@ -66,12 +66,12 @@
   TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* right()  const { return _right;  }
 
   // Wrapper on call to base class, to get the template to compile.
-  Chunk_t* head() const { return FreeList_t<Chunk_t>::head(); }
-  Chunk_t* tail() const { return FreeList_t<Chunk_t>::tail(); }
-  void set_head(Chunk_t* head) { FreeList_t<Chunk_t>::set_head(head); }
-  void set_tail(Chunk_t* tail) { FreeList_t<Chunk_t>::set_tail(tail); }
+  Chunk_t* head() const { return FreeList_t::head(); }
+  Chunk_t* tail() const { return FreeList_t::tail(); }
+  void set_head(Chunk_t* head) { FreeList_t::set_head(head); }
+  void set_tail(Chunk_t* tail) { FreeList_t::set_tail(tail); }
 
-  size_t size() const { return FreeList_t<Chunk_t>::size(); }
+  size_t size() const { return FreeList_t::size(); }
 
   // Accessors for links in tree.
 
@@ -90,7 +90,7 @@
   void clear_left()               { _left = NULL;   }
   void clear_right()              { _right = NULL;  }
   void clear_parent()             { _parent = NULL; }
-  void initialize()               { clear_left(); clear_right(), clear_parent(); FreeList_t<Chunk_t>::initialize(); }
+  void initialize()               { clear_left(); clear_right(), clear_parent(); FreeList_t::initialize(); }
 
   // For constructing a TreeList from a Tree chunk or
   // address and size.
@@ -139,7 +139,7 @@
 // on the free list for a node in the tree and is only removed if
 // it is the last chunk on the free list.
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 class TreeChunk : public Chunk_t {
   friend class TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>;
   TreeList<Chunk_t, FreeList_t>* _list;
@@ -173,7 +173,7 @@
 };
 
 
-template <class Chunk_t, template <class> class FreeList_t>
+template <class Chunk_t, class FreeList_t>
 class BinaryTreeDictionary: public FreeBlockDictionary<Chunk_t> {
   friend class VMStructs;
   size_t     _total_size;
--- a/src/share/vm/memory/metaspace.cpp	Fri Feb 14 09:29:56 2014 +0100
+++ b/src/share/vm/memory/metaspace.cpp	Tue Feb 11 09:34:50 2014 +0100
@@ -46,8 +46,8 @@
 #include "utilities/copy.hpp"
 #include "utilities/debug.hpp"
 
-typedef BinaryTreeDictionary<Metablock, FreeList> BlockTreeDictionary;
-typedef BinaryTreeDictionary<Metachunk, FreeList> ChunkTreeDictionary;
+typedef BinaryTreeDictionary<Metablock, FreeList<Metablock> > BlockTreeDictionary;
+typedef BinaryTreeDictionary<Metachunk, FreeList<Metachunk> > ChunkTreeDictionary;
 
 // Set this constant to enable slow integrity checking of the free chunk lists
 const bool metaspace_slow_verify = false;
@@ -790,7 +790,7 @@
     return NULL;
   }
 
-  if (word_size < TreeChunk<Metablock, FreeList>::min_size()) {
+  if (word_size < TreeChunk<Metablock, FreeList<Metablock> >::min_size()) {
     // Dark matter.  Too small for dictionary.
     return NULL;
   }
@@ -810,7 +810,7 @@
   MetaWord* new_block = (MetaWord*)free_block;
   assert(block_size >= word_size, "Incorrect size of block from freelist");
   const size_t unused = block_size - word_size;
-  if (unused >= TreeChunk<Metablock, FreeList>::min_size()) {
+  if (unused >= TreeChunk<Metablock, FreeList<Metablock> >::min_size()) {
     return_block(new_block + word_size, unused);
   }
 
@@ -2240,7 +2240,7 @@
 void SpaceManager::deallocate(MetaWord* p, size_t word_size) {
   assert_lock_strong(_lock);
   size_t raw_word_size = get_raw_word_size(word_size);
-  size_t min_size = TreeChunk<Metablock, FreeList>::min_size();
+  size_t min_size = TreeChunk<Metablock, FreeList<Metablock> >::min_size();
   assert(raw_word_size >= min_size,
          err_msg("Should not deallocate dark matter " SIZE_FORMAT "<" SIZE_FORMAT, word_size, min_size));
   block_freelists()->return_block(p, raw_word_size);
@@ -2296,7 +2296,7 @@
 void SpaceManager::retire_current_chunk() {
   if (current_chunk() != NULL) {
     size_t remaining_words = current_chunk()->free_word_size();
-    if (remaining_words >= TreeChunk<Metablock, FreeList>::min_size()) {
+    if (remaining_words >= TreeChunk<Metablock, FreeList<Metablock> >::min_size()) {
       block_freelists()->return_block(current_chunk()->allocate(remaining_words), remaining_words);
       inc_used_metrics(remaining_words);
     }
@@ -3279,7 +3279,7 @@
     assert(Thread::current()->is_VM_thread(), "should be the VM thread");
     // Don't take Heap_lock
     MutexLockerEx ml(vsm()->lock(), Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
-    if (word_size < TreeChunk<Metablock, FreeList>::min_size()) {
+    if (word_size < TreeChunk<Metablock, FreeList<Metablock> >::min_size()) {
       // Dark matter.  Too small for dictionary.
 #ifdef ASSERT
       Copy::fill_to_words((HeapWord*)ptr, word_size, 0xf5f5f5f5);
@@ -3294,7 +3294,7 @@
   } else {
     MutexLockerEx ml(vsm()->lock(), Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
 
-    if (word_size < TreeChunk<Metablock, FreeList>::min_size()) {
+    if (word_size < TreeChunk<Metablock, FreeList<Metablock> >::min_size()) {
       // Dark matter.  Too small for dictionary.
 #ifdef ASSERT
       Copy::fill_to_words((HeapWord*)ptr, word_size, 0xf5f5f5f5);
--- a/src/share/vm/runtime/vmStructs.cpp	Fri Feb 14 09:29:56 2014 +0100
+++ b/src/share/vm/runtime/vmStructs.cpp	Tue Feb 11 09:34:50 2014 +0100
@@ -242,7 +242,7 @@
 typedef Hashtable<Klass*, mtClass>            KlassHashtable;
 typedef HashtableEntry<Klass*, mtClass>       KlassHashtableEntry;
 typedef TwoOopHashtable<Symbol*, mtClass>     SymbolTwoOopHashtable;
-typedef BinaryTreeDictionary<Metablock, FreeList> MetablockTreeDictionary;
+typedef BinaryTreeDictionary<Metablock, FreeList<Metablock> > MetablockTreeDictionary;
 
 //--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 // VM_STRUCTS