changeset 10644:71e99dae28f9 jdk9-b31

Merge
author lana
date Thu, 11 Sep 2014 14:29:21 -0700
parents 40c3a5ce8047 60fc79528509
children edf3916a2fe9 1ebd76247e3e
files src/java.base/share/conf/security/sunpkcs11-solaris.cfg
diffstat 162 files changed, 13390 insertions(+), 10582 deletions(-) [+]
line wrap: on
line diff
--- a/.hgignore	Thu Sep 11 09:08:56 2014 -0700
+++ b/.hgignore	Thu Sep 11 14:29:21 2014 -0700
@@ -1,5 +1,6 @@
 ^build/
 ^dist/
+^webrev
 ^testoutput/
 /nbproject/private/
 ^make/netbeans/.*/build/
--- a/make/copy/Copy-java.base.gmk	Thu Sep 11 09:08:56 2014 -0700
+++ b/make/copy/Copy-java.base.gmk	Thu Sep 11 14:29:21 2014 -0700
@@ -208,20 +208,6 @@
 
 ################################################################################
 
-ifeq ($(OPENJDK_TARGET_OS), solaris)
-
-  SUNPKCS11_CFG_SRC := $(JDK_TOPDIR)/src/java.base/share/conf/security/sunpkcs11-solaris.cfg
-  SUNPKCS11_CFG_DST := $(JDK_OUTPUTDIR)/lib/security/sunpkcs11-solaris.cfg
-
-  $(SUNPKCS11_CFG_DST): $(SUNPKCS11_CFG_SRC)
-	$(call install-file)
-
-  BASE_CONF_FILES += $(SUNPKCS11_CFG_DST)
-
-endif
-
-################################################################################
-
 $(JDK_OUTPUTDIR)/lib/net.properties: $(JDK_TOPDIR)/src/java.base/share/conf/net.properties
 	$(ECHO) $(LOG_INFO) Copying $(@F)
 	$(call install-file)
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/make/copy/Copy-jdk.crypto.pkcs11.gmk	Thu Sep 11 14:29:21 2014 -0700
@@ -0,0 +1,50 @@
+#
+# Copyright (c) 2014, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+# DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+#
+# This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+# under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+# published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
+# particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
+# by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
+#
+# This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+# ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+# FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
+# version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+# accompanied this code).
+#
+# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+# 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+# Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+#
+# Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
+# or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
+# questions.
+#
+
+include CopyCommon.gmk
+
+################################################################################
+
+ifeq ($(OPENJDK_TARGET_OS), solaris)
+
+  SUNPKCS11_CFG_SRC := \
+      $(JDK_TOPDIR)/src/jdk.crypto.pkcs11/solaris/conf/security/sunpkcs11-solaris.cfg
+  SUNPKCS11_CFG_DST := $(JDK_OUTPUTDIR)/lib/security/sunpkcs11-solaris.cfg
+
+  $(SUNPKCS11_CFG_DST): $(SUNPKCS11_CFG_SRC)
+	$(call install-file)
+
+  SECURITY_PKCS11_CONF_FILES += $(SUNPKCS11_CFG_DST)
+
+endif
+
+################################################################################
+
+jdk.crypto.pkcs11: $(SECURITY_PKCS11_CONF_FILES)
+
+all: jdk.crypto.pkcs11
+
+.PHONY: all jdk.crypto.pkcs11
+
--- a/make/data/tzdata/VERSION	Thu Sep 11 09:08:56 2014 -0700
+++ b/make/data/tzdata/VERSION	Thu Sep 11 14:29:21 2014 -0700
@@ -1,24 +1,24 @@
 #
 # DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
-#  
+#
 # This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
 # under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
 # published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
 # particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
 # by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
-#  
+#
 # This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
 # ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
 # FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
 # version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
 # accompanied this code).
-#  
+#
 # You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
 # 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
 # Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
-#  
+#
 # Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
 # questions.
 #
-tzdata2014c
+tzdata2014g
--- a/make/data/tzdata/africa	Thu Sep 11 09:08:56 2014 -0700
+++ b/make/data/tzdata/africa	Thu Sep 11 14:29:21 2014 -0700
@@ -21,13 +21,13 @@
 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
 # questions.
 #
-# <pre>
 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
 
-# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
+# This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
-# tz@iana.org for general use in the future).
+# tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
+# the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
 
 # From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21):
 #
@@ -49,8 +49,8 @@
 # I found in the UCLA library.
 #
 # For data circa 1899, a common source is:
-# Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94
-# <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>.
+# Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94.
+# http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359
 #
 # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
 # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
@@ -58,13 +58,13 @@
 # Previous editions of this database used WAT, CAT, SAT, and EAT
 # for +0:00 through +3:00, respectively,
 # but Mark R V Murray reports that
-# `SAST' is the official abbreviation for +2:00 in the country of South Africa,
-# `CAT' is commonly used for +2:00 in countries north of South Africa, and
-# `WAT' is probably the best name for +1:00, as the common phrase for
-# the area that includes Nigeria is ``West Africa''.
-# He has heard of ``Western Sahara Time'' for +0:00 but can find no reference.
+# 'SAST' is the official abbreviation for +2:00 in the country of South Africa,
+# 'CAT' is commonly used for +2:00 in countries north of South Africa, and
+# 'WAT' is probably the best name for +1:00, as the common phrase for
+# the area that includes Nigeria is "West Africa".
+# He has heard of "Western Sahara Time" for +0:00 but can find no reference.
 #
-# To make things confusing, `WAT' seems to have been used for -1:00 long ago;
+# To make things confusing, 'WAT' seems to have been used for -1:00 long ago;
 # I'd guess that this was because people needed _some_ name for -1:00,
 # and at the time, far west Africa was the only major land area in -1:00.
 # This usage is now obsolete, as the last use of -1:00 on the African
@@ -77,7 +77,7 @@
 #	 2:00	SAST	South Africa Standard Time
 # and Murray suggests the following abbreviation:
 #	 1:00	WAT	West Africa Time
-# I realize that this leads to `WAT' being used for both -1:00 and 1:00
+# I realize that this leads to 'WAT' being used for both -1:00 and 1:00
 # for times before 1976, but this is the best I can think of
 # until we get more information.
 #
@@ -117,9 +117,9 @@
 # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
 # more precise 0:09:21.
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Algiers	0:12:12 -	LMT	1891 Mar 15 0:01
-			0:09:21	-	PMT	1911 Mar 11    # Paris Mean Time
-			0:00	Algeria	WE%sT	1940 Feb 25 2:00
+Zone	Africa/Algiers	0:12:12 -	LMT	1891 Mar 15  0:01
+			0:09:21	-	PMT	1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
+			0:00	Algeria	WE%sT	1940 Feb 25  2:00
 			1:00	Algeria	CE%sT	1946 Oct  7
 			0:00	-	WET	1956 Jan 29
 			1:00	-	CET	1963 Apr 14
@@ -129,18 +129,8 @@
 			1:00	-	CET
 
 # Angola
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Luanda	0:52:56	-	LMT	1892
-			0:52:04	-	AOT	1911 May 26 # Angola Time
-			1:00	-	WAT
-
 # Benin
-# Whitman says they switched to 1:00 in 1946, not 1934;
-# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Africa/Porto-Novo	0:10:28	-	LMT	1912
-			0:00	-	GMT	1934 Feb 26
-			1:00	-	WAT
+# See Africa/Lagos.
 
 # Botswana
 # From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21):
@@ -149,14 +139,12 @@
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Africa/Gaborone	1:43:40 -	LMT	1885
 			1:30	-	SAST	1903 Mar
-			2:00	-	CAT	1943 Sep 19 2:00
-			2:00	1:00	CAST	1944 Mar 19 2:00
+			2:00	-	CAT	1943 Sep 19  2:00
+			2:00	1:00	CAST	1944 Mar 19  2:00
 			2:00	-	CAT
 
 # Burkina Faso
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Africa/Ouagadougou	-0:06:04 -	LMT	1912
-			 0:00	-	GMT
+# See Africa/Abidjan.
 
 # Burundi
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
@@ -164,52 +152,60 @@
 			2:00	-	CAT
 
 # Cameroon
-# Whitman says they switched to 1:00 in 1920; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Douala	0:38:48	-	LMT	1912
-			1:00	-	WAT
+# See Africa/Lagos.
 
 # Cape Verde
+#
+# Shanks gives 1907 for the transition to CVT.
+# Perhaps the 1911-05-26 Portuguese decree
+# http://dre.pt/pdf1sdip/1911/05/12500/23132313.pdf
+# merely made it official?
+#
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Atlantic/Cape_Verde -1:34:04 -	LMT	1907			# Praia
+Zone Atlantic/Cape_Verde -1:34:04 -	LMT	1907        # Praia
 			-2:00	-	CVT	1942 Sep
 			-2:00	1:00	CVST	1945 Oct 15
-			-2:00	-	CVT	1975 Nov 25 2:00
+			-2:00	-	CVT	1975 Nov 25  2:00
 			-1:00	-	CVT
 
 # Central African Republic
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Bangui	1:14:20	-	LMT	1912
-			1:00	-	WAT
+# See Africa/Lagos.
 
 # Chad
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Ndjamena	1:00:12 -	LMT	1912
+Zone	Africa/Ndjamena	1:00:12 -	LMT	1912        # N'Djamena
 			1:00	-	WAT	1979 Oct 14
 			1:00	1:00	WAST	1980 Mar  8
 			1:00	-	WAT
 
 # Comoros
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Indian/Comoro	2:53:04 -	LMT	1911 Jul   # Moroni, Gran Comoro
+Zone	Indian/Comoro	2:53:04 -	LMT	1911 Jul # Moroni, Gran Comoro
 			3:00	-	EAT
 
-# Democratic Republic of Congo
+# Democratic Republic of the Congo
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Africa/Kinshasa	1:01:12 -	LMT	1897 Nov 9
-			1:00	-	WAT
 Zone Africa/Lubumbashi	1:49:52 -	LMT	1897 Nov 9
 			2:00	-	CAT
+# The above is for the eastern part; see Africa/Lagos for the western part.
 
 # Republic of the Congo
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Africa/Brazzaville	1:01:08 -	LMT	1912
-			1:00	-	WAT
+# See Africa/Lagos.
 
-# Cote D'Ivoire
+# Côte d'Ivoire / Ivory Coast
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Africa/Abidjan	-0:16:08 -	LMT	1912
 			 0:00	-	GMT
+Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Bamako	# Mali
+Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Banjul	# Gambia
+Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Conakry	# Guinea
+Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Dakar	# Senegal
+Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Freetown	# Sierra Leone
+Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Lome		# Togo
+Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Nouakchott	# Mauritania
+Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Ouagadougou	# Burkina Faso
+Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Sao_Tome	# São Tomé and Príncipe
+Link Africa/Abidjan Atlantic/St_Helena	# St Helena
 
 # Djibouti
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
@@ -254,30 +250,26 @@
 # Egyptians would approve the cancellation."
 #
 # Egypt to cancel daylight saving time
-# <a href="http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/407168">
 # http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/407168
-# </a>
 # or
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt04.html">
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt04.html
-# </a>
 Rule	Egypt	1995	2010	-	Apr	lastFri	 0:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	1995	2005	-	Sep	lastThu	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	1995	2005	-	Sep	lastThu	24:00	0	-
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-09-19):
 # The Egyptian Gazette, issue 41,090 (2006-09-18), page 1, reports:
 # Egypt will turn back clocks by one hour at the midnight of Thursday
 # after observing the daylight saving time since May.
 # http://news.gom.com.eg/gazette/pdf/2006/09/18/01.pdf
-Rule	Egypt	2006	only	-	Sep	21	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	2006	only	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
 # From Dirk Losch (2007-08-14):
 # I received a mail from an airline which says that the daylight
 # saving time in Egypt will end in the night of 2007-09-06 to 2007-09-07.
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2007-08-15): [The following agree:]
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2007-08-15): [The following agree:]
 # http://www.nentjes.info/Bill/bill5.htm
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=53
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-09-04): The official information...:
 # http://www.sis.gov.eg/En/EgyptOnline/Miscellaneous/000002/0207000000000000001580.htm
-Rule	Egypt	2007	only	-	Sep	Thu>=1	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	2007	only	-	Sep	Thu>=1	24:00	0	-
 # From Abdelrahman Hassan (2007-09-06):
 # Due to the Hijri (lunar Islamic calendar) year being 11 days shorter
 # than the year of the Gregorian calendar, Ramadan shifts earlier each
@@ -311,15 +303,9 @@
 #
 # timeanddate[2] and another site I've found[3] also support that.
 #
-# [1] <a href="https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=492263">
-# https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=492263
-# </a>
-# [2] <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/clockchange.html?n=53">
-# http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/clockchange.html?n=53
-# </a>
-# [3] <a href="http://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/time-zone/africa/egypt/">
-# http://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/time-zone/africa/egypt/
-# </a>
+# [1] https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=492263
+# [2] http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/clockchange.html?n=53
+# [3] http://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/time-zone/africa/egypt/
 
 # From Arthur David Olson (2009-04-20):
 # In 2009 (and for the next several years), Ramadan ends before the fourth
@@ -329,14 +315,10 @@
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-08-11):
 # We have been able to confirm the August change with the Egyptian Cabinet
 # Information and Decision Support Center:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/egypt-dst-ends-2009.html">
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/egypt-dst-ends-2009.html
-# </a>
 #
 # The Middle East News Agency
-# <a href="http://www.mena.org.eg/index.aspx">
 # http://www.mena.org.eg/index.aspx
-# </a>
 # also reports "Egypt starts winter time on August 21"
 # today in article numbered "71, 11/08/2009 12:25 GMT."
 # Only the title above is available without a subscription to their service,
@@ -344,19 +326,14 @@
 # (at least today).
 
 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-07-20):
-# According to News from Egypt -  Al-Masry Al-Youm Egypt's cabinet has
+# According to News from Egypt - Al-Masry Al-Youm Egypt's cabinet has
 # decided that Daylight Saving Time will not be used in Egypt during
 # Ramadan.
 #
 # Arabic translation:
-# "Clocks to go back during Ramadan--and then forward again"
-# <a href="http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/news/clocks-go-back-during-ramadan-and-then-forward-again">
+# "Clocks to go back during Ramadan - and then forward again"
 # http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/news/clocks-go-back-during-ramadan-and-then-forward-again
-# </a>
-# or
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt02.html">
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt02.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Ahmad El-Dardiry (2014-05-07):
 # Egypt is to change back to Daylight system on May 15
@@ -365,46 +342,77 @@
 # From Gunther Vermier (2015-05-13):
 # our Egypt office confirms that the change will be at 15 May "midnight" (24:00)
 
-# From Paul Eggert (2014-05-13):
+# From Imed Chihi (2014-06-04):
+# We have finally "located" a precise official reference about the DST changes
+# in Egypt.  The Ministers Cabinet decision is explained at
+# http://www.cabinet.gov.eg/Media/CabinetMeetingsDetails.aspx?id=347 ...
+# [T]his (Arabic) site is not accessible outside Egypt, but the page ...
+# translates into: "With regard to daylight saving time, it is scheduled to
+# take effect at exactly twelve o'clock this evening, Thursday, 15 MAY 2014,
+# to be suspended by twelve o'clock on the evening of Thursday, 26 JUN 2014,
+# and re-established again at the end of the month of Ramadan, at twelve
+# o'clock on the evening of Thursday, 31 JUL 2014."  This statement has been
+# reproduced by other (more accessible) sites[, e.g.,]...
+# http://elgornal.net/news/news.aspx?id=4699258
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-04):
 # Sarah El Deeb and Lee Keath of AP report that the Egyptian government says
 # the change is because of blackouts in Cairo, even though Ahram Online (cited
-# above) says DST had no affect on electricity consumption.  The AP story says
-# DST will not be observed during Ramadan.  There is no information about when
-# DST will end.  See:
+# above) says DST had no affect on electricity consumption.  There is
+# no information about when DST will end this fall.  See:
 # http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/el-sissi-pushes-egyptians-line-23614833
 #
-# For now, guess that later transitions will use 2010's rules, and that
-# Egypt will agree with Morocco (see below) about the date Ramadan starts and
-# ends, though (unlike Morocco) it will switch at 00:00 standard time.  In
-# Egypt the spring-forward transitions are removed for 2020-2022, when the
-# guessed spring-forward date falls during the estimated Ramadan, and all
-# transitions removed for 2023-2038, where the estimated Ramadan falls entirely
-# outside the guessed daylight-saving time.  Ramadan intrudes on the guessed
-# DST starting in 2039, but that's beyond our somewhat-arbitrary cutoff.
-
-Rule	Egypt	2008	only	-	Aug	lastThu	23:00s	0	-
-Rule	Egypt	2009	only	-	Aug	20	23:00s	0	-
-Rule	Egypt	2010	only	-	Aug	11	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Egypt	2010	only	-	Sep	10	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	2010	only	-	Sep	lastThu	23:00s	0	-
+# For now, guess that later spring and fall transitions will use
+# 2010's rules, and guess that Egypt will switch to standard time at
+# 24:00 the last Thursday before Ramadan, and back to DST at 00:00 the
+# first Friday after Ramadan.  To implement this,
+# transition dates for 2015 through 2037 were determined by running
+# the following program under GNU Emacs 24.3, with the results integrated
+# by hand into the table below.  Ramadan again intrudes on the guessed
+# DST starting in 2038, but that's beyond our somewhat-arbitrary cutoff.
+# (let ((islamic-year 1436))
+#   (while (< islamic-year 1460)
+#     (let ((a (calendar-islamic-to-absolute (list 9 1 islamic-year)))
+#           (b (calendar-islamic-to-absolute (list 10 1 islamic-year)))
+#           (friday 5))
+#       (while (/= friday (mod a 7))
+#         (setq a (1- a)))
+#       (while (/= friday (mod b 7))
+#         (setq b (1+ b)))
+#       (setq a (1- a))
+#       (setq b (1- b))
+#       (setq a (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute a))
+#       (setq b (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute b))
+#       (insert
+#        (format
+#         (concat "Rule\tEgypt\t%d\tonly\t-\t%s\t%2d\t24:00\t0\t-\n"
+#                 "Rule\tEgypt\t%d\tonly\t-\t%s\t%2d\t24:00\t1:00\tS\n")
+#         (car (cdr (cdr a))) (calendar-month-name (car a) t) (car (cdr a))
+#         (car (cdr (cdr b))) (calendar-month-name (car b) t) (car (cdr b)))))
+#     (setq islamic-year (+ 1 islamic-year))))
+Rule	Egypt	2008	only	-	Aug	lastThu	24:00	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	2009	only	-	Aug	20	24:00	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	2010	only	-	Aug	10	24:00	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	2010	only	-	Sep	 9	24:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	2010	only	-	Sep	lastThu	24:00	0	-
 Rule	Egypt	2014	only	-	May	15	24:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	2014	only	-	Jun	29	 0:00s	0	-
-Rule	Egypt	2014	only	-	Jul	29	 0:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	2014	max	-	Sep	lastThu	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	2014	only	-	Jun	26	24:00	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	2014	only	-	Jul	31	24:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	2014	max	-	Sep	lastThu	24:00	0	-
 Rule	Egypt	2015	2019	-	Apr	lastFri	 0:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	2015	only	-	Jun	18	 0:00s	0	-
-Rule	Egypt	2015	only	-	Jul	18	 0:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	2016	only	-	Jun	 7	 0:00s	0	-
-Rule	Egypt	2016	only	-	Jul	 7	 0:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	2017	only	-	May	27	 0:00s	0	-
-Rule	Egypt	2017	only	-	Jun	26	 0:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	2018	only	-	May	16	 0:00s	0	-
-Rule	Egypt	2018	only	-	Jun	15	 0:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	2019	only	-	May	 6	 0:00s	0	-
-Rule	Egypt	2019	only	-	Jun	 5	 0:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	2020	only	-	May	24	 0:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	2021	only	-	May	13	 0:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	2022	only	-	May	 3	 0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	2015	only	-	Jun	11	24:00	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	2015	only	-	Jul	23	24:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	2016	only	-	Jun	 2	24:00	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	2016	only	-	Jul	 7	24:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	2017	only	-	May	25	24:00	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	2017	only	-	Jun	29	24:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	2018	only	-	May	10	24:00	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	2018	only	-	Jun	14	24:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	2019	only	-	May	 2	24:00	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	2019	only	-	Jun	 6	24:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	2020	only	-	May	28	24:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	2021	only	-	May	13	24:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	2022	only	-	May	 5	24:00	1:00	S
 Rule	Egypt	2023	max	-	Apr	lastFri	 0:00s	1:00	S
 
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
@@ -412,60 +420,63 @@
 			2:00	Egypt	EE%sT
 
 # Equatorial Guinea
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Malabo	0:35:08 -	LMT	1912
-			0:00	-	GMT	1963 Dec 15
-			1:00	-	WAT
+# See Africa/Lagos.
 
 # Eritrea
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Africa/Asmara	2:35:32 -	LMT	1870
-			2:35:32	-	AMT	1890	      # Asmara Mean Time
-			2:35:20	-	ADMT	1936 May 5    # Adis Dera MT
+			2:35:32	-	AMT	1890        # Asmara Mean Time
+			2:35:20	-	ADMT	1936 May  5 # Adis Dera MT
 			3:00	-	EAT
 
 # Ethiopia
-# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
-# Shanks & Pottenger write that Ethiopia had six narrowly-spaced time zones
-# between 1870 and 1890, and that they merged to 38E50 (2:35:20) in 1890.
-# We'll guess that 38E50 is for Adis Dera.
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-31):
+# Like the Swahili of Kenya and Tanzania, many Ethiopians keep a
+# 12-hour clock starting at our 06:00, so their "8 o'clock" is our
+# 02:00 or 14:00.  Keep this in mind when you ask the time in Amharic.
+#
+# Shanks & Pottenger write that Ethiopia had six narrowly-spaced time
+# zones between 1870 and 1890, that they merged to 38E50 (2:35:20) in
+# 1890, and that they switched to 3:00 on 1936-05-05.  Perhaps 38E50
+# was for Adis Dera.  Quite likely the Shanks data entries are wrong
+# anyway.
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone Africa/Addis_Ababa	2:34:48 -	LMT	1870
-			2:35:20	-	ADMT	1936 May 5    # Adis Dera MT
+			2:35:20	-	ADMT	1936 May  5 # Adis Dera MT
 			3:00	-	EAT
 
 # Gabon
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Africa/Libreville	0:37:48 -	LMT	1912
-			1:00	-	WAT
+# See Africa/Lagos.
 
 # Gambia
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Banjul	-1:06:36 -	LMT	1912
-			-1:06:36 -	BMT	1935	# Banjul Mean Time
-			-1:00	-	WAT	1964
-			 0:00	-	GMT
+# See Africa/Abidjan.
 
 # Ghana
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-# Whitman says DST was observed from 1931 to ``the present'';
-# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
-Rule	Ghana	1936	1942	-	Sep	 1	0:00	0:20	GHST
-Rule	Ghana	1936	1942	-	Dec	31	0:00	0	GMT
+# Whitman says DST was observed from 1931 to "the present";
+# Shanks & Pottenger say 1936 to 1942;
+# and September 1 to January 1 is given by:
+# Scott Keltie J, Epstein M (eds), The Statesman's Year-Book,
+# 57th ed. Macmillan, London (1920), OCLC 609408015, pp xxviii.
+# For lack of better info, assume DST was observed from 1920 to 1942.
+Rule	Ghana	1920	1942	-	Sep	 1	0:00	0:20	GHST
+Rule	Ghana	1920	1942	-	Dec	31	0:00	0	GMT
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Africa/Accra	-0:00:52 -	LMT	1918
 			 0:00	Ghana	%s
 
 # Guinea
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Conakry	-0:54:52 -	LMT	1912
-			 0:00	-	GMT	1934 Feb 26
-			-1:00	-	WAT	1960
-			 0:00	-	GMT
+# See Africa/Abidjan.
 
 # Guinea-Bissau
+#
+# Shanks gives 1911-05-26 for the transition to WAT,
+# evidently confusing the date of the Portuguese decree
+# http://dre.pt/pdf1sdip/1911/05/12500/23132313.pdf
+# with the date that it took effect, namely 1912-01-01.
+#
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Bissau	-1:02:20 -	LMT	1911 May 26
+Zone	Africa/Bissau	-1:02:20 -	LMT	1912 Jan  1
 			-1:00	-	WAT	1975
 			 0:00	-	GMT
 
@@ -480,8 +491,8 @@
 # Lesotho
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Africa/Maseru	1:50:00 -	LMT	1903 Mar
-			2:00	-	SAST	1943 Sep 19 2:00
-			2:00	1:00	SAST	1944 Mar 19 2:00
+			2:00	-	SAST	1943 Sep 19  2:00
+			2:00	1:00	SAST	1944 Mar 19  2:00
 			2:00	-	SAST
 
 # Liberia
@@ -549,11 +560,11 @@
 			2:00	-	EET	1982
 			1:00	Libya	CE%sT	1990 May  4
 # The 1996 and 1997 entries are from Shanks & Pottenger;
-# the IATA SSIM data contain some obvious errors.
+# the IATA SSIM data entries contain some obvious errors.
 			2:00	-	EET	1996 Sep 30
 			1:00	Libya	CE%sT	1997 Oct  4
-			2:00	-	EET	2012 Nov 10 2:00
-			1:00	Libya	CE%sT	2013 Oct 25 2:00
+			2:00	-	EET	2012 Nov 10  2:00
+			1:00	Libya	CE%sT	2013 Oct 25  2:00
 			2:00	-	EET
 
 # Madagascar
@@ -569,18 +580,8 @@
 			2:00	-	CAT
 
 # Mali
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Bamako	-0:32:00 -	LMT	1912
-			 0:00	-	GMT	1934 Feb 26
-			-1:00	-	WAT	1960 Jun 20
-			 0:00	-	GMT
-
 # Mauritania
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Africa/Nouakchott	-1:03:48 -	LMT	1912
-			 0:00	-	GMT	1934 Feb 26
-			-1:00	-	WAT	1960 Nov 28
-			 0:00	-	GMT
+# See Africa/Abidjan.
 
 # Mauritius
 
@@ -604,9 +605,7 @@
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-07-10):
 # According to
-# <a href="http://www.lexpress.mu/display_article.php?news_id=111216">
 # http://www.lexpress.mu/display_article.php?news_id=111216
-# </a>
 # (in French), Mauritius will start and end their DST a few days earlier
 # than previously announced (2008-11-01 to 2009-03-31).  The new start
 # date is 2008-10-26 at 02:00 and the new end date is 2009-03-27 (no time
@@ -621,22 +620,17 @@
 
 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-07-11):
 # Seems that English language article "The revival of daylight saving
-# time:  Energy conservation?"-# No. 16578 (07/11/2008) was originally
+# time: Energy conservation?"-# No. 16578 (07/11/2008) was originally
 # published on Monday, June 30, 2008...
 #
 # I guess that article in French "Le gouvernement avance l'introduction
-# de l'heure d'ete" stating that DST in Mauritius starting on October 26
-# and ending on March 27, 2009 is the most recent one.
-# ...
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_mauritius02.html">
+# de l'heure d'été" stating that DST in Mauritius starting on October 26
+# and ending on March 27, 2009 is the most recent one....
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_mauritius02.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Riad M. Hossen Ally (2008-08-03):
 # The Government of Mauritius weblink
-# <a href="http://www.gov.mu/portal/site/pmosite/menuitem.4ca0efdee47462e7440a600248a521ca/?content_id=4728ca68b2a5b110VgnVCM1000000a04a8c0RCRD">
 # http://www.gov.mu/portal/site/pmosite/menuitem.4ca0efdee47462e7440a600248a521ca/?content_id=4728ca68b2a5b110VgnVCM1000000a04a8c0RCRD
-# </a>
 # Cabinet Decision of July 18th, 2008 states as follows:
 #
 # 4. ...Cabinet has agreed to the introduction into the National Assembly
@@ -646,33 +640,25 @@
 # States of America. It will start at two o'clock in the morning on the
 # last Sunday of October and will end at two o'clock in the morning on
 # the last Sunday of March the following year. The summer time for the
-# year 2008 - 2009 will, therefore, be effective as from 26 October 2008
+# year 2008-2009 will, therefore, be effective as from 26 October 2008
 # and end on 29 March 2009.
 
 # From Ed Maste (2008-10-07):
 # THE TIME BILL (No. XXVII of 2008) Explanatory Memorandum states the
 # beginning / ending of summer time is 2 o'clock standard time in the
 # morning of the last Sunday of October / last Sunday of March.
-# <a href="http://www.gov.mu/portal/goc/assemblysite/file/bill2708.pdf">
 # http://www.gov.mu/portal/goc/assemblysite/file/bill2708.pdf
-# </a>
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-06-05):
 # According to several sources, Mauritius will not continue to observe
 # DST the coming summer...
 #
 # Some sources, in French:
-# <a href="http://www.defimedia.info/news/946/Rashid-Beebeejaun-:-%C2%AB-L%E2%80%99heure-d%E2%80%99%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ne-sera-pas-appliqu%C3%A9e-cette-ann%C3%A9e-%C2%BB">
 # http://www.defimedia.info/news/946/Rashid-Beebeejaun-:-%C2%AB-L%E2%80%99heure-d%E2%80%99%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ne-sera-pas-appliqu%C3%A9e-cette-ann%C3%A9e-%C2%BB
-# </a>
-# <a href="http://lexpress.mu/Story/3398~Beebeejaun---Les-objectifs-d-%C3%A9conomie-d-%C3%A9nergie-de-l-heure-d-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ont-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-atteints-">
 # http://lexpress.mu/Story/3398~Beebeejaun---Les-objectifs-d-%C3%A9conomie-d-%C3%A9nergie-de-l-heure-d-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ont-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-atteints-
-# </a>
 #
 # Our wrap-up:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat.html">
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Arthur David Olson (2009-07-11):
 # The "mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat" wrapup includes this:
@@ -685,18 +671,18 @@
 Rule Mauritius	2008	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	S
 Rule Mauritius	2009	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	0	-
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Indian/Mauritius	3:50:00 -	LMT	1907		# Port Louis
+Zone Indian/Mauritius	3:50:00 -	LMT	1907 # Port Louis
 			4:00 Mauritius	MU%sT	# Mauritius Time
 # Agalega Is, Rodriguez
 # no information; probably like Indian/Mauritius
 
 # Mayotte
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Indian/Mayotte	3:00:56 -	LMT	1911 Jul	# Mamoutzou
+Zone	Indian/Mayotte	3:00:56 -	LMT	1911 Jul # Mamoutzou
 			3:00	-	EAT
 
 # Morocco
-# See the `europe' file for Spanish Morocco (Africa/Ceuta).
+# See the 'europe' file for Spanish Morocco (Africa/Ceuta).
 
 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-09):
 # Here is an article that Morocco plan to introduce Daylight Saving Time between
@@ -704,60 +690,44 @@
 #
 # "... Morocco is to save energy by adjusting its clock during summer so it will
 # be one hour ahead of GMT between 1 June and 27 September, according to
-# Communication Minister and Gov ernment Spokesman, Khalid Naciri...."
+# Communication Minister and Government Spokesman, Khalid Naciri...."
 #
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.net/dst_news/dst_news_morocco01.html">
 # http://www.worldtimezone.net/dst_news/dst_news_morocco01.html
-# </a>
-# OR
-# <a href="http://en.afrik.com/news11892.html">
 # http://en.afrik.com/news11892.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-09):
-# The Morocco time change can be confirmed on Morocco web site Maghreb Arabe Presse:
-# <a href="http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/box3/morocco_shifts_to_da/view">
+# The Morocco time change can be confirmed on Morocco web site Maghreb Arabe
+# Presse:
 # http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/box3/morocco_shifts_to_da/view
-# </a>
 #
 # Morocco shifts to daylight time on June 1st through September 27, Govt.
 # spokesman.
 
 # From Patrice Scattolin (2008-05-09):
 # According to this article:
-# <a href="http://www.avmaroc.com/actualite/heure-dete-comment-a127896.html">
 # http://www.avmaroc.com/actualite/heure-dete-comment-a127896.html
-# </a>
-# (and republished here:
-# <a href="http://www.actu.ma/heure-dete-comment_i127896_0.html">
-# http://www.actu.ma/heure-dete-comment_i127896_0.html
-# </a>
-# )
-# the changes occurs at midnight:
+# (and republished here: <http://www.actu.ma/heure-dete-comment_i127896_0.html>)
+# the changes occur at midnight:
 #
-# saturday night may 31st at midnight (which in french is to be
-# intrepreted as the night between saturday and sunday)
-# sunday night the 28th  at midnight
+# Saturday night May 31st at midnight (which in French is to be
+# interpreted as the night between Saturday and Sunday)
+# Sunday night the 28th at midnight
 #
-# Seeing that the 28th is monday, I am guessing that she intends to say
-# the midnight of the 28th which is the midnight between sunday and
-# monday, which jives with other sources that say that it's inclusive
-# june1st to sept 27th.
+# Seeing that the 28th is Monday, I am guessing that she intends to say
+# the midnight of the 28th which is the midnight between Sunday and
+# Monday, which jives with other sources that say that it's inclusive
+# June 1st to Sept 27th.
 #
 # The decision was taken by decree *2-08-224 *but I can't find the decree
 # published on the web.
 #
 # It's also confirmed here:
-# <a href="http://www.maroc.ma/NR/exeres/FACF141F-D910-44B0-B7FA-6E03733425D1.htm">
 # http://www.maroc.ma/NR/exeres/FACF141F-D910-44B0-B7FA-6E03733425D1.htm
-# </a>
-# on a government portal as being  between june 1st and sept 27th (not yet
-# posted in english).
+# on a government portal as being between June 1st and Sept 27th (not yet
+# posted in English).
 #
-# The following google query will generate many relevant hits:
-# <a href="http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Conseil+de+gouvernement+maroc+heure+avance&btnG=Search">
+# The following Google query will generate many relevant hits:
 # http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Conseil+de+gouvernement+maroc+heure+avance&btnG=Search
-# </a>
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-08-27):
 # Morocco will change the clocks back on the midnight between August 31
@@ -765,47 +735,32 @@
 # of September:
 #
 # One article about it (in French):
-# <a href="http://www.menara.ma/fr/Actualites/Maroc/Societe/ci.retour_a_l_heure_gmt_a_partir_du_dimanche_31_aout_a_minuit_officiel_.default">
 # http://www.menara.ma/fr/Actualites/Maroc/Societe/ci.retour_a_l_heure_gmt_a_partir_du_dimanche_31_aout_a_minuit_officiel_.default
-# </a>
 #
 # We have some further details posted here:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-ends-dst-early-2008.html">
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-ends-dst-early-2008.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-17):
 # Morocco will observe DST from 2009-06-01 00:00 to 2009-08-21 00:00 according
 # to many sources, such as
-# <a href="http://news.marweb.com/morocco/entertainment/morocco-daylight-saving.html">
 # http://news.marweb.com/morocco/entertainment/morocco-daylight-saving.html
-# </a>
-# <a href="http://www.medi1sat.ma/fr/depeche.aspx?idp=2312">
 # http://www.medi1sat.ma/fr/depeche.aspx?idp=2312
-# </a>
 # (French)
 #
 # Our summary:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2009.html">
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2009.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-17):
 # Here is a link to official document from Royaume du Maroc Premier Ministre,
-# Ministere de la Modernisation des Secteurs Publics
+# Ministère de la Modernisation des Secteurs Publics
 #
 # Under Article 1 of Royal Decree No. 455-67 of Act 23 safar 1387 (2 june 1967)
 # concerning the amendment of the legal time, the Ministry of Modernization of
 # Public Sectors announced that the official time in the Kingdom will be
 # advanced 60 minutes from Sunday 31 May 2009 at midnight.
 #
-# <a href="http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/francais/Actualites_fr/PDF_Actualites_Fr/HeureEte_FR.pdf">
 # http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/francais/Actualites_fr/PDF_Actualites_Fr/HeureEte_FR.pdf
-# </a>
-#
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco03.html">
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco03.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-04-13):
 # Several news media in Morocco report that the Ministry of Modernization
@@ -813,51 +768,33 @@
 # 2010-05-02 to 2010-08-08.
 #
 # Example:
-# <a href="http://www.lavieeco.com/actualites/4099-le-maroc-passera-a-l-heure-d-ete-gmt1-le-2-mai.html">
 # http://www.lavieeco.com/actualites/4099-le-maroc-passera-a-l-heure-d-ete-gmt1-le-2-mai.html
-# </a>
 # (French)
 # Our page:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2010.html">
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2010.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Dan Abitol (2011-03-30):
 # ...Rules for Africa/Casablanca are the following (24h format)
-# The 3rd april 2011 at 00:00:00, [it] will be 3rd april 1:00:00
-# The 31th july 2011 at 00:59:59,  [it] will be 31th July 00:00:00
+# The 3rd April 2011 at 00:00:00, [it] will be 3rd April 01:00:00
+# The 31st July 2011 at 00:59:59, [it] will be 31st July 00:00:00
 # ...Official links of change in morocco
 # The change was broadcast on the FM Radio
 # I ve called ANRT (telecom regulations in Morocco) at
 # +212.537.71.84.00
-# <a href="http://www.anrt.net.ma/fr/">
 # http://www.anrt.net.ma/fr/
-# </a>
 # They said that
-# <a href="http://www.map.ma/fr/sections/accueil/l_heure_legale_au_ma/view">
 # http://www.map.ma/fr/sections/accueil/l_heure_legale_au_ma/view
-# </a>
 # is the official publication to look at.
 # They said that the decision was already taken.
 #
 # More articles in the press
-# <a href="http://www.yabiladi.com/articles/details/5058/secret-l-heure-d-ete-maroc-lev">
-# http://www.yabiladi.com/articles/details/5058/secret-l-heure-d-ete-maroc-lev
-# </a>
-# e.html
-# <a href="http://www.lematin.ma/Actualite/Express/Article.asp?id=148923">
+# http://www.yabiladi.com/articles/details/5058/secret-l-heure-d-ete-maroc-leve.html
 # http://www.lematin.ma/Actualite/Express/Article.asp?id=148923
-# </a>
-# <a href="http://www.lavieeco.com/actualite/Le-Maroc-passe-sur-GMT%2B1-a-partir-de-dim">
 # http://www.lavieeco.com/actualite/Le-Maroc-passe-sur-GMT%2B1-a-partir-de-dim
-# anche-prochain-5538.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Petr Machata (2011-03-30):
 # They have it written in English here:
-# <a href="http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/home/morocco_to_spring_fo/view">
 # http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/home/morocco_to_spring_fo/view
-# </a>
 #
 # It says there that "Morocco will resume its standard time on July 31,
 # 2011 at midnight." Now they don't say whether they mean midnight of
@@ -865,20 +802,16 @@
 # also been like that in the past.
 
 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2012-03-09):
-# According to Infom&eacute;diaire web site from Morocco (infomediaire.ma),
-# on March 9, 2012, (in French) Heure l&eacute;gale:
-# Le Maroc adopte officiellement l'heure d'&eacute;t&eacute;
-# <a href="http://www.infomediaire.ma/news/maroc/heure-l%C3%A9gale-le-maroc-adopte-officiellement-lheure-d%C3%A9t%C3%A9">
+# According to Infomédiaire web site from Morocco (infomediaire.ma),
+# on March 9, 2012, (in French) Heure légale:
+# Le Maroc adopte officiellement l'heure d'été
 # http://www.infomediaire.ma/news/maroc/heure-l%C3%A9gale-le-maroc-adopte-officiellement-lheure-d%C3%A9t%C3%A9
-# </a>
 # Governing Council adopted draft decree, that Morocco DST starts on
 # the last Sunday of March (March 25, 2012) and ends on
 # last Sunday of September (September 30, 2012)
 # except the month of Ramadan.
 # or (brief)
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco06.html">
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco06.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-10):
 # The infomediaire.ma source indicates that the system is to be in
@@ -889,17 +822,13 @@
 
 # From Christophe Tropamer (2012-03-16):
 # Seen Morocco change again:
-# <a href="http://www.le2uminutes.com/actualite.php">
 # http://www.le2uminutes.com/actualite.php
-# </a>
-# "...&agrave; partir du dernier dimance d'avril et non fins mars,
-# comme annonc&eacute; pr&eacute;c&eacute;demment."
+# "...à partir du dernier dimanche d'avril et non fins mars,
+# comme annoncé précédemment."
 
 # From Milamber Space Network (2012-07-17):
 # The official return to GMT is announced by the Moroccan government:
-# <a href="http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=288">
 # http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=288 [in French]
-# </a>
 #
 # Google translation, lightly edited:
 # Back to the standard time of the Kingdom (GMT)
@@ -917,7 +846,7 @@
 # announced a bit in advance.  On 2012-07-11 the Moroccan government
 # announced that year's Ramadan daylight-saving transitions would be
 # 2012-07-20 and 2012-08-20; see
-# <http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=288>.
+# http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=288
 
 # From Andrew Paprocki (2013-07-02):
 # Morocco announced that the year's Ramadan daylight-savings
@@ -937,39 +866,36 @@
 # From Sebastien Willemijns (2014-03-18):
 # http://www.afriquinfos.com/articles/2014/3/18/maroc-heure-dete-avancez-tous-horloges-247891.asp
 
-# From Paul Eggert (2014-03-19):
-# To estimate what the Moroccan government will do in future years,
-# transition dates for 2014 through 2038 were determined by running
-# the following program under GNU Emacs 24.3:
-#
-# (let ((islamic-year 1435))
-#   (while (< islamic-year 1461)
-#     (let ((a
-#	     (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute
-#	      (calendar-islamic-to-absolute (list 9 1 islamic-year))))
-#	    (b
-#	     (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute
-#	      (calendar-islamic-to-absolute (list 10 1 islamic-year)))))
-#	(insert
-#	 (format
-#	  (concat "Rule\tMorocco\t%d\tonly\t-\t%s\t %2d\t 3:00\t0\t-\n"
-#		  "Rule\tMorocco\t%d\tonly\t-\t%s\t %2d\t 2:00\t1:00\tS\n")
-#	  (car (cdr (cdr a))) (calendar-month-name (car a) t) (car (cdr a))
-#	  (car (cdr (cdr b))) (calendar-month-name (car b) t) (car (cdr b)))))
+# From Milamber Space Network (2014-06-05):
+# The Moroccan government has recently announced that the country will return
+# to standard time at 03:00 on Saturday, June 28, 2014 local time....  DST
+# will resume again at 02:00 on Saturday, August 2, 2014....
+# http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=586
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-05):
+# For now, guess that later spring and fall transitions will use 2014's rules,
+# and guess that Morocco will switch to standard time at 03:00 the last
+# Saturday before Ramadan, and back to DST at 02:00 the first Saturday after
+# Ramadan.  To implement this, transition dates for 2015 through 2037 were
+# determined by running the following program under GNU Emacs 24.3, with the
+# results integrated by hand into the table below.
+# (let ((islamic-year 1436))
+#   (while (< islamic-year 1460)
+#     (let ((a (calendar-islamic-to-absolute (list 9 1 islamic-year)))
+#           (b (calendar-islamic-to-absolute (list 10 1 islamic-year)))
+#           (saturday 6))
+#       (while (/= saturday (mod (setq a (1- a)) 7)))
+#       (while (/= saturday (mod b 7))
+#         (setq b (1+ b)))
+#       (setq a (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute a))
+#       (setq b (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute b))
+#       (insert
+#        (format
+#         (concat "Rule\tMorocco\t%d\tonly\t-\t%s\t%2d\t 3:00\t0\t-\n"
+#                 "Rule\tMorocco\t%d\tonly\t-\t%s\t%2d\t 2:00\t1:00\tS\n")
+#         (car (cdr (cdr a))) (calendar-month-name (car a) t) (car (cdr a))
+#         (car (cdr (cdr b))) (calendar-month-name (car b) t) (car (cdr b)))))
 #     (setq islamic-year (+ 1 islamic-year))))
-#
-# with spring-forward transitions removed for 2023-2025, when the
-# normal spring-forward date falls during the estimated Ramadan; with
-# all transitions removed for 2026-2035, where the estimated Ramadan
-# falls entirely outside daylight-saving time; and with fall-back
-# transitions removed for 2036-2037, where the normal fall-back
-# date falls during the estimated Ramadan.  Normally, the table would
-# stop after 2037 because 32-bit time_t values roll around early in 2038,
-# but that would imply a prediction of perpetual DST after March 2038
-# due to the year-2037 glitches.  So, this table instead stops after
-# 2038, the first non-glitchy year after the 32-bit rollover.
-# An advantage of stopping after 2038 is that it lets zic guess
-# TZ='WET0WEST,M3.5.0,M10.5.0/3' for time stamps far in the future.
 
 # RULE	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
 
@@ -991,46 +917,44 @@
 Rule	Morocco	2008	only	-	Jun	 1	 0:00	1:00	S
 Rule	Morocco	2008	only	-	Sep	 1	 0:00	0	-
 Rule	Morocco	2009	only	-	Jun	 1	 0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2009	only	-	Aug	 21	 0:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2009	only	-	Aug	21	 0:00	0	-
 Rule	Morocco	2010	only	-	May	 2	 0:00	1:00	S
 Rule	Morocco	2010	only	-	Aug	 8	 0:00	0	-
 Rule	Morocco	2011	only	-	Apr	 3	 0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2011	only	-	Jul	 31	 0	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2012	2013	-	Apr	 lastSun 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2012	only	-	Sep	 30	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2012	only	-	Jul	 20	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2012	only	-	Aug	 20	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2013	only	-	Jul	  7	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2013	only	-	Aug	 10	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2013	2035	-	Oct	 lastSun 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2014	2022	-	Mar	 lastSun 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2014	only	-	Jun	 29	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2014	only	-	Jul	 29	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2015	only	-	Jun	 18	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2015	only	-	Jul	 18	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2016	only	-	Jun	  7	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2016	only	-	Jul	  7	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2017	only	-	May	 27	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2017	only	-	Jun	 26	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2018	only	-	May	 16	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2018	only	-	Jun	 15	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2019	only	-	May	  6	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2019	only	-	Jun	  5	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2020	only	-	Apr	 24	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2020	only	-	May	 24	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2021	only	-	Apr	 13	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2021	only	-	May	 13	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2022	only	-	Apr	  3	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2022	only	-	May	  3	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2023	only	-	Apr	 22	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2024	only	-	Apr	 10	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2025	only	-	Mar	 31	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2026	max	-	Mar	 lastSun 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2036	only	-	Oct	 21	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2037	only	-	Oct	 11	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2038	only	-	Sep	 30	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2038	only	-	Oct	 30	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2038	max	-	Oct	 lastSun 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2011	only	-	Jul	31	 0	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2012	2013	-	Apr	lastSun	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2012	only	-	Sep	30	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2012	only	-	Jul	20	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2012	only	-	Aug	20	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2013	only	-	Jul	 7	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2013	only	-	Aug	10	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2013	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2014	2022	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2014	only	-	Jun	28	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2014	only	-	Aug	 2	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2015	only	-	Jun	13	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2015	only	-	Jul	18	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2016	only	-	Jun	 4	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2016	only	-	Jul	 9	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2017	only	-	May	20	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2017	only	-	Jul	 1	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2018	only	-	May	12	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2018	only	-	Jun	16	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2019	only	-	May	 4	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2019	only	-	Jun	 8	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2020	only	-	Apr	18	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2020	only	-	May	30	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2021	only	-	Apr	10	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2021	only	-	May	15	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2022	only	-	Apr	 2	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2022	only	-	May	 7	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2023	only	-	Apr	22	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2024	only	-	Apr	13	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2025	only	-	Apr	 5	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2026	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2035	only	-	Oct	27	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2036	only	-	Oct	18	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2037	only	-	Oct	10	 3:00	0	-
 
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone Africa/Casablanca	-0:30:20 -	LMT	1913 Oct 26
@@ -1049,11 +973,17 @@
 # Assume that this has been true since Western Sahara switched to GMT,
 # since most of it was then controlled by Morocco.
 
-Zone Africa/El_Aaiun	-0:52:48 -	LMT	1934 Jan
+Zone Africa/El_Aaiun	-0:52:48 -	LMT	1934 Jan # El Aaiún
 			-1:00	-	WAT	1976 Apr 14
 			 0:00	Morocco	WE%sT
 
 # Mozambique
+#
+# Shanks gives 1903-03-01 for the transition to CAT.
+# Perhaps the 1911-05-26 Portuguese decree
+# http://dre.pt/pdf1sdip/1911/05/12500/23132313.pdf
+# merely made it official?
+#
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Africa/Maputo	2:10:20 -	LMT	1903 Mar
 			2:00	-	CAT
@@ -1062,8 +992,8 @@
 # The 1994-04-03 transition is from Shanks & Pottenger.
 # Shanks & Pottenger report no DST after 1998-04; go with IATA.
 
-# From Petronella Sibeene (2007-03-30) in
-# <http://allafrica.com/stories/200703300178.html>:
+# From Petronella Sibeene (2007-03-30):
+# http://allafrica.com/stories/200703300178.html
 # While the entire country changes its time, Katima Mulilo and other
 # settlements in Caprivi unofficially will not because the sun there
 # rises and sets earlier compared to other regions.  Chief of
@@ -1080,34 +1010,41 @@
 Rule	Namibia	1995	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	0	-
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Africa/Windhoek	1:08:24 -	LMT	1892 Feb 8
-			1:30	-	SWAT	1903 Mar	# SW Africa Time
-			2:00	-	SAST	1942 Sep 20 2:00
-			2:00	1:00	SAST	1943 Mar 21 2:00
+			1:30	-	SWAT	1903 Mar    # SW Africa Time
+			2:00	-	SAST	1942 Sep 20  2:00
+			2:00	1:00	SAST	1943 Mar 21  2:00
 			2:00	-	SAST	1990 Mar 21 # independence
 			2:00	-	CAT	1994 Apr  3
 			1:00	Namibia	WA%sT
 
 # Niger
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Niamey	 0:08:28 -	LMT	1912
-			-1:00	-	WAT	1934 Feb 26
-			 0:00	-	GMT	1960
-			 1:00	-	WAT
+# See Africa/Lagos.
 
 # Nigeria
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Africa/Lagos	0:13:36 -	LMT	1919 Sep
 			1:00	-	WAT
+Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Bangui	     # Central African Republic
+Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Brazzaville # Rep. of the Congo
+Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Douala	     # Cameroon
+Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Kinshasa    # Dem. Rep. of the Congo (west)
+Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Libreville  # Gabon
+Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Luanda	     # Angola
+Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Malabo	     # Equatorial Guinea
+Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Niamey	     # Niger
+Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Porto-Novo  # Benin
 
-# Reunion
+# Réunion
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Indian/Reunion	3:41:52 -	LMT	1911 Jun	# Saint-Denis
-			4:00	-	RET	# Reunion Time
+Zone	Indian/Reunion	3:41:52 -	LMT	1911 Jun # Saint-Denis
+			4:00	-	RET	# Réunion Time
 #
-# Scattered Islands (Iles Eparses) administered from Reunion are as follows.
+# Crozet Islands also observes Réunion time; see the 'antarctica' file.
+#
+# Scattered Islands (Îles Éparses) administered from Réunion are as follows.
 # The following information about them is taken from
-# Iles Eparses (www.outre-mer.gouv.fr/domtom/ile.htm, 1997-07-22, in French;
-# no longer available as of 1999-08-17).
+# Îles Éparses (<http://www.outre-mer.gouv.fr/domtom/ile.htm>, 1997-07-22,
+# in French; no longer available as of 1999-08-17).
 # We have no info about their time zone histories.
 #
 # Bassas da India - uninhabited
@@ -1122,32 +1059,21 @@
 			2:00	-	CAT
 
 # St Helena
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Atlantic/St_Helena	-0:22:48 -	LMT	1890		# Jamestown
-			-0:22:48 -	JMT	1951	# Jamestown Mean Time
-			 0:00	-	GMT
+# See Africa/Abidjan.
 # The other parts of the St Helena territory are similar:
 #	Tristan da Cunha: on GMT, say Whitman and the CIA
-#	Ascension: on GMT, says usno1995 and the CIA
+#	Ascension: on GMT, say the USNO (1995-12-21) and the CIA
 #	Gough (scientific station since 1955; sealers wintered previously):
 #		on GMT, says the CIA
-#	Inaccessible, Nightingale: no information, but probably GMT
+#	Inaccessible, Nightingale: uninhabited
 
-# Sao Tome and Principe
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Sao_Tome	 0:26:56 -	LMT	1884
-			-0:36:32 -	LMT	1912	# Lisbon Mean Time
-			 0:00	-	GMT
-
+# São Tomé and Príncipe
 # Senegal
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Dakar	-1:09:44 -	LMT	1912
-			-1:00	-	WAT	1941 Jun
-			 0:00	-	GMT
+# See Africa/Abidjan.
 
 # Seychelles
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Indian/Mahe	3:41:48 -	LMT	1906 Jun	# Victoria
+Zone	Indian/Mahe	3:41:48 -	LMT	1906 Jun # Victoria
 			4:00	-	SCT	# Seychelles Time
 # From Paul Eggert (2001-05-30):
 # Aldabra, Farquhar, and Desroches, originally dependencies of the
@@ -1157,17 +1083,7 @@
 # Possibly the islands were uninhabited.
 
 # Sierra Leone
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-# Whitman gives Mar 31 - Aug 31 for 1931 on; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
-Rule	SL	1935	1942	-	Jun	 1	0:00	0:40	SLST
-Rule	SL	1935	1942	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	WAT
-Rule	SL	1957	1962	-	Jun	 1	0:00	1:00	SLST
-Rule	SL	1957	1962	-	Sep	 1	0:00	0	GMT
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Freetown	-0:53:00 -	LMT	1882
-			-0:53:00 -	FMT	1913 Jun # Freetown Mean Time
-			-1:00	SL	%s	1957
-			 0:00	SL	%s
+# See Africa/Abidjan.
 
 # Somalia
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
@@ -1190,9 +1106,9 @@
 
 # Sudan
 #
-# From <a href="http://www.sunanews.net/sn13jane.html">
-# Sudan News Agency (2000-01-13)
-# </a>, also reported by Michael De Beukelaer-Dossche via Steffen Thorsen:
+# From <http://www.sunanews.net/sn13jane.html>
+# Sudan News Agency (2000-01-13),
+# also reported by Michaël De Beukelaer-Dossche via Steffen Thorsen:
 # Clocks will be moved ahead for 60 minutes all over the Sudan as of noon
 # Saturday....  This was announced Thursday by Caretaker State Minister for
 # Manpower Abdul-Rahman Nur-Eddin.
@@ -1223,14 +1139,12 @@
 			3:00	-	EAT
 
 # Togo
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Lome	0:04:52 -	LMT	1893
-			0:00	-	GMT
+# See Africa/Abidjan.
 
 # Tunisia
 
 # From Gwillim Law (2005-04-30):
-# My correspondent, Risto Nykanen, has alerted me to another adoption of DST,
+# My correspondent, Risto Nykänen, has alerted me to another adoption of DST,
 # this time in Tunisia.  According to Yahoo France News
 # <http://fr.news.yahoo.com/050426/5/4dumk.html>, in a story attributed to AP
 # and dated 2005-04-26, "Tunisia has decided to advance its official time by
@@ -1239,8 +1153,8 @@
 # Saturday."  (My translation)
 #
 # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-05-02):
-# LaPresse, the first national daily newspaper ...
-# <http://www.lapresse.tn/archives/archives280405/actualites/lheure.html>
+# La Presse, the first national daily newspaper ...
+# http://www.lapresse.tn/archives/archives280405/actualites/lheure.html
 # ... DST for 2005: on: Sun May 1 0h standard time, off: Fri Sept. 30,
 # 1h standard time.
 #
@@ -1253,18 +1167,12 @@
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-16):
 # According to several news sources, Tunisia will not observe DST this year.
 # (Arabic)
-# <a href="http://www.elbashayer.com/?page=viewn&nid=42546">
 # http://www.elbashayer.com/?page=viewn&nid=42546
-# </a>
-# <a href="http://www.babnet.net/kiwidetail-15295.asp">
 # http://www.babnet.net/kiwidetail-15295.asp
-# </a>
 #
 # We have also confirmed this with the US embassy in Tunisia.
 # We have a wrap-up about this on the following page:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/tunisia-cancels-dst-2009.html">
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/tunisia-cancels-dst-2009.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-17):
 # Here is a link to Tunis Afrique Presse News Agency
@@ -1272,20 +1180,17 @@
 # Standard time to be kept the whole year long (tap.info.tn):
 #
 # (in English)
-# <a href="http://www.tap.info.tn/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=26813&Itemid=157">
 # http://www.tap.info.tn/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=26813&Itemid=157
-# </a>
 #
 # (in Arabic)
-# <a href="http://www.tap.info.tn/ar/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=61240&Itemid=1">
 # http://www.tap.info.tn/ar/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=61240&Itemid=1
-# </a>
 
-# From Arthur David Olson (2009--3-18):
-# The Tunis Afrique Presse News Agency notice contains this: "This measure is due to the fact
-# that the fasting month of ramadan coincides with the period concerned by summer time.
-# Therefore, the standard time will be kept unchanged the whole year long."
-# So foregoing DST seems to be an exception (albeit one that may be repeated in the  future).
+# From Arthur David Olson (2009-03-18):
+# The Tunis Afrique Presse News Agency notice contains this: "This measure is
+# due to the fact that the fasting month of Ramadan coincides with the period
+# concerned by summer time.  Therefore, the standard time will be kept
+# unchanged the whole year long."  So foregoing DST seems to be an exception
+# (albeit one that may be repeated in the future).
 
 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-27):
 # According to some news reports Tunis confirmed not to use DST in 2010
@@ -1297,12 +1202,8 @@
 # coincided with the month of Ramadan..."
 #
 # (in Arabic)
-# <a href="http://www.moheet.com/show_news.aspx?nid=358861&pg=1">
 # http://www.moheet.com/show_news.aspx?nid=358861&pg=1
-# <a href="http://www.almadenahnews.com/newss/news.php?c=118&id=38036">
 # http://www.almadenahnews.com/newss/news.php?c=118&id=38036
-# or
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_tunis02.html">
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_tunis02.html
 
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
@@ -1337,7 +1238,7 @@
 # Shanks & Pottenger say the 1911 switch was on Mar 9; go with Howse's Mar 11.
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Africa/Tunis	0:40:44 -	LMT	1881 May 12
-			0:09:21	-	PMT	1911 Mar 11    # Paris Mean Time
+			0:09:21	-	PMT	1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
 			1:00	Tunisia	CE%sT
 
 # Uganda
--- a/make/data/tzdata/antarctica	Thu Sep 11 09:08:56 2014 -0700
+++ b/make/data/tzdata/antarctica	Thu Sep 11 14:29:21 2014 -0700
@@ -21,19 +21,16 @@
 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
 # questions.
 #
-# <pre>
 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
 
 # From Paul Eggert (1999-11-15):
 # To keep things manageable, we list only locations occupied year-round; see
-# <a href="http://www.comnap.aq/comnap/comnap.nsf/P/Stations/">
 # COMNAP - Stations and Bases
-# </a>
+# http://www.comnap.aq/comnap/comnap.nsf/P/Stations/
 # and
-# <a href="http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/bob/periant.htm">
 # Summary of the Peri-Antarctic Islands (1998-07-23)
-# </a>
+# http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/bob/periant.htm
 # for information.
 # Unless otherwise specified, we have no time zone information.
 #
@@ -78,19 +75,19 @@
 
 # Argentina - year-round bases
 # Belgrano II, Confin Coast, -770227-0343737, since 1972-02-05
-# Esperanza, San Martin Land, -6323-05659, since 1952-12-17
-# Jubany, Potter Peninsula, King George Island, -6414-0602320, since 1982-01
-# Marambio, Seymour I, -6414-05637, since 1969-10-29
+# Carlini, Potter Cove, King George Island, -6414-0602320, since 1982-01
+# Esperanza, Hope Bay, -6323-05659, since 1952-12-17
+# Marambio, -6414-05637, since 1969-10-29
 # Orcadas, Laurie I, -6016-04444, since 1904-02-22
-# San Martin, Debenham I, -6807-06708, since 1951-03-21
+# San Martín, Barry I, -6808-06706, since 1951-03-21
 #	(except 1960-03 / 1976-03-21)
 
 # Australia - territories
 # Heard Island, McDonald Islands (uninhabited)
 #	previously sealers and scientific personnel wintered
-#	<a href="http://web.archive.org/web/20021204222245/http://www.dstc.qut.edu.au/DST/marg/daylight.html">
 #	Margaret Turner reports
-#	</a> (1999-09-30) that they're UTC+5, with no DST;
+#	http://web.archive.org/web/20021204222245/http://www.dstc.qut.edu.au/DST/marg/daylight.html
+#	(1999-09-30) that they're UTC+5, with no DST;
 #	presumably this is when they have visitors.
 #
 # year-round bases
@@ -107,14 +104,10 @@
 # The changes occurred on 2009-10-18 at 02:00 (local times).
 #
 # Government source: (Australian Antarctic Division)
-# <a href="http://www.aad.gov.au/default.asp?casid=37079">
 # http://www.aad.gov.au/default.asp?casid=37079
-# </a>
 #
 # We have more background information here:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/antarctica-new-times.html">
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/antarctica-new-times.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-10):
 # We got these changes from the Australian Antarctic Division: ...
@@ -129,50 +122,49 @@
 # - Mawson station stays on UTC+5.
 #
 # Background:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/antartica-time-changes-2010.html">
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/antartica-time-changes-2010.html
-# </a>
 
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone Antarctica/Casey	0	-	zzz	1969
-			8:00	-	WST	2009 Oct 18 2:00
-						# Western (Aus) Standard Time
-			11:00	-	CAST	2010 Mar 5 2:00
-						# Casey Time
-			8:00	-	WST	2011 Oct 28 2:00
+			8:00	-	AWST	2009 Oct 18  2:00
+						# Australian Western Std Time
+			11:00	-	CAST	2010 Mar  5  2:00  # Casey Time
+			8:00	-	AWST	2011 Oct 28  2:00
 			11:00	-	CAST	2012 Feb 21 17:00u
-			8:00	-	WST
+			8:00	-	AWST
 Zone Antarctica/Davis	0	-	zzz	1957 Jan 13
-			7:00	-	DAVT	1964 Nov # Davis Time
+			7:00	-	DAVT	1964 Nov    # Davis Time
 			0	-	zzz	1969 Feb
-			7:00	-	DAVT	2009 Oct 18 2:00
+			7:00	-	DAVT	2009 Oct 18  2:00
 			5:00	-	DAVT	2010 Mar 10 20:00u
-			7:00	-	DAVT	2011 Oct 28 2:00
+			7:00	-	DAVT	2011 Oct 28  2:00
 			5:00	-	DAVT	2012 Feb 21 20:00u
 			7:00	-	DAVT
 Zone Antarctica/Mawson	0	-	zzz	1954 Feb 13
-			6:00	-	MAWT	2009 Oct 18 2:00
-						# Mawson Time
+			6:00	-	MAWT	2009 Oct 18  2:00 # Mawson Time
 			5:00	-	MAWT
 # References:
-# <a href="http://www.antdiv.gov.au/aad/exop/sfo/casey/casey_aws.html">
 # Casey Weather (1998-02-26)
-# </a>
-# <a href="http://www.antdiv.gov.au/aad/exop/sfo/davis/video.html">
+# http://www.antdiv.gov.au/aad/exop/sfo/casey/casey_aws.html
 # Davis Station, Antarctica (1998-02-26)
-# </a>
-# <a href="http://www.antdiv.gov.au/aad/exop/sfo/mawson/video.html">
+# http://www.antdiv.gov.au/aad/exop/sfo/davis/video.html
 # Mawson Station, Antarctica (1998-02-25)
-# </a>
+# http://www.antdiv.gov.au/aad/exop/sfo/mawson/video.html
+
+# Belgium - year-round base
+# Princess Elisabeth, Queen Maud Land, -713412+0231200, since 2007
 
 # Brazil - year-round base
-# Comandante Ferraz, King George Island, -6205+05824, since 1983/4
+# Ferraz, King George Island, -6205+05824, since 1983/4
+
+# Bulgaria - year-round base
+# St. Kliment Ohridski, Livingston Island, -623829-0602153, since 1988
 
 # Chile - year-round bases and towns
 # Escudero, South Shetland Is, -621157-0585735, since 1994
-# Presidente Eduadro Frei, King George Island, -6214-05848, since 1969-03-07
-# General Bernardo O'Higgins, Antarctic Peninsula, -6319-05704, since 1948-02
-# Capitan Arturo Prat, -6230-05941
+# Frei Montalva, King George Island, -6214-05848, since 1969-03-07
+# O'Higgins, Antarctic Peninsula, -6319-05704, since 1948-02
+# Prat, -6230-05941
 # Villa Las Estrellas (a town), around the Frei base, since 1984-04-09
 # These locations have always used Santiago time; use TZ='America/Santiago'.
 
@@ -180,31 +172,35 @@
 # Great Wall, King George Island, -6213-05858, since 1985-02-20
 # Zhongshan, Larsemann Hills, Prydz Bay, -6922+07623, since 1989-02-26
 
-# France - year-round bases
+# France - year-round bases (also see "France & Italy")
 #
 # From Antoine Leca (1997-01-20):
-# Time data are from Nicole Pailleau at the IFRTP
+# Time data entries are from Nicole Pailleau at the IFRTP
 # (French Institute for Polar Research and Technology).
-# She confirms that French Southern Territories and Terre Adelie bases
-# don't observe daylight saving time, even if Terre Adelie supplies came
+# She confirms that French Southern Territories and Terre Adélie bases
+# don't observe daylight saving time, even if Terre Adélie supplies came
 # from Tasmania.
 #
 # French Southern Territories with year-round inhabitants
 #
-# Martin-de-Vivies Base, Amsterdam Island, -374105+0773155, since 1950
-# Alfred-Faure Base, Crozet Islands, -462551+0515152, since 1964
-# Port-aux-Francais, Kerguelen Islands, -492110+0701303, since 1951;
+# Alfred Faure, Possession Island, Crozet Islands, -462551+0515152, since 1964;
+#	sealing & whaling stations operated variously 1802/1911+;
+#	see Indian/Reunion.
+#
+# Martin-de-Viviès, Amsterdam Island, -374105+0773155, since 1950
+# Port-aux-Français, Kerguelen Islands, -492110+0701303, since 1951;
 #	whaling & sealing station operated 1908/1914, 1920/1929, and 1951/1956
 #
 # St Paul Island - near Amsterdam, uninhabited
 #	fishing stations operated variously 1819/1931
 #
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Indian/Kerguelen	0	-	zzz	1950	# Port-aux-Francais
+Zone Indian/Kerguelen	0	-	zzz	1950 # Port-aux-Français
 			5:00	-	TFT	# ISO code TF Time
 #
 # year-round base in the main continent
-# Dumont-d'Urville, Ile des Petrels, -6640+14001, since 1956-11
+# Dumont d'Urville, Île des Pétrels, -6640+14001, since 1956-11
+# <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dumont_d'Urville_Station> (2005-12-05)
 #
 # Another base at Port-Martin, 50km east, began operation in 1947.
 # It was destroyed by fire on 1952-01-14.
@@ -214,20 +210,22 @@
 			10:00	-	PMT	1952 Jan 14 # Port-Martin Time
 			0	-	zzz	1956 Nov
 			10:00	-	DDUT	# Dumont-d'Urville Time
-# Reference:
-# <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dumont_d'Urville_Station">
-# Dumont d'Urville Station (2005-12-05)
-# </a>
+
+# France & Italy - year-round base
+# Concordia, -750600+1232000, since 2005
 
 # Germany - year-round base
-# Georg von Neumayer, -7039-00815
+# Neumayer III, -704080-0081602, since 2009
 
-# India - year-round base
-# Dakshin Gangotri, -7005+01200
+# India - year-round bases
+# Bharati, -692428+0761114, since 2012
+# Maitri, -704558+0114356, since 1989
+
+# Italy - year-round base (also see "France & Italy")
+# Zuchelli, Terra Nova Bay, -744140+1640647, since 1986
 
 # Japan - year-round bases
-# Dome Fuji, -7719+03942
-# Syowa, -690022+0393524
+# Syowa (also known as Showa), -690022+0393524, since 1957
 #
 # From Hideyuki Suzuki (1999-02-06):
 # In all Japanese stations, +0300 is used as the standard time.
@@ -239,11 +237,11 @@
 Zone Antarctica/Syowa	0	-	zzz	1957 Jan 29
 			3:00	-	SYOT	# Syowa Time
 # See:
-# <a href="http://www.nipr.ac.jp/english/ara01.html">
 # NIPR Antarctic Research Activities (1999-08-17)
-# </a>
+# http://www.nipr.ac.jp/english/ara01.html
 
 # S Korea - year-round base
+# Jang Bogo, Terra Nova Bay, -743700+1641205 since 2014
 # King Sejong, King George Island, -6213-05847, since 1988
 
 # New Zealand - claims
@@ -287,11 +285,14 @@
 Rule	Troll	2004	max	-	Oct	lastSun	1:00u	0:00	UTC
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone Antarctica/Troll	0	-	zzz	2005 Feb 12
-     			0:00	Troll	%s
+			0:00	Troll	%s
 
 # Poland - year-round base
 # Arctowski, King George Island, -620945-0582745, since 1977
 
+# Romania - year-bound base
+# Law-Racoviță, Larsemann Hills, -692319+0762251, since 1986
+
 # Russia - year-round bases
 # Bellingshausen, King George Island, -621159-0585337, since 1968-02-22
 # Mirny, Davis coast, -6633+09301, since 1956-02
@@ -301,8 +302,8 @@
 #	year-round from 1960/61 to 1992
 
 # Vostok, since 1957-12-16, temporarily closed 1994-02/1994-11
-# <a href="http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/antarctica/QA/computers/Directions,Time,ZIP">
-# From Craig Mundell (1994-12-15)</a>:
+# From Craig Mundell (1994-12-15):
+# http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/antarctica/QA/computers/Directions,Time,ZIP
 # Vostok, which is one of the Russian stations, is set on the same
 # time as Moscow, Russia.
 #
@@ -317,7 +318,7 @@
 #
 # From Paul Eggert (2001-05-04):
 # This seems to be hopelessly confusing, so I asked Lee Hotz about it
-# in person.  He said that some Antartic locations set their local
+# in person.  He said that some Antarctic locations set their local
 # time so that noon is the warmest part of the day, and that this
 # changes during the year and does not necessarily correspond to mean
 # solar noon.  So the Vostok time might have been whatever the clocks
@@ -329,9 +330,12 @@
 
 # S Africa - year-round bases
 # Marion Island, -4653+03752
-# Sanae, -7141-00250
+# SANAE IV, Vesleskarvet, Queen Maud Land, -714022-0025026, since 1997
 
-# UK
+# Ukraine - year-round base
+# Vernadsky (formerly Faraday), Galindez Island, -651445-0641526, since 1954
+
+# United Kingdom
 #
 # British Antarctic Territories (BAT) claims
 # South Orkney Islands
@@ -387,7 +391,7 @@
 # but that he found it more convenient to keep GMT+12
 # as supplies for the station were coming from McMurdo Sound,
 # which was on GMT+12 because New Zealand was on GMT+12 all year
-# at that time (1957).  (Source: Siple's book 90 degrees SOUTH.)
+# at that time (1957).  (Source: Siple's book 90 Degrees South.)
 #
 # From Susan Smith
 # http://www.cybertours.com/whs/pole10.html
--- a/make/data/tzdata/asia	Thu Sep 11 09:08:56 2014 -0700
+++ b/make/data/tzdata/asia	Thu Sep 11 14:29:21 2014 -0700
@@ -21,13 +21,13 @@
 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
 # questions.
 #
-# <pre>
 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
 
-# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
+# This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
-# tz@iana.org for general use in the future).
+# tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
+# the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
 
 # From Paul Eggert (2013-08-11):
 #
@@ -49,13 +49,17 @@
 # I found in the UCLA library.
 #
 # For data circa 1899, a common source is:
-# Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94
-# <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>.
+# Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94.
+# http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359
+#
+# For Russian data circa 1919, a source is:
+# Byalokoz EL. New Counting of Time in Russia since July 1, 1919.
+# (See the 'europe' file for a fuller citation.)
 #
 # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
 # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
 #
-# I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table;
+# I invented the abbreviations marked '*' in the following table;
 # the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
 # Corrections are welcome!
 #	     std  dst
@@ -70,13 +74,14 @@
 #	7:00 WIB	west Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Barat)
 #	8:00 WITA	central Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Tengah)
 #	8:00 CST	China
-#	9:00 CJT	Central Japanese Time (1896/1937)*
+#	8:00 JWST	Western Standard Time (Japan, 1896/1937)*
+#	9:00 JCST	Central Standard Time (Japan, 1896/1937)
 #	9:00 WIT	east Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Timur)
 #	9:00 JST  JDT	Japan
 #	9:00 KST  KDT	Korea
-#	9:30 CST	(Australian) Central Standard Time
+#	9:30 ACST	Australian Central Standard Time
 #
-# See the `europe' file for Russia and Turkey in Asia.
+# See the 'europe' file for Russia and Turkey in Asia.
 
 # From Guy Harris:
 # Incorporates data for Singapore from Robert Elz' asia 1.1, as well as
@@ -86,7 +91,7 @@
 
 ###############################################################################
 
-# These rules are stolen from the `europe' file.
+# These rules are stolen from the 'europe' file.
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
 Rule	EUAsia	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 1:00u	1:00	S
 Rule	EUAsia	1979	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00u	0	-
@@ -138,11 +143,11 @@
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Asia/Yerevan	2:58:00 -	LMT	1924 May  2
 			3:00	-	YERT	1957 Mar    # Yerevan Time
-			4:00 RussiaAsia YER%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+			4:00 RussiaAsia YER%sT	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
 			3:00	1:00	YERST	1991 Sep 23 # independence
-			3:00 RussiaAsia	AM%sT	1995 Sep 24 2:00s
+			3:00 RussiaAsia	AM%sT	1995 Sep 24  2:00s
 			4:00	-	AMT	1997
-			4:00 RussiaAsia	AM%sT	2012 Mar 25 2:00s
+			4:00 RussiaAsia	AM%sT	2012 Mar 25  2:00s
 			4:00	-	AMT
 
 # Azerbaijan
@@ -155,16 +160,16 @@
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Asia/Baku	3:19:24 -	LMT	1924 May  2
 			3:00	-	BAKT	1957 Mar    # Baku Time
-			4:00 RussiaAsia BAK%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+			4:00 RussiaAsia BAK%sT	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
 			3:00	1:00	BAKST	1991 Aug 30 # independence
 			3:00 RussiaAsia	AZ%sT	1992 Sep lastSat 23:00
-			4:00	-	AZT	1996 # Azerbaijan time
+			4:00	-	AZT	1996     # Azerbaijan Time
 			4:00	EUAsia	AZ%sT	1997
 			4:00	Azer	AZ%sT
 
 # Bahrain
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Bahrain	3:22:20 -	LMT	1920		# Al Manamah
+Zone	Asia/Bahrain	3:22:20 -	LMT	1920     # Manamah
 			4:00	-	GST	1972 Jun
 			3:00	-	AST
 
@@ -174,13 +179,8 @@
 # Daylight Saving Time from June 16 to Sept 30
 #
 # Bangladesh to introduce daylight saving time likely from June 16
-# <a href="http://www.asiantribune.com/?q=node/17288">
 # http://www.asiantribune.com/?q=node/17288
-# </a>
-# or
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh02.html">
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh02.html
-# </a>
 #
 # "... Bangladesh government has decided to switch daylight saving time from
 # June
@@ -195,17 +195,11 @@
 # the 19th and 20th, and they have not set the end date yet.
 #
 # Some sources:
-# <a href="http://in.reuters.com/article/southAsiaNews/idINIndia-40017620090601">
 # http://in.reuters.com/article/southAsiaNews/idINIndia-40017620090601
-# </a>
-# <a href="http://bdnews24.com/details.php?id=85889&cid=2">
 # http://bdnews24.com/details.php?id=85889&cid=2
-# </a>
 #
 # Our wrap-up:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/bangladesh-daylight-saving-2009.html">
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/bangladesh-daylight-saving-2009.html
-# </a>
 
 # From A. N. M. Kamrus Saadat (2009-06-15):
 # Finally we've got the official mail regarding DST start time where DST start
@@ -220,13 +214,8 @@
 #
 # Following report by same newspaper-"The Daily Star Friday":
 # "DST change awaits cabinet decision-Clock won't go back by 1-hr from Oct 1"
-# <a href="http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=107021">
 # http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=107021
-# </a>
-# or
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh04.html">
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh04.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-13):
 # IANS (Indo-Asian News Service) now reports:
@@ -235,22 +224,15 @@
 # "continue for an indefinite period."
 #
 # One of many places where it is published:
-# <a href="http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/business/bangladesh-to-continue-indefinitely-with-advanced-time_100259987.html">
 # http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/business/bangladesh-to-continue-indefinitely-with-advanced-time_100259987.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-12-24):
 # According to Bangladesh newspaper "The Daily Star,"
 # Bangladesh will change its clock back to Standard Time on Dec 31, 2009.
 #
 # Clock goes back 1-hr on Dec 31 night.
-# <a href="http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=119228">
 # http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=119228
-# </a>
-# and
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh05.html">
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh05.html
-# </a>
 #
 # "...The government yesterday decided to put the clock back by one hour
 # on December 31 midnight and the new time will continue until March 31,
@@ -260,17 +242,12 @@
 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-22):
 # According to Bangladesh newspaper "The Daily Star,"
 # Cabinet cancels Daylight Saving Time
-# <a href="http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/latest_news.php?nid=22817">
 # http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/latest_news.php?nid=22817
-# </a>
-# or
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh06.html">
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh06.html
-# </a>
 
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
 Rule	Dhaka	2009	only	-	Jun	19	23:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Dhaka	2009	only	-	Dec	31	23:59	0	-
+Rule	Dhaka	2009	only	-	Dec	31	24:00	0	-
 
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Asia/Dhaka	6:01:40 -	LMT	1890
@@ -301,7 +278,7 @@
 
 # Brunei
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Brunei	7:39:40 -	LMT	1926 Mar   # Bandar Seri Begawan
+Zone	Asia/Brunei	7:39:40 -	LMT	1926 Mar # Bandar Seri Begawan
 			7:30	-	BNT	1933
 			8:00	-	BNT
 
@@ -310,16 +287,16 @@
 # Milne says 6:24:40 was the meridian of the time ball observatory at Rangoon.
 
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Rangoon	6:24:40 -	LMT	1880		# or Yangon
-			6:24:40	-	RMT	1920	   # Rangoon Mean Time?
-			6:30	-	BURT	1942 May   # Burma Time
-			9:00	-	JST	1945 May 3
-			6:30	-	MMT		   # Myanmar Time
+Zone	Asia/Rangoon	6:24:40 -	LMT	1880        # or Yangon
+			6:24:40	-	RMT	1920        # Rangoon Mean Time?
+			6:30	-	BURT	1942 May    # Burma Time
+			9:00	-	JST	1945 May  3
+			6:30	-	MMT	# Myanmar Time
 
 # Cambodia
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Asia/Phnom_Penh	6:59:40 -	LMT	1906 Jun  9
-			7:06:20	-	SMT	1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Saigon MT?
+			7:06:20	-	SMT	1911 Mar 11  0:01 # Saigon MT?
 			7:00	-	ICT	1912 May
 			8:00	-	ICT	1931 May
 			7:00	-	ICT
@@ -332,12 +309,12 @@
 # From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
 # No they don't.  See TIME mag, 1986-02-17 p.52.  Even though
 # China is across 4 physical time zones, before Feb 1, 1986 only the
-# Peking (Bejing) time zone was recognized.  Since that date, China
-# has two of 'em -- Peking's and Urumqi (named after the capital of
+# Peking (Beijing) time zone was recognized.  Since that date, China
+# has two of 'em - Peking's and Ürümqi (named after the capital of
 # the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region).  I don't know about DST for it.
 #
 # . . .I just deleted the DST table and this editor makes it too
-# painful to suck in another copy..  So, here is what I have for
+# painful to suck in another copy.  So, here is what I have for
 # DST start/end dates for Peking's time zone (info from AP):
 #
 #     1986 May 4 - Sept 14
@@ -347,15 +324,16 @@
 # CHINA               8 H  AHEAD OF UTC  ALL OF CHINA, INCL TAIWAN
 # CHINA               9 H  AHEAD OF UTC  APR 17 - SEP 10
 
-# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
-# Shanks & Pottenger write that China (except for Hong Kong and Macau)
-# has had a single time zone since 1980 May 1, observing summer DST
-# from 1986 through 1991; this contradicts Devine's
-# note about Time magazine, though apparently _something_ happened in 1986.
-# Go with Shanks & Pottenger for now.  I made up names for the other
-# pre-1980 time zones.
+# From Paul Eggert (2008-02-11):
+# Jim Mann, "A clumsy embrace for another western custom: China on daylight
+# time - sort of", Los Angeles Times, 1986-05-05 ... [says] that China began
+# observing daylight saving time in 1986.
 
-# From Shanks & Pottenger:
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
+# Shanks & Pottenger have China switching to a single time zone in 1980, but
+# this doesn't seem to be correct.  They also write that China observed summer
+# DST from 1986 through 1991, which seems to match the above commentary, so
+# go with them for DST rules as follows:
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
 Rule	Shang	1940	only	-	Jun	 3	0:00	1:00	D
 Rule	Shang	1940	1941	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	S
@@ -369,7 +347,7 @@
 # historic timezones from some Taiwan websites.  And yes, there are official
 # Chinese names for these locales (before 1949).
 #
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-07-14):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-07-14):
 # I have investigated the timezones around 1970 on the
 # http://www.astro.com/atlas site [with provinces and county
 # boundaries summarized below]....  A few other exceptions were two
@@ -380,65 +358,97 @@
 # (could be true), for the moment I am assuming that those two
 # counties are mistakes in the astro.com data.
 
-# From Paul Eggert (2008-02-11):
-# I just now checked Google News for western news sources that talk
-# about China's single time zone, and couldn't find anything before 1986
-# talking about China being in one time zone.  (That article was: Jim
-# Mann, "A clumsy embrace for another western custom: China on daylight
-# time--sort of", Los Angeles Times, 1986-05-05.  By the way, this
-# article confirms the tz database's data claiming that China began
-# observing daylight saving time in 1986.
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
+# Alois Treindl kindly sent me translations of the following two sources:
 #
-# From Thomas S. Mullaney (2008-02-11):
-# I think you're combining two subjects that need to treated
-# separately: daylight savings (which, you're correct, wasn't
-# implemented until the 1980s) and the unified time zone centered near
-# Beijing (which was implemented in 1949). Briefly, there was also a
-# "Lhasa Time" in Tibet and "Urumqi Time" in Xinjiang. The first was
-# ceased, and the second eventually recognized (again, in the 1980s).
+# (1)
+# Guo Qingsheng (National Time-Service Center, CAS, Xi'an 710600, China)
+# Beijing Time at the Beginning of the PRC
+# China Historical Materials of Science and Technology
+# (Zhongguo ke ji shi liao, 中国科技史料), Vol. 24, No. 1 (2003)
+# It gives evidence that at the beginning of the PRC, Beijing time was
+# officially apparent solar time!  However, Guo also says that the
+# evidence is dubious, as the relevant institute of astronomy had not
+# been taken over by the PRC yet.  It's plausible that apparent solar
+# time was announced but never implemented, and that people continued
+# to use UT+8.  As the Shanghai radio station (and I presume the
+# observatory) was still under control of French missionaries, it
+# could well have ignored any such mandate.
 #
-# From Paul Eggert (2008-06-30):
-# There seems to be a good chance China switched to a single time zone in 1949
-# rather than in 1980 as Shanks & Pottenger have it, but we don't have a
-# reliable documentary source saying so yet, so for now we still go with
-# Shanks & Pottenger.
-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-# Changbai Time ("Long-white Time", Long-white = Heilongjiang area)
+# (2)
+# Guo Qing-sheng (Shaanxi Astronomical Observatory, CAS, Xi'an 710600, China)
+# A Study on the Standard Time Changes for the Past 100 Years in China
+# [undated and unknown publication location]
+# It says several things:
+#   * The Qing dynasty used local apparent solar time throughout China.
+#   * The Republic of China instituted Beijing mean solar time effective
+#     the official calendar book of 1914.
+#   * The French Concession in Shanghai set up signal stations in
+#     French docks in the 1890s, controlled by Xujiahui (Zikawei)
+#     Observatory and set to local mean time.
+#   * "From the end of the 19th century" it changed to UT+8.
+#   * Chinese Customs (by then reduced to a tool of foreign powers)
+#     eventually standardized on this time for all ports, and it
+#     became used by railways as well.
+#   * In 1918 the Central Observatory proposed dividing China into
+#     five time zones (see below for details).  This caught on
+#     at first only in coastal areas observing UT+8.
+#   * During WWII all of China was in theory was at UT+7.  In practice
+#     this was ignored in the west, and I presume was ignored in
+#     Japanese-occupied territory.
+#   * Japanese-occupied Manchuria was at UT+9, i.e., Japan time.
+#   * The five-zone plan was resurrected after WWII and officially put into
+#     place (with some modifications) in March 1948.  It's not clear
+#     how well it was observed in areas under Nationalist control.
+#   * The People's Liberation Army used UT+8 during the civil war.
+#
+# An AP article "Shanghai Internat'l Area Little Changed" in the
+# Lewiston (ME) Daily Sun (1939-05-29), p 17, said "Even the time is
+# different - the occupied districts going by Tokyo time, an hour
+# ahead of that prevailing in the rest of Shanghai."  Guess that the
+# Xujiahui Observatory was under French control and stuck with UT+8.
+#
+# In earlier versions of this file, China had many separate Zone entries, but
+# this was based on what were apparently incorrect data in Shanks & Pottenger.
+# This has now been simplified to the two entries Asia/Shanghai and
+# Asia/Urumqi, with the others being links for backward compatibility.
+# Proposed in 1918 and theoretically in effect until 1949 (although in practice
+# mainly observed in coastal areas), the five zones were:
+#
+# Changbai Time ("Long-white Time", Long-white = Heilongjiang area) UT+8.5
+# Asia/Harbin (currently a link to Asia/Shanghai)
 # Heilongjiang (except Mohe county), Jilin
-Zone	Asia/Harbin	8:26:44	-	LMT	1928 # or Haerbin
-			8:30	-	CHAT	1932 Mar # Changbai Time
-			8:00	-	CST	1940
-			9:00	-	CHAT	1966 May
-			8:30	-	CHAT	1980 May
-			8:00	PRC	C%sT
-# Zhongyuan Time ("Central plain Time")
+#
+# Zhongyuan Time ("Central plain Time") UT+8
+# Asia/Shanghai
 # most of China
-# Milne gives 8:05:56.7; round to nearest.
-Zone	Asia/Shanghai	8:05:57	-	LMT	1928
-			8:00	Shang	C%sT	1949
-			8:00	PRC	C%sT
-# Long-shu Time (probably due to Long and Shu being two names of that area)
+# This currently represents most other zones as well,
+# as apparently these regions have been the same since 1970.
+# Milne gives 8:05:43.2 for Xujiahui Observatory time; round to nearest.
+# Guo says Shanghai switched to UT+8 "from the end of the 19th century".
+#
+# Long-shu Time (probably due to Long and Shu being two names of that area) UT+7
+# Asia/Chongqing (currently a link to Asia/Shanghai)
 # Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Ningxia, Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Yunnan;
 # most of Gansu; west Inner Mongolia; west Qinghai; and the Guangdong
 # counties Deqing, Enping, Kaiping, Luoding, Taishan, Xinxing,
 # Yangchun, Yangjiang, Yu'nan, and Yunfu.
-Zone	Asia/Chongqing	7:06:20	-	LMT	1928 # or Chungking
-			7:00	-	LONT	1980 May # Long-shu Time
-			8:00	PRC	C%sT
-# Xin-zang Time ("Xinjiang-Tibet Time")
+#
+# Xin-zang Time ("Xinjiang-Tibet Time") UT+6
+# Asia/Urumqi
+# This currently represents Kunlun Time as well,
+# as apparently the two regions have been the same since 1970.
 # The Gansu counties Aksay, Anxi, Dunhuang, Subei; west Qinghai;
 # the Guangdong counties  Xuwen, Haikang, Suixi, Lianjiang,
 # Zhanjiang, Wuchuan, Huazhou, Gaozhou, Maoming, Dianbai, and Xinyi;
 # east Tibet, including Lhasa, Chamdo, Shigaise, Jimsar, Shawan and Hutubi;
-# east Xinjiang, including Urumqi, Turpan, Karamay, Korla, Minfeng, Jinghe,
+# east Xinjiang, including Ürümqi, Turpan, Karamay, Korla, Minfeng, Jinghe,
 # Wusu, Qiemo, Xinyan, Wulanwusu, Jinghe, Yumin, Tacheng, Tuoli, Emin,
 # Shihezi, Changji, Yanqi, Heshuo, Tuokexun, Tulufan, Shanshan, Hami,
 # Fukang, Kuitun, Kumukuli, Miquan, Qitai, and Turfan.
-Zone	Asia/Urumqi	5:50:20	-	LMT	1928 # or Urumchi
-			6:00	-	URUT	1980 May # Urumqi Time
-			8:00	PRC	C%sT
-# Kunlun Time
+#
+# Kunlun Time UT+5.5
+# Asia/Kashgar (currently a link to Asia/Urumqi)
 # West Tibet, including Pulan, Aheqi, Shufu, Shule;
 # West Xinjiang, including Aksu, Atushi, Yining, Hetian, Cele, Luopu, Nileke,
 # Zhaosu, Tekesi, Gongliu, Chabuchaer, Huocheng, Bole, Pishan, Suiding,
@@ -455,9 +465,9 @@
 # population of Xinjiang, typically use "Xinjiang time" which is two
 # hours behind Beijing time, or UTC +0600. The government of the Xinjiang
 # Uyghur Autonomous Region, (XAUR, or just Xinjiang for short) as well as
-# local governments such as the Urumqi city government use both times in
+# local governments such as the Ürümqi city government use both times in
 # publications, referring to what is popularly called Xinjiang time as
-# "Urumqi time." When Uyghurs make an appointment in the Uyghur language
+# "Ürümqi time." When Uyghurs make an appointment in the Uyghur language
 # they almost invariably use Xinjiang time.
 #
 # (Their ethnic Han compatriots would typically have no clue of its
@@ -469,21 +479,6 @@
 # the province not having dual times but four times in use at the same
 # time. Some areas remained on standard Xinjiang time or Beijing time and
 # others moving their clocks ahead.)
-#
-# ...an example of an official website using of Urumqi time.
-#
-# The first few lines of the Google translation of
-# <a href="http://www.fjysgl.gov.cn/show.aspx?id=2379&cid=39">
-# http://www.fjysgl.gov.cn/show.aspx?id=2379&cid=39
-# </a>
-# (retrieved 2009-10-13)
-# > Urumqi fire seven people are missing the alleged losses of at least
-# > 500 million yuan
-# >
-# > (Reporter Dong Liu) the day before 20:20 or so (Urumqi Time 18:20),
-# > Urumqi City Department of International Plaza Luther Qiantang River
-# > burst fire. As of yesterday, 18:30, Urumqi City Fire officers and men
-# > have worked continuously for 22 hours...
 
 # From Luther Ma (2009-11-19):
 # With the risk of being redundant to previous answers these are the most common
@@ -494,7 +489,7 @@
 # 3. Urumqi...
 # 4. Kashgar...
 # ...
-# 5. It seems that Uyghurs in Urumqi has been using Xinjiang since at least the
+# 5. It seems that Uyghurs in Ürümqi has been using Xinjiang since at least the
 # 1960's. I know of one Han, now over 50, who grew up in the surrounding
 # countryside and used Xinjiang time as a child.
 #
@@ -506,10 +501,55 @@
 # Autonomous Region under the PRC. (Before that Uyghurs, of course, would also
 # not be using Beijing time, but some local time.)
 
-Zone	Asia/Kashgar	5:03:56	-	LMT	1928 # or Kashi or Kaxgar
-			5:30	-	KAST	1940	 # Kashgar Time
-			5:00	-	KAST	1980 May
+# From David Cochrane (2014-03-26):
+# Just a confirmation that Ürümqi time was implemented in Ürümqi on 1 Feb 1986:
+# http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,960684,00.html
+
+# From Luther Ma (2014-04-22):
+# I have interviewed numerous people of various nationalities and from
+# different localities in Xinjiang and can confirm the information in Guo's
+# report regarding Xinjiang, as well as the Time article reference by David
+# Cochrane.  Whether officially recognized or not (and both are officially
+# recognized), two separate times have been in use in Xinjiang since at least
+# the Cultural Revolution: Xinjiang Time (XJT), aka Ürümqi Time or local time;
+# and Beijing Time.  There is no confusion in Xinjiang as to which name refers
+# to which time. Both are widely used in the province, although in some
+# population groups might be use one to the exclusion of the other.  The only
+# problem is that computers and smart phones list Ürümqi (or Kashgar) as
+# having the same time as Beijing.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
+# In the early days of the PRC, Tibet was given its own time zone (UT+6) but
+# this was withdrawn in 1959 and never reinstated; see Tubten Khétsun,
+# Memories of life in Lhasa under Chinese Rule, Columbia U Press, ISBN
+# 978-0231142861 (2008), translator's introduction by Matthew Akester, p x.
+# As this is before our 1970 cutoff, Tibet doesn't need a separate zone.
+#
+# Xinjiang Time is well-documented as being officially recognized.  E.g., see
+# "The Working-Calendar for The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Government"
+# <http://www.sinkiang.gov.cn/service/ourworking/> (2014-04-22).
+# Unfortunately, we have no good records of time in Xinjiang before 1986.
+# During the 20th century parts of Xinjiang were ruled by the Qing dynasty,
+# the Republic of China, various warlords, the First and Second East Turkestan
+# Republics, the Soviet Union, the Kuomintang, and the People's Republic of
+# China, and tracking down all these organizations' timekeeping rules would be
+# quite a trick.  Approximate this lost history by a transition from LMT to
+# XJT at the start of 1928, the year of accession of the warlord Jin Shuren,
+# which happens to be the date given by Shanks & Pottenger (no doubt as a
+# guess) as the transition from LMT.  Ignore the usage of UT+8 before
+# 1986-02-01 under the theory that the transition date to UT+8 is unknown and
+# that the sort of users who prefer Asia/Urumqi now typically ignored the
+# UT+8 mandate back then.
+
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+# Beijing time, used throughout China; represented by Shanghai.
+Zone	Asia/Shanghai	8:05:43	-	LMT	1901
+			8:00	Shang	C%sT	1949
 			8:00	PRC	C%sT
+# Xinjiang time, used by many in western China; represented by Ürümqi / Ürümchi
+# / Wulumuqi.  (Please use Asia/Shanghai if you prefer Beijing time.)
+Zone	Asia/Urumqi	5:50:20	-	LMT	1928
+			6:00	-	XJT
 
 
 # Hong Kong (Xianggang)
@@ -524,15 +564,11 @@
 # and incorrect rules. Although the exact switch over time is missing, I
 # think 3:30 is correct. The official DST record for Hong Kong can be
 # obtained from
-# <a href="http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm">
 # http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
-# </a>.
 
 # From Arthur David Olson (2009-10-28):
 # Here are the dates given at
-# <a href="http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm">
 # http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
-# </a>
 # as of 2009-10-28:
 # Year        Period
 # 1941        1 Apr to 30 Sep
@@ -612,35 +648,113 @@
 
 # Taiwan
 
-# Shanks & Pottenger write that Taiwan observed DST during 1945, when it
-# was still controlled by Japan.  This is hard to believe, but we don't
-# have any other information.
-
 # From smallufo (2010-04-03):
-# According to Taiwan's CWB,
-# <a href="http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V6/astronomy/cdata/summert.htm">
+# According to Taiwan's CWB [Central Weather Bureau],
 # http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V6/astronomy/cdata/summert.htm
-# </a>
 # Taipei has DST in 1979 between July 1st and Sep 30.
 
-# From Arthur David Olson (2010-04-07):
-# Here's Google's translation of the table at the bottom of the "summert.htm" page:
-# Decade 	                                                    Name                      Start and end date
-# Republic of China 34 years to 40 years (AD 1945-1951 years) Summer Time               May 1 to September 30
-# 41 years of the Republic of China (AD 1952)                 Daylight Saving Time      March 1 to October 31
-# Republic of China 42 years to 43 years (AD 1953-1954 years) Daylight Saving Time      April 1 to October 31
-# In the 44 years to 45 years (AD 1955-1956 years)            Daylight Saving Time      April 1 to September 30
-# Republic of China 46 years to 48 years (AD 1957-1959)       Summer Time               April 1 to September 30
-# Republic of China 49 years to 50 years (AD 1960-1961)       Summer Time               June 1 to September 30
-# Republic of China 51 years to 62 years (AD 1962-1973 years) Stop Summer Time
-# Republic of China 63 years to 64 years (1974-1975 AD)       Daylight Saving Time      April 1 to September 30
-# Republic of China 65 years to 67 years (1976-1978 AD)       Stop Daylight Saving Time
-# Republic of China 68 years (AD 1979)                        Daylight Saving Time      July 1 to September 30
-# Republic of China since 69 years (AD 1980)                  Stop Daylight Saving Time
+# From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2013-07-12):
+# On Dec 28, 1895, the Meiji Emperor announced Ordinance No. 167 of
+# Meiji Year 28 "The clause about standard time", mentioned that
+# Taiwan and Penghu Islands, as well as Yaeyama and Miyako Islands
+# (both in Okinawa) adopt the Western Standard Time which is based on
+# 120E. The adoption began from Jan 1, 1896. The original text can be
+# found on Wikisource:
+# http://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時)
+# ... This could be the first adoption of time zone in Taiwan, because
+# during the Qing Dynasty, it seems that there was no time zone
+# declared officially.
+#
+# Later, in the beginning of World War II, on Sep 25, 1937, the Showa
+# Emperor announced Ordinance No. 529 of Showa Year 12 "The clause of
+# revision in the ordinance No. 167 of Meiji year 28 about standard
+# time", in which abolished the adoption of Western Standard Time in
+# western islands (listed above), which means the whole Japan
+# territory, including later occupations, adopt Japan Central Time
+# (UTC+9). The adoption began on Oct 1, 1937. The original text can
+# be found on Wikisource:
+# http://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/明治二十八年勅令第百六十七號標準時ニ關スル件中改正ノ件
+#
+# That is, the time zone of Taipei switched to UTC+9 on Oct 1, 1937.
+
+# From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-02):
+# I've found more evidence about when the time zone was switched from UTC+9
+# back to UTC+8 after WW2.  I believe it was on Sep 21, 1945.  In a document
+# during Japanese era [1] in which the officer told the staff to change time
+# zone back to Western Standard Time (UTC+8) on Sep 21.  And in another
+# history page of National Cheng Kung University [2], on Sep 21 there is a
+# note "from today, switch back to Western Standard Time".  From these two
+# materials, I believe that the time zone change happened on Sep 21.  And
+# today I have found another monthly journal called "The Astronomical Herald"
+# from The Astronomical Society of Japan [3] in which it mentioned the fact
+# that:
+#
+# 1. Standard Time of the Country (Japan) was adopted on Jan 1, 1888, using
+# the time at 135E (GMT+9)
+#
+# 2. Standard Time of the Country was renamed to Central Standard Time, on Jan
+# 1, 1898, and on the same day, the new territories Taiwan and Penghu islands,
+# as well as Yaeyama and Miyako islands, adopted a new time zone called
+# Western Standard Time, which is in GMT+8.
+#
+# 3. Western Standard Time was deprecated on Sep 30, 1937. From then all the
+# territories of Japan adopted the same time zone, which is Central Standard
+# Time.
+#
+# [1] Academica Historica, Taiwan:
+# http://163.29.208.22:8080/govsaleShowImage/connect_img.php?s=00101738900090036&e=00101738900090037
+# [2] Nat'l Cheng Kung University 70th Anniversary Special Site:
+# http://www.ncku.edu.tw/~ncku70/menu/001/01_01.htm
+# [3] Yukio Niimi, The Standard Time in Japan (1997), p.475:
+# http://www.asj.or.jp/geppou/archive_open/1997/pdf/19971001c.pdf
+
+# Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-03):
+# I finally have found the real official gazette about changing back to
+# Western Standard Time on Sep 21 in Taiwan.  It's Taiwan Governor-General
+# Bulletin No. 386 in Showa 20 years (1945), published on Sep 19, 1945. [1] ...
+# [It] abolishes Bulletin No. 207 in Showa 12 years (1937), which is a local
+# bulletin in Taiwan for that Ordinance No. 529. It also mentioned that 1am on
+# Sep 21, 1945 will be 12am on Sep 21.  I think this bulletin is much more
+# official than the one I mentioned in my first mail, because it's from the
+# top-level government in Taiwan. If you're going to quote any resource, this
+# would be a good one.
+# [1] Taiwan Governor-General Gazette, No. 1018, Sep 19, 1945:
+# http://db2.th.gov.tw/db2/view/viewImg.php?imgcode=0072031018a&num=19&bgn=019&end=019&otherImg=&type=gener
+
+# From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-02):
+# In 1946, DST in Taiwan was from May 15 and ended on Sep 30. The info from
+# Central Weather Bureau website was not correct.
+#
+# Original Bulletin:
+# http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=03502F0AKM1AF
+# http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=0350300AKM1B0 (cont.)
+#
+# In 1947, DST in Taiwan was expanded to Oct 31. There is a backup of that
+# telegram announcement from Taiwan Province Government:
+#
+# http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=0360310AKZ431
+#
+# Here is a brief translation:
+#
+#   The Summer Time this year is adopted from midnight Apr 15 until Sep 20
+#   midnight. To save (energy?) consumption, we're expanding Summer Time
+#   adoption till Oct 31 midnight.
+#
+# The Central Weather Bureau website didn't mention that, however it can
+# be found from historical government announcement database.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-03):
+# As per Yu-Cheng Chuang, say that Taiwan was at UT+9 from 1937-10-01
+# until 1945-09-21 at 01:00, overriding Shanks & Pottenger.
+# Likewise, use Yu-Cheng Chuang's data for DST in Taiwan.
 
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Taiwan	1945	1951	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Taiwan	1945	1951	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Taiwan	1946	only	-	May	15	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Taiwan	1946	only	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Taiwan	1947	only	-	Apr	15	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Taiwan	1947	only	-	Nov	1	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Taiwan	1948	1951	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Taiwan	1948	1951	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	S
 Rule	Taiwan	1952	only	-	Mar	1	0:00	1:00	D
 Rule	Taiwan	1952	1954	-	Nov	1	0:00	0	S
 Rule	Taiwan	1953	1959	-	Apr	1	0:00	1:00	D
@@ -648,11 +762,14 @@
 Rule	Taiwan	1960	1961	-	Jun	1	0:00	1:00	D
 Rule	Taiwan	1974	1975	-	Apr	1	0:00	1:00	D
 Rule	Taiwan	1974	1975	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	S
-Rule	Taiwan	1979	only	-	Jun	30	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Taiwan	1979	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Taiwan	1979	only	-	Jul	1	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Taiwan	1979	only	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	S
 
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Taipei	8:06:00 -	LMT	1896 # or Taibei or T'ai-pei
+# Taipei or Taibei or T'ai-pei
+Zone	Asia/Taipei	8:06:00 -	LMT	1896 Jan  1
+			8:00	-	JWST	1937 Oct  1
+			9:00	-	JST	1945 Sep 21  1:00
 			8:00	Taiwan	C%sT
 
 # Macau (Macao, Aomen)
@@ -672,7 +789,7 @@
 Rule	Macau	1978	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=15	0:00	1:00	S
 Rule	Macau	1978	1980	-	Oct	Sun>=15	0:00	0	-
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Macau	7:34:20 -	LMT	1912
+Zone	Asia/Macau	7:34:20 -	LMT	1912 Jan  1
 			8:00	Macau	MO%sT	1999 Dec 20 # return to China
 			8:00	PRC	C%sT
 
@@ -721,7 +838,7 @@
 # republic has changed its time zone back to that of Moscow.  As a result it
 # is now just four hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time, rather than five hours
 # ahead.  The switch was decreed by the pro-Western president of Georgia,
-# Mikhail Saakashvili, who said the change was partly prompted by the process
+# Mikheil Saakashvili, who said the change was partly prompted by the process
 # of integration into Europe.
 
 # From Teimuraz Abashidze (2005-11-07):
@@ -734,29 +851,31 @@
 # I don't know what can be done, especially knowing that some years ago our
 # DST rules where changed THREE TIMES during one month.
 
+# Milne 1899 says Tbilisi (Tiflis) time was 2:59:05.7.
+# Byalokoz 1919 says Georgia was 2:59:11.
+# Go with Byalokoz.
 
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Tbilisi	2:59:16 -	LMT	1880
-			2:59:16	-	TBMT	1924 May  2 # Tbilisi Mean Time
+Zone	Asia/Tbilisi	2:59:11 -	LMT	1880
+			2:59:11	-	TBMT	1924 May  2 # Tbilisi Mean Time
 			3:00	-	TBIT	1957 Mar    # Tbilisi Time
-			4:00 RussiaAsia TBI%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+			4:00 RussiaAsia TBI%sT	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
 			3:00	1:00	TBIST	1991 Apr  9 # independence
-			3:00 RussiaAsia GE%sT	1992 # Georgia Time
+			3:00 RussiaAsia GE%sT	1992        # Georgia Time
 			3:00 E-EurAsia	GE%sT	1994 Sep lastSun
 			4:00 E-EurAsia	GE%sT	1996 Oct lastSun
 			4:00	1:00	GEST	1997 Mar lastSun
 			4:00 E-EurAsia	GE%sT	2004 Jun 27
-			3:00 RussiaAsia	GE%sT	2005 Mar lastSun 2:00
+			3:00 RussiaAsia	GE%sT	2005 Mar lastSun  2:00
 			4:00	-	GET
 
 # East Timor
 
 # See Indonesia for the 1945 transition.
 
-# From Joao Carrascalao, brother of the former governor of East Timor, in
-# <a href="http://etan.org/et99c/december/26-31/30ETMAY.htm">
+# From João Carrascalão, brother of the former governor of East Timor, in
 # East Timor may be late for its millennium
-# </a> (1999-12-26/31):
+# <http://etan.org/et99c/december/26-31/30ETMAY.htm> (1999-12-26/31):
 # Portugal tried to change the time forward in 1974 because the sun
 # rises too early but the suggestion raised a lot of problems with the
 # Timorese and I still don't think it would work today because it
@@ -766,25 +885,25 @@
 # We don't have any record of the above attempt.
 # Most likely our records are incomplete, but we have no better data.
 
-# <a href="http://www.hri.org/news/world/undh/last/00-08-16.undh.html">
 # From Manoel de Almeida e Silva, Deputy Spokesman for the UN Secretary-General
-# (2000-08-16)</a>:
+# http://www.hri.org/news/world/undh/2000/00-08-16.undh.html
+# (2000-08-16):
 # The Cabinet of the East Timor Transition Administration decided
 # today to advance East Timor's time by one hour.  The time change,
 # which will be permanent, with no seasonal adjustment, will happen at
 # midnight on Saturday, September 16.
 
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Dili	8:22:20 -	LMT	1912
+Zone	Asia/Dili	8:22:20 -	LMT	1912 Jan  1
 			8:00	-	TLT	1942 Feb 21 23:00 # E Timor Time
 			9:00	-	JST	1945 Sep 23
 			9:00	-	TLT	1976 May  3
-			8:00	-	WITA	2000 Sep 17 00:00
+			8:00	-	WITA	2000 Sep 17  0:00
 			9:00	-	TLT
 
 # India
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Kolkata	5:53:28 -	LMT	1880	# Kolkata
+Zone	Asia/Kolkata	5:53:28 -	LMT	1880        # Kolkata
 			5:53:20	-	HMT	1941 Oct    # Howrah Mean Time?
 			6:30	-	BURT	1942 May 15 # Burma Time
 			5:30	-	IST	1942 Sep
@@ -798,7 +917,7 @@
 # Indonesia
 #
 # From Gwillim Law (2001-05-28), overriding Shanks & Pottenger:
-# <http://www.sumatera-inc.com/go_to_invest/about_indonesia.asp#standtime>
+# http://www.sumatera-inc.com/go_to_invest/about_indonesia.asp#standtime
 # says that Indonesia's time zones changed on 1988-01-01.  Looking at some
 # time zone maps, I think that must refer to Western Borneo (Kalimantan Barat
 # and Kalimantan Tengah) switching from UTC+8 to UTC+7.
@@ -810,7 +929,7 @@
 # other formal surrender ceremonies were September 9, 11, and 13, plus
 # September 12 for the regional surrender to Mountbatten in Singapore.
 # These would be the earliest possible times for a change.
-# Regimes horaires pour le monde entier, by Henri Le Corre, (Editions
+# Régimes horaires pour le monde entier, by Henri Le Corre, (Éditions
 # Traditionnelles, 1987, Paris) says that Java and Madura switched
 # from JST to UTC+07:30 on 1945-09-23, and gives 1944-09-01 for Jayapura
 # (Hollandia).  For now, assume all Indonesian locations other than Jayapura
@@ -835,7 +954,7 @@
 # Shanks & Pottenger say the next transition was at 1924 Jan 1 0:13,
 # but this must be a typo.
 			7:07:12	-	BMT	1923 Dec 31 23:47:12 # Batavia
-			7:20	-	JAVT	1932 Nov	 # Java Time
+			7:20	-	JAVT	1932 Nov    # Java Time
 			7:30	-	WIB	1942 Mar 23
 			9:00	-	JST	1945 Sep 23
 			7:30	-	WIB	1948 May
@@ -861,7 +980,7 @@
 # Maluku Islands, West Papua, Papua
 Zone Asia/Jayapura	9:22:48 -	LMT	1932 Nov
 			9:00	-	WIT	1944 Sep  1
-			9:30	-	CST	1964
+			9:30	-	ACST	1964
 			9:00	-	WIT
 
 # Iran
@@ -927,7 +1046,7 @@
 # Several of my users have reported that Iran will not observe DST anymore:
 # http://www.irna.ir/en/news/view/line-17/0603193812164948.htm
 #
-# From Reuters (2007-09-16), with a heads-up from Jesper Norgaard Welen:
+# From Reuters (2007-09-16), with a heads-up from Jesper Nørgaard Welen:
 # ... the Guardian Council ... approved a law on Sunday to re-introduce
 # daylight saving time ...
 # http://uk.reuters.com/article/oilRpt/idUKBLA65048420070916
@@ -993,7 +1112,7 @@
 Rule	Iran	2036	2037	-	Sep	21	0:00	0	S
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Asia/Tehran	3:25:44	-	LMT	1916
-			3:25:44	-	TMT	1946	# Tehran Mean Time
+			3:25:44	-	TMT	1946     # Tehran Mean Time
 			3:30	-	IRST	1977 Nov
 			4:00	Iran	IR%sT	1979
 			3:30	Iran	IR%sT
@@ -1018,17 +1137,11 @@
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-10):
 # The cabinet in Iraq abolished DST last week, according to the following
 # news sources (in Arabic):
-# <a href="http://www.aljeeran.net/wesima_articles/news-20080305-98602.html">
 # http://www.aljeeran.net/wesima_articles/news-20080305-98602.html
-# </a>
-# <a href="http://www.aswataliraq.info/look/article.tpl?id=2047&IdLanguage=17&IdPublication=4&NrArticle=71743&NrIssue=1&NrSection=10">
 # http://www.aswataliraq.info/look/article.tpl?id=2047&IdLanguage=17&IdPublication=4&NrArticle=71743&NrIssue=1&NrSection=10
-# </a>
 #
 # We have published a short article in English about the change:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/iraq-dumps-daylight-saving.html">
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/iraq-dumps-daylight-saving.html
-# </a>
 
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
 Rule	Iraq	1982	only	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	D
@@ -1037,14 +1150,14 @@
 Rule	Iraq	1984	1985	-	Apr	1	0:00	1:00	D
 Rule	Iraq	1985	1990	-	Sep	lastSun	1:00s	0	S
 Rule	Iraq	1986	1990	-	Mar	lastSun	1:00s	1:00	D
-# IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says Apr 1 12:01am UTC; guess the `:01' is a typo.
+# IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says Apr 1 12:01am UTC; guess the ':01' is a typo.
 # Shanks & Pottenger say Iraq did not observe DST 1992/1997; ignore this.
 #
 Rule	Iraq	1991	2007	-	Apr	 1	3:00s	1:00	D
 Rule	Iraq	1991	2007	-	Oct	 1	3:00s	0	S
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Asia/Baghdad	2:57:40	-	LMT	1890
-			2:57:36	-	BMT	1918	    # Baghdad Mean Time?
+			2:57:36	-	BMT	1918     # Baghdad Mean Time?
 			3:00	-	AST	1982 May
 			3:00	Iraq	A%sT
 
@@ -1272,7 +1385,7 @@
 
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Asia/Jerusalem	2:20:54 -	LMT	1880
-			2:20:40	-	JMT	1918	# Jerusalem Mean Time?
+			2:20:40	-	JMT	1918 # Jerusalem Mean Time?
 			2:00	Zion	I%sT
 
 
@@ -1281,15 +1394,15 @@
 
 # Japan
 
-# `9:00' and `JST' is from Guy Harris.
+# '9:00' and 'JST' is from Guy Harris.
 
 # From Paul Eggert (1995-03-06):
 # Today's _Asahi Evening News_ (page 4) reports that Japan had
-# daylight saving between 1948 and 1951, but ``the system was discontinued
-# because the public believed it would lead to longer working hours.''
+# daylight saving between 1948 and 1951, but "the system was discontinued
+# because the public believed it would lead to longer working hours."
 
-# From Mayumi Negishi in the 2005-08-10 Japan Times
-# <http://www.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/getarticle.pl5?nn20050810f2.htm>:
+# From Mayumi Negishi in the 2005-08-10 Japan Times:
+# http://www.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/getarticle.pl5?nn20050810f2.htm
 # Occupation authorities imposed daylight-saving time on Japan on
 # [1948-05-01]....  But lack of prior debate and the execution of
 # daylight-saving time just three days after the bill was passed generated
@@ -1313,7 +1426,8 @@
 
 # From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-09):
 # 'Tokyo' usually stands for the former location of Tokyo Astronomical
-# Observatory: E 139 44' 40".90 (9h 18m 58s.727), N 35 39' 16".0.
+# Observatory: 139 degrees 44' 40.90" E (9h 18m 58.727s),
+# 35 degrees 39' 16.0" N.
 # This data is from 'Rika Nenpyou (Chronological Scientific Tables) 1996'
 # edited by National Astronomical Observatory of Japan....
 # JST (Japan Standard Time) has been used since 1888-01-01 00:00 (JST).
@@ -1321,10 +1435,10 @@
 
 # From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-16):
 # The ordinance No. 51 (1886) established "standard time" in Japan,
-# which stands for the time on E 135 degree.
+# which stands for the time on 135 degrees E.
 # In the ordinance No. 167 (1895), "standard time" was renamed to "central
 # standard time".  And the same ordinance also established "western standard
-# time", which stands for the time on E 120 degree....  But "western standard
+# time", which stands for the time on 120 degrees E....  But "western standard
 # time" was abolished in the ordinance No. 529 (1937).  In the ordinance No.
 # 167, there is no mention regarding for what place western standard time is
 # standard....
@@ -1332,27 +1446,33 @@
 # I wrote "ordinance" above, but I don't know how to translate.
 # In Japanese it's "chokurei", which means ordinance from emperor.
 
-# Shanks & Pottenger claim JST in use since 1896, and that a few
-# places (e.g. Ishigaki) use +0800; go with Suzuki.  Guess that all
-# ordinances took effect on Jan 1.
+# From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2013-07-12):
+# ...the Meiji Emperor announced Ordinance No. 167 of Meiji Year 28 "The clause
+# about standard time" ... The adoption began from Jan 1, 1896.
+# http://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時)
+#
+# ...the Showa Emperor announced Ordinance No. 529 of Showa Year 12 ... which
+# means the whole Japan territory, including later occupations, adopt Japan
+# Central Time (UTC+9). The adoption began on Oct 1, 1937.
+# http://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/明治二十八年勅令第百六十七號標準時ニ關スル件中改正ノ件
 
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Asia/Tokyo	9:18:59	-	LMT	1887 Dec 31 15:00u
-			9:00	-	JST	1896
-			9:00	-	CJT	1938
+			9:00	-	JST	1896 Jan  1
+			9:00	-	JCST	1937 Oct  1
 			9:00	Japan	J%sT
 # Since 1938, all Japanese possessions have been like Asia/Tokyo.
 
 # Jordan
 #
-# From <a href="http://star.arabia.com/990701/JO9.html">
-# Jordan Week (1999-07-01) </a> via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
+# From <http://star.arabia.com/990701/JO9.html>
+# Jordan Week (1999-07-01) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
 # Clocks in Jordan were forwarded one hour on Wednesday at midnight,
 # in accordance with the government's decision to implement summer time
 # all year round.
 #
-# From <a href="http://star.arabia.com/990930/JO9.html">
-# Jordan Week (1999-09-30) </a> via Steffen Thorsen (1999-11-09):
+# From <http://star.arabia.com/990930/JO9.html>
+# Jordan Week (1999-09-30) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-11-09):
 # Winter time starts today Thursday, 30 September. Clocks will be turned back
 # by one hour.  This is the latest government decision and it's final!
 # The decision was taken because of the increase in working hours in
@@ -1372,9 +1492,7 @@
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-04-02):
 # This single one might be good enough, (2009-03-24, Arabic):
-# <a href="http://petra.gov.jo/Artical.aspx?Lng=2&Section=8&Artical=95279">
 # http://petra.gov.jo/Artical.aspx?Lng=2&Section=8&Artical=95279
-# </a>
 #
 # Google's translation:
 #
@@ -1465,9 +1583,8 @@
 # - Qyzylorda switched from +5:00 to +6:00 on 1992-01-19 02:00.
 # - Oral switched from +5:00 to +4:00 in spring 1989.
 
-# <a href="http://www.kazsociety.org.uk/news/2005/03/30.htm">
-# From Kazakhstan Embassy's News Bulletin #11 (2005-03-21):
-# </a>
+# From Kazakhstan Embassy's News Bulletin #11
+# <http://www.kazsociety.org.uk/news/2005/03/30.htm> (2005-03-21):
 # The Government of Kazakhstan passed a resolution March 15 abolishing
 # daylight saving time citing lack of economic benefits and health
 # complications coupled with a decrease in productivity.
@@ -1500,10 +1617,10 @@
 			6:00	-	KIZT	1982 Apr  1
 			5:00 RussiaAsia	KIZ%sT	1991
 			5:00	-	KIZT	1991 Dec 16 # independence
-			5:00	-	QYZT	1992 Jan 19 2:00
+			5:00	-	QYZT	1992 Jan 19  2:00
 			6:00 RussiaAsia	QYZ%sT	2005 Mar 15
 			6:00	-	QYZT
-# Aqtobe (aka Aktobe, formerly Akt'ubinsk)
+# Aqtobe (aka Aktobe, formerly Aktyubinsk)
 Zone	Asia/Aqtobe	3:48:40	-	LMT	1924 May  2
 			4:00	-	AKTT	1930 Jun 21 # Aktyubinsk Time
 			5:00	-	AKTT	1981 Apr  1
@@ -1523,7 +1640,7 @@
 			6:00	-	SHET	1982 Apr  1
 			5:00 RussiaAsia	SHE%sT	1991
 			5:00	-	SHET	1991 Dec 16 # independence
-			5:00 RussiaAsia	AQT%sT	1995 Mar lastSun 2:00 # Aqtau Time
+			5:00 RussiaAsia	AQT%sT	1995 Mar lastSun  2:00 # Aqtau Time
 			4:00 RussiaAsia	AQT%sT	2005 Mar 15
 			5:00	-	AQTT
 # West Kazakhstan
@@ -1532,7 +1649,7 @@
 			5:00	-	URAT	1981 Apr  1
 			5:00	1:00	URAST	1981 Oct  1
 			6:00	-	URAT	1982 Apr  1
-			5:00 RussiaAsia	URA%sT	1989 Mar 26 2:00
+			5:00 RussiaAsia	URA%sT	1989 Mar 26  2:00
 			4:00 RussiaAsia	URA%sT	1991
 			4:00	-	URAT	1991 Dec 16 # independence
 			4:00 RussiaAsia	ORA%sT	2005 Mar 15 # Oral Time
@@ -1543,7 +1660,7 @@
 
 # From Paul Eggert (2005-08-15):
 # According to an article dated today in the Kyrgyzstan Development Gateway
-# <http://eng.gateway.kg/cgi-bin/page.pl?id=1&story_name=doc9979.shtml>
+# http://eng.gateway.kg/cgi-bin/page.pl?id=1&story_name=doc9979.shtml
 # Kyrgyzstan is canceling the daylight saving time system.  I take the article
 # to mean that they will leave their clocks at 6 hours ahead of UTC.
 # From Malik Abdugaliev (2005-09-21):
@@ -1558,17 +1675,17 @@
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Asia/Bishkek	4:58:24 -	LMT	1924 May  2
 			5:00	-	FRUT	1930 Jun 21 # Frunze Time
-			6:00 RussiaAsia FRU%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
-			5:00	1:00	FRUST	1991 Aug 31 2:00 # independence
-			5:00	Kyrgyz	KG%sT	2005 Aug 12    # Kyrgyzstan Time
+			6:00 RussiaAsia FRU%sT	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
+			5:00	1:00	FRUST	1991 Aug 31  2:00 # independence
+			5:00	Kyrgyz	KG%sT	2005 Aug 12 # Kyrgyzstan Time
 			6:00	-	KGT
 
 ###############################################################################
 
 # Korea (North and South)
 
-# From Annie I. Bang (2006-07-10) in
-# <http://www.koreaherald.co.kr/SITE/data/html_dir/2006/07/10/200607100012.asp>:
+# From Annie I. Bang (2006-07-10):
+# http://www.koreaherald.co.kr/SITE/data/html_dir/2006/07/10/200607100012.asp
 # The Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy has already
 # commissioned a research project [to reintroduce DST] and has said
 # the system may begin as early as 2008....  Korea ran a daylight
@@ -1581,19 +1698,29 @@
 Rule	ROK	1987	1988	-	May	Sun>=8	0:00	1:00	D
 Rule	ROK	1987	1988	-	Oct	Sun>=8	0:00	0	S
 
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-01):
+# The following entries are from Shanks & Pottenger, except that I
+# guessed that time zone abbreviations through 1945 followed the same
+# rules as discussed under Taiwan, with nominal switches from JST to KST
+# when the respective cities were taken over by the Allies after WWII.
+
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Asia/Seoul	8:27:52	-	LMT	1890
 			8:30	-	KST	1904 Dec
-			9:00	-	KST	1928
+			9:00	-	JCST	1928
 			8:30	-	KST	1932
+			9:00	-	JCST	1937 Oct  1
+			9:00	-	JST	1945 Sep  8
 			9:00	-	KST	1954 Mar 21
 			8:00	ROK	K%sT	1961 Aug 10
 			8:30	-	KST	1968 Oct
 			9:00	ROK	K%sT
 Zone	Asia/Pyongyang	8:23:00 -	LMT	1890
 			8:30	-	KST	1904 Dec
-			9:00	-	KST	1928
+			9:00	-	JCST	1928
 			8:30	-	KST	1932
+			9:00	-	JCST	1937 Oct  1
+			9:00	-	JST	1945 Aug 24
 			9:00	-	KST	1954 Mar 21
 			8:00	-	KST	1961 Aug 10
 			9:00	-	KST
@@ -1602,21 +1729,13 @@
 
 # Kuwait
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-# From the Arab Times (2007-03-14):
-# The Civil Service Commission (CSC) has approved a proposal forwarded
-# by MP Ahmad Baqer on implementing the daylight saving time (DST) in
-# Kuwait starting from April until the end of Sept this year, reports Al-Anba.
-# <http://www.arabtimesonline.com/arabtimes/kuwait/Viewdet.asp?ID=9950>.
-# From Paul Eggert (2007-03-29):
-# We don't know the details, or whether the approval means it'll happen,
-# so for now we assume no DST.
 Zone	Asia/Kuwait	3:11:56 -	LMT	1950
 			3:00	-	AST
 
 # Laos
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Vientiane	6:50:24 -	LMT	1906 Jun  9 # or Viangchan
-			7:06:20	-	SMT	1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Saigon MT?
+Zone	Asia/Vientiane	6:50:24 -	LMT	1906 Jun  9       # or Viangchan
+			7:06:20	-	SMT	1911 Mar 11  0:01 # Saigon MT?
 			7:00	-	ICT	1912 May
 			8:00	-	ICT	1931 May
 			7:00	-	ICT
@@ -1657,8 +1776,8 @@
 Rule	NBorneo	1935	1941	-	Dec	14	0:00	0	-
 #
 # peninsular Malaysia
-# The data here are taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30)
-# <http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html>.
+# taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30)
+# http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone Asia/Kuala_Lumpur	6:46:46 -	LMT	1901 Jan  1
 			6:55:25	-	SMT	1905 Jun  1 # Singapore M.T.
@@ -1670,12 +1789,12 @@
 			7:30	-	MALT	1982 Jan  1
 			8:00	-	MYT	# Malaysia Time
 # Sabah & Sarawak
-# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
-# The data here are mostly from Shanks & Pottenger, but the 1942, 1945 and 1982
-# transition dates are from Mok Ly Yng.
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-08-12):
+# The data entries here are mostly from Shanks & Pottenger, but the 1942, 1945
+# and 1982 transition dates are from Mok Ly Yng.
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone Asia/Kuching	7:21:20	-	LMT	1926 Mar
-			7:30	-	BORT	1933	# Borneo Time
+			7:30	-	BORT	1933        # Borneo Time
 			8:00	NBorneo	BOR%sT	1942 Feb 16
 			9:00	-	JST	1945 Sep 12
 			8:00	-	BORT	1982 Jan  1
@@ -1683,22 +1802,21 @@
 
 # Maldives
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Indian/Maldives	4:54:00 -	LMT	1880	# Male
-			4:54:00	-	MMT	1960	# Male Mean Time
-			5:00	-	MVT		# Maldives Time
+Zone	Indian/Maldives	4:54:00 -	LMT	1880 # Male
+			4:54:00	-	MMT	1960 # Male Mean Time
+			5:00	-	MVT	# Maldives Time
 
 # Mongolia
 
 # Shanks & Pottenger say that Mongolia has three time zones, but
-# usno1995 and the CIA map Standard Time Zones of the World (2005-03)
-# both say that it has just one.
+# The USNO (1995-12-21) and the CIA map Standard Time Zones of the World
+# (2005-03) both say that it has just one.
 
 # From Oscar van Vlijmen (1999-12-11):
-# <a href="http://www.mongoliatourism.gov.mn/general.htm">
 # General Information Mongolia
-# </a> (1999-09)
+# <http://www.mongoliatourism.gov.mn/general.htm> (1999-09)
 # "Time: Mongolia has two time zones. Three westernmost provinces of
-# Bayan-Ulgii, Uvs, and Hovd are one hour earlier than the capital city, and
+# Bayan-Ölgii, Uvs, and Hovd are one hour earlier than the capital city, and
 # the rest of the country follows the Ulaanbaatar time, which is UTC/GMT plus
 # eight hours."
 
@@ -1709,7 +1827,7 @@
 # of implementation may have been different....
 # Some maps in the past have indicated that there was an additional time
 # zone in the eastern part of Mongolia, including the provinces of Dornod,
-# Suhbaatar, and possibly Khentij.
+# Sükhbaatar, and possibly Khentii.
 
 # From Paul Eggert (1999-12-15):
 # Naming and spelling is tricky in Mongolia.
@@ -1723,10 +1841,10 @@
 # (adopted DST on 2001-04-27 02:00 local time, ending 2001-09-28),
 # there are three time zones.
 #
-# Provinces [at 7:00]: Bayan-ulgii, Uvs, Khovd, Zavkhan, Govi-Altai
-# Provinces [at 8:00]: Khovsgol, Bulgan, Arkhangai, Khentii, Tov,
-#	Bayankhongor, Ovorkhangai, Dundgovi, Dornogovi, Omnogovi
-# Provinces [at 9:00]: Dornod, Sukhbaatar
+# Provinces [at 7:00]: Bayan-Ölgii, Uvs, Khovd, Zavkhan, Govi-Altai
+# Provinces [at 8:00]: Khövsgöl, Bulgan, Arkhangai, Khentii, Töv,
+#	Bayankhongor, Övörkhangai, Dundgovi, Dornogovi, Ömnögovi
+# Provinces [at 9:00]: Dornod, Sükhbaatar
 #
 # [The province of Selenge is omitted from the above lists.]
 
@@ -1743,16 +1861,16 @@
 # We have wildly conflicting information about Mongolia's time zones.
 # Bill Bonnet (2005-05-19) reports that the US Embassy in Ulaanbaatar says
 # there is only one time zone and that DST is observed, citing Microsoft
-# Windows XP as the source.  Risto Nykanen (2005-05-16) reports that
+# Windows XP as the source.  Risto Nykänen (2005-05-16) reports that
 # travelmongolia.org says there are two time zones (UTC+7, UTC+8) with no DST.
 # Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-05-20) reports that the Mongolian Embassy in
 # Washington, DC says there are two time zones, with DST observed.
 # He also found
-# <http://ubpost.mongolnews.mn/index.php?subaction=showcomments&id=1111634894&archive=&start_from=&ucat=1&>
+# http://ubpost.mongolnews.mn/index.php?subaction=showcomments&id=1111634894&archive=&start_from=&ucat=1&
 # which also says that there is DST, and which has a comment by "Toddius"
 # (2005-03-31 06:05 +0700) saying "Mongolia actually has 3.5 time zones.
 # The West (OLGII) is +7 GMT, most of the country is ULAT is +8 GMT
-# and some Eastern provinces are +9 GMT but Sukhbaatar Aimag is SUHK +8.5 GMT.
+# and some Eastern provinces are +9 GMT but Sükhbaatar Aimag is SUHK +8.5 GMT.
 # The SUKH timezone is new this year, it is one of the few things the
 # parliament passed during the tumultuous winter session."
 # For now, let's ignore this information, until we have more confirmation.
@@ -1768,29 +1886,23 @@
 # +08:00 instead. Different sources appear to disagree with the tz
 # database on this, e.g.:
 #
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=1026">
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=1026
-# </a>
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_MN.aspx">
 # http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_MN.aspx
-# </a>
 #
 # both say GMT+08:00.
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-31):
 # eznis airways, which operates several domestic flights, has a flight
 # schedule here:
-# <a href="http://www.eznis.com/Container.jsp?id=112">
 # http://www.eznis.com/Container.jsp?id=112
-# </a>
 # (click the English flag for English)
 #
-# There it appears that flights between Choibalsan and Ulaanbatar arrive
+# There it appears that flights between Choibalsan and Ulaanbaatar arrive
 # about 1:35 - 1:50 hours later in local clock time, no matter the
-# direction, while Ulaanbaatar-Khvod takes 2 hours in the Eastern
-# direction and 3:35 back, which indicates that Ulaanbatar and Khvod are
+# direction, while Ulaanbaatar-Khovd takes 2 hours in the Eastern
+# direction and 3:35 back, which indicates that Ulaanbaatar and Khovd are
 # in different time zones (like we know about), while Choibalsan and
-# Ulaanbatar are in the same time zone (correction needed).
+# Ulaanbaatar are in the same time zone (correction needed).
 
 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-05-19):
 # Assume that Choibalsan is indeed offset by 8:00.
@@ -1806,7 +1918,7 @@
 # (1996-09) says 1996-10-25.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger through 1998.
 #
 # Shanks & Pottenger say that the Sept. 1984 through Sept. 1990 switches
-# in Choibalsan (more precisely, in Dornod and Sukhbaatar) took place
+# in Choibalsan (more precisely, in Dornod and Sükhbaatar) took place
 # at 02:00 standard time, not at 00:00 local time as in the rest of
 # the country.  That would be odd, and possibly is a result of their
 # correction of 02:00 (in the previous edition) not being done correctly
@@ -1822,13 +1934,13 @@
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 # Hovd, a.k.a. Chovd, Dund-Us, Dzhargalant, Khovd, Jirgalanta
 Zone	Asia/Hovd	6:06:36 -	LMT	1905 Aug
-			6:00	-	HOVT	1978	# Hovd Time
+			6:00	-	HOVT	1978     # Hovd Time
 			7:00	Mongol	HOV%sT
 # Ulaanbaatar, a.k.a. Ulan Bataar, Ulan Bator, Urga
 Zone	Asia/Ulaanbaatar 7:07:32 -	LMT	1905 Aug
-			7:00	-	ULAT	1978	# Ulaanbaatar Time
+			7:00	-	ULAT	1978     # Ulaanbaatar Time
 			8:00	Mongol	ULA%sT
-# Choibalsan, a.k.a. Bajan Tuemen, Bajan Tumen, Chojbalsan,
+# Choibalsan, a.k.a. Bajan Tümen, Bajan Tumen, Chojbalsan,
 # Choybalsan, Sanbejse, Tchoibalsan
 Zone	Asia/Choibalsan	7:38:00 -	LMT	1905 Aug
 			7:00	-	ULAT	1978
@@ -1860,7 +1972,7 @@
 # 00:01 was to make it clear which day it was on.
 
 # From Paul Eggert (2002-03-15):
-# Jesper Norgaard found this URL:
+# Jesper Nørgaard found this URL:
 # http://www.pak.gov.pk/public/news/app/app06_dec.htm
 # (dated 2001-12-06) which says that the Cabinet adopted a scheme "to
 # advance the clocks by one hour on the night between the first
@@ -1892,43 +2004,30 @@
 # Here is an article that Pakistan plan to introduce Daylight Saving Time
 # on June 1, 2008 for 3 months.
 #
-# "... The federal cabinet on Wednesday announced a new conservation plan to help
-# reduce load shedding by approving the closure of commercial centres at 9pm and
-# moving clocks forward by one hour for the next three months.
-# ...."
+# "... The federal cabinet on Wednesday announced a new conservation plan to
+# help reduce load shedding by approving the closure of commercial centres at
+# 9pm and moving clocks forward by one hour for the next three months. ...."
 #
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.net/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan01.html">
 # http://www.worldtimezone.net/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan01.html
-# </a>
-# OR
-# <a href="http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008%5C05%5C15%5Cstory_15-5-2008_pg1_4">
 # http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008%5C05%5C15%5Cstory_15-5-2008_pg1_4
-# </a>
 
 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-05-19):
 # XXX--midnight transitions is a guess; 2008 only is a guess.
 
 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2008-08-28):
 # Pakistan government has decided to keep the watches one-hour advanced
-# for another 2 months--plan to return to Standard Time on October 31
+# for another 2 months - plan to return to Standard Time on October 31
 # instead of August 31.
 #
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan02.html">
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan02.html
-# </a>
-# OR
-# <a href="http://dailymailnews.com/200808/28/news/dmbrn03.html">
 # http://dailymailnews.com/200808/28/news/dmbrn03.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-04-08):
 # Based on previous media reports that "... proposed plan to
 # advance clocks by one hour from May 1 will cause disturbance
 # to the working schedules rather than bringing discipline in
 # official working."
-# <a href="http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=171280">
 # http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=171280
-# </a>
 #
 # recent news that instead of May 2009 - Pakistan plan to
 # introduce DST from April 15, 2009
@@ -1936,15 +2035,8 @@
 # FYI: Associated Press Of Pakistan
 # April 08, 2009
 # Cabinet okays proposal to advance clocks by one hour from April 15
-# <a href="http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=73043&Itemid=1">
 # http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=73043&Itemid=1
-# </a>
-#
-# or
-#
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan05.html">
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan05.html
-# </a>
 #
 # ....
 # The Federal Cabinet on Wednesday approved the proposal to
@@ -1957,34 +2049,20 @@
 # clocks backward by one hour from October 1. A formal announcement to
 # this effect will be made after the Prime Minister grants approval in
 # this regard."
-# <a href="http://www.thenews.com.pk/updates.asp?id=87168">
 # http://www.thenews.com.pk/updates.asp?id=87168
-# </a>
 
 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-28):
 # According to Associated Press Of Pakistan, it is confirmed that
-# Pakistan clocks across the country would be turned back by an hour from October
-# 1, 2009.
+# Pakistan clocks across the country would be turned back by an hour from
+# October 1, 2009.
 #
 # "Clocks to go back one hour from 1 Oct"
-# <a href="http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=86715&Itemid=2">
 # http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=86715&Itemid=2
-# </a>
-# or
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan07.htm">
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan07.htm
-# </a>
-
+#
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-09-29):
-# Alexander Krivenyshev wrote:
-# > According to Associated Press Of Pakistan, it is confirmed that
-# > Pakistan clocks across the country would be turned back by an hour from October
-# > 1, 2009.
-#
 # Now they seem to have changed their mind, November 1 is the new date:
-# <a href="http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=24742">
 # http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=24742
-# </a>
 # "The country's clocks will be reversed by one hour on November 1.
 # Officials of Federal Ministry for Interior told this to Geo News on
 # Monday."
@@ -1996,11 +2074,9 @@
 #
 # We have confirmed this year's end date with both with the Ministry of
 # Water and Power and the Pakistan Electric Power Company:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/pakistan-ends-dst09.html">
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/pakistan-ends-dst09.html
-# </a>
 
-# From Christoph Goehre (2009-10-01):
+# From Christoph Göhre (2009-10-01):
 # [T]he German Consulate General in Karachi reported me today that Pakistan
 # will go back to standard time on 1st of November.
 
@@ -2016,22 +2092,17 @@
 # Now, it seems that the decision to not observe DST in final:
 #
 # "Govt Withdraws Plan To Advance Clocks"
-# <a href="http://www.apakistannews.com/govt-withdraws-plan-to-advance-clocks-172041">
 # http://www.apakistannews.com/govt-withdraws-plan-to-advance-clocks-172041
-# </a>
 #
 # "People laud PM's announcement to end DST"
-# <a href="http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=99374&Itemid=2">
 # http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=99374&Itemid=2
-# </a>
 
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
 Rule Pakistan	2002	only	-	Apr	Sun>=2	0:01	1:00	S
 Rule Pakistan	2002	only	-	Oct	Sun>=2	0:01	0	-
 Rule Pakistan	2008	only	-	Jun	1	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule Pakistan	2008	only	-	Nov	1	0:00	0	-
+Rule Pakistan	2008	2009	-	Nov	1	0:00	0	-
 Rule Pakistan	2009	only	-	Apr	15	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule Pakistan	2009	only	-	Nov	1	0:00	0	-
 
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Asia/Karachi	4:28:12 -	LMT	1907
@@ -2105,10 +2176,9 @@
 # the PA has decided to implement DST in April.
 
 # From Paul Eggert (1999-09-20):
-# Daoud Kuttab writes in
-# <a href="http://www.jpost.com/com/Archive/22.Apr.1999/Opinion/Article-2.html">
-# Holiday havoc
-# </a> (Jerusalem Post, 1999-04-22) that
+# Daoud Kuttab writes in Holiday havoc
+# http://www.jpost.com/com/Archive/22.Apr.1999/Opinion/Article-2.html
+# (Jerusalem Post, 1999-04-22) that
 # the Palestinian National Authority changed to DST on 1999-04-15.
 # I vaguely recall that they switch back in October (sorry, forgot the source).
 # For now, let's assume that the spring switch was at 24:00,
@@ -2121,7 +2191,7 @@
 # A user from Gaza reported that Gaza made the change early because of
 # the Ramadan.  Next year Ramadan will be even earlier, so I think
 # there is a good chance next year's end date will be around two weeks
-# earlier--the same goes for Jordan.
+# earlier - the same goes for Jordan.
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-08-17):
 # I was informed by a user in Bethlehem that in Bethlehem it started the
@@ -2140,7 +2210,7 @@
 # I guess it is likely that next year's date will be moved as well,
 # because of the Ramadan.
 
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2007-09-18):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2007-09-18):
 # According to Steffen Thorsen's web site the Gaza Strip and the rest of the
 # Palestinian territories left DST early on 13.th. of September at 2:00.
 
@@ -2157,16 +2227,9 @@
 # Gaza Strip (as Egypt) ended DST at midnight Thursday (Aug 28, 2008), while
 # the West Bank will end Daylight Saving Time at midnight Sunday (Aug 31, 2008).
 #
-# <a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/feedarticle/7759001">
 # http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/feedarticle/7759001
-# </a>
-# <a href="http://www.abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=5676087">
 # http://www.abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=5676087
-# </a>
-# or
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip01.html">
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip01.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-26):
 # According to the Palestine News Network (arabic.pnn.ps), Palestinian
@@ -2174,24 +2237,17 @@
 # 26 and continue until the night of 27 September 2009.
 #
 # (in Arabic)
-# <a href="http://arabic.pnn.ps/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=50850">
 # http://arabic.pnn.ps/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=50850
-# </a>
 #
-# or
 # (English translation)
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank01.html">
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank01.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-08-31):
 # Palestine's Council of Ministers announced that they will revert back to
 # winter time on Friday, 2009-09-04.
 #
 # One news source:
-# <a href="http://www.safa.ps/ara/?action=showdetail&seid=4158">
 # http://www.safa.ps/ara/?action=showdetail&seid=4158
-# </a>
 # (Palestinian press agency, Arabic),
 # Google translate: "Decided that the Palestinian government in Ramallah
 # headed by Salam Fayyad, the start of work in time for the winter of
@@ -2200,9 +2256,7 @@
 #
 # We are not sure if Gaza will do the same, last year they had a different
 # end date, we will keep this page updated:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-dst-2009.html">
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-dst-2009.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-02):
 # Seems that Gaza Strip will go back to Winter Time same date as West Bank.
@@ -2212,51 +2266,35 @@
 #
 # "Winter time unite the West Bank and Gaza"
 # (from Palestinian National Authority):
-# <a href="http://www.moi.gov.ps/en/?page=633167343250594025&nid=11505
 # http://www.moi.gov.ps/en/?page=633167343250594025&nid=11505
-# </a>
-# or
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip02.html>
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip02.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-19):
 # According to Voice of Palestine DST will last for 191 days, from March
 # 26, 2010 till "the last Sunday before the tenth day of Tishri
 # (October), each year" (October 03, 2010?)
 #
-# <a href="http://palvoice.org/forums/showthread.php?t=245697">
 # http://palvoice.org/forums/showthread.php?t=245697
-# </a>
 # (in Arabic)
-# or
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank03.html">
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank03.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-24):
 # ...Ma'an News Agency reports that Hamas cabinet has decided it will
 # start one day later, at 12:01am. Not sure if they really mean 12:01am or
 # noon though:
 #
-# <a href="http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=271178">
 # http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=271178
-# </a>
 # (Ma'an News Agency)
 # "At 12:01am Friday, clocks in Israel and the West Bank will change to
 # 1:01am, while Gaza clocks will change at 12:01am Saturday morning."
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-08-11):
 # According to several sources, including
-# <a href="http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=306795">
 # http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=306795
-# </a>
 # the clocks were set back one hour at 2010-08-11 00:00:00 local time in
 # Gaza and the West Bank.
 # Some more background info:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-end-dst-2010.html">
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-end-dst-2010.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-08-26):
 # Gaza and the West Bank did go back to standard time in the beginning of
@@ -2264,13 +2302,9 @@
 # 00:00 (so two periods of DST in 2011). The pause was because of
 # Ramadan.
 #
-# <a href="http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=416217">
 # http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=416217
-# </a>
 # Additional info:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/palestine-dst-2011.html">
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/palestine-dst-2011.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-08-27):
 # According to the article in The Jerusalem Post:
@@ -2280,14 +2314,9 @@
 # The Hamas government said on Saturday that it won't observe summertime after
 # the Muslim feast of Id al-Fitr, which begins on Tuesday..."
 # ...
-# <a href="http://www.jpost.com/MiddleEast/Article.aspx?id=235650">
 # http://www.jpost.com/MiddleEast/Article.aspx?id=235650
-# </a>
-# or
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip05.html">
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip05.html
-# </a>
-# The rules for Egypt are stolen from the `africa' file.
+# The rules for Egypt are stolen from the 'africa' file.
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-09-30):
 # West Bank did end Daylight Saving Time this morning/midnight (2011-09-30
@@ -2295,26 +2324,18 @@
 # So West Bank and Gaza now have the same time again.
 #
 # Many sources, including:
-# <a href="http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=424808">
 # http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=424808
-# </a>
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-26):
 # Palestinian news sources tell that both Gaza and West Bank will start DST
 # on Friday (Thursday midnight, 2012-03-29 24:00).
 # Some of many sources in Arabic:
-# <a href="http://www.samanews.com/index.php?act=Show&id=122638">
 # http://www.samanews.com/index.php?act=Show&id=122638
-# </a>
 #
-# <a href="http://safa.ps/details/news/74352/%D8%A8%D8%AF%D8%A1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%82%D9%8A%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%8A%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B6%D9%81%D8%A9-%D9%88%D8%BA%D8%B2%D8%A9-%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%84%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D9%85%D8%B9%D8%A9.html">
 # http://safa.ps/details/news/74352/%D8%A8%D8%AF%D8%A1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%82%D9%8A%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%8A%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B6%D9%81%D8%A9-%D9%88%D8%BA%D8%B2%D8%A9-%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%84%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D9%85%D8%B9%D8%A9.html
-# </a>
 #
 # Our brief summary:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/gaza-west-bank-dst-2012.html">
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/gaza-west-bank-dst-2012.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-03-26):
 # The following news sources tells that Palestine will "start daylight saving
@@ -2374,10 +2395,10 @@
 			2:00 EgyptAsia	EE%sT	1967 Jun  5
 			2:00	Zion	I%sT	1996
 			2:00	Jordan	EE%sT	1999
-			2:00 Palestine	EE%sT	2008 Aug 29 0:00
+			2:00 Palestine	EE%sT	2008 Aug 29  0:00
 			2:00	-	EET	2008 Sep
 			2:00 Palestine	EE%sT	2010
-			2:00	-	EET	2010 Mar 27 0:01
+			2:00	-	EET	2010 Mar 27  0:01
 			2:00 Palestine	EE%sT	2011 Aug  1
 			2:00	-	EET	2012
 			2:00 Palestine	EE%sT
@@ -2393,25 +2414,27 @@
 # no information
 
 # Philippines
-# On 1844-08-16, Narciso Claveria, governor-general of the
+# On 1844-08-16, Narciso Clavería, governor-general of the
 # Philippines, issued a proclamation announcing that 1844-12-30 was to
-# be immediately followed by 1845-01-01.  Robert H. van Gent has a
-# transcript of the decree in <http://www.phys.uu.nl/~vgent/idl/idl.htm>.
-# The rest of the data are from Shanks & Pottenger.
+# be immediately followed by 1845-01-01; see R.H. van Gent's
+# History of the International Date Line
+# http://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/idl/idl_philippines.htm
+# The rest of the data entries are from Shanks & Pottenger.
 
-# From Paul Eggert (2006-04-25):
-# Tomorrow's Manila Standard reports that the Philippines Department of
-# Trade and Industry is considering adopting DST this June when the
-# rainy season begins.  See
-# <http://www.manilastandardtoday.com/?page=politics02_april26_2006>.
-# For now, we'll ignore this, since it's not definite and we lack details.
-#
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-04-26):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-04-26):
 # ... claims that Philippines had DST last time in 1990:
 # http://story.philippinetimes.com/p.x/ct/9/id/145be20cc6b121c0/cid/3e5bbccc730d258c/
 # [a story dated 2006-04-25 by Cris Larano of Dow Jones Newswires,
 # but no details]
 
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-08-14):
+# The following source says DST may be instituted November-January and again
+# March-June, but this is not definite.  It also says DST was last proclaimed
+# during the Ramos administration (1992-1998); but again, no details.
+# Carcamo D. PNoy urged to declare use of daylight saving time.
+# Philippine Star 2014-08-05
+# http://www.philstar.com/headlines/2014/08/05/1354152/pnoy-urged-declare-use-daylight-saving-time
+
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
 Rule	Phil	1936	only	-	Nov	1	0:00	1:00	S
 Rule	Phil	1937	only	-	Feb	1	0:00	0	-
@@ -2428,18 +2451,39 @@
 
 # Qatar
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Qatar	3:26:08 -	LMT	1920	# Al Dawhah / Doha
+Zone	Asia/Qatar	3:26:08 -	LMT	1920     # Al Dawhah / Doha
 			4:00	-	GST	1972 Jun
 			3:00	-	AST
 
 # Saudi Arabia
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-15):
+# Time in Saudi Arabia and other countries in the Arabian peninsula was not
+# standardized until relatively recently; we don't know when, and possibly it
+# has never been made official.  Richard P Hunt, in "Islam city yielding to
+# modern times", New York Times (1961-04-09), p 20, wrote that only airlines
+# observed standard time, and that people in Jeddah mostly observed quasi-solar
+# time, doing so by setting their watches at sunrise to 6 o'clock (or to 12
+# o'clock for "Arab" time).
+#
+# The TZ database cannot represent quasi-solar time; airline time is the best
+# we can do.  The 1946 foreign air news digest of the U.S. Civil Aeronautics
+# Board (OCLC 42299995) reported that the "... Arabian Government, inaugurated
+# a weekly Dhahran-Cairo service, via the Saudi Arabian cities of Riyadh and
+# Jidda, on March 14, 1947".  Shanks & Pottenger guessed 1950; go with the
+# earlier date.
+#
+# Shanks & Pottenger also state that until 1968-05-01 Saudi Arabia had two
+# time zones; the other zone, at UTC+4, was in the far eastern part of
+# the country.  Ignore this, as it's before our 1970 cutoff.
+#
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Riyadh	3:06:52 -	LMT	1950
+Zone	Asia/Riyadh	3:06:52 -	LMT	1947 Mar 14
 			3:00	-	AST
 
 # Singapore
-# The data here are taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30)
-# <http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html>.
+# taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30)
+# http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Asia/Singapore	6:55:25 -	LMT	1901 Jan  1
 			6:55:25	-	SMT	1905 Jun  1 # Singapore M.T.
@@ -2465,26 +2509,24 @@
 
 # From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03):
 # "Sri Lanka advances clock by an hour to avoid blackout"
-# (www.virtual-pc.com/lankaweb/news/items/240596-2.html, 1996-05-24,
+# (<http://www.virtual-pc.com/lankaweb/news/items/240596-2.html>, 1996-05-24,
 # no longer available as of 1999-08-17)
-# reported ``the country's standard time will be put forward by one hour at
-# midnight Friday (1830 GMT) `in the light of the present power crisis'.''
+# reported "the country's standard time will be put forward by one hour at
+# midnight Friday (1830 GMT) 'in the light of the present power crisis'."
 #
 # From Dharmasiri Senanayake, Sri Lanka Media Minister (1996-10-24), as quoted
-# by Shamindra in
-# <a href="news:54rka5$m5h@mtinsc01-mgt.ops.worldnet.att.net">
-# Daily News - Hot News Section (1996-10-26)
-# </a>:
+# by Shamindra in Daily News - Hot News Section
+# <news:54rka5$m5h@mtinsc01-mgt.ops.worldnet.att.net> (1996-10-26):
 # With effect from 12.30 a.m. on 26th October 1996
 # Sri Lanka will be six (06) hours ahead of GMT.
 
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-04-14), quoting Sri Lanka News Online
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-04-14), quoting Sri Lanka News Online
 # <http://news.sinhalaya.com/wmview.php?ArtID=11002> (2006-04-13):
 # 0030 hrs on April 15, 2006 (midnight of April 14, 2006 +30 minutes)
 # at present, become 2400 hours of April 14, 2006 (midnight of April 14, 2006).
 
 # From Peter Apps and Ranga Sirila of Reuters (2006-04-12) in:
-# <http://today.reuters.co.uk/news/newsArticle.aspx?type=scienceNews&storyID=2006-04-12T172228Z_01_COL295762_RTRIDST_0_SCIENCE-SRILANKA-TIME-DC.XML>
+# http://today.reuters.co.uk/news/newsArticle.aspx?type=scienceNews&storyID=2006-04-12T172228Z_01_COL295762_RTRIDST_0_SCIENCE-SRILANKA-TIME-DC.XML
 # [The Tamil Tigers] never accepted the original 1996 time change and simply
 # kept their clocks set five and a half hours ahead of Greenwich Mean
 # Time (GMT), in line with neighbor India.
@@ -2498,7 +2540,7 @@
 # twice in 1996 and probably SL Government or its standardization
 # agencies never declared an abbreviation as a national standard.
 #
-# I recollect before the recent change the government annoucemments
+# I recollect before the recent change the government announcements
 # mentioning it as simply changing Sri Lanka Standard Time or Sri Lanka
 # Time and no mention was made about the abbreviation.
 #
@@ -2508,7 +2550,7 @@
 # item....
 #
 # Within Sri Lanka I think LKT is well known among computer users and
-# adminsitrators.  In my opinion SLT may not be a good choice because the
+# administrators.  In my opinion SLT may not be a good choice because the
 # nation's largest telcom / internet operator Sri Lanka Telcom is well
 # known by that abbreviation - simply as SLT (there IP domains are
 # slt.lk and sltnet.lk).
@@ -2523,13 +2565,13 @@
 
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Asia/Colombo	5:19:24 -	LMT	1880
-			5:19:32	-	MMT	1906	# Moratuwa Mean Time
+			5:19:32	-	MMT	1906        # Moratuwa Mean Time
 			5:30	-	IST	1942 Jan  5
 			5:30	0:30	IHST	1942 Sep
-			5:30	1:00	IST	1945 Oct 16 2:00
-			5:30	-	IST	1996 May 25 0:00
-			6:30	-	LKT	1996 Oct 26 0:30
-			6:00	-	LKT	2006 Apr 15 0:30
+			5:30	1:00	IST	1945 Oct 16  2:00
+			5:30	-	IST	1996 May 25  0:00
+			6:30	-	LKT	1996 Oct 26  0:30
+			6:00	-	LKT	2006 Apr 15  0:30
 			5:30	-	IST
 
 # Syria
@@ -2580,7 +2622,7 @@
 # Today the AP reported "Syria will switch to summertime at midnight Thursday."
 # http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/03/29/africa/ME-GEN-Syria-Time-Change.php
 Rule	Syria	2007	only	-	Mar	lastFri	0:00	1:00	S
-# From Jesper Norgard (2007-10-27):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard (2007-10-27):
 # The sister center ICARDA of my work CIMMYT is confirming that Syria DST will
 # not take place 1st November at 0:00 o'clock but 1st November at 24:00 or
 # rather Midnight between Thursday and Friday. This does make more sense than
@@ -2589,7 +2631,7 @@
 # it is implemented at midnight of the last workday before weekend...
 #
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-10-27):
-# Jesper Norgaard Welen wrote:
+# Jesper Nørgaard Welen wrote:
 #
 # > "Winter local time in Syria will be observed at midnight of Thursday 1
 # > November 2007, and the clock will be put back 1 hour."
@@ -2605,8 +2647,7 @@
 
 # From Stephen Colebourne (2008-03-17):
 # For everyone's info, I saw an IATA time zone change for [Syria] for
-# this month (March 2008) in the last day or so...This is the data IATA
-# are now using:
+# this month (March 2008) in the last day or so....
 # Country     Time Standard   --- DST Start ---   --- DST End ---  DST
 # Name        Zone Variation   Time    Date        Time    Date
 # Variation
@@ -2618,16 +2659,15 @@
 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-17):
 # Here's a link to English-language coverage by the Syrian Arab News
 # Agency (SANA)...
-# <a href="http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2008/03/11/165173.htm">
 # http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2008/03/11/165173.htm
-# </a>...which reads (in part) "The Cabinet approved the suggestion of the
+# ...which reads (in part) "The Cabinet approved the suggestion of the
 # Ministry of Electricity to begin daylight savings time on Friday April
 # 4th, advancing clocks one hour ahead on midnight of Thursday April 3rd."
 # Since Syria is two hours east of UTC, the 2200 and 2100 transition times
 # shown above match up with midnight in Syria.
 
 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-18):
-# My buest guess at a Syrian rule is "the Friday nearest April 1";
+# My best guess at a Syrian rule is "the Friday nearest April 1";
 # coding that involves either using a "Mar Fri>=29" construct that old time zone
 # compilers can't handle  or having multiple Rules (a la Israel).
 # For now, use "Apr Fri>=1", and go with IATA on a uniform Sep 30 end.
@@ -2640,37 +2680,27 @@
 # winter time on 2008-11-01 at 00:00 local daylight time (delaying/setting
 # clocks back 60 minutes).
 #
-# <a href="http://sana.sy/ara/2/2008/10/07/195459.htm">
 # http://sana.sy/ara/2/2008/10/07/195459.htm
-# </a>
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-19):
 # Syria will start DST on 2009-03-27 00:00 this year according to many sources,
 # two examples:
 #
-# <a href="http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2009/03/17/217563.htm">
 # http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2009/03/17/217563.htm
-# </a>
 # (English, Syrian Arab News # Agency)
-# <a href="http://thawra.alwehda.gov.sy/_View_news2.asp?FileName=94459258720090318012209">
 # http://thawra.alwehda.gov.sy/_View_news2.asp?FileName=94459258720090318012209
-# </a>
 # (Arabic, gov-site)
 #
 # We have not found any sources saying anything about when DST ends this year.
 #
 # Our summary
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-starts-march-27-2009.html">
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-starts-march-27-2009.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-27):
 # The Syrian Arab News Network on 2009-09-29 reported that Syria will
 # revert back to winter (standard) time on midnight between Thursday
 # 2009-10-29 and Friday 2009-10-30:
-# <a href="http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2009/09/29/247012.htm">
 # http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2009/09/29/247012.htm (Arabic)
-# </a>
 
 # From Arthur David Olson (2009-10-28):
 # We'll see if future DST switching times turn out to be end of the last
@@ -2681,23 +2711,17 @@
 # The "Syrian News Station" reported on 2010-03-16 that the Council of
 # Ministers has decided that Syria will start DST on midnight Thursday
 # 2010-04-01: (midnight between Thursday and Friday):
-# <a href="http://sns.sy/sns/?path=news/read/11421">
 # http://sns.sy/sns/?path=news/read/11421 (Arabic)
-# </a>
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-26):
 # Today, Syria's government announced that they will start DST early on Friday
 # (00:00). This is a bit earlier than the past two years.
 #
 # From Syrian Arab News Agency, in Arabic:
-# <a href="http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2012/03/26/408215.htm">
 # http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2012/03/26/408215.htm
-# </a>
 #
 # Our brief summary:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-2012.html">
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-2012.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-27):
 # Assume last Friday in March going forward XXX.
@@ -2710,7 +2734,7 @@
 Rule	Syria	2009	max	-	Oct	lastFri	0:00	0	-
 
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Damascus	2:25:12 -	LMT	1920	# Dimashq
+Zone	Asia/Damascus	2:25:12 -	LMT	1920 # Dimashq
 			2:00	Syria	EE%sT
 
 # Tajikistan
@@ -2718,9 +2742,9 @@
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Asia/Dushanbe	4:35:12 -	LMT	1924 May  2
 			5:00	-	DUST	1930 Jun 21 # Dushanbe Time
-			6:00 RussiaAsia DUS%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
-			5:00	1:00	DUSST	1991 Sep  9 2:00s
-			5:00	-	TJT		    # Tajikistan Time
+			6:00 RussiaAsia DUS%sT	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
+			5:00	1:00	DUSST	1991 Sep  9  2:00s
+			5:00	-	TJT	# Tajikistan Time
 
 # Thailand
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
@@ -2733,9 +2757,9 @@
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Asia/Ashgabat	3:53:32 -	LMT	1924 May  2 # or Ashkhabad
 			4:00	-	ASHT	1930 Jun 21 # Ashkhabad Time
-			5:00 RussiaAsia	ASH%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00
+			5:00 RussiaAsia	ASH%sT	1991 Mar 31  2:00
 			4:00 RussiaAsia	ASH%sT	1991 Oct 27 # independence
-			4:00 RussiaAsia	TM%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00
+			4:00 RussiaAsia	TM%sT	1992 Jan 19  2:00
 			5:00	-	TMT
 
 # United Arab Emirates
@@ -2744,8 +2768,9 @@
 			4:00	-	GST
 
 # Uzbekistan
+# Byalokoz 1919 says Uzbekistan was 4:27:53.
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Samarkand	4:27:12 -	LMT	1924 May  2
+Zone	Asia/Samarkand	4:27:53 -	LMT	1924 May  2
 			4:00	-	SAMT	1930 Jun 21 # Samarkand Time
 			5:00	-	SAMT	1981 Apr  1
 			5:00	1:00	SAMST	1981 Oct  1
@@ -2753,9 +2778,10 @@
 			5:00 RussiaAsia	SAM%sT	1991 Sep  1 # independence
 			5:00 RussiaAsia	UZ%sT	1992
 			5:00	-	UZT
-Zone	Asia/Tashkent	4:37:12 -	LMT	1924 May  2
+# Milne says Tashkent was 4:37:10.8; round to nearest.
+Zone	Asia/Tashkent	4:37:11 -	LMT	1924 May  2
 			5:00	-	TAST	1930 Jun 21 # Tashkent Time
-			6:00 RussiaAsia	TAS%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00
+			6:00 RussiaAsia	TAS%sT	1991 Mar 31  2:00
 			5:00 RussiaAsia	TAS%sT	1991 Sep  1 # independence
 			5:00 RussiaAsia	UZ%sT	1992
 			5:00	-	UZT
@@ -2769,13 +2795,13 @@
 # and Pottenger.
 
 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-18):
-# The English-language name of Vietnam's most populous city is "Ho Chi Min City";
-# we use Ho_Chi_Minh below to avoid a name of more than 14 characters.
+# The English-language name of Vietnam's most populous city is "Ho Chi Minh
+# City"; use Ho_Chi_Minh below to avoid a name of more than 14 characters.
 
 # From Shanks & Pottenger:
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Asia/Ho_Chi_Minh	7:06:40 -	LMT	1906 Jun  9
-			7:06:20	-	SMT	1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Saigon MT?
+			7:06:20	-	SMT	1911 Mar 11  0:01 # Saigon MT?
 			7:00	-	ICT	1912 May
 			8:00	-	ICT	1931 May
 			7:00	-	ICT
--- a/make/data/tzdata/australasia	Thu Sep 11 09:08:56 2014 -0700
+++ b/make/data/tzdata/australasia	Thu Sep 11 14:29:21 2014 -0700
@@ -21,7 +21,6 @@
 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
 # questions.
 #
-# <pre>
 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
 
@@ -36,13 +35,13 @@
 # Please see the notes below for the controversy about "EST" versus "AEST" etc.
 
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Aus	1917	only	-	Jan	 1	0:01	1:00	-
-Rule	Aus	1917	only	-	Mar	25	2:00	0	-
-Rule	Aus	1942	only	-	Jan	 1	2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Aus	1942	only	-	Mar	29	2:00	0	-
-Rule	Aus	1942	only	-	Sep	27	2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Aus	1943	1944	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	0	-
-Rule	Aus	1943	only	-	Oct	 3	2:00	1:00	-
+Rule	Aus	1917	only	-	Jan	 1	0:01	1:00	D
+Rule	Aus	1917	only	-	Mar	25	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Aus	1942	only	-	Jan	 1	2:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Aus	1942	only	-	Mar	29	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Aus	1942	only	-	Sep	27	2:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Aus	1943	1944	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Aus	1943	only	-	Oct	 3	2:00	1:00	D
 # Go with Whitman and the Australian National Standards Commission, which
 # says W Australia didn't use DST in 1943/1944.  Ignore Whitman's claim that
 # 1944/1945 was just like 1943/1944.
@@ -50,26 +49,26 @@
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 # Northern Territory
 Zone Australia/Darwin	 8:43:20 -	LMT	1895 Feb
-			 9:00	-	CST	1899 May
-			 9:30	Aus	CST
+			 9:00	-	ACST	1899 May
+			 9:30	Aus	AC%sT
 # Western Australia
 #
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	AW	1974	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
-Rule	AW	1975	only	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AW	1983	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
-Rule	AW	1984	only	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AW	1991	only	-	Nov	17	2:00s	1:00	-
-Rule	AW	1992	only	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AW	2006	only	-	Dec	 3	2:00s	1:00	-
-Rule	AW	2007	2009	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AW	2007	2008	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	AW	1974	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	AW	1975	only	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AW	1983	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	AW	1984	only	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AW	1991	only	-	Nov	17	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	AW	1992	only	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AW	2006	only	-	Dec	 3	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	AW	2007	2009	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AW	2007	2008	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
 Zone Australia/Perth	 7:43:24 -	LMT	1895 Dec
-			 8:00	Aus	WST	1943 Jul
-			 8:00	AW	WST
+			 8:00	Aus	AW%sT	1943 Jul
+			 8:00	AW	AW%sT
 Zone Australia/Eucla	 8:35:28 -	LMT	1895 Dec
-			 8:45	Aus	CWST	1943 Jul
-			 8:45	AW	CWST
+			 8:45	Aus	ACW%sT	1943 Jul
+			 8:45	AW	ACW%sT
 
 # Queensland
 #
@@ -85,150 +84,150 @@
 # so use Lindeman.
 #
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	AQ	1971	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
-Rule	AQ	1972	only	-	Feb	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AQ	1989	1991	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
-Rule	AQ	1990	1992	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	Holiday	1992	1993	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
-Rule	Holiday	1993	1994	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AQ	1971	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	AQ	1972	only	-	Feb	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AQ	1989	1991	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	AQ	1990	1992	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	Holiday	1992	1993	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	Holiday	1993	1994	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
 Zone Australia/Brisbane	10:12:08 -	LMT	1895
-			10:00	Aus	EST	1971
-			10:00	AQ	EST
+			10:00	Aus	AE%sT	1971
+			10:00	AQ	AE%sT
 Zone Australia/Lindeman  9:55:56 -	LMT	1895
-			10:00	Aus	EST	1971
-			10:00	AQ	EST	1992 Jul
-			10:00	Holiday	EST
+			10:00	Aus	AE%sT	1971
+			10:00	AQ	AE%sT	1992 Jul
+			10:00	Holiday	AE%sT
 
 # South Australia
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	AS	1971	1985	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
-Rule	AS	1986	only	-	Oct	19	2:00s	1:00	-
-Rule	AS	1987	2007	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
-Rule	AS	1972	only	-	Feb	27	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AS	1973	1985	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AS	1986	1990	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AS	1991	only	-	Mar	3	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AS	1992	only	-	Mar	22	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AS	1993	only	-	Mar	7	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AS	1994	only	-	Mar	20	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AS	1995	2005	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AS	2006	only	-	Apr	2	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AS	2007	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AS	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AS	2008	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	AS	1971	1985	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	AS	1986	only	-	Oct	19	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	AS	1987	2007	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	AS	1972	only	-	Feb	27	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AS	1973	1985	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AS	1986	1990	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AS	1991	only	-	Mar	3	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AS	1992	only	-	Mar	22	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AS	1993	only	-	Mar	7	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AS	1994	only	-	Mar	20	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AS	1995	2005	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AS	2006	only	-	Apr	2	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AS	2007	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AS	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AS	2008	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	D
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone Australia/Adelaide	9:14:20 -	LMT	1895 Feb
-			9:00	-	CST	1899 May
-			9:30	Aus	CST	1971
-			9:30	AS	CST
+			9:00	-	ACST	1899 May
+			9:30	Aus	AC%sT	1971
+			9:30	AS	AC%sT
 
 # Tasmania
 #
 # From Paul Eggert (2005-08-16):
-# <http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml>
+# http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml
 # says King Island didn't observe DST from WWII until late 1971.
 #
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	AT	1967	only	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	-
-Rule	AT	1968	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AT	1968	1985	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
-Rule	AT	1969	1971	-	Mar	Sun>=8	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AT	1972	only	-	Feb	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AT	1973	1981	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AT	1982	1983	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AT	1984	1986	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AT	1986	only	-	Oct	Sun>=15	2:00s	1:00	-
-Rule	AT	1987	1990	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AT	1987	only	-	Oct	Sun>=22	2:00s	1:00	-
-Rule	AT	1988	1990	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
-Rule	AT	1991	1999	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	-
-Rule	AT	1991	2005	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AT	2000	only	-	Aug	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
-Rule	AT	2001	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	-
-Rule	AT	2006	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AT	2007	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AT	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AT	1967	only	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	AT	1968	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AT	1968	1985	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	AT	1969	1971	-	Mar	Sun>=8	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AT	1972	only	-	Feb	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AT	1973	1981	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AT	1982	1983	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AT	1984	1986	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AT	1986	only	-	Oct	Sun>=15	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	AT	1987	1990	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AT	1987	only	-	Oct	Sun>=22	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	AT	1988	1990	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	AT	1991	1999	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	AT	1991	2005	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AT	2000	only	-	Aug	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	AT	2001	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	AT	2006	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AT	2007	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AT	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone Australia/Hobart	9:49:16	-	LMT	1895 Sep
-			10:00	-	EST	1916 Oct 1 2:00
-			10:00	1:00	EST	1917 Feb
-			10:00	Aus	EST	1967
-			10:00	AT	EST
+			10:00	-	AEST	1916 Oct  1  2:00
+			10:00	1:00	AEDT	1917 Feb
+			10:00	Aus	AE%sT	1967
+			10:00	AT	AE%sT
 Zone Australia/Currie	9:35:28	-	LMT	1895 Sep
-			10:00	-	EST	1916 Oct 1 2:00
-			10:00	1:00	EST	1917 Feb
-			10:00	Aus	EST	1971 Jul
-			10:00	AT	EST
+			10:00	-	AEST	1916 Oct  1  2:00
+			10:00	1:00	AEDT	1917 Feb
+			10:00	Aus	AE%sT	1971 Jul
+			10:00	AT	AE%sT
 
 # Victoria
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	AV	1971	1985	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
-Rule	AV	1972	only	-	Feb	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AV	1973	1985	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AV	1986	1990	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AV	1986	1987	-	Oct	Sun>=15	2:00s	1:00	-
-Rule	AV	1988	1999	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
-Rule	AV	1991	1994	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AV	1995	2005	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AV	2000	only	-	Aug	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
-Rule	AV	2001	2007	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
-Rule	AV	2006	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AV	2007	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AV	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AV	2008	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	AV	1971	1985	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	AV	1972	only	-	Feb	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AV	1973	1985	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AV	1986	1990	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AV	1986	1987	-	Oct	Sun>=15	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	AV	1988	1999	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	AV	1991	1994	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AV	1995	2005	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AV	2000	only	-	Aug	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	AV	2001	2007	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	AV	2006	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AV	2007	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AV	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AV	2008	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	D
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone Australia/Melbourne 9:39:52 -	LMT	1895 Feb
-			10:00	Aus	EST	1971
-			10:00	AV	EST
+			10:00	Aus	AE%sT	1971
+			10:00	AV	AE%sT
 
 # New South Wales
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	AN	1971	1985	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
-Rule	AN	1972	only	-	Feb	27	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AN	1973	1981	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AN	1982	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AN	1983	1985	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AN	1986	1989	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AN	1986	only	-	Oct	19	2:00s	1:00	-
-Rule	AN	1987	1999	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
-Rule	AN	1990	1995	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AN	1996	2005	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AN	2000	only	-	Aug	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
-Rule	AN	2001	2007	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
-Rule	AN	2006	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AN	2007	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AN	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	AN	2008	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	AN	1971	1985	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	AN	1972	only	-	Feb	27	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AN	1973	1981	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AN	1982	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AN	1983	1985	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AN	1986	1989	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AN	1986	only	-	Oct	19	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	AN	1987	1999	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	AN	1990	1995	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AN	1996	2005	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AN	2000	only	-	Aug	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	AN	2001	2007	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	AN	2006	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AN	2007	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AN	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	AN	2008	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	D
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone Australia/Sydney	10:04:52 -	LMT	1895 Feb
-			10:00	Aus	EST	1971
-			10:00	AN	EST
+			10:00	Aus	AE%sT	1971
+			10:00	AN	AE%sT
 Zone Australia/Broken_Hill 9:25:48 -	LMT	1895 Feb
-			10:00	-	EST	1896 Aug 23
-			9:00	-	CST	1899 May
-			9:30	Aus	CST	1971
-			9:30	AN	CST	2000
-			9:30	AS	CST
+			10:00	-	AEST	1896 Aug 23
+			9:00	-	ACST	1899 May
+			9:30	Aus	AC%sT	1971
+			9:30	AN	AC%sT	2000
+			9:30	AS	AC%sT
 
 # Lord Howe Island
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	LH	1981	1984	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	LH	1982	1985	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00	0	-
-Rule	LH	1985	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0:30	-
-Rule	LH	1986	1989	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00	0	-
-Rule	LH	1986	only	-	Oct	19	2:00	0:30	-
-Rule	LH	1987	1999	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0:30	-
-Rule	LH	1990	1995	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00	0	-
-Rule	LH	1996	2005	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	0	-
-Rule	LH	2000	only	-	Aug	lastSun	2:00	0:30	-
-Rule	LH	2001	2007	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0:30	-
-Rule	LH	2006	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	0	-
-Rule	LH	2007	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	0	-
-Rule	LH	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	0	-
-Rule	LH	2008	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00	0:30	-
+Rule	LH	1981	1984	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
+Rule	LH	1982	1985	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00	0	S
+Rule	LH	1985	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0:30	D
+Rule	LH	1986	1989	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00	0	S
+Rule	LH	1986	only	-	Oct	19	2:00	0:30	D
+Rule	LH	1987	1999	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0:30	D
+Rule	LH	1990	1995	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00	0	S
+Rule	LH	1996	2005	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	0	S
+Rule	LH	2000	only	-	Aug	lastSun	2:00	0:30	D
+Rule	LH	2001	2007	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0:30	D
+Rule	LH	2006	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	0	S
+Rule	LH	2007	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	0	S
+Rule	LH	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	0	S
+Rule	LH	2008	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00	0:30	D
 Zone Australia/Lord_Howe 10:36:20 -	LMT	1895 Feb
-			10:00	-	EST	1981 Mar
-			10:30	LH	LHST
+			10:00	-	AEST	1981 Mar
+			10:30	LH	LH%sT
 
 # Australian miscellany
 #
@@ -244,8 +243,8 @@
 # Permanent occupation (scientific station) 1911-1915 and since 25 March 1948;
 # sealing and penguin oil station operated Nov 1899 to Apr 1919.  See the
 # Tasmania Parks & Wildlife Service history of sealing at Macquarie Island
-# <http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/index.aspx?base=1828>
-# <http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/index.aspx?base=1831>.
+# http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/index.aspx?base=1828
+# http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/index.aspx?base=1831
 # Guess that it was like Australia/Hobart while inhabited before 2010.
 #
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-10):
@@ -256,16 +255,16 @@
 #
 # From Arthur David Olson (2013-05-23):
 # The 1919 transition is overspecified below so pre-2013 zics
-# will produce a binary file with an EST-type as the first 32-bit type;
+# will produce a binary file with an [A]EST-type as the first 32-bit type;
 # this is required for correct handling of times before 1916 by
 # pre-2013 versions of localtime.
 Zone Antarctica/Macquarie 0	-	zzz	1899 Nov
-			10:00	-	EST	1916 Oct 1 2:00
-			10:00	1:00	EST	1917 Feb
-			10:00	Aus	EST	1919 Apr 1 0:00s
+			10:00	-	AEST	1916 Oct  1  2:00
+			10:00	1:00	AEDT	1917 Feb
+			10:00	Aus	AE%sT	1919 Apr  1  0:00s
 			0	-	zzz	1948 Mar 25
-			10:00	Aus	EST	1967
-			10:00	AT	EST	2010 Apr 4 3:00
+			10:00	Aus	AE%sT	1967
+			10:00	AT	AE%sT	2010 Apr  4  3:00
 			11:00	-	MIST	# Macquarie I Standard Time
 
 # Christmas
@@ -273,24 +272,14 @@
 Zone Indian/Christmas	7:02:52 -	LMT	1895 Feb
 			7:00	-	CXT	# Christmas Island Time
 
-# Cook Is
-# From Shanks & Pottenger:
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Cook	1978	only	-	Nov	12	0:00	0:30	HS
-Rule	Cook	1979	1991	-	Mar	Sun>=1	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Cook	1979	1990	-	Oct	lastSun	0:00	0:30	HS
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Pacific/Rarotonga	-10:39:04 -	LMT	1901		# Avarua
-			-10:30	-	CKT	1978 Nov 12	# Cook Is Time
-			-10:00	Cook	CK%sT
-
-# Cocos
+# Cocos (Keeling) Is
 # These islands were ruled by the Ross family from about 1830 to 1978.
 # We don't know when standard time was introduced; for now, we guess 1900.
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Indian/Cocos	6:27:40	-	LMT	1900
 			6:30	-	CCT	# Cocos Islands Time
 
+
 # Fiji
 
 # Milne gives 11:55:44 for Suva.
@@ -300,20 +289,13 @@
 # from November 29th 2009  to April 25th 2010.
 #
 # "Daylight savings to commence this month"
-# <a href="http://www.radiofiji.com.fj/fullstory.php?id=23719">
 # http://www.radiofiji.com.fj/fullstory.php?id=23719
-# </a>
-# or
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji01.html">
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji01.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-11-10):
 # The Fiji Government has posted some more details about the approved
 # amendments:
-# <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/publish/page_16198.shtml">
 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/publish/page_16198.shtml
-# </a>
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-03):
 # The Cabinet in Fiji has decided to end DST about a month early, on
@@ -322,35 +304,24 @@
 # 2011 (last Sunday a good guess?).
 #
 # Official source:
-# <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1096:3310-cabinet-approves-change-in-daylight-savings-dates&catid=49:cabinet-releases&Itemid=166">
 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1096:3310-cabinet-approves-change-in-daylight-savings-dates&catid=49:cabinet-releases&Itemid=166
-# </a>
 #
 # A bit more background info here:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/fiji-dst-ends-march-2010.html">
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/fiji-dst-ends-march-2010.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-10-24):
 # According to Radio Fiji and Fiji Times online, Fiji will end DST 3
 # weeks earlier than expected - on March 6, 2011, not March 27, 2011...
 # Here is confirmation from Government of the Republic of the Fiji Islands,
 # Ministry of Information (fiji.gov.fj) web site:
-# <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2608:daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155">
 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2608:daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
-# </a>
-# or
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji04.html">
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji04.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-10-03):
 # Now the dates have been confirmed, and at least our start date
 # assumption was correct (end date was one week wrong).
 #
-# <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4966:daylight-saving-starts-in-fiji&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155">
-# www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4966:daylight-saving-starts-in-fiji&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
-# </a>
+# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4966:daylight-saving-starts-in-fiji&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
 # which says
 # Members of the public are reminded to change their time to one hour in
 # advance at 2am to 3am on October 23, 2011 and one hour back at 3am to
@@ -360,9 +331,7 @@
 # Another change to the Fiji DST end date. In the TZ database the end date for
 # Fiji DST 2012, is currently Feb 26. This has been changed to Jan 22.
 #
-# <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5017:amendments-to-daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155">
 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5017:amendments-to-daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
-# </a>
 # states:
 #
 # The end of daylight saving scheduled initially for the 26th of February 2012
@@ -400,16 +369,16 @@
 Rule	Fiji	2012	2013	-	Jan	Sun>=18	3:00	0	-
 Rule	Fiji	2014	max	-	Jan	Sun>=18	2:00	0	-
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Pacific/Fiji	11:55:44 -	LMT	1915 Oct 26	# Suva
+Zone	Pacific/Fiji	11:55:44 -	LMT	1915 Oct 26 # Suva
 			12:00	Fiji	FJ%sT	# Fiji Time
 
 # French Polynesia
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Pacific/Gambier	 -8:59:48 -	LMT	1912 Oct	# Rikitea
+Zone	Pacific/Gambier	 -8:59:48 -	LMT	1912 Oct # Rikitea
 			 -9:00	-	GAMT	# Gambier Time
 Zone	Pacific/Marquesas -9:18:00 -	LMT	1912 Oct
 			 -9:30	-	MART	# Marquesas Time
-Zone	Pacific/Tahiti	 -9:58:16 -	LMT	1912 Oct	# Papeete
+Zone	Pacific/Tahiti	 -9:58:16 -	LMT	1912 Oct # Papeete
 			-10:00	-	TAHT	# Tahiti Time
 # Clipperton (near North America) is administered from French Polynesia;
 # it is uninhabited.
@@ -417,14 +386,14 @@
 # Guam
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Pacific/Guam	-14:21:00 -	LMT	1844 Dec 31
-			 9:39:00 -	LMT	1901		# Agana
-			10:00	-	GST	2000 Dec 23	# Guam
+			 9:39:00 -	LMT	1901        # Agana
+			10:00	-	GST	2000 Dec 23 # Guam
 			10:00	-	ChST	# Chamorro Standard Time
 
 # Kiribati
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Pacific/Tarawa	 11:32:04 -	LMT	1901		# Bairiki
-			 12:00	-	GILT		 # Gilbert Is Time
+Zone Pacific/Tarawa	 11:32:04 -	LMT	1901 # Bairiki
+			 12:00	-	GILT	# Gilbert Is Time
 Zone Pacific/Enderbury	-11:24:20 -	LMT	1901
 			-12:00	-	PHOT	1979 Oct # Phoenix Is Time
 			-11:00	-	PHOT	1995
@@ -438,7 +407,7 @@
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone Pacific/Saipan	-14:17:00 -	LMT	1844 Dec 31
 			 9:43:00 -	LMT	1901
-			 9:00	-	MPT	1969 Oct # N Mariana Is Time
+			 9:00	-	MPT	1969 Oct    # N Mariana Is Time
 			10:00	-	MPT	2000 Dec 23
 			10:00	-	ChST	# Chamorro Standard Time
 
@@ -449,24 +418,24 @@
 			12:00	-	MHT
 Zone Pacific/Kwajalein	11:09:20 -	LMT	1901
 			11:00	-	MHT	1969 Oct
-			-12:00	-	KWAT	1993 Aug 20	# Kwajalein Time
+			-12:00	-	KWAT	1993 Aug 20 # Kwajalein Time
 			12:00	-	MHT
 
 # Micronesia
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone Pacific/Chuuk	10:07:08 -	LMT	1901
-			10:00	-	CHUT			# Chuuk Time
-Zone Pacific/Pohnpei	10:32:52 -	LMT	1901		# Kolonia
-			11:00	-	PONT			# Pohnpei Time
+			10:00	-	CHUT	# Chuuk Time
+Zone Pacific/Pohnpei	10:32:52 -	LMT	1901 # Kolonia
+			11:00	-	PONT	# Pohnpei Time
 Zone Pacific/Kosrae	10:51:56 -	LMT	1901
-			11:00	-	KOST	1969 Oct	# Kosrae Time
+			11:00	-	KOST	1969 Oct # Kosrae Time
 			12:00	-	KOST	1999
 			11:00	-	KOST
 
 # Nauru
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Pacific/Nauru	11:07:40 -	LMT	1921 Jan 15	# Uaobe
-			11:30	-	NRT	1942 Mar 15	# Nauru Time
+Zone	Pacific/Nauru	11:07:40 -	LMT	1921 Jan 15 # Uaobe
+			11:30	-	NRT	1942 Mar 15 # Nauru Time
 			9:00	-	JST	1944 Aug 15
 			11:30	-	NRT	1979 May
 			12:00	-	NRT
@@ -479,7 +448,7 @@
 # Shanks & Pottenger say the following was at 2:00; go with IATA.
 Rule	NC	1997	only	-	Mar	 2	2:00s	0	-
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Pacific/Noumea	11:05:48 -	LMT	1912 Jan 13
+Zone	Pacific/Noumea	11:05:48 -	LMT	1912 Jan 13 # Nouméa
 			11:00	NC	NC%sT
 
 
@@ -496,7 +465,8 @@
 Rule	NZ	1934	1940	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0:30	S
 Rule	NZ	1946	only	-	Jan	 1	0:00	0	S
 # Since 1957 Chatham has been 45 minutes ahead of NZ, but there's no
-# convenient notation for this so we must duplicate the Rule lines.
+# convenient single notation for the date and time of this transition
+# so we must duplicate the Rule lines.
 Rule	NZ	1974	only	-	Nov	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	D
 Rule	Chatham	1974	only	-	Nov	Sun>=1	2:45s	1:00	D
 Rule	NZ	1975	only	-	Feb	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
@@ -519,13 +489,14 @@
 Zone Pacific/Auckland	11:39:04 -	LMT	1868 Nov  2
 			11:30	NZ	NZ%sT	1946 Jan  1
 			12:00	NZ	NZ%sT
-Zone Pacific/Chatham	12:13:48 -	LMT	1957 Jan  1
+Zone Pacific/Chatham	12:13:48 -	LMT	1868 Nov  2
+			12:15	-	CHAST	1946 Jan  1
 			12:45	Chatham	CHA%sT
 
 Link Pacific/Auckland Antarctica/McMurdo
 
 # Auckland Is
-# uninhabited; Maori and Moriori, colonial settlers, pastoralists, sealers,
+# uninhabited; Māori and Moriori, colonial settlers, pastoralists, sealers,
 # and scientific personnel have wintered
 
 # Campbell I
@@ -534,48 +505,58 @@
 # previously whalers, sealers, pastoralists, and scientific personnel wintered
 # was probably like Pacific/Auckland
 
+# Cook Is
+# From Shanks & Pottenger:
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Cook	1978	only	-	Nov	12	0:00	0:30	HS
+Rule	Cook	1979	1991	-	Mar	Sun>=1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Cook	1979	1990	-	Oct	lastSun	0:00	0:30	HS
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Pacific/Rarotonga	-10:39:04 -	LMT	1901        # Avarua
+			-10:30	-	CKT	1978 Nov 12 # Cook Is Time
+			-10:00	Cook	CK%sT
+
 ###############################################################################
 
 
 # Niue
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Pacific/Niue	-11:19:40 -	LMT	1901		# Alofi
-			-11:20	-	NUT	1951	# Niue Time
-			-11:30	-	NUT	1978 Oct 1
+Zone	Pacific/Niue	-11:19:40 -	LMT	1901        # Alofi
+			-11:20	-	NUT	1951        # Niue Time
+			-11:30	-	NUT	1978 Oct  1
 			-11:00	-	NUT
 
 # Norfolk
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Pacific/Norfolk	11:11:52 -	LMT	1901		# Kingston
-			11:12	-	NMT	1951	# Norfolk Mean Time
-			11:30	-	NFT		# Norfolk Time
+Zone	Pacific/Norfolk	11:11:52 -	LMT	1901 # Kingston
+			11:12	-	NMT	1951 # Norfolk Mean Time
+			11:30	-	NFT	# Norfolk Time
 
 # Palau (Belau)
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Pacific/Palau	8:57:56 -	LMT	1901		# Koror
+Zone Pacific/Palau	8:57:56 -	LMT	1901 # Koror
 			9:00	-	PWT	# Palau Time
 
 # Papua New Guinea
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone Pacific/Port_Moresby 9:48:40 -	LMT	1880
-			9:48:32	-	PMMT	1895	# Port Moresby Mean Time
-			10:00	-	PGT		# Papua New Guinea Time
+			9:48:32	-	PMMT	1895 # Port Moresby Mean Time
+			10:00	-	PGT	# Papua New Guinea Time
 
 # Pitcairn
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Pacific/Pitcairn	-8:40:20 -	LMT	1901		# Adamstown
-			-8:30	-	PNT	1998 Apr 27 00:00
+Zone Pacific/Pitcairn	-8:40:20 -	LMT	1901        # Adamstown
+			-8:30	-	PNT	1998 Apr 27  0:00
 			-8:00	-	PST	# Pitcairn Standard Time
 
 # American Samoa
 Zone Pacific/Pago_Pago	 12:37:12 -	LMT	1879 Jul  5
 			-11:22:48 -	LMT	1911
-			-11:30	-	SAMT	1950		# Samoa Time
-			-11:00	-	NST	1967 Apr	# N=Nome
-			-11:00	-	BST	1983 Nov 30	# B=Bering
-			-11:00	-	SST			# S=Samoa
+			-11:00	-	NST	1967 Apr    # N=Nome
+			-11:00	-	BST	1983 Nov 30 # B=Bering
+			-11:00	-	SST	            # S=Samoa
 
-# Samoa
+# Samoa (formerly and also known as Western Samoa)
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-16):
 # We have been in contact with the government of Samoa again, and received
@@ -586,141 +567,80 @@
 # Sunday of April 2011."
 #
 # Background info:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/samoa-dst-plan-2009.html">
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/samoa-dst-plan-2009.html
-# </a>
 #
 # Samoa's Daylight Saving Time Act 2009 is available here, but does not
 # contain any dates:
-# <a href="http://www.parliament.gov.ws/documents/acts/Daylight%20Saving%20Act%20%202009%20%28English%29%20-%20Final%207-7-091.pdf">
 # http://www.parliament.gov.ws/documents/acts/Daylight%20Saving%20Act%20%202009%20%28English%29%20-%20Final%207-7-091.pdf
-# </a>
 
 # From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2010-10-07):
 # Please see
-# <a href="http://www.mcil.gov.ws">
 # http://www.mcil.gov.ws
-# </a>,
 # the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Labour (sideframe) "Last Sunday
 # September 2010 (26/09/10) - adjust clocks forward from 12:00 midnight
 # to 01:00am and First Sunday April 2011 (03/04/11) - adjust clocks
 # backwards from 1:00am to 12:00am"
 
 # From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2011-03-07):
-# I believe this will be posted shortly on the website
-# <a href="http://www.mcil.gov.ws">
-# www.mcil.gov.ws
-# </a>
+# [http://www.mcil.gov.ws/ftcd/daylight_saving_2011.pdf]
 #
-# PUBLIC NOTICE ON DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME
-#
-# Pursuant to the Daylight Saving Act 2009 and Cabinets decision,
-# businesses and the general public are hereby advised that daylight
-# saving time is on the first Saturday of April 2011 (02/04/11).
-#
-# The public is therefore advised that when the standard time strikes
-# the hour of four oclock (4.00am or 0400 Hours) on the 2nd April 2011,
-# then all instruments used to measure standard time are to be
-# adjusted/changed to three oclock (3:00am or 0300Hrs).
-#
-# Margaret Fruean ACTING CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER MINISTRY OF COMMERCE,
-# INDUSTRY AND LABOUR 28th February 2011
+# ... when the standard time strikes the hour of four o'clock (4.00am
+# or 0400 Hours) on the 2nd April 2011, then all instruments used to
+# measure standard time are to be adjusted/changed to three o'clock
+# (3:00am or 0300Hrs).
 
-# From David Zuelke (2011-05-09):
+# From David Zülke (2011-05-09):
 # Subject: Samoa to move timezone from east to west of international date line
 #
-# <a href="http://www.morningstar.co.uk/uk/markets/newsfeeditem.aspx?id=138501958347963">
 # http://www.morningstar.co.uk/uk/markets/newsfeeditem.aspx?id=138501958347963
-# </a>
 
-# From Mark Sim-Smith (2011-08-17):
-# I have been in contact with Leilani Tuala Warren from the Samoa Law
-# Reform Commission, and she has sent me a copy of the Bill that she
-# confirmed has been passed...Most of the sections are about maps rather
-# than the time zone change, but I'll paste the relevant bits below. But
-# the essence is that at midnight 29 Dec (UTC-11 I suppose), Samoa
-# changes from UTC-11 to UTC+13:
-#
-# International Date Line Bill 2011
-#
-# AN ACT to provide for the change to standard time in Samoa and to make
-# consequential amendments to the position of the International Date
-# Line, and for related purposes.
-#
-# BE IT ENACTED by the Legislative Assembly of Samoa in Parliament
-# assembled as follows:
-#
-# 1. Short title and commencement-(1) This Act may be cited as the
-# International Date Line Act 2011. (2) Except for section 5(3) this Act
-# commences at 12 o'clock midnight, on Thursday 29th December 2011. (3)
-# Section 5(3) commences on the date of assent by the Head of State.
-#
-# [snip]
-#
-# 3. Interpretation - [snip] "Samoa standard time" in this Act and any
-# other statute of Samoa which refers to 'Samoa standard time' means the
-# time 13 hours in advance of Co-ordinated Universal Time.
-#
-# 4. Samoa standard time - (1) Upon the commencement of this Act, Samoa
-# standard time shall be set at 13 hours in advance of Co-ordinated
-# Universal Time for the whole of Samoa. (2) All references to Samoa's
-# time zone and to Samoa standard time in Samoa in all legislation and
-# instruments after the commencement of this Act shall be references to
-# Samoa standard time as provided for in this Act. (3) Nothing in this
-# Act affects the provisions of the Daylight Saving Act 2009, except that
-# it defines Samoa standard time....
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-27):
+# The International Date Line Act 2011
+# http://www.parliament.gov.ws/images/ACTS/International_Date_Line_Act__2011_-_Eng.pdf
+# changed Samoa from UTC-11 to UTC+13, effective "12 o'clock midnight, on
+# Thursday 29th December 2011".  The International Date Line was adjusted
+# accordingly.
 
 # From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2011-09-02):
-# <a href="http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html">
 # http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html
-# </a>
 #
 # here is the official website publication for Samoa DST and dateline change
 #
 # DST
-# Year	End	Time	Start	Time
-# 2011	- - -	- - -	24 September	3:00am to 4:00am
-# 2012	01 April	4:00am to 3:00am	- - -	- - -
+# Year  End      Time              Start        Time
+# 2011  - - -    - - -             24 September 3:00am to 4:00am
+# 2012  01 April 4:00am to 3:00am  - - -        - - -
 #
 # Dateline Change skip Friday 30th Dec 2011
 # Thursday 29th December 2011	23:59:59 Hours
 # Saturday 31st December 2011	00:00:00 Hours
 #
-# Clarification by Tim Parenti (2012-01-03):
-# Although Samoa has used Daylight Saving Time in the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012
-# seasons, there is not yet any indication that this trend will continue on
-# a regular basis. For now, we have explicitly listed the transitions below.
-#
-# From Nicky (2012-09-10):
+# From Nicholas Pereira (2012-09-10):
 # Daylight Saving Time commences on Sunday 30th September 2012 and
-# ends on Sunday 7th of April 2013.
-#
-# Please find link below for more information.
+# ends on Sunday 7th of April 2013....
 # http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html
 #
-# That publication also includes dates for Summer of 2013/4 as well
-# which give the impression of a pattern in selecting dates for the
-# future, so for now, we will guess this will continue.
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-08):
+# That web page currently lists transitions for 2012/3 and 2013/4.
+# Assume the pattern instituted in 2012 will continue indefinitely.
 
-# Western Samoa
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	WS	2010	only	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	1	D
+Rule	WS	2011	only	-	Apr	Sat>=1	4:00	0	S
+Rule	WS	2011	only	-	Sep	lastSat	3:00	1	D
+Rule	WS	2012	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	4:00	0	S
 Rule	WS	2012	max	-	Sep	lastSun	3:00	1	D
-Rule	WS	2012	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	4:00	0	-
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone Pacific/Apia	 12:33:04 -	LMT	1879 Jul  5
 			-11:26:56 -	LMT	1911
-			-11:30	-	SAMT	1950		# Samoa Time
-			-11:00	-	WST	2010 Sep 26
-			-11:00	1:00	WSDT	2011 Apr 2 4:00
-			-11:00	-	WST	2011 Sep 24 3:00
-			-11:00	1:00	WSDT	2011 Dec 30
-			 13:00	1:00	WSDT	2012 Apr Sun>=1 4:00
+			-11:30	-	WSST	1950
+			-11:00	WS	S%sT	2011 Dec 29 24:00 # S=Samoa
 			 13:00	WS	WS%sT
 
 # Solomon Is
 # excludes Bougainville, for which see Papua New Guinea
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Pacific/Guadalcanal 10:39:48 -	LMT	1912 Oct	# Honiara
+Zone Pacific/Guadalcanal 10:39:48 -	LMT	1912 Oct # Honiara
 			11:00	-	SBT	# Solomon Is Time
 
 # Tokelau Is
@@ -744,7 +664,7 @@
 
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Pacific/Fakaofo	-11:24:56 -	LMT	1901
-			-11:00	-	TKT 2011 Dec 30	# Tokelau Time
+			-11:00	-	TKT	2011 Dec 30 # Tokelau Time
 			13:00	-	TKT
 
 # Tonga
@@ -804,8 +724,8 @@
 # time from Operation Newsreel (Hardtack I/Teak shot, 1958-08-01) to the last
 # Operation Fishbowl shot (Tightrope, 1962-11-04).... [See] Herman Hoerlin,
 # "The United States High-Altitude Test Experience: A Review Emphasizing the
-# Impact on the Environment", Los Alamos LA-6405, Oct 1976
-# <http://www.fas.org/sgp/othergov/doe/lanl/docs1/00322994.pdf>.
+# Impact on the Environment", Los Alamos LA-6405, Oct 1976.
+# http://www.fas.org/sgp/othergov/doe/lanl/docs1/00322994.pdf
 # See the table on page 4 where he lists GMT and local times for the tests; a
 # footnote for the JI tests reads that local time is "JI time = Hawaii Time
 # Minus One Hour".
@@ -820,7 +740,7 @@
 # From Mark Brader (2005-01-23):
 # [Fallacies and Fantasies of Air Transport History, by R.E.G. Davies,
 # published 1994 by Paladwr Press, McLean, VA, USA; ISBN 0-9626483-5-3]
-# reproduced a Pan American Airways timeables from 1936, for their weekly
+# reproduced a Pan American Airways timetable from 1936, for their weekly
 # "Orient Express" flights between San Francisco and Manila, and connecting
 # flights to Chicago and the US East Coast.  As it uses some time zone
 # designations that I've never seen before:....
@@ -830,9 +750,9 @@
 Zone Pacific/Midway	-11:49:28 -	LMT	1901
 			-11:00	-	NST	1956 Jun  3
 			-11:00	1:00	NDT	1956 Sep  2
-			-11:00	-	NST	1967 Apr	# N=Nome
-			-11:00	-	BST	1983 Nov 30	# B=Bering
-			-11:00	-	SST			# S=Samoa
+			-11:00	-	NST	1967 Apr    # N=Nome
+			-11:00	-	BST	1983 Nov 30 # B=Bering
+			-11:00	-	SST	            # S=Samoa
 
 # Palmyra
 # uninhabited since World War II; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati
@@ -852,7 +772,7 @@
 Rule	Vanuatu	1992	1993	-	Jan	Sun>=23	0:00	0	-
 Rule	Vanuatu	1992	only	-	Oct	Sun>=23	0:00	1:00	S
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Pacific/Efate	11:13:16 -	LMT	1912 Jan 13		# Vila
+Zone	Pacific/Efate	11:13:16 -	LMT	1912 Jan 13 # Vila
 			11:00	Vanuatu	VU%sT	# Vanuatu Time
 
 # Wallis and Futuna
@@ -864,9 +784,10 @@
 
 # NOTES
 
-# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
+# This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
-# tz@iana.org for general use in the future).
+# tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
+# the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
 
 # From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21):
 # A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
@@ -887,165 +808,188 @@
 # I found in the UCLA library.
 #
 # For data circa 1899, a common source is:
-# Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94
-# <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>.
+# Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94.
+# http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359
 #
 # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
 # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
 #
-# I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table;
+# I invented the abbreviations marked '*' in the following table;
 # the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
 # Corrections are welcome!
-#		std dst
-#		LMT	Local Mean Time
-#	  8:00	WST WST	Western Australia
-#	  8:45	CWST CWST Central Western Australia*
-#	  9:00	JST	Japan
-#	  9:30	CST CST	Central Australia
-#	 10:00	EST EST	Eastern Australia
-#	 10:00	ChST	Chamorro
-#	 10:30	LHST LHST Lord Howe*
-#	 11:30	NZMT NZST New Zealand through 1945
-#	 12:00	NZST NZDT New Zealand 1946-present
-#	 12:45	CHAST CHADT Chatham*
-#	-11:00	SST	Samoa
-#	-10:00	HST	Hawaii
-#	- 8:00	PST	Pitcairn*
+#		std	dst
+#		LMT		Local Mean Time
+#	  8:00	AWST	AWDT	Western Australia
+#	  8:45	ACWST	ACWDT	Central Western Australia*
+#	  9:00	JST		Japan
+#	  9:30	ACST	ACDT	Central Australia
+#	 10:00	AEST	AEDT	Eastern Australia
+#	 10:00	ChST		Chamorro
+#	 10:30	LHST	LHDT	Lord Howe*
+#	 11:30	NZMT	NZST	New Zealand through 1945
+#	 12:00	NZST	NZDT	New Zealand 1946-present
+#	 12:15	CHAST		Chatham through 1945*
+#	 12:45	CHAST	CHADT	Chatham 1946-present*
+#	 13:00	WSST	WSDT	(western) Samoa 2011-present*
+#	-11:30	WSST		Western Samoa through 1950*
+#	-11:00	SST		Samoa
+#	-10:00	HST		Hawaii
+#	- 8:00	PST		Pitcairn*
 #
-# See the `northamerica' file for Hawaii.
-# See the `southamerica' file for Easter I and the Galapagos Is.
+# See the 'northamerica' file for Hawaii.
+# See the 'southamerica' file for Easter I and the Galápagos Is.
 
 ###############################################################################
 
 # Australia
 
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
+# Daylight saving time has long been controversial in Australia, pitting
+# region against region, rural against urban, and local against global.
+# For example, in her review of Graeme Davison's _The Unforgiving
+# Minute: how Australians learned to tell the time_ (1993), Perth native
+# Phillipa J Martyr wrote, "The section entitled 'Saving Daylight' was
+# very informative, but was (as can, sadly, only be expected from a
+# Melbourne-based study) replete with the usual chuckleheaded
+# Queenslanders and straw-chewing yokels from the West prattling fables
+# about fading curtains and crazed farm animals."
+# Electronic Journal of Australian and New Zealand History (1997-03-03)
+# http://www.jcu.edu.au/aff/history/reviews/davison.htm
+
 # From Paul Eggert (2005-12-08):
-# <a href="http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml">
 # Implementation Dates of Daylight Saving Time within Australia
-# </a> summarizes daylight saving issues in Australia.
+# http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml
+# summarizes daylight saving issues in Australia.
 
 # From Arthur David Olson (2005-12-12):
-# <a href="http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/Corporate/ll_agdinfo.nsf/pages/community_relations_daylight_saving">
 # Lawlink NSW:Daylight Saving in New South Wales
-# </a> covers New South Wales in particular.
+# http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/Corporate/ll_agdinfo.nsf/pages/community_relations_daylight_saving
+# covers New South Wales in particular.
 
 # From John Mackin (1991-03-06):
-# We in Australia have _never_ referred to DST as `daylight' time.
-# It is called `summer' time.  Now by a happy coincidence, `summer'
-# and `standard' happen to start with the same letter; hence, the
+# We in Australia have _never_ referred to DST as 'daylight' time.
+# It is called 'summer' time.  Now by a happy coincidence, 'summer'
+# and 'standard' happen to start with the same letter; hence, the
 # abbreviation does _not_ change...
 # The legislation does not actually define abbreviations, at least
 # in this State, but the abbreviation is just commonly taken to be the
 # initials of the phrase, and the legislation here uniformly uses
-# the phrase `summer time' and does not use the phrase `daylight
+# the phrase 'summer time' and does not use the phrase 'daylight
 # time'.
 # Announcers on the Commonwealth radio network, the ABC (for Australian
-# Broadcasting Commission), use the phrases `Eastern Standard Time'
-# or `Eastern Summer Time'.  (Note, though, that as I say in the
+# Broadcasting Commission), use the phrases 'Eastern Standard Time'
+# or 'Eastern Summer Time'.  (Note, though, that as I say in the
 # current australasia file, there is really no such thing.)  Announcers
 # on its overseas service, Radio Australia, use the same phrases
-# prefixed by the word `Australian' when referring to local times;
+# prefixed by the word 'Australian' when referring to local times;
 # time announcements on that service, naturally enough, are made in UTC.
 
-# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
-# Given the above, what's chosen for year-round use is:
-#	CST	for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 9:30
-#	WST	for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 8:00
-#	EST	for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 10:00
-
-# From Chuck Soper (2006-06-01):
-# I recently found this Australian government web page on time zones:
-# <http://www.australia.gov.au/about-australia-13time>
-# And this government web page lists time zone names and abbreviations:
-# <http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/daysavtm.shtml>
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2001-04-05), summarizing a long discussion about "EST"
-# versus "AEST" etc.:
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
 #
-# I see the following points of dispute:
+# Inspired by Mackin's remarks quoted above, earlier versions of this
+# file used "EST" for both Eastern Standard Time and Eastern Summer
+# Time in Australia, and similarly for "CST", "CWST", and "WST".
+# However, these abbreviations were confusing and were not common
+# practice among Australians, and there were justifiable complaints
+# about them, so I attempted to survey current Australian usage.
+# For the tz database, the full English phrase is not that important;
+# what matters is the abbreviation.  It's difficult to survey the web
+# directly for abbreviation usage, as there are so many false hits for
+# strings like "EST" and "EDT", so I looked for pages that defined an
+# abbreviation for eastern or central DST in Australia, and got the
+# following numbers of unique hits for the listed Google queries:
 #
-# * How important are unique time zone abbreviations?
+#   10 "Eastern Daylight Time AEST" site:au [some are false hits]
+#   10 "Eastern Summer Time AEST" site:au
+#   10 "Summer Time AEDT" site:au
+#   13 "EDST Eastern Daylight Saving Time" site:au
+#   18 "Summer Time ESST" site:au
+#   28 "Eastern Daylight Saving Time EDST" site:au
+#   39 "EDT Eastern Daylight Time" site:au [some are false hits]
+#   53 "Eastern Daylight Time EDT" site:au [some are false hits]
+#   54 "AEDT Australian Eastern Daylight Time" site:au
+#  182 "Eastern Daylight Time AEDT" site:au
 #
-#   Here I tend to agree with the point (most recently made by Chris
-#   Newman) that unique abbreviations should not be essential for proper
-#   operation of software.  We have other instances of ambiguity
-#   (e.g. "IST" denoting both "Israel Standard Time" and "Indian
-#   Standard Time"), and they are not likely to go away any time soon.
-#   In the old days, some software mistakenly relied on unique
-#   abbreviations, but this is becoming less true with time, and I don't
-#   think it's that important to cater to such software these days.
+#   17 "Central Daylight Time CDT" site:au [some are false hits]
+#   46 "Central Daylight Time ACDT" site:au
 #
-#   On the other hand, there is another motivation for unambiguous
-#   abbreviations: it cuts down on human confusion.  This is
-#   particularly true for Australia, where "EST" can mean one thing for
-#   time T and a different thing for time T plus 1 second.
+# I tried several other variants (e.g., "Eastern Summer Time EST") but
+# they all returned fewer than 10 unique hits.  I also looked for pages
+# mentioning both "western standard time" and an abbreviation, since
+# there is no WST in the US to generate false hits, and found:
 #
-# * Does the relevant legislation indicate which abbreviations should be used?
+#  156 "western standard time" AWST site:au
+#  226 "western standard time" WST site:au
 #
-#   Here I tend to think that things are a mess, just as they are in
-#   many other countries.  We Americans are currently disagreeing about
-#   which abbreviation to use for the newly legislated Chamorro Standard
-#   Time, for example.
+# I then surveyed the top ten newspapers in Australia by circulation as
+# listed in Wikipedia, using Google queries like "AEDT site:heraldsun.com.au"
+# and obtaining estimated counts from the initial page of search results.
+# All ten papers greatly preferred "AEDT" to "EDT".  The papers
+# surveyed were the Herald Sun, The Daily Telegraph, The Courier-Mail,
+# The Sydney Morning Herald, The West Australian, The Age, The Advertiser,
+# The Australian, The Financial Review, and The Herald (Newcastle).
 #
-#   Personally, I would prefer to use common practice; I would like to
-#   refer to legislation only for examples of common practice, or as a
-#   tiebreaker.
+# I also searched for historical usage, to see whether abbreviations
+# like "AEDT" are new.  A Trove search <http://trove.nla.gov.au/>
+# found only one newspaper (The Canberra Times) with a house style
+# dating back to the 1970s, I expect because other newspapers weren't
+# fully indexed.  The Canberra Times strongly preferred abbreviations
+# like "AEDT".  The first occurrence of "AEDT" was a World Weather
+# column (1971-11-17, page 24), and of "ACDT" was a Scoreboard column
+# (1993-01-24, p 16).  The style was the typical usage but was not
+# strictly enforced; for example, "Welcome to the twilight zones ..."
+# (1994-10-29, p 1) uses the abbreviations AEST/AEDT, CST/CDT, and
+# WST, and goes on to say, "The confusion and frustration some feel
+# about the lack of uniformity among Australia's six states and two
+# territories has prompted one group to form its very own political
+# party -- the Sydney-based Daylight Saving Extension Party."
 #
-# * Do Australians more often use "Eastern Daylight Time" or "Eastern
-#   Summer Time"?  Do they typically prefix the time zone names with
-#   the word "Australian"?
+# I also surveyed federal government sources.  They did not agree:
 #
-#   My own impression is that both "Daylight Time" and "Summer Time" are
-#   common and are widely understood, but that "Summer Time" is more
-#   popular; and that the leading "A" is also common but is omitted more
-#   often than not.  I just used AltaVista advanced search and got the
-#   following count of page hits:
+#   The Australian Government (2014-03-26)
+#   http://australia.gov.au/about-australia/our-country/time
+#   (This document was produced by the Department of Finance.)
+#   AEST ACST AWST AEDT ACDT
 #
-#     1,103 "Eastern Summer Time" AND domain:au
-#       971 "Australian Eastern Summer Time" AND domain:au
-#       613 "Eastern Daylight Time" AND domain:au
-#       127 "Australian Eastern Daylight Time" AND domain:au
+#   Bureau of Meteorology (2012-11-08)
+#   http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/daysavtm.shtml
+#   EST CST WST EDT CDT
 #
-#   Here "Summer" seems quite a bit more popular than "Daylight",
-#   particularly when we know the time zone is Australian and not US,
-#   say.  The "Australian" prefix seems to be popular for Eastern Summer
-#   Time, but unpopular for Eastern Daylight Time.
+#   Civil Aviation Safety Authority (undated)
+#   http://services.casa.gov.au/outnback/inc/pages/episode3/episode-3_time_zones.shtml
+#   EST CST WST (no abbreviations given for DST)
 #
-#   For abbreviations, tools like AltaVista are less useful because of
-#   ambiguity.  Many hits are not really time zones, unfortunately, and
-#   many hits denote US time zones and not Australian ones.  But here
-#   are the hit counts anyway:
+#   Geoscience Australia (2011-11-24)
+#   http://www.ga.gov.au/geodesy/astro/sunrise.jsp
+#   AEST ACST AWST AEDT ACDT
 #
-#     161,304 "EST" and domain:au
-#      25,156 "EDT" and domain:au
-#      18,263 "AEST" and domain:au
-#      10,416 "AEDT" and domain:au
+#   Parliamentary Library (2008-11-10)
+#   http://www.aph.gov.au/binaries/library/pubs/rp/2008-09/09rp14.pdf
+#   EST CST WST preferred for standard time; AEST AEDT ACST ACDT also used
 #
-#      14,538 "CST" and domain:au
-#       5,728 "CDT" and domain:au
-#         176 "ACST" and domain:au
-#          29 "ACDT" and domain:au
+#   The Transport Safety Bureau has an extensive series of accident reports,
+#   and investigators seem to use whatever abbreviation they like.
+#   Googling site:atsb.gov.au found the following number of unique hits:
+#   311 "ESuT", 195 "EDT", 26 "AEDT", 83 "CSuT", 46 "CDT".
+#   "_SuT" tended to appear in older reports, and "A_DT" tended to
+#   appear in reports of events with international implications.
 #
-#       7,539 "WST" and domain:au
-#          68 "AWST" and domain:au
-#
-#   This data suggest that Australians tend to omit the "A" prefix in
-#   practice.  The situation for "ST" versus "DT" is less clear, given
-#   the ambiguities involved.
-#
-# * How do Australians feel about the abbreviations in the tz database?
-#
-#   If you just count Australians on this list, I count 2 in favor and 3
-#   against.  One of the "against" votes (David Keegel) counseled delay,
-#   saying that both AEST/AEDT and EST/EST are widely used and
-#   understood in Australia.
+# From the above it appears that there is a working consensus in
+# Australia to use trailing "DT" for daylight saving time; although
+# some sources use trailing "SST" or "ST" or "SuT" they are by far in
+# the minority.  The case for leading "A" is weaker, but since it
+# seems to be preferred in the overall web and is preferred in all
+# the leading newspaper websites and in many government departments,
+# it has a stronger case than omitting the leading "A".  The current
+# version of the database therefore uses abbreviations like "AEST" and
+# "AEDT" for Australian time zones.
 
 # From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19):
 # Shanks & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ.
 # Mark Prior writes that his newspaper
 # reports that NSW's fall 1995 change will occur at 2:00,
 # but Robert Elz says it's been 3:00 in Victoria since 1970
-# and perhaps the newspaper's `2:00' is referring to standard time.
+# and perhaps the newspaper's '2:00' is referring to standard time.
 # For now we'll continue to assume 2:00s for changes since 1960.
 
 # From Eric Ulevik (1998-01-05):
@@ -1055,17 +999,14 @@
 # relevant entries in this database.
 #
 # NSW (including LHI and Broken Hill):
-# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/sta1987137/index.html">
 # Standard Time Act 1987 (updated 1995-04-04)
-# </a>
+# http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/sta1987137/index.html
 # ACT
-# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/consol_act/stasta1972279/index.html">
 # Standard Time and Summer Time Act 1972
-# </a>
+# http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/consol_act/stasta1972279/index.html
 # SA
-# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/sta1898137/index.html">
 # Standard Time Act, 1898
-# </a>
+# http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/sta1898137/index.html
 
 # From David Grosz (2005-06-13):
 # It was announced last week that Daylight Saving would be extended by
@@ -1083,7 +1024,7 @@
 # Victoria: I wasn't able to find anything separate, but the other articles
 # allude to it.
 # But not Queensland
-# http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15564030-1248,00.html.
+# http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15564030-1248,00.html
 
 # Northern Territory
 
@@ -1130,9 +1071,9 @@
 # The 1992 ending date used in the rules is a best guess;
 # it matches what was used in the past.
 
-# <a href="http://www.bom.gov.au/faq/faqgen.htm">
 # The Australian Bureau of Meteorology FAQ
-# </a> (1999-09-27) writes that Giles Meteorological Station uses
+# http://www.bom.gov.au/faq/faqgen.htm
+# (1999-09-27) writes that Giles Meteorological Station uses
 # South Australian time even though it's located in Western Australia.
 
 # Queensland
@@ -1173,9 +1114,9 @@
 # The chosen rules the union of the 1971/1972 change and the 1989-1992 changes.
 
 # From Christopher Hunt (2006-11-21), after an advance warning
-# from Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-11-01):
+# from Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-11-01):
 # WA are trialing DST for three years.
-# <http://www.parliament.wa.gov.au/parliament/bills.nsf/9A1B183144403DA54825721200088DF1/$File/Bill175-1B.pdf>
+# http://www.parliament.wa.gov.au/parliament/bills.nsf/9A1B183144403DA54825721200088DF1/$File/Bill175-1B.pdf
 
 # From Rives McDow (2002-04-09):
 # The most interesting region I have found consists of three towns on the
@@ -1189,7 +1130,7 @@
 # From Paul Eggert (2002-04-09):
 # This is confirmed by the section entitled
 # "What's the deal with time zones???" in
-# <http://www.earthsci.unimelb.edu.au/~awatkins/null.html>.
+# http://www.earthsci.unimelb.edu.au/~awatkins/null.html
 #
 # From Alex Livingston (2006-12-07):
 # ... it was just on four years ago that I drove along the Eyre Highway,
@@ -1337,7 +1278,7 @@
 # Based on law library research by John Mackin,
 # who notes:
 #	In Australia, time is not legislated federally, but rather by the
-#	individual states.  Thus, while such terms as ``Eastern Standard Time''
+#	individual states.  Thus, while such terms as "Eastern Standard Time"
 #	[I mean, of course, Australian EST, not any other kind] are in common
 #	use, _they have NO REAL MEANING_, as they are not defined in the
 #	legislation.  This is very important to understand.
@@ -1345,48 +1286,42 @@
 
 # From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-26):
 # DST will start in NSW on the last Sunday of August, rather than the usual
-# October in 2000.  [See: Matthew Moore,
-# <a href="http://www.smh.com.au/news/9905/26/pageone/pageone4.html">
-# Two months more daylight saving
-# </a>
-# Sydney Morning Herald (1999-05-26).]
+# October in 2000.  See: Matthew Moore,
+# Two months more daylight saving, Sydney Morning Herald (1999-05-26).
+# http://www.smh.com.au/news/9905/26/pageone/pageone4.html
 
 # From Paul Eggert (1999-09-27):
 # See the following official NSW source:
-# <a href="http://dir.gis.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/genobject/document/other/daylightsaving/tigGmZ">
 # Daylight Saving in New South Wales.
-# </a>
+# http://dir.gis.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/genobject/document/other/daylightsaving/tigGmZ
 #
 # Narrabri Shire (NSW) council has announced it will ignore the extension of
 # daylight saving next year.  See:
-# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/neweng/monthly/regeng-22jul1999-1.htm">
 # Narrabri Council to ignore daylight saving
-# </a> (1999-07-22).  For now, we'll wait to see if this really happens.
+# http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/neweng/monthly/regeng-22jul1999-1.htm
+# (1999-07-22).  For now, we'll wait to see if this really happens.
 #
 # Victoria will following NSW.  See:
-# <a href="http://abc.net.au/local/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990728112314_1.htm">
-# Vic to extend daylight saving
-# </a> (1999-07-28).
+# Vic to extend daylight saving (1999-07-28)
+# http://abc.net.au/local/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990728112314_1.htm
 #
 # However, South Australia rejected the DST request.  See:
-# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990719151754_1.htm">
-# South Australia rejects Olympics daylight savings request
-# </a> (1999-07-19).
+# South Australia rejects Olympics daylight savings request (1999-07-19)
+# http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990719151754_1.htm
 #
 # Queensland also will not observe DST for the Olympics.  See:
-# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/06/item19990601114608_1.htm">
 # Qld says no to daylight savings for Olympics
-# </a> (1999-06-01), which quotes Queensland Premier Peter Beattie as saying
-# ``Look you've got to remember in my family when this came up last time
+# http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/06/item19990601114608_1.htm
+# (1999-06-01), which quotes Queensland Premier Peter Beattie as saying
+# "Look you've got to remember in my family when this came up last time
 # I voted for it, my wife voted against it and she said to me it's all very
 # well for you, you don't have to worry about getting the children out of
 # bed, getting them to school, getting them to sleep at night.
-# I've been through all this argument domestically...my wife rules.''
+# I've been through all this argument domestically...my wife rules."
 #
 # Broken Hill will stick with South Australian time in 2000.  See:
-# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/brokenh/monthly/regbrok-21jul1999-6.htm">
-# Broken Hill to be behind the times
-# </a> (1999-07-21).
+# Broken Hill to be behind the times (1999-07-21)
+# http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/brokenh/monthly/regbrok-21jul1999-6.htm
 
 # IATA SSIM (1998-09) says that the spring 2000 change for Australian
 # Capital Territory, New South Wales except Lord Howe Island and Broken
@@ -1402,7 +1337,7 @@
 # Yancowinna
 
 # From John Mackin (1989-01-04):
-# `Broken Hill' means the County of Yancowinna.
+# 'Broken Hill' means the County of Yancowinna.
 
 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
 # # YANCOWINNA..  [ Confirmation courtesy of Broken Hill Postmaster ]
@@ -1459,9 +1394,7 @@
 # summer (southern hemisphere).
 #
 # From
-# <a href="http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/DaylightDatesSet.pdf">
 # http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/DaylightDatesSet.pdf
-# </a>
 # The extended daylight saving period that South Australia has been trialling
 # for over the last year is now set to be ongoing.
 # Daylight saving will continue to start on the first Sunday in October each
@@ -1471,9 +1404,7 @@
 # the ACT for all 52 weeks of the year...
 #
 # We have a wrap-up here:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html">
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html
-# </a>
 ###############################################################################
 
 # New Zealand
@@ -1482,7 +1413,7 @@
 # the 1989/90 year was a trial of an extended "daylight saving" period.
 # This trial was deemed successful and the extended period adopted for
 # subsequent years (with the addition of a further week at the start).
-# source -- phone call to Ministry of Internal Affairs Head Office.
+# source - phone call to Ministry of Internal Affairs Head Office.
 
 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
 # # The Country of New Zealand   (Australia's east island -) Gee they hate that!
@@ -1524,6 +1455,19 @@
 # that DST will begin on 2007-09-30 2008-04-06.
 # http://www.dia.govt.nz/diawebsite.nsf/wpg_URL/Services-Daylight-Saving-Daylight-saving-to-be-extended
 
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-14):
+# Chatham Island time was formally standardized on 1957-01-01 by
+# New Zealand's Standard Time Amendment Act 1956 (1956-10-26).
+# http://www.austlii.edu.au/nz/legis/hist_act/staa19561956n100244.pdf
+# According to Google Books snippet view, a speaker in the New Zealand
+# parliamentary debates in 1956 said "Clause 78 makes provision for standard
+# time in the Chatham Islands.  The time there is 45 minutes in advance of New
+# Zealand time.  I understand that is the time they keep locally, anyhow."
+# For now, assume this practice goes back to the introduction of standard time
+# in New Zealand, as this would make Chatham Islands time almost exactly match
+# LMT back when New Zealand was at UTC+11:30; also, assume Chatham Islands did
+# not observe New Zealand's prewar DST.
+
 ###############################################################################
 
 
@@ -1543,7 +1487,7 @@
 
 # From the BBC World Service in
 # http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/205226.stm (1998-10-31 16:03 UTC):
-# The Fijiian government says the main reasons for the time change is to
+# The Fijian government says the main reasons for the time change is to
 # improve productivity and reduce road accidents.... [T]he move is also
 # intended to boost Fiji's ability to attract tourists to witness the dawning
 # of the new millennium.
@@ -1551,16 +1495,12 @@
 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/press/2000_09/2000_09_13-05.shtml (2000-09-13)
 # reports that Fiji has discontinued DST.
 
-# Johnston
-
-# Johnston data is from usno1995.
-
 
 # Kiribati
 
 # From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
 # Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (page 1) reports that Kiribati
-# ``declared it the same day [throughout] the country as of Jan. 1, 1995''
+# "declared it the same day [throughout] the country as of Jan. 1, 1995"
 # as part of the competition to be first into the 21st century.
 
 
@@ -1575,8 +1515,8 @@
 
 # N Mariana Is, Guam
 
-# Howse writes (p 153) ``The Spaniards, on the other hand, reached the
-# Philippines and the Ladrones from America,'' and implies that the Ladrones
+# Howse writes (p 153) "The Spaniards, on the other hand, reached the
+# Philippines and the Ladrones from America," and implies that the Ladrones
 # (now called the Marianas) kept American date for quite some time.
 # For now, we assume the Ladrones switched at the same time as the Philippines;
 # see Asia/Manila.
@@ -1590,17 +1530,16 @@
 # Micronesia
 
 # Alan Eugene Davis writes (1996-03-16),
-# ``I am certain, having lived there for the past decade, that "Truk"
-# (now properly known as Chuuk) ... is in the time zone GMT+10.''
+# "I am certain, having lived there for the past decade, that 'Truk'
+# (now properly known as Chuuk) ... is in the time zone GMT+10."
 #
 # Shanks & Pottenger write that Truk switched from UTC+10 to UTC+11
 # on 1978-10-01; ignore this for now.
 
 # From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29):
 # The Federated States of Micronesia Visitors Board writes in
-# <a href="http://www.fsmgov.org/info/clocks.html">
-# The Federated States of Micronesia - Visitor Information
-# </a> (1999-01-26)
+# The Federated States of Micronesia - Visitor Information (1999-01-26)
+# http://www.fsmgov.org/info/clocks.html
 # that Truk and Yap are UTC+10, and Ponape and Kosrae are UTC+11.
 # We don't know when Kosrae switched from UTC+12; assume January 1 for now.
 
@@ -1646,27 +1585,34 @@
 # Sacramento but it was changed a couple of years ago.
 
 
-# Samoa
+# (Western) Samoa and American Samoa
 
 # Howse writes (p 153, citing p 10 of the 1883-11-18 New York Herald)
 # that in 1879 the King of Samoa decided to change
-# ``the date in his kingdom from the Antipodean to the American system,
-# ordaining -- by a masterpiece of diplomatic flattery -- that
-# the Fourth of July should be celebrated twice in that year.''
+# "the date in his kingdom from the Antipodean to the American system,
+# ordaining - by a masterpiece of diplomatic flattery - that
+# the Fourth of July should be celebrated twice in that year."
 
+# Although Shanks & Pottenger says they both switched to UTC-11:30
+# in 1911, and to UTC-11 in 1950. many earlier sources give UTC-11
+# for American Samoa, e.g., the US National Bureau of Standards
+# circular "Standard Time Throughout the World", 1932.
+# Assume American Samoa switched to UTC-11 in 1911, not 1950,
+# and that after 1950 they agreed until (western) Samoa skipped a
+# day in 2011.  Assume also that the Samoas follow the US and New
+# Zealand's "ST"/"DT" style of daylight-saving abbreviations.
 
 # Tonga
 
 # From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
-# Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (p 1) reports that ``Tonga has been plotting
-# to sneak ahead of [New Zealanders] by introducing daylight-saving time.''
+# Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (p 1) reports that "Tonga has been plotting
+# to sneak ahead of [New Zealanders] by introducing daylight-saving time."
 # Since Kiribati has moved the Date Line it's not clear what Tonga will do.
 
 # Don Mundell writes in the 1997-02-20 Tonga Chronicle
-# <a href="http://www.tongatapu.net.to/tonga/homeland/timebegins.htm">
-# How Tonga became `The Land where Time Begins'
-# </a>:
-
+# How Tonga became 'The Land where Time Begins':
+# http://www.tongatapu.net.to/tonga/homeland/timebegins.htm
+#
 # Until 1941 Tonga maintained a standard time 50 minutes ahead of NZST
 # 12 hours and 20 minutes ahead of GMT.  When New Zealand adjusted its
 # standard time in 1940s, Tonga had the choice of subtracting from its
@@ -1674,8 +1620,8 @@
 # advancing its time to maintain the differential of 13 degrees
 # (approximately 50 minutes ahead of New Zealand time).
 #
-# Because His Majesty King Taufa'ahau Tupou IV, then Crown Prince
-# Tungi, preferred to ensure Tonga's title as the land where time
+# Because His Majesty King Tāufaʻāhau Tupou IV, then Crown Prince
+# Tungī, preferred to ensure Tonga's title as the land where time
 # begins, the Legislative Assembly approved the latter change.
 #
 # But some of the older, more conservative members from the outer
@@ -1701,9 +1647,7 @@
 # * Tonga will introduce DST in November
 #
 # I was given this link by John Letts:
-# <a href="http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm">
 # http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm
-# </a>
 #
 # I have not been able to find exact dates for the transition in November
 # yet. By reading this article it seems like Fiji will be 14 hours ahead
@@ -1711,9 +1655,7 @@
 # (12 + 1 hour DST).
 
 # From Arthur David Olson (1999-09-20):
-# According to <a href="http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html">
-# http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html
-# </a>:
+# According to <http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html>:
 # "Daylight Savings Time will take effect on Oct. 2 through April 15, 2000
 # and annually thereafter from the first Saturday in October through the
 # third Saturday of April.  Under the system approved by Privy Council on
@@ -1731,7 +1673,7 @@
 # instead of the original reported date April 16. Unfortunately, the article
 # is no longer available on the site, and I did not make a copy of the
 # text, and I have forgotten to report it here.
-# (Original URL was: http://www.tongaonline.com/news/march162000.htm )
+# (Original URL was <http://www.tongaonline.com/news/march162000.htm>)
 
 # From Rives McDow (2000-12-01):
 # Tonga is observing DST as of 2000-11-04 and will stop on 2001-01-27.
@@ -1751,7 +1693,7 @@
 # From Vernice Anderson, Personal Secretary to Philip Jessup,
 # US Ambassador At Large (oral history interview, 1971-02-02):
 #
-# Saturday, the 14th [of October, 1950] -- ...  The time was all the
+# Saturday, the 14th [of October, 1950] - ...  The time was all the
 # more confusing at that point, because we had crossed the
 # International Date Line, thus getting two Sundays.  Furthermore, we
 # discovered that Wake Island had two hours of daylight saving time
@@ -1796,7 +1738,7 @@
 # on the high seas.  Whenever a ship was within the territorial waters of any
 # nation it would use that nation's standard time.  The captain was permitted
 # to change his ship's clocks at a time of his choice following his ship's
-# entry into another zone time--he often chose midnight.  These zones were
+# entry into another zone time - he often chose midnight.  These zones were
 # adopted by all major fleets between 1920 and 1925 but not by many
 # independent merchant ships until World War II.
 
@@ -1804,6 +1746,6 @@
 # (2005-03-20):
 #
 # The American Practical Navigator (2002)
-# <http://pollux.nss.nima.mil/pubs/pubs_j_apn_sections.html?rid=187>
+# http://pollux.nss.nima.mil/pubs/pubs_j_apn_sections.html?rid=187
 # talks only about the 180-degree meridian with respect to ships in
 # international waters; it ignores the international date line.
--- a/make/data/tzdata/backward	Thu Sep 11 09:08:56 2014 -0700
+++ b/make/data/tzdata/backward	Thu Sep 11 14:29:21 2014 -0700
@@ -21,15 +21,15 @@
 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
 # questions.
 #
-# <pre>
 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
 
 # This file provides links between current names for time zones
 # and their old names.  Many names changed in late 1993.
 
+# Link	TARGET			LINK-NAME
 Link	Africa/Asmara		Africa/Asmera
-Link	Africa/Bamako		Africa/Timbuktu
+Link	Africa/Abidjan		Africa/Timbuktu
 Link	America/Argentina/Catamarca	America/Argentina/ComodRivadavia
 Link	America/Adak		America/Atka
 Link	America/Argentina/Buenos_Aires	America/Buenos_Aires
@@ -50,8 +50,11 @@
 Link	Pacific/Auckland	Antarctica/South_Pole
 Link	Asia/Ashgabat		Asia/Ashkhabad
 Link	Asia/Kolkata		Asia/Calcutta
-Link	Asia/Chongqing		Asia/Chungking
+Link	Asia/Shanghai		Asia/Chongqing
+Link	Asia/Shanghai		Asia/Chungking
 Link	Asia/Dhaka		Asia/Dacca
+Link	Asia/Shanghai		Asia/Harbin
+Link	Asia/Urumqi		Asia/Kashgar
 Link	Asia/Kathmandu		Asia/Katmandu
 Link	Asia/Macau		Asia/Macao
 Link	Asia/Ho_Chi_Minh	Asia/Saigon
--- a/make/data/tzdata/etcetera	Thu Sep 11 09:08:56 2014 -0700
+++ b/make/data/tzdata/etcetera	Thu Sep 11 14:29:21 2014 -0700
@@ -21,7 +21,6 @@
 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
 # questions.
 #
-# <pre>
 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
 
@@ -37,7 +36,7 @@
 Zone	Etc/UCT		0	-	UCT
 
 # The following link uses older naming conventions,
-# but it belongs here, not in the file `backward',
+# but it belongs here, not in the file 'backward',
 # as functions like gmtime load the "GMT" file to handle leap seconds properly.
 # We want this to work even on installations that omit the other older names.
 Link	Etc/GMT				GMT
--- a/make/data/tzdata/europe	Thu Sep 11 09:08:56 2014 -0700
+++ b/make/data/tzdata/europe	Thu Sep 11 14:29:21 2014 -0700
@@ -21,15 +21,15 @@
 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
 # questions.
 #
-# <pre>
 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
 
-# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
+# This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
-# tz@iana.org for general use in the future).
+# tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
+# the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
 
-# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-05-31):
 # A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
 # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
@@ -40,6 +40,9 @@
 # published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
 # of the IATA's data after 1990.
 #
+# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
+# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
+#
 # Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for
 # entries through 1991, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
 #
@@ -49,9 +52,9 @@
 #	Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated),
 #	which I found in the UCLA library.
 #
-#	<a href="http://www.pettswoodvillage.co.uk/Daylight_Savings_William_Willett.pdf">
 #	William Willett, The Waste of Daylight, 19th edition
-#	</a> (1914-03)
+#	<http://cs.ucla.edu/~eggert/The-Waste-of-Daylight-19th.pdf>
+#	[PDF] (1914-03)
 #
 #	Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94
 #	<http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>.  He writes:
@@ -59,10 +62,20 @@
 #	may be sent to Mr. John Milne, Royal Geographical Society,
 #	Savile Row, London."  Nowadays please email them to tz@iana.org.
 #
-#	Brazil's Departamento Servico da Hora (DSH),
-#	<a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm">
+#	Byalokoz EL. New Counting of Time in Russia since July 1, 1919.
+#	This Russian-language source was consulted by Vladimir Karpinsky; see
+#	http://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-August/021320.html
+#	The full Russian citation is:
+#	Бялокоз, Евгений Людвигович. Новый счет времени в течении суток
+#	введенный декретом Совета народных комиссаров для всей России с 1-го
+#	июля 1919 г. / Изд. 2-е Междуведомственной комиссии. - Петроград:
+#	Десятая гос. тип., 1919.
+#	http://resolver.gpntb.ru/purl?docushare/dsweb/Get/Resource-2011/Byalokoz__E.L.__Novyy__schet__vremeni__v__techenie__sutok__izd__2(1).pdf
+#
+#	Brazil's Divisão Serviço da Hora (DSHO),
 #	History of Summer Time
-#	</a> (1998-09-21, in Portuguese)
+#	<http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm>
+#	(1998-09-21, in Portuguese)
 
 #
 # I invented the abbreviations marked '*' in the following table;
@@ -81,10 +94,8 @@
 #        1:00       CET CEST CEMT Central Europe
 #        1:00:14    SET           Swedish (1879-1899)*
 #        2:00       EET EEST      Eastern Europe
-#        3:00       MSK MSD       Moscow
-#
-# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones, especially in Britain,
-# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
+#        3:00       FET           Further-eastern Europe*
+#        3:00       MSK MSD  MSM* Moscow
 
 # From Peter Ilieve (1994-12-04),
 # The original six [EU members]: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy,
@@ -128,7 +139,7 @@
 # along the towpath within a few yards of it.'
 #
 # I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's
-# position is 51 deg. 28' 30" N, 0 deg. 18' 45" W. The longitude should
+# position is 51 degrees 28' 30" N, 0 degrees 18' 45" W. The longitude should
 # be within about +-2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761.
 #
 # [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]
@@ -160,8 +171,22 @@
 # transition date for London, namely 1847-12-01.  We don't know as much
 # about Dublin, so we use 1880-08-02, the legal transition time.
 
-# From Paul Eggert (2003-09-27):
-# Summer Time was first seriously proposed by William Willett (1857-1915),
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-19):
+# The ancients had no need for daylight saving, as they kept time
+# informally or via hours whose length depended on the time of year.
+# Daylight saving time in its modern sense was invented by the
+# New Zealand entomologist George Vernon Hudson (1867-1946),
+# whose day job as a postal clerk led him to value
+# after-hours daylight in which to pursue his research.
+# In 1895 he presented a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society
+# that proposed a two-hour daylight-saving shift.  See:
+# Hudson GV. On seasonal time-adjustment in countries south of lat. 30 deg.
+# Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. 1895;28:734
+# http://rsnz.natlib.govt.nz/volume/rsnz_28/rsnz_28_00_006110.html
+# Although some interest was expressed in New Zealand, his proposal
+# did not find its way into law and eventually it was almost forgotten.
+#
+# In England, DST was independently reinvented by William Willett (1857-1915),
 # a London builder and member of the Royal Astronomical Society
 # who circulated a pamphlet "The Waste of Daylight" (1907)
 # that proposed advancing clocks 20 minutes on each of four Sundays in April,
@@ -174,7 +199,7 @@
 # A monument to Willett was unveiled on 1927-05-21, in an open space in
 # a 45-acre wood near Chislehurst, Kent that was purchased by popular
 # subscription and open to the public.  On the south face of the monolith,
-# designed by G. W. Miller, is the...William Willett Memorial Sundial,
+# designed by G. W. Miller, is the William Willett Memorial Sundial,
 # which is permanently set to Summer Time.
 
 # From Winston Churchill (1934-04-28):
@@ -183,9 +208,9 @@
 # between 160 and 170 hours more daylight leisure, to a war which
 # plunged Europe into darkness for four years, and shook the
 # foundations of civilization throughout the world.
-#	-- <a href="http://www.winstonchurchill.org/fh114willett.htm">
-#	"A Silent Toast to William Willett", Pictorial Weekly
-#	</a>
+#	-- "A Silent Toast to William Willett", Pictorial Weekly;
+#	republished in Finest Hour (Spring 2002) 1(114):26
+#	http://www.winstonchurchill.org/images/finesthour/Vol.01%20No.114.pdf
 
 # From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03):
 # The OED Supplement says that the English originally said "Daylight Saving"
@@ -194,7 +219,6 @@
 # proponents (who eventually won the argument) are quoted as using "Summer".
 
 # From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-19):
-#
 # A source at the British Information Office in New York avers that it's
 # known as "British" Summer Time in all parts of the United Kingdom.
 
@@ -221,8 +245,8 @@
 # official designation; the reply of the 21st was that there wasn't
 # but he couldn't think of anything better than the "Double British
 # Summer Time" that the BBC had been using informally.
-# http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/bbc-19410418.png
-# http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/ho-19410421.png
+# http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/bbc-19410418.png
+# http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/ho-19410421.png
 
 # From Sir Alexander Maxwell in the above-mentioned letter (1941-04-21):
 # [N]o official designation has as far as I know been adopted for the time
@@ -239,23 +263,14 @@
 # the history of summer time legislation in the United Kingdom.
 # Since 1998 Joseph S. Myers has been updating
 # and extending this list, which can be found in
-# http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/
-# <a href="http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/">
-# History of legal time in Britain
-# </a>
-# Rob Crowther (2012-01-04) reports that that URL no longer
-# exists, and the article can now be found at:
-# <a href="http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/">
 # http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/
-# </a>
 
 # From Joseph S. Myers (1998-01-06):
 #
 # The legal time in the UK outside of summer time is definitely GMT, not UTC;
 # see Lord Tanlaw's speech
-# <a href="http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/ld199697/ldhansrd/pdvn/lds97/text/70611-20.htm#70611-20_head0">
-# (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976)
-# </a>.
+# http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199798/ldhansrd/vo970611/text/70611-10.htm#70611-10_head0
+# (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976).
 
 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
 #
@@ -295,8 +310,8 @@
 #   -- James Joyce, Ulysses
 
 # From Joseph S. Myers (2005-01-26):
-# Irish laws are available online at www.irishstatutebook.ie.  These include
-# various relating to legal time, for example:
+# Irish laws are available online at <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie>.
+# These include various relating to legal time, for example:
 #
 # ZZA13Y1923.html ZZA12Y1924.html ZZA8Y1925.html ZZSIV20PG1267.html
 #
@@ -458,25 +473,27 @@
 # Use Europe/London for Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man.
 
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Europe/London	-0:01:15 -	LMT	1847 Dec  1 0:00s
+Zone	Europe/London	-0:01:15 -	LMT	1847 Dec  1  0:00s
 			 0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1968 Oct 27
-			 1:00	-	BST	1971 Oct 31 2:00u
+			 1:00	-	BST	1971 Oct 31  2:00u
 			 0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1996
 			 0:00	EU	GMT/BST
 Link	Europe/London	Europe/Jersey
 Link	Europe/London	Europe/Guernsey
 Link	Europe/London	Europe/Isle_of_Man
+
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Europe/Dublin	-0:25:00 -	LMT	1880 Aug  2
-			-0:25:21 -	DMT	1916 May 21 2:00
-			-0:25:21 1:00	IST	1916 Oct  1 2:00s
+			-0:25:21 -	DMT	1916 May 21  2:00
+			-0:25:21 1:00	IST	1916 Oct  1  2:00s
 			 0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1921 Dec  6 # independence
-			 0:00	GB-Eire	GMT/IST	1940 Feb 25 2:00
-			 0:00	1:00	IST	1946 Oct  6 2:00
-			 0:00	-	GMT	1947 Mar 16 2:00
-			 0:00	1:00	IST	1947 Nov  2 2:00
-			 0:00	-	GMT	1948 Apr 18 2:00
+			 0:00	GB-Eire	GMT/IST	1940 Feb 25  2:00
+			 0:00	1:00	IST	1946 Oct  6  2:00
+			 0:00	-	GMT	1947 Mar 16  2:00
+			 0:00	1:00	IST	1947 Nov  2  2:00
+			 0:00	-	GMT	1948 Apr 18  2:00
 			 0:00	GB-Eire	GMT/IST	1968 Oct 27
-			 1:00	-	IST	1971 Oct 31 2:00u
+			 1:00	-	IST	1971 Oct 31  2:00u
 			 0:00	GB-Eire	GMT/IST	1996
 			 0:00	EU	GMT/IST
 
@@ -495,10 +512,9 @@
 Rule	EU	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 1:00u	1:00	S
 Rule	EU	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 1:00u	0	-
 # The most recent directive covers the years starting in 2002.  See:
-# <a="http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0084:EN:NOT">
 # Directive 2000/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
 # of 19 January 2001 on summer-time arrangements.
-# </a>
+# http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0084:EN:NOT
 
 # W-Eur differs from EU only in that W-Eur uses standard time.
 Rule	W-Eur	1977	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 1:00s	1:00	S
@@ -521,18 +537,18 @@
 Rule	C-Eur	1944	1945	-	Apr	Mon>=1	 2:00s	1:00	S
 # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
 Rule	C-Eur	1944	only	-	Oct	 2	 2:00s	0	-
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2008-07-13):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2008-07-13):
 #
 # I found what is probably a typo of 2:00 which should perhaps be 2:00s
 # in the C-Eur rule from tz database version 2008d (this part was
-# corrected in version 2008d). The circumstancial evidence is simply the
+# corrected in version 2008d). The circumstantial evidence is simply the
 # tz database itself, as seen below:
 #
 # Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15  0:01
 #    0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16  3:00
 #
 # Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15
-#    0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00
+#    0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16  3:00
 #
 # Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884
 #    1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16  2:00s
@@ -576,16 +592,16 @@
 Rule	E-Eur	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 0:00	0	-
 
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Russia	1917	only	-	Jul	 1	23:00	1:00	MST	# Moscow Summer Time
-Rule	Russia	1917	only	-	Dec	28	 0:00	0	MMT	# Moscow Mean Time
-Rule	Russia	1918	only	-	May	31	22:00	2:00	MDST	# Moscow Double Summer Time
+Rule	Russia	1917	only	-	Jul	 1	23:00	1:00	MST  # Moscow Summer Time
+Rule	Russia	1917	only	-	Dec	28	 0:00	0	MMT  # Moscow Mean Time
+Rule	Russia	1918	only	-	May	31	22:00	2:00	MDST # Moscow Double Summer Time
 Rule	Russia	1918	only	-	Sep	16	 1:00	1:00	MST
 Rule	Russia	1919	only	-	May	31	23:00	2:00	MDST
-Rule	Russia	1919	only	-	Jul	 1	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Russia	1919	only	-	Aug	16	 0:00	0	-
-Rule	Russia	1921	only	-	Feb	14	23:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Russia	1921	only	-	Mar	20	23:00	2:00	M # Midsummer
-Rule	Russia	1921	only	-	Sep	 1	 0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Russia	1919	only	-	Jul	 1	 2:00	1:00	MSD
+Rule	Russia	1919	only	-	Aug	16	 0:00	0	MSK
+Rule	Russia	1921	only	-	Feb	14	23:00	1:00	MSD
+Rule	Russia	1921	only	-	Mar	20	23:00	2:00	MSM  # Midsummer
+Rule	Russia	1921	only	-	Sep	 1	 0:00	1:00	MSD
 Rule	Russia	1921	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00	0	-
 # Act No.925 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1980-10-24):
 Rule	Russia	1981	1984	-	Apr	 1	 0:00	1:00	S
@@ -607,14 +623,10 @@
 # According to the law Russia is abolishing daylight saving time.
 #
 # Medvedev signed a law "On the Calculation of Time" (in russian):
-# <a href="http://bmockbe.ru/events/?ID=7583">
 # http://bmockbe.ru/events/?ID=7583
-# </a>
 #
 # Medvedev signed a law on the calculation of the time (in russian):
-# <a href="http://www.regnum.ru/news/polit/1413906.html">
 # http://www.regnum.ru/news/polit/1413906.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
 # Take "abolishing daylight saving time" to mean that time is now considered
@@ -634,10 +646,10 @@
 # From Markus Kuhn (1996-07-12):
 # The official German names ... are
 #
-#	Mitteleuropaeische Zeit (MEZ)         = UTC+01:00
-#	Mitteleuropaeische Sommerzeit (MESZ)  = UTC+02:00
+#	Mitteleuropäische Zeit (MEZ)         = UTC+01:00
+#	Mitteleuropäische Sommerzeit (MESZ)  = UTC+02:00
 #
-# as defined in the German Time Act (Gesetz ueber die Zeitbestimmung (ZeitG),
+# as defined in the German Time Act (Gesetz über die Zeitbestimmung (ZeitG),
 # 1978-07-25, Bundesgesetzblatt, Jahrgang 1978, Teil I, S. 1110-1111)....
 # I wrote ... to the German Federal Physical-Technical Institution
 #
@@ -692,7 +704,7 @@
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Europe/Andorra	0:06:04 -	LMT	1901
 			0:00	-	WET	1946 Sep 30
-			1:00	-	CET	1985 Mar 31 2:00
+			1:00	-	CET	1985 Mar 31  2:00
 			1:00	EU	CE%sT
 
 # Austria
@@ -718,9 +730,9 @@
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Europe/Vienna	1:05:21 -	LMT	1893 Apr
 			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1920
-			1:00	Austria	CE%sT	1940 Apr  1 2:00s
-			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2 2:00s
-			1:00	1:00	CEST	1945 Apr 12 2:00s
+			1:00	Austria	CE%sT	1940 Apr  1  2:00s
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2  2:00s
+			1:00	1:00	CEST	1945 Apr 12  2:00s
 			1:00	-	CET	1946
 			1:00	Austria	CE%sT	1981
 			1:00	EU	CE%sT
@@ -731,38 +743,29 @@
 # GMT+3 without DST (was GMT+2 with DST).
 #
 # Sources (Russian language):
-# 1.
-# <a href="http://www.belta.by/ru/all_news/society/V-Belarusi-otmenjaetsja-perexod-na-sezonnoe-vremja_i_572952.html">
 # http://www.belta.by/ru/all_news/society/V-Belarusi-otmenjaetsja-perexod-na-sezonnoe-vremja_i_572952.html
-# </a>
-# 2.
-# <a href="http://naviny.by/rubrics/society/2011/09/16/ic_articles_116_175144/">
 # http://naviny.by/rubrics/society/2011/09/16/ic_articles_116_175144/
-# </a>
-# 3.
-# <a href="http://news.tut.by/society/250578.html">
 # http://news.tut.by/society/250578.html
-# </a>
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Europe/Minsk	1:50:16 -	LMT	1880
-			1:50	-	MMT	1924 May 2 # Minsk Mean Time
+			1:50	-	MMT	1924 May  2 # Minsk Mean Time
 			2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
 			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Jun 28
 			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Jul  3
 			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1990
-			3:00	-	MSK	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
-			2:00	1:00	EEST	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
-			2:00	-	EET	1992 Mar 29 0:00s
-			2:00	1:00	EEST	1992 Sep 27 0:00s
-			2:00	Russia	EE%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
-			3:00	-	FET # Further-eastern European Time
+			3:00	-	MSK	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
+			2:00	1:00	EEST	1991 Sep 29  2:00s
+			2:00	-	EET	1992 Mar 29  0:00s
+			2:00	1:00	EEST	1992 Sep 27  0:00s
+			2:00	Russia	EE%sT	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
+			3:00	-	FET
 
 # Belgium
 #
 # From Paul Eggert (1997-07-02):
 # Entries from 1918 through 1991 are taken from:
 #	Annuaire de L'Observatoire Royal de Belgique,
-#	Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 BRUXELLES, CLVIIe annee, 1991
+#	Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 BRUXELLES, CLVIIe année, 1991
 #	(Imprimerie HAYEZ, s.p.r.l., Rue Fin, 4, 1080 BRUXELLES, MCMXC),
 #	pp 8-9.
 # LMT before 1892 was 0:17:30, according to the official journal of Belgium:
@@ -812,7 +815,7 @@
 Rule	Belgium	1946	only	-	Oct	 7	 2:00s	0	-
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Europe/Brussels	0:17:30 -	LMT	1880
-			0:17:30	-	BMT	1892 May  1 12:00 # Brussels MT
+			0:17:30	-	BMT	1892 May  1 12:00  # Brussels MT
 			0:00	-	WET	1914 Nov  8
 			1:00	-	CET	1916 May  1  0:00
 			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1918 Nov 11 11:00u
@@ -828,8 +831,8 @@
 #
 # From Plamen Simenov via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
 # A document of Government of Bulgaria (No.94/1997) says:
-# EET --> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ...
-# EETDST --> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October
+# EET -> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ...
+# EETDST -> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October
 #
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
 Rule	Bulg	1979	only	-	Mar	31	23:00	1:00	S
@@ -842,7 +845,7 @@
 			1:56:56	-	IMT	1894 Nov 30 # Istanbul MT?
 			2:00	-	EET	1942 Nov  2  3:00
 			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945
-			1:00	-	CET	1945 Apr 2 3:00
+			1:00	-	CET	1945 Apr  2  3:00
 			2:00	-	EET	1979 Mar 31 23:00
 			2:00	Bulg	EE%sT	1982 Sep 26  2:00
 			2:00	C-Eur	EE%sT	1991
@@ -866,15 +869,15 @@
 Rule	Czech	1949	only	-	Apr	 9	2:00s	1:00	S
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Europe/Prague	0:57:44 -	LMT	1850
-			0:57:44	-	PMT	1891 Oct     # Prague Mean Time
-			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Sep 17 2:00s
+			0:57:44	-	PMT	1891 Oct    # Prague Mean Time
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Sep 17  2:00s
 			1:00	Czech	CE%sT	1979
 			1:00	EU	CE%sT
 # Use Europe/Prague also for Slovakia.
 
 # Denmark, Faroe Islands, and Greenland
 
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2005-04-26):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-04-26):
 # http://www.hum.aau.dk/~poe/tid/tine/DanskTid.htm says that the law
 # [introducing standard time] was in effect from 1894-01-01....
 # The page http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A18930008330-REGL
@@ -884,7 +887,7 @@
 # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19722110030-REGL
 #
 # This provoked a new law from 1974 to make possible summer time changes
-# in subsequenet decrees with the law
+# in subsequent decrees with the law
 # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19740022330-REGL
 #
 # It seems however that no decree was set forward until 1980.  I have
@@ -899,7 +902,7 @@
 # was suspended on that night):
 # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/C19801120554-REGL
 
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2005-06-11):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-06-11):
 # The Herning Folkeblad (1980-09-26) reported that the night between
 # Saturday and Sunday the clock is set back from three to two.
 
@@ -923,11 +926,11 @@
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone Europe/Copenhagen	 0:50:20 -	LMT	1890
 			 0:50:20 -	CMT	1894 Jan  1 # Copenhagen MT
-			 1:00	Denmark	CE%sT	1942 Nov  2 2:00s
-			 1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2 2:00
+			 1:00	Denmark	CE%sT	1942 Nov  2  2:00s
+			 1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2  2:00
 			 1:00	Denmark	CE%sT	1980
 			 1:00	EU	CE%sT
-Zone Atlantic/Faroe	-0:27:04 -	LMT	1908 Jan 11	# Torshavn
+Zone Atlantic/Faroe	-0:27:04 -	LMT	1908 Jan 11 # Tórshavn
 			 0:00	-	WET	1981
 			 0:00	EU	WE%sT
 #
@@ -939,11 +942,11 @@
 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
 # Greenland joined the EU as part of Denmark, obtained home rule on 1979-05-01,
 # and left the EU on 1985-02-01.  It therefore should have been using EU
-# rules at least through 1984.  Shanks & Pottenger say Scoresbysund and Godthab
+# rules at least through 1984.  Shanks & Pottenger say Scoresbysund and Godthåb
 # used C-Eur rules after 1980, but IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says they use EU
 # rules since at least 1991.  Assume EU rules since 1980.
 
-# From Gwillin Law (2001-06-06), citing
+# From Gwillim Law (2001-06-06), citing
 # <http://www.statkart.no/efs/efshefter/2001/efs5-2001.pdf> (2001-03-15),
 # and with translations corrected by Steffen Thorsen:
 #
@@ -978,16 +981,16 @@
 # DPC research station at Zackenberg.
 #
 # Scoresbysund and two small villages nearby keep time UTC-1 and use
-# the same daylight savings time period as in West Greenland (Godthab).
+# the same daylight savings time period as in West Greenland (Godthåb).
 #
-# The rest of Greenland, including Godthab (this area, although it
+# The rest of Greenland, including Godthåb (this area, although it
 # includes central Greenland, is known as west Greenland), keeps time
 # UTC-3, with daylight savings methods according to European rules.
 #
 # It is common procedure to use UTC 0 in the wilderness of East and
 # North Greenland, because it is mainly Icelandic aircraft operators
 # maintaining traffic in these areas.  However, the official status of
-# this area is that it sticks with Godthab time.  This area might be
+# this area is that it sticks with Godthåb time.  This area might be
 # considered a dual time zone in some respects because of this.
 
 # From Rives McDow (2001-11-19):
@@ -996,8 +999,8 @@
 
 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
 # From 1997 on the CIA map shows Danmarkshavn on GMT;
-# the 1995 map as like Godthab.
-# For lack of better info, assume they were like Godthab before 1996.
+# the 1995 map as like Godthåb.
+# For lack of better info, assume they were like Godthåb before 1996.
 # startkart.no says Thule does not observe DST, but this is clearly an error,
 # so go with Shanks & Pottenger for Thule transitions until this year.
 # For 2007 on assume Thule will stay in sync with US DST rules.
@@ -1012,15 +1015,15 @@
 #
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone America/Danmarkshavn -1:14:40 -	LMT	1916 Jul 28
-			-3:00	-	WGT	1980 Apr  6 2:00
+			-3:00	-	WGT	1980 Apr  6  2:00
 			-3:00	EU	WG%sT	1996
 			0:00	-	GMT
 Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:27:52 -	LMT	1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormiit
-			-2:00	-	CGT	1980 Apr  6 2:00
+			-2:00	-	CGT	1980 Apr  6  2:00
 			-2:00	C-Eur	CG%sT	1981 Mar 29
 			-1:00	EU	EG%sT
 Zone America/Godthab	-3:26:56 -	LMT	1916 Jul 28 # Nuuk
-			-3:00	-	WGT	1980 Apr  6 2:00
+			-3:00	-	WGT	1980 Apr  6  2:00
 			-3:00	EU	WG%sT
 Zone America/Thule	-4:35:08 -	LMT	1916 Jul 28 # Pituffik air base
 			-4:00	Thule	A%sT
@@ -1042,17 +1045,16 @@
 # summer time next spring."
 
 # From Peter Ilieve (1998-11-04), heavily edited:
-# <a href="http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390">
 # The 1998-09-22 Estonian time law
-# </a>
+# http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390
 # refers to the Eighth Directive and cites the association agreement between
-# the EU and Estonia, ratified by the Estonian law (RT II 1995, 22--27, 120).
+# the EU and Estonia, ratified by the Estonian law (RT II 1995, 22-27, 120).
 #
 # I also asked [my relative] whether they use any standard abbreviation
 # for their standard and summer times. He says no, they use "suveaeg"
 # (summer time) and "talveaeg" (winter time).
 
-# From <a href="http://www.baltictimes.com/">The Baltic Times</a> (1999-09-09)
+# From The Baltic Times <http://www.baltictimes.com/> (1999-09-09)
 # via Steffen Thorsen:
 # This year will mark the last time Estonia shifts to summer time,
 # a council of the ruling coalition announced Sept. 6....
@@ -1070,19 +1072,19 @@
 # The Estonian government has changed once again timezone politics.
 # Now we are using again EU rules.
 #
-# From Urmet Jaanes (2002-03-28):
+# From Urmet Jänes (2002-03-28):
 # The legislative reference is Government decree No. 84 on 2002-02-21.
 
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Europe/Tallinn	1:39:00	-	LMT	1880
-			1:39:00	-	TMT	1918 Feb # Tallinn Mean Time
+			1:39:00	-	TMT	1918 Feb    # Tallinn Mean Time
 			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1919 Jul
 			1:39:00	-	TMT	1921 May
 			2:00	-	EET	1940 Aug  6
 			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Sep 15
 			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Sep 22
-			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1989 Mar 26 2:00s
-			2:00	1:00	EEST	1989 Sep 24 2:00s
+			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1989 Mar 26  2:00s
+			2:00	1:00	EEST	1989 Sep 24  2:00s
 			2:00	C-Eur	EE%sT	1998 Sep 22
 			2:00	EU	EE%sT	1999 Nov  1
 			2:00	-	EET	2002 Feb 21
@@ -1104,35 +1106,45 @@
 # This is documented in Heikki Oja: Aikakirja 2007, published by The Almanac
 # Office of University of Helsinki, ISBN 952-10-3221-9, available online (in
 # Finnish) at
-#
-# <a href="http://almanakka.helsinki.fi/aikakirja/Aikakirja2007kokonaan.pdf">
 # http://almanakka.helsinki.fi/aikakirja/Aikakirja2007kokonaan.pdf
-# </a>
 #
 # Page 105 (56 in PDF version) has a handy table of all past daylight savings
 # transitions. It is easy enough to interpret without Finnish skills.
 #
 # This is also confirmed by Finnish Broadcasting Company's archive at:
-#
-# <a href="http://www.yle.fi/elavaarkisto/?s=s&g=1&ag=5&t=&a=3401">
 # http://www.yle.fi/elavaarkisto/?s=s&g=1&ag=5&t=&a=3401
-# </a>
 #
 # The news clip from 1981 says that "the time between 2 and 3 o'clock does not
 # exist tonight."
 
+# From Konstantin Hyppönen (2014-06-13):
+# [Heikki Oja's book Aikakirja 2013]
+# http://almanakka.helsinki.fi/images/aikakirja/Aikakirja2013kokonaan.pdf
+# pages 104-105, including a scan from a newspaper published on Apr 2 1942
+# say that ... [o]n Apr 2 1942, 24 o'clock (which means Apr 3 1942,
+# 00:00), clocks were moved one hour forward. The newspaper
+# mentions "on the night from Thursday to Friday"....
+# On Oct 4 1942, clocks were moved at 1:00 one hour backwards.
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-14):
+# Go with Oja over Shanks.
+
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Finland	1942	only	-	Apr	3	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Finland	1942	only	-	Oct	3	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Finland	1942	only	-	Apr	2	24:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Finland	1942	only	-	Oct	4	1:00	0	-
 Rule	Finland	1981	1982	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	1:00	S
 Rule	Finland	1981	1982	-	Sep	lastSun	3:00	0	-
+
+# Milne says Helsinki (Helsingfors) time was 1:39:49.2 (official document);
+# round to nearest.
+
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Europe/Helsinki	1:39:52 -	LMT	1878 May 31
-			1:39:52	-	HMT	1921 May    # Helsinki Mean Time
+Zone	Europe/Helsinki	1:39:49 -	LMT	1878 May 31
+			1:39:49	-	HMT	1921 May    # Helsinki Mean Time
 			2:00	Finland	EE%sT	1983
 			2:00	EU	EE%sT
 
-# Aaland Is
+# Åland Is
 Link	Europe/Helsinki	Europe/Mariehamn
 
 
@@ -1140,14 +1152,14 @@
 
 # From Ciro Discepolo (2000-12-20):
 #
-# Henri Le Corre, Regimes Horaires pour le monde entier, Editions
+# Henri Le Corre, Régimes horaires pour le monde entier, Éditions
 # Traditionnelles - Paris 2 books, 1993
 #
-# Gabriel, Traite de l'heure dans le monde, Guy Tredaniel editeur,
+# Gabriel, Traité de l'heure dans le monde, Guy Trédaniel,
 # Paris, 1991
 #
-# Francoise Gauquelin, Problemes de l'heure resolus en astrologie,
-# Guy tredaniel, Paris 1987
+# Françoise Gauquelin, Problèmes de l'heure résolus en astrologie,
+# Guy Trédaniel, Paris 1987
 
 
 #
@@ -1188,16 +1200,16 @@
 Rule	France	1940	only	-	Feb	25	 2:00	1:00	S
 # The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris, but Shanks & Pottenger
 # write that they were used in Monaco and in many French locations.
-# Le Corre writes that the upper limit of the free zone was Arneguy, Orthez,
-# Mont-de-Marsan, Bazas, Langon, Lamotte-Montravel, Marouil, La
-# Rochefoucault, Champagne-Mouton, La Roche-Posay, La Haye-Descartes,
+# Le Corre writes that the upper limit of the free zone was Arnéguy, Orthez,
+# Mont-de-Marsan, Bazas, Langon, Lamothe-Montravel, Marœuil, La
+# Rochefoucauld, Champagne-Mouton, La Roche-Posay, La Haye-Descartes,
 # Loches, Montrichard, Vierzon, Bourges, Moulins, Digoin,
-# Paray-le-Monial, Montceau-les-Mines, Chalons-sur-Saone, Arbois,
+# Paray-le-Monial, Montceau-les-Mines, Chalon-sur-Saône, Arbois,
 # Dole, Morez, St-Claude, and Collonges (Haute-Savoie).
 Rule	France	1941	only	-	May	 5	 0:00	2:00	M # Midsummer
 # Shanks & Pottenger say this transition occurred at Oct 6 1:00,
 # but go with Denis Excoffier (1997-12-12),
-# who quotes the Ephemerides Astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes
+# who quotes the Ephémérides astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes
 # as saying 5/10/41 22hUT.
 Rule	France	1941	only	-	Oct	 6	 0:00	1:00	S
 Rule	France	1942	only	-	Mar	 9	 0:00	2:00	M
@@ -1218,7 +1230,7 @@
 # on PMT-0:09:21 until 1978-08-09, when the time base finally switched to UTC.
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Europe/Paris	0:09:21 -	LMT	1891 Mar 15  0:01
-			0:09:21	-	PMT	1911 Mar 11  0:01  # Paris MT
+			0:09:21	-	PMT	1911 Mar 11  0:01 # Paris MT
 # Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier and Le Corre.
 			0:00	France	WE%sT	1940 Jun 14 23:00
 # Le Corre says Paris stuck with occupied-France time after the liberation;
@@ -1235,15 +1247,13 @@
 # Bundesanstalt contains DST information back to 1916.
 # [See tz-link.htm for the URL.]
 
-# From Joerg Schilling (2002-10-23):
+# From Jörg Schilling (2002-10-23):
 # In 1945, Berlin was switched to Moscow Summer time (GMT+4) by
-# <a href="http://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/BersarinNikolai/">
-# General [Nikolai] Bersarin</a>.
+# http://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/BersarinNikolai/
+# General [Nikolai] Bersarin.
 
 # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-08):
-# <a href="http://www.parlament-berlin.de/pds-fraktion.nsf/727459127c8b66ee8525662300459099/defc77cb784f180ac1256c2b0030274b/$FILE/bersarint.pdf">
 # http://www.parlament-berlin.de/pds-fraktion.nsf/727459127c8b66ee8525662300459099/defc77cb784f180ac1256c2b0030274b/$FILE/bersarint.pdf
-# </a>
 # says that Bersarin issued an order to use Moscow time on May 20.
 # However, Moscow did not observe daylight saving in 1945, so
 # this was equivalent to CEMT (GMT+3), not GMT+4.
@@ -1268,23 +1278,23 @@
 
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Europe/Berlin	0:53:28 -	LMT	1893 Apr
-			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 May 24 2:00
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 May 24  2:00
 			1:00 SovietZone	CE%sT	1946
 			1:00	Germany	CE%sT	1980
 			1:00	EU	CE%sT
 
 # From Tobias Conradi (2011-09-12):
-# Busingen <http://www.buesingen.de>, surrounded by the Swiss canton
+# Büsingen <http://www.buesingen.de>, surrounded by the Swiss canton
 # Schaffhausen, did not start observing DST in 1980 as the rest of DE
 # (West Germany at that time) and DD (East Germany at that time) did.
 # DD merged into DE, the area is currently covered by code DE in ISO 3166-1,
 # which in turn is covered by the zone Europe/Berlin.
 #
-# Source for the time in Busingen 1980:
+# Source for the time in Büsingen 1980:
 # http://www.srf.ch/player/video?id=c012c029-03b7-4c2b-9164-aa5902cd58d3
 
 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-03):
-# Busingen and Zurich have shared clocks since 1970.
+# Büsingen and Zurich have shared clocks since 1970.
 
 Link	Europe/Zurich	Europe/Busingen
 
@@ -1295,8 +1305,8 @@
 
 # Gibraltar
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Europe/Gibraltar	-0:21:24 -	LMT	1880 Aug  2 0:00s
-			0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1957 Apr 14 2:00
+Zone Europe/Gibraltar	-0:21:24 -	LMT	1880 Aug  2  0:00s
+			0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1957 Apr 14  2:00
 			1:00	-	CET	1982
 			1:00	EU	CE%sT
 
@@ -1327,7 +1337,7 @@
 Rule	Greece	1980	only	-	Sep	28	0:00	0	-
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Europe/Athens	1:34:52 -	LMT	1895 Sep 14
-			1:34:52	-	AMT	1916 Jul 28 0:01     # Athens MT
+			1:34:52	-	AMT	1916 Jul 28  0:01 # Athens MT
 			2:00	Greece	EE%sT	1941 Apr 30
 			1:00	Greece	CE%sT	1944 Apr  4
 			2:00	Greece	EE%sT	1981
@@ -1336,15 +1346,20 @@
 			2:00	EU	EE%sT
 
 # Hungary
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-15):
+# Dates for 1916-1945 are taken from:
+# Oross A. Jelen a múlt jövője: a nyári időszámítás Magyarországon 1916-1945.
+# National Archives of Hungary (2012-10-29).
+# http://mnl.gov.hu/a_het_dokumentuma/a_nyari_idoszamitas_magyarorszagon_19161945.html
+# This source does not always give times, which are taken from Shanks
+# & Pottenger (which disagree about the dates).
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
 Rule	Hungary	1918	only	-	Apr	 1	 3:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Hungary	1918	only	-	Sep	29	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Hungary	1918	only	-	Sep	16	 3:00	0	-
 Rule	Hungary	1919	only	-	Apr	15	 3:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Hungary	1919	only	-	Sep	15	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Hungary	1920	only	-	Apr	 5	 3:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Hungary	1920	only	-	Sep	30	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Hungary	1919	only	-	Nov	24	 3:00	0	-
 Rule	Hungary	1945	only	-	May	 1	23:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Hungary	1945	only	-	Nov	 3	 0:00	0	-
+Rule	Hungary	1945	only	-	Nov	 1	 0:00	0	-
 Rule	Hungary	1946	only	-	Mar	31	 2:00s	1:00	S
 Rule	Hungary	1946	1949	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 2:00s	0	-
 Rule	Hungary	1947	1949	-	Apr	Sun>=4	 2:00s	1:00	S
@@ -1360,7 +1375,7 @@
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Europe/Budapest	1:16:20 -	LMT	1890 Oct
 			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1918
-			1:00	Hungary	CE%sT	1941 Apr  6  2:00
+			1:00	Hungary	CE%sT	1941 Apr  8
 			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945
 			1:00	Hungary	CE%sT	1980 Sep 28  2:00s
 			1:00	EU	CE%sT
@@ -1423,7 +1438,7 @@
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik	-1:27:24 -	LMT	1837
 			-1:27:48 -	RMT	1908 # Reykjavik Mean Time?
-			-1:00	Iceland	IS%sT	1968 Apr 7 1:00s
+			-1:00	Iceland	IS%sT	1968 Apr  7  1:00s
 			 0:00	-	GMT
 
 # Italy
@@ -1438,9 +1453,8 @@
 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
 # For Italian DST we have three sources: Shanks & Pottenger, Whitman, and
 # F. Pollastri
-# <a href="http://toi.iriti.cnr.it/uk/ienitlt.html">
 # Day-light Saving Time in Italy (2006-02-03)
-# </a>
+# http://toi.iriti.cnr.it/uk/ienitlt.html
 # ('FP' below), taken from an Italian National Electrotechnical Institute
 # publication. When the three sources disagree, guess who's right, as follows:
 #
@@ -1500,8 +1514,8 @@
 Rule	Italy	1979	only	-	Sep	30	0:00s	0	-
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Europe/Rome	0:49:56 -	LMT	1866 Sep 22
-			0:49:56	-	RMT	1893 Nov  1 0:00s # Rome Mean
-			1:00	Italy	CE%sT	1942 Nov  2 2:00s
+			0:49:56	-	RMT	1893 Nov  1  0:00s # Rome Mean
+			1:00	Italy	CE%sT	1942 Nov  2  2:00s
 			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Jul
 			1:00	Italy	CE%sT	1980
 			1:00	EU	CE%sT
@@ -1548,18 +1562,18 @@
 
 # From Andrei Ivanov (2000-03-06):
 # This year Latvia will not switch to Daylight Savings Time (as specified in
-# <a href="http://www.lv-laiks.lv/wwwraksti/2000/071072/vd4.htm">
 # The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Rep. of Latvia of
-# 29-Feb-2000 (#79)</a>, in Latvian for subscribers only).
+# 29-Feb-2000 (#79) <http://www.lv-laiks.lv/wwwraksti/2000/071072/vd4.htm>,
+# in Latvian for subscribers only).
 
-# <a href="http://www.rferl.org/newsline/2001/01/3-CEE/cee-030101.html">
-# From RFE/RL Newsline (2001-01-03), noted after a heads-up by Rives McDow:
-# </a>
+# From RFE/RL Newsline
+# http://www.rferl.org/newsline/2001/01/3-CEE/cee-030101.html
+# (2001-01-03), noted after a heads-up by Rives McDow:
 # The Latvian government on 2 January decided that the country will
 # institute daylight-saving time this spring, LETA reported.
 # Last February the three Baltic states decided not to turn back their
 # clocks one hour in the spring....
-# Minister of Economy Aigars Kalvitis noted that Latvia had too few
+# Minister of Economy Aigars Kalvītis noted that Latvia had too few
 # daylight hours and thus decided to comply with a draft European
 # Commission directive that provides for instituting daylight-saving
 # time in EU countries between 2002 and 2006. The Latvian government
@@ -1569,18 +1583,23 @@
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
 Rule	Latvia	1989	1996	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
 Rule	Latvia	1989	1996	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
+
+# Milne 1899 says Riga was 1:36:28 (Polytechnique House time).
+# Byalokoz 1919 says Latvia was 1:36:34.
+# Go with Byalokoz.
+
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Europe/Riga	1:36:24	-	LMT	1880
-			1:36:24	-	RMT	1918 Apr 15 2:00 #Riga Mean Time
-			1:36:24	1:00	LST	1918 Sep 16 3:00 #Latvian Summer
-			1:36:24	-	RMT	1919 Apr  1 2:00
-			1:36:24	1:00	LST	1919 May 22 3:00
-			1:36:24	-	RMT	1926 May 11
+Zone	Europe/Riga	1:36:34	-	LMT	1880
+			1:36:34	-	RMT	1918 Apr 15  2:00 # Riga MT
+			1:36:34	1:00	LST	1918 Sep 16  3:00 # Latvian ST
+			1:36:34	-	RMT	1919 Apr  1  2:00
+			1:36:34	1:00	LST	1919 May 22  3:00
+			1:36:34	-	RMT	1926 May 11
 			2:00	-	EET	1940 Aug  5
 			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Jul
 			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Oct 13
-			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1989 Mar lastSun 2:00s
-			2:00	1:00	EEST	1989 Sep lastSun 2:00s
+			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1989 Mar lastSun  2:00s
+			2:00	1:00	EEST	1989 Sep lastSun  2:00s
 			2:00	Latvia	EE%sT	1997 Jan 21
 			2:00	EU	EE%sT	2000 Feb 29
 			2:00	-	EET	2001 Jan  2
@@ -1614,7 +1633,7 @@
 # I would like to inform that in this year Lithuanian time zone
 # (Europe/Vilnius) was changed.
 
-# From <a href="http://www.elta.lt/">ELTA</a> No. 972 (2582) (1999-09-29),
+# From ELTA No. 972 (2582) (1999-09-29) <http://www.elta.lt/>,
 # via Steffen Thorsen:
 # Lithuania has shifted back to the second time zone (GMT plus two hours)
 # to be valid here starting from October 31,
@@ -1623,9 +1642,9 @@
 # motion to give up shifting to summer time in spring, as it was
 # already done by Estonia.
 
-# From the <a href="http://www.tourism.lt/informa/ff.htm">
-# Fact File, Lithuanian State Department of Tourism
-# </a> (2000-03-27): Local time is GMT+2 hours ..., no daylight saving.
+# From the Fact File, Lithuanian State Department of Tourism
+# <http://www.tourism.lt/informa/ff.htm> (2000-03-27):
+# Local time is GMT+2 hours ..., no daylight saving.
 
 # From a user via Klaus Marten (2003-02-07):
 # As a candidate for membership of the European Union, Lithuania will
@@ -1638,18 +1657,18 @@
 
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Europe/Vilnius	1:41:16	-	LMT	1880
-			1:24:00	-	WMT	1917	    # Warsaw Mean Time
+			1:24:00	-	WMT	1917        # Warsaw Mean Time
 			1:35:36	-	KMT	1919 Oct 10 # Kaunas Mean Time
 			1:00	-	CET	1920 Jul 12
 			2:00	-	EET	1920 Oct  9
 			1:00	-	CET	1940 Aug  3
 			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Jun 24
 			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Aug
-			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
-			2:00	1:00	EEST	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
+			2:00	1:00	EEST	1991 Sep 29  2:00s
 			2:00	C-Eur	EE%sT	1998
-			2:00	-	EET	1998 Mar 29 1:00u
-			1:00	EU	CE%sT	1999 Oct 31 1:00u
+			2:00	-	EET	1998 Mar 29  1:00u
+			1:00	EU	CE%sT	1999 Oct 31  1:00u
 			2:00	-	EET	2003 Jan  1
 			2:00	EU	EE%sT
 
@@ -1683,9 +1702,9 @@
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone Europe/Luxembourg	0:24:36 -	LMT	1904 Jun
 			1:00	Lux	CE%sT	1918 Nov 25
-			0:00	Lux	WE%sT	1929 Oct  6 2:00s
-			0:00	Belgium	WE%sT	1940 May 14 3:00
-			1:00	C-Eur	WE%sT	1944 Sep 18 3:00
+			0:00	Lux	WE%sT	1929 Oct  6  2:00s
+			0:00	Belgium	WE%sT	1940 May 14  3:00
+			1:00	C-Eur	WE%sT	1944 Sep 18  3:00
 			1:00	Belgium	CE%sT	1977
 			1:00	EU	CE%sT
 
@@ -1702,9 +1721,9 @@
 Rule	Malta	1975	1980	-	Sep	Sun>=15	2:00	0	-
 Rule	Malta	1980	only	-	Mar	31	2:00	1:00	S
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Europe/Malta	0:58:04 -	LMT	1893 Nov  2 0:00s # Valletta
-			1:00	Italy	CE%sT	1942 Nov  2 2:00s
-			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2 2:00s
+Zone	Europe/Malta	0:58:04 -	LMT	1893 Nov  2  0:00s # Valletta
+			1:00	Italy	CE%sT	1942 Nov  2  2:00s
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2  2:00s
 			1:00	Italy	CE%sT	1973 Mar 31
 			1:00	Malta	CE%sT	1981
 			1:00	EU	CE%sT
@@ -1719,7 +1738,7 @@
 # In early 1992 there was large-scale interethnic violence in the area
 # and it's possible that some Russophones continued to observe Moscow time.
 # But [two people] separately reported via
-# Jesper Norgaard that as of 2001-01-24 Tiraspol was like Chisinau.
+# Jesper Nørgaard that as of 2001-01-24 Tiraspol was like Chisinau.
 # The Tiraspol entry has therefore been removed for now.
 #
 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-17):
@@ -1728,13 +1747,8 @@
 # to the Winter Time).
 #
 # News (in Russian):
-# <a href="http://www.kyivpost.ua/russia/news/pridnestrove-otkazalos-ot-perehoda-na-zimnee-vremya-30954.html">
 # http://www.kyivpost.ua/russia/news/pridnestrove-otkazalos-ot-perehoda-na-zimnee-vremya-30954.html
-# </a>
-#
-# <a href="http://www.allmoldova.com/moldova-news/1249064116.html">
 # http://www.allmoldova.com/moldova-news/1249064116.html
-# </a>
 #
 # The substance of this change (reinstatement of the Tiraspol entry)
 # is from a patch from Petr Machata (2011-10-17)
@@ -1752,9 +1766,7 @@
 # Following Moldova and neighboring Ukraine- Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)-
 # Tiraspol will go back to winter time on October 30, 2011.
 # News from Moldova (in russian):
-# <a href="http://ru.publika.md/link_317061.html">
 # http://ru.publika.md/link_317061.html
-# </a>
 
 
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
@@ -1777,8 +1789,8 @@
 # more precise 0:09:21.
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Europe/Monaco	0:29:32 -	LMT	1891 Mar 15
-			0:09:21	-	PMT	1911 Mar 11    # Paris Mean Time
-			0:00	France	WE%sT	1945 Sep 16 3:00
+			0:09:21	-	PMT	1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
+			0:00	France	WE%sT	1945 Sep 16  3:00
 			1:00	France	CE%sT	1977
 			1:00	EU	CE%sT
 
@@ -1822,8 +1834,8 @@
 # was not until 1866 when they were all required by law to observe
 # Amsterdam mean time.
 
-# The data before 1945 are taken from
-# <http://www.phys.uu.nl/~vgent/wettijd/wettijd.htm>.
+# The data entries before 1945 are taken from
+# http://www.phys.uu.nl/~vgent/wettijd/wettijd.htm
 
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
 Rule	Neth	1916	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	NST	# Netherlands Summer Time
@@ -1854,8 +1866,8 @@
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone Europe/Amsterdam	0:19:32 -	LMT	1835
 			0:19:32	Neth	%s	1937 Jul  1
-			0:20	Neth	NE%sT	1940 May 16 0:00 # Dutch Time
-			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2 2:00
+			0:20	Neth	NE%sT	1940 May 16  0:00 # Dutch Time
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2  2:00
 			1:00	Neth	CE%sT	1977
 			1:00	EU	CE%sT
 
@@ -1885,14 +1897,14 @@
 # time they were declared as parts of Norway.  Svalbard was declared
 # as a part of Norway by law of 1925-07-17 no 11, section 4 and Jan
 # Mayen by law of 1930-02-27 no 2, section 2. (From
-# http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19250717-011.html and
-# http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19300227-002.html).  The law/regulation
+# <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19250717-011.html> and
+# <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19300227-002.html>).  The law/regulation
 # for normal/standard time in Norway is from 1894-06-29 no 1 (came
 # into operation on 1895-01-01) and Svalbard/Jan Mayen seem to be a
 # part of this law since 1925/1930. (From
-# http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-18940629-001.html ) I have not been
+# <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-18940629-001.html>) I have not been
 # able to find if Jan Mayen used a different time zone (e.g. -0100)
-# before 1930. Jan Mayen has only been "inhabitated" since 1921 by
+# before 1930. Jan Mayen has only been "inhabited" since 1921 by
 # Norwegian meteorologists and maybe used the same time as Norway ever
 # since 1921.  Svalbard (Arctic/Longyearbyen) has been inhabited since
 # before 1895, and therefore probably changed the local time somewhere
@@ -1907,7 +1919,7 @@
 # <http://home.no.net/janmayen/history.htm> says that the meteorologists
 # burned down their station in 1940 and left the island, but returned in
 # 1941 with a small Norwegian garrison and continued operations despite
-# frequent air ttacks from Germans.  In 1943 the Americans established a
+# frequent air attacks from Germans.  In 1943 the Americans established a
 # radiolocating station on the island, called "Atlantic City".  Possibly
 # the UT offset changed during the war, but I think it unlikely that
 # Jan Mayen used German daylight-saving rules.
@@ -1918,7 +1930,7 @@
 # <http://www.svalbard.com/SvalbardFAQ.html> says that the Germans were
 # expelled on 1942-05-14.  However, small parties of Germans did return,
 # and according to Wilhelm Dege's book "War North of 80" (1954)
-# <http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/departments/UP/1-55238/1-55238-110-2.html>
+# http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/departments/UP/1-55238/1-55238-110-2.html
 # the German armed forces at the Svalbard weather station code-named
 # Haudegen did not surrender to the Allies until September 1945.
 #
@@ -1927,6 +1939,10 @@
 Link	Europe/Oslo	Arctic/Longyearbyen
 
 # Poland
+
+# The 1919 dates and times can be found in Tygodnik Urzędowy nr 1 (1919-03-20),
+# <http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/publication/32156> pp 1-2.
+
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
 Rule	Poland	1918	1919	-	Sep	16	2:00s	0	-
 Rule	Poland	1919	only	-	Apr	15	2:00s	1:00	S
@@ -1937,9 +1953,9 @@
 Rule	Poland	1945	only	-	Apr	29	0:00	1:00	S
 Rule	Poland	1945	only	-	Nov	 1	0:00	0	-
 # For 1946 on the source is Kazimierz Borkowski,
-# Torun Center for Astronomy, Dept. of Radio Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus U.,
-# <http://www.astro.uni.torun.pl/~kb/Artykuly/U-PA/Czas2.htm#tth_tAb1>
-# Thanks to Przemyslaw Augustyniak (2005-05-28) for this reference.
+# Toruń Center for Astronomy, Dept. of Radio Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus U.,
+# http://www.astro.uni.torun.pl/~kb/Artykuly/U-PA/Czas2.htm#tth_tAb1
+# Thanks to Przemysław Augustyniak (2005-05-28) for this reference.
 # He also gives these further references:
 # Mon Pol nr 13, poz 162 (1995) <http://www.abc.com.pl/serwis/mp/1995/0162.htm>
 # Druk nr 2180 (2003) <http://www.senat.gov.pl/k5/dok/sejm/053/2180.pdf>
@@ -1959,10 +1975,10 @@
 Rule	Poland	1962	1964	-	Sep	lastSun	1:00s	0	-
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Europe/Warsaw	1:24:00 -	LMT	1880
-			1:24:00	-	WMT	1915 Aug  5   # Warsaw Mean Time
-			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1918 Sep 16 3:00
+			1:24:00	-	WMT	1915 Aug  5 # Warsaw Mean Time
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1918 Sep 16  3:00
 			2:00	Poland	EE%sT	1922 Jun
-			1:00	Poland	CE%sT	1940 Jun 23 2:00
+			1:00	Poland	CE%sT	1940 Jun 23  2:00
 			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Oct
 			1:00	Poland	CE%sT	1977
 			1:00	W-Eur	CE%sT	1988
@@ -1970,6 +1986,14 @@
 
 # Portugal
 #
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-08-11), after a heads-up from Stephen Colebourne:
+# According to a Portuguese decree (1911-05-26)
+# http://dre.pt/pdf1sdip/1911/05/12500/23132313.pdf
+# Lisbon was at -0:36:44.68, but switched to GMT on 1912-01-01 at 00:00.
+# Round the old offset to -0:36:45.  This agrees with Willett but disagrees
+# with Shanks, who says the transition occurred on 1911-05-24 at 00:00 for
+# Europe/Lisbon, Atlantic/Azores, and Atlantic/Madeira.
+#
 # From Rui Pedro Salgueiro (1992-11-12):
 # Portugal has recently (September, 27) changed timezone
 # (from WET to MET or CET) to harmonize with EEC.
@@ -2049,35 +2073,34 @@
 Rule	Port	1980	only	-	Mar	lastSun	 0:00s	1:00	S
 Rule	Port	1981	1982	-	Mar	lastSun	 1:00s	1:00	S
 Rule	Port	1983	only	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
+#
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-# Shanks & Pottenger say the transition from LMT to WET occurred 1911-05-24;
-# Willett says 1912-01-01.  Go with Willett.
-Zone	Europe/Lisbon	-0:36:32 -	LMT	1884
-			-0:36:32 -	LMT	1912 Jan  1  # Lisbon Mean Time
-			 0:00	Port	WE%sT	1966 Apr  3 2:00
-			 1:00	-	CET	1976 Sep 26 1:00
-			 0:00	Port	WE%sT	1983 Sep 25 1:00s
-			 0:00	W-Eur	WE%sT	1992 Sep 27 1:00s
-			 1:00	EU	CE%sT	1996 Mar 31 1:00u
+Zone	Europe/Lisbon	-0:36:45 -	LMT	1884
+			-0:36:45 -	LMT	1912 Jan  1 # Lisbon Mean Time
+			 0:00	Port	WE%sT	1966 Apr  3  2:00
+			 1:00	-	CET	1976 Sep 26  1:00
+			 0:00	Port	WE%sT	1983 Sep 25  1:00s
+			 0:00	W-Eur	WE%sT	1992 Sep 27  1:00s
+			 1:00	EU	CE%sT	1996 Mar 31  1:00u
 			 0:00	EU	WE%sT
-Zone Atlantic/Azores	-1:42:40 -	LMT	1884		# Ponta Delgada
-			-1:54:32 -	HMT	1911 May 24  # Horta Mean Time
-			-2:00	Port	AZO%sT	1966 Apr  3 2:00 # Azores Time
-			-1:00	Port	AZO%sT	1983 Sep 25 1:00s
-			-1:00	W-Eur	AZO%sT	1992 Sep 27 1:00s
-			 0:00	EU	WE%sT	1993 Mar 28 1:00u
+Zone Atlantic/Azores	-1:42:40 -	LMT	1884        # Ponta Delgada
+			-1:54:32 -	HMT	1912 Jan  1 # Horta Mean Time
+			-2:00	Port	AZO%sT	1966 Apr  3  2:00  # Azores Time
+			-1:00	Port	AZO%sT	1983 Sep 25  1:00s
+			-1:00	W-Eur	AZO%sT	1992 Sep 27  1:00s
+			 0:00	EU	WE%sT	1993 Mar 28  1:00u
 			-1:00	EU	AZO%sT
-Zone Atlantic/Madeira	-1:07:36 -	LMT	1884		# Funchal
-			-1:07:36 -	FMT	1911 May 24  # Funchal Mean Time
-			-1:00	Port	MAD%sT	1966 Apr  3 2:00 # Madeira Time
-			 0:00	Port	WE%sT	1983 Sep 25 1:00s
+Zone Atlantic/Madeira	-1:07:36 -	LMT	1884        # Funchal
+			-1:07:36 -	FMT	1912 Jan  1 # Funchal Mean Time
+			-1:00	Port	MAD%sT	1966 Apr  3  2:00 # Madeira Time
+			 0:00	Port	WE%sT	1983 Sep 25  1:00s
 			 0:00	EU	WE%sT
 
 # Romania
 #
 # From Paul Eggert (1999-10-07):
-# <a href="http://www.nineoclock.ro/POL/1778pol.html">
-# Nine O'clock</a> (1998-10-23) reports that the switch occurred at
+# Nine O'clock <http://www.nineoclock.ro/POL/1778pol.html>
+# (1998-10-23) reports that the switch occurred at
 # 04:00 local time in fall 1998.  For lack of better info,
 # assume that Romania and Moldova switched to EU rules in 1997,
 # the same year as Bulgaria.
@@ -2094,32 +2117,28 @@
 Rule	Romania	1991	1993	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00s	0	-
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone Europe/Bucharest	1:44:24 -	LMT	1891 Oct
-			1:44:24	-	BMT	1931 Jul 24	# Bucharest MT
-			2:00	Romania	EE%sT	1981 Mar 29 2:00s
+			1:44:24	-	BMT	1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
+			2:00	Romania	EE%sT	1981 Mar 29  2:00s
 			2:00	C-Eur	EE%sT	1991
 			2:00	Romania	EE%sT	1994
 			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1997
 			2:00	EU	EE%sT
 
+
 # Russia
 
 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-15):
 # Based on last Russian Government Decree # 725 on August 31, 2011
 # (Government document
-# <a href="http://www.government.ru/gov/results/16355/print/">
 # http://www.government.ru/gov/results/16355/print/
-# </a>
 # in Russian)
 # there are few corrections have to be made for some Russian time zones...
 # All updated Russian Time Zones were placed in table and translated to English
 # by WorldTimeZone.com at the link below:
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia36.htm">
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia36.htm
-# </a>
 
 # From Sanjeev Gupta (2011-09-27):
 # Scans of [Decree #23 of January 8, 1992] are available at:
-# <a href="http://government.consultant.ru/page.aspx?1223966">
 # http://government.consultant.ru/page.aspx?1223966
 # They are in Cyrillic letters (presumably Russian).
 
@@ -2128,16 +2147,12 @@
 # changed in September 2011:
 #
 # One source is
-# < a href="http://government.ru/gov/results/16355/>
 # http://government.ru/gov/results/16355/
-# </a>
 # which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Decree of August 31,
 # 2011 No 725" and contains no other dates or "effective date" information.
 #
 # Another source is
-# <a href="http://www.rg.ru/2011/09/06/chas-zona-dok.html">
 # http://www.rg.ru/2011/09/06/chas-zona-dok.html
-# </a>
 # which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Resolution of the
 # Government of the Russian Federation on August 31, 2011 N 725" and also
 # contains "Date first official publication: September 6, 2011 Posted on:
@@ -2145,28 +2160,45 @@
 # does not contain any "effective date" information.
 #
 # Another source is
-# <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oymyakonsky_District#cite_note-RuTime-7">
 # http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oymyakonsky_District#cite_note-RuTime-7
-# </a>
 # which, in note 8, contains "Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011...
 # Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication"
 # but which does not contain any reference to September 6, 2011.
 #
 # The Wikipedia article refers to
-# <a href="http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=LAW;n=118896">
 # http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=LAW;n=118896
-# </a>
 # which seems to copy the text of the government.ru page.
 #
 # Tobias Conradi combines Wikipedia's
 # "as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication"
-# with www.rg.ru's "Date of first official publication: September 6, 2011" to get
-# September 13, 2011 as the cutover date (unusually, a Tuesday, as Tobias Conradi notes).
+# with www.rg.ru's "Date of first official publication: September 6, 2011" to
+# get September 13, 2011 as the cutover date (unusually, a Tuesday, as Tobias
+# Conradi notes).
 #
 # None of the sources indicates a time of day for changing clocks.
 #
 # Go with 2011-09-13 0:00s.
 
+# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-01):
+# According to the Russian news (ITAR-TASS News Agency)
+# http://en.itar-tass.com/russia/738562
+# the State Duma has approved ... the draft bill on returning to
+# winter time standard and return Russia 11 time zones.  The new
+# regulations will come into effect on October 26, 2014 at 02:00 ...
+# http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/%28Spravka%29?OpenAgent&RN=431985-6&02
+# Here is a link where we put together table (based on approved Bill N
+# 431985-6) with proposed 11 Russian time zones and corresponding
+# areas/cities/administrative centers in the Russian Federation (in English):
+# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia65.html
+#
+# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-22):
+# Putin signed the Federal Law 431985-6 ... (in Russian)
+# http://itar-tass.com/obschestvo/1333711
+# http://www.pravo.gov.ru:8080/page.aspx?111660
+# http://www.kremlin.ru/acts/46279
+# From October 26, 2014 the new Russian time zone map will looks like this:
+# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia-map-2014-07.html
+
 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
 # Except for Moscow after 1919-07-01, I invented the time zone abbreviations.
 # Moscow time zone abbreviations after 1919-07-01, and Moscow rules after 1991,
@@ -2193,9 +2225,9 @@
 #
 # For Grozny, Chechnya, we have the following story from
 # John Daniszewski, "Scavengers in the Rubble", Los Angeles Times (2001-02-07):
-# News--often false--is spread by word of mouth.  A rumor that it was
+# News - often false - is spread by word of mouth.  A rumor that it was
 # time to move the clocks back put this whole city out of sync with
-# the rest of Russia for two weeks--even soldiers stationed here began
+# the rest of Russia for two weeks - even soldiers stationed here began
 # enforcing curfew at the wrong time.
 #
 # From Gwillim Law (2001-06-05):
@@ -2206,107 +2238,265 @@
 # since September 1997....  Although the Kuril Islands are
 # administratively part of Sakhalin oblast', they appear to have
 # remained on UTC+11 along with Magadan.
-#
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
+# The comments detailing the coverage of each Russian zone are meant to assist
+# with maintenance only and represent our best guesses as to which regions
+# are covered by each zone.  They are not meant to be taken as an authoritative
+# listing.  The region codes listed come from
+# http://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Federal_subjects_of_Russia&oldid=611810498
+# and are used for convenience only; no guarantees are made regarding their
+# future stability.  ISO 3166-2:RU codes are also listed for first-level
+# divisions where available.
+
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-#
-# Kaliningradskaya oblast'.
+
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
+# Europe/Kaliningrad covers...
+# 39	RU-KGD	Kaliningrad Oblast
+
 Zone Europe/Kaliningrad	 1:22:00 -	LMT	1893 Apr
 			 1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945
 			 2:00	Poland	CE%sT	1946
-			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
-			 2:00	Russia	EE%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
-			 3:00	-	FET # Further-eastern European Time
+			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
+			 2:00	Russia	EE%sT	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
+			 3:00	-	FET	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
+			 2:00	-	EET
+
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
+# Europe/Moscow covers...
+# 01	RU-AD	Adygea, Republic of
+# 05	RU-DA	Dagestan, Republic of
+# 06	RU-IN	Ingushetia, Republic of
+# 07	RU-KB	Kabardino-Balkar Republic
+# 08	RU-KL	Kalmykia, Republic of
+# 09	RU-KC	Karachay-Cherkess Republic
+# 10	RU-KR	Karelia, Republic of
+# 11	RU-KO	Komi Republic
+# 12	RU-ME	Mari El Republic
+# 13	RU-MO	Mordovia, Republic of
+# 15	RU-SE	North Ossetia-Alania, Republic of
+# 16	RU-TA	Tatarstan, Republic of
+# 20	RU-CE	Chechen Republic
+# 21	RU-CU	Chuvash Republic
+# 23	RU-KDA	Krasnodar Krai
+# 26	RU-STA	Stavropol Krai
+# 29	RU-ARK	Arkhangelsk Oblast
+# 31	RU-BEL	Belgorod Oblast
+# 32	RU-BRY	Bryansk Oblast
+# 33	RU-VLA	Vladimir Oblast
+# 35	RU-VLG	Vologda Oblast
+# 36	RU-VOR	Voronezh Oblast
+# 37	RU-IVA	Ivanovo Oblast
+# 40	RU-KLU	Kaluga Oblast
+# 44	RU-KOS	Kostroma Oblast
+# 46	RU-KRS	Kursk Oblast
+# 47	RU-LEN	Leningrad Oblast
+# 48	RU-LIP	Lipetsk Oblast
+# 50	RU-MOS	Moscow Oblast
+# 51	RU-MUR	Murmansk Oblast
+# 52	RU-NIZ	Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
+# 53	RU-NGR	Novgorod Oblast
+# 57	RU-ORL	Oryol Oblast
+# 58	RU-PNZ	Penza Oblast
+# 60	RU-PSK	Pskov Oblast
+# 61	RU-ROS	Rostov Oblast
+# 62	RU-RYA	Ryazan Oblast
+# 67	RU-SMO	Smolensk Oblast
+# 68	RU-TAM	Tambov Oblast
+# 69	RU-TVE	Tver Oblast
+# 71	RU-TUL	Tula Oblast
+# 73	RU-ULY	Ulyanovsk Oblast
+# 76	RU-YAR	Yaroslavl Oblast
+# 77	RU-MOW	Moscow
+# 78	RU-SPE	Saint Petersburg
+# 83	RU-NEN	Nenets Autonomous Okrug
+
+# From Vladimir Karpinsky (2014-07-08):
+# LMT in Moscow (before Jul 3, 1916) is 2:30:17, that was defined by Moscow
+# Observatory (coordinates: 55 deg. 45'29.70", 37 deg. 34'05.30")....
+# LMT in Moscow since Jul 3, 1916 is 2:31:01 as a result of new standard.
+# (The info is from the book by Byalokoz ... p. 18.)
+# The time in St. Petersburg as capital of Russia was defined by
+# Pulkov observatory, near St. Petersburg.  In 1916 LMT Moscow
+# was synchronized with LMT St. Petersburg (+30 minutes), (Pulkov observatory
+# coordinates: 59 deg. 46'18.70", 30 deg. 19'40.70") so 30 deg. 19'40.70" >
+# 2h01m18.7s = 2:01:19.  LMT Moscow = LMT St.Petersburg + 30m 2:01:19 + 0:30 =
+# 2:31:19 ...
 #
-# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
-# Respublika Adygeya, Arkhangel'skaya oblast',
-# Belgorodskaya oblast', Bryanskaya oblast', Vladimirskaya oblast',
-# Vologodskaya oblast', Voronezhskaya oblast',
-# Respublika Dagestan, Ivanovskaya oblast', Respublika Ingushetiya,
-# Kabarbino-Balkarskaya Respublika, Respublika Kalmykiya,
-# Kalyzhskaya oblast', Respublika Karachaevo-Cherkessiya,
-# Respublika Kareliya, Respublika Komi,
-# Kostromskaya oblast', Krasnodarskij kraj, Kurskaya oblast',
-# Leningradskaya oblast', Lipetskaya oblast', Respublika Marij El,
-# Respublika Mordoviya, Moskva, Moskovskaya oblast',
-# Murmanskaya oblast', Nenetskij avtonomnyj okrug,
-# Nizhegorodskaya oblast', Novgorodskaya oblast', Orlovskaya oblast',
-# Penzenskaya oblast', Pskovskaya oblast', Rostovskaya oblast',
-# Ryazanskaya oblast', Sankt-Peterburg,
-# Respublika Severnaya Osetiya, Smolenskaya oblast',
-# Stavropol'skij kraj, Tambovskaya oblast', Respublika Tatarstan,
-# Tverskaya oblast', Tyl'skaya oblast', Ul'yanovskaya oblast',
-# Chechenskaya Respublika, Chuvashskaya oblast',
-# Yaroslavskaya oblast'
-Zone Europe/Moscow	 2:30:20 -	LMT	1880
-			 2:30	-	MMT	1916 Jul  3 # Moscow Mean Time
-			 2:30:48 Russia	%s	1919 Jul  1 2:00
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-08):
+# Milne does not list Moscow, but suggests that its time might be listed in
+# Résumés mensuels et annuels des observations météorologiques (1895).
+# Presumably this is OCLC 85825704, a journal published with parallel text in
+# Russian and French.  This source has not been located; go with Karpinsky.
+
+Zone Europe/Moscow	 2:30:17 -	LMT	1880
+			 2:30:17 -	MMT	1916 Jul  3 # Moscow Mean Time
+			 2:31:19 Russia	%s	1919 Jul  1  2:00
+			 3:00	Russia	%s	1921 Oct
 			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1922 Oct
 			 2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
-			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
-			 2:00	Russia	EE%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
-			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
-			 4:00	-	MSK
+			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
+			 2:00	Russia	EE%sT	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
+			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
+			 4:00	-	MSK	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
+			 3:00	-	MSK
+
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
+# Europe/Simferopol covers...
+# **	****	Crimea, Republic of
+# **	****	Sevastopol
+
+Zone Europe/Simferopol	 2:16:24 -	LMT	1880
+			 2:16	-	SMT	1924 May  2 # Simferopol Mean T
+			 2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
+			 3:00	-	MSK	1941 Nov
+			 1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Apr 13
+			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1990
+			 3:00	-	MSK	1990 Jul  1  2:00
+			 2:00	-	EET	1992
+# Central Crimea used Moscow time 1994/1997.
 #
-# Astrakhanskaya oblast', Kirovskaya oblast', Saratovskaya oblast',
-# Volgogradskaya oblast'.  Shanks & Pottenger say Kirov is still at +0400
-# but Wikipedia (2006-05-09) says +0300.  Perhaps it switched after the
-# others?  But we have no data.
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
+# The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that central Crimea switched
+# from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections.
+# Shanks (1999) says "date of change uncertain", but implies that it happened
+# sometime between the 1994 DST switches.  Shanks & Pottenger simply say
+# 1994-09-25 03:00, but that can't be right.  For now, guess it
+# changed in May.
+			 2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1994 May
+# From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev.
+			 3:00	E-Eur	MSK/MSD	1996 Mar 31  3:00s
+			 3:00	1:00	MSD	1996 Oct 27  3:00s
+# IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST.
+# Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks.
+			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1997
+			 3:00	-	MSK	1997 Mar lastSun  1:00u
+# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-03-17):
+# time change at 2:00 (2am) on March 30, 2014
+# http://vz.ru/news/2014/3/17/677464.html
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-03-30):
+# Simferopol and Sevastopol reportedly changed their central town clocks
+# late the previous day, but this appears to have been ceremonial
+# and the discrepancies are small enough to not worry about.
+			 2:00	EU	EE%sT	2014 Mar 30  2:00
+			 4:00	-	MSK	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
+			 3:00	-	MSK
+
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
+# Europe/Volgograd covers...
+# 30	RU-AST	Astrakhan Oblast
+# 34	RU-VGG	Volgograd Oblast
+# 43	RU-KIR	Kirov Oblast
+# 64	RU-SAR	Saratov Oblast
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-05-09):
+# Shanks & Pottenger say Kirov is still at +0400 but Wikipedia says +0300.
+# Perhaps it switched after the others?  But we have no data.
+
 Zone Europe/Volgograd	 2:57:40 -	LMT	1920 Jan  3
 			 3:00	-	TSAT	1925 Apr  6 # Tsaritsyn Time
 			 3:00	-	STAT	1930 Jun 21 # Stalingrad Time
 			 4:00	-	STAT	1961 Nov 11
-			 4:00	Russia	VOL%sT	1989 Mar 26 2:00s # Volgograd T
-			 3:00	Russia	VOL%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
-			 4:00	-	VOLT	1992 Mar 29 2:00s
-			 3:00	Russia	VOL%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
-			 4:00	-	VOLT
-#
-# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
-# Samarskaya oblast', Udmyrtskaya respublika
-Zone Europe/Samara	 3:20:36 -	LMT	1919 Jul  1 2:00
+			 4:00	Russia	VOL%sT	1989 Mar 26  2:00s # Volgograd T
+			 3:00	Russia	VOL%sT	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
+			 4:00	-	VOLT	1992 Mar 29  2:00s
+			 3:00	Russia	MSK	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
+			 4:00	-	MSK	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
+			 3:00	-	MSK
+
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
+# Europe/Samara covers...
+# 18	RU-UD	Udmurt Republic
+# 63	RU-SAM	Samara Oblast
+
+# Byalokoz 1919 says Samara was 3:20:20.
+
+Zone Europe/Samara	 3:20:20 -	LMT	1919 Jul  1  2:00
 			 3:00	-	SAMT	1930 Jun 21
 			 4:00	-	SAMT	1935 Jan 27
-			 4:00	Russia	KUY%sT	1989 Mar 26 2:00s # Kuybyshev
-			 3:00	Russia	KUY%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
-			 2:00	Russia	KUY%sT	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
-			 3:00	-	KUYT	1991 Oct 20 3:00
-			 4:00	Russia	SAM%sT	2010 Mar 28 2:00s # Samara Time
-			 3:00	Russia	SAM%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
+			 4:00	Russia	KUY%sT	1989 Mar 26  2:00s # Kuybyshev
+			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
+			 2:00	Russia	EE%sT	1991 Sep 29  2:00s
+			 3:00	-	KUYT	1991 Oct 20  3:00
+			 4:00	Russia	SAM%sT	2010 Mar 28  2:00s # Samara Time
+			 3:00	Russia	SAM%sT	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
 			 4:00	-	SAMT
 
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
+# Asia/Yekaterinburg covers...
+# 02	RU-BA	Bashkortostan, Republic of
+# 90	RU-PER	Perm Krai
+# 45	RU-KGN	Kurgan Oblast
+# 56	RU-ORE	Orenburg Oblast
+# 66	RU-SVE	Sverdlovsk Oblast
+# 72	RU-TYU	Tyumen Oblast
+# 74	RU-CHE	Chelyabinsk Oblast
+# 86	RU-KHM	Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug - Yugra
+# 89	RU-YAN	Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug
 #
-# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
-# Respublika Bashkortostan, Komi-Permyatskij avtonomnyj okrug,
-# Kurganskaya oblast', Orenburgskaya oblast', Permskaya oblast',
-# Sverdlovskaya oblast', Tyumenskaya oblast',
-# Khanty-Manskijskij avtonomnyj okrug, Chelyabinskaya oblast',
-# Yamalo-Nenetskij avtonomnyj okrug.
-Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg	 4:02:24 -	LMT	1919 Jul 15 4:00
+# Note: Effective 2005-12-01, (59) Perm Oblast and (81) Komi-Permyak
+# Autonomous Okrug merged to form (90, RU-PER) Perm Krai.
+
+# Milne says Yekaterinburg was 4:02:32.9; round to nearest.
+# Byalokoz 1919 says its provincial time was based on Perm, at 3:45:05.
+# Assume it switched on 1916-07-03, the time of the new standard.
+# The 1919 and 1930 transitions are from Shanks.
+
+Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg	 4:02:33 -	LMT	1916 Jul  3
+			 3:45:05 -	PMT	1919 Jul 15  4:00
 			 4:00	-	SVET	1930 Jun 21 # Sverdlovsk Time
-			 5:00	Russia	SVE%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
-			 4:00	Russia	SVE%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
-			 5:00	Russia	YEK%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
-			 6:00	-	YEKT	# Yekaterinburg Time
-#
-# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
-# Respublika Altaj, Altajskij kraj, Omskaya oblast'.
-Zone Asia/Omsk		 4:53:36 -	LMT	1919 Nov 14
-			 5:00	-	OMST	1930 Jun 21 # Omsk TIme
-			 6:00	Russia	OMS%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
-			 5:00	Russia	OMS%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
-			 6:00	Russia	OMS%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
-			 7:00	-	OMST
-#
+			 5:00	Russia	SVE%sT	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
+			 4:00	Russia	SVE%sT	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
+			 5:00	Russia	YEK%sT	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
+			 6:00	-	YEKT	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
+			 5:00	-	YEKT
+
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
+# Asia/Omsk covers...
+# 04	RU-AL	Altai Republic
+# 22	RU-ALT	Altai Krai
+# 55	RU-OMS	Omsk Oblast
+
+# Byalokoz 1919 says Omsk was 4:53:30.
+
+Zone Asia/Omsk		 4:53:30 -	LMT	1919 Nov 14
+			 5:00	-	OMST	1930 Jun 21 # Omsk Time
+			 6:00	Russia	OMS%sT	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
+			 5:00	Russia	OMS%sT	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
+			 6:00	Russia	OMS%sT	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
+			 7:00	-	OMST	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
+			 6:00	-	OMST
+
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
+# Asia/Novosibirsk covers...
+# 54	RU-NVS	Novosibirsk Oblast
+# 70	RU-TOM	Tomsk Oblast
+
 # From Paul Eggert (2006-08-19): I'm guessing about Tomsk here; it's
 # not clear when it switched from +7 to +6.
-# Novosibirskaya oblast', Tomskaya oblast'.
-Zone Asia/Novosibirsk	 5:31:40 -	LMT	1919 Dec 14 6:00
+
+Zone Asia/Novosibirsk	 5:31:40 -	LMT	1919 Dec 14  6:00
 			 6:00	-	NOVT	1930 Jun 21 # Novosibirsk Time
-			 7:00	Russia	NOV%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
-			 6:00	Russia	NOV%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+			 7:00	Russia	NOV%sT	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
+			 6:00	Russia	NOV%sT	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
 			 7:00	Russia	NOV%sT	1993 May 23 # say Shanks & P.
-			 6:00	Russia	NOV%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
-			 7:00	-	NOVT
+			 6:00	Russia	NOV%sT	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
+			 7:00	-	NOVT	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
+			 6:00	-	NOVT
+
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
+# Asia/Novokuznetsk covers...
+# 42	RU-KEM	Kemerovo Oblast
 
 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-10-13):
 # Kemerovo oblast' (Kemerovo region) in Russia will change current time zone on
@@ -2319,14 +2509,10 @@
 # time zone." ("Russia Zone 5" or old "USSR Zone 5" is GMT +0600)
 #
 # Russian Government web site (Russian language)
-# <a href="http://www.government.ru/content/governmentactivity/rfgovernmentdecisions/archiv">
 # http://www.government.ru/content/governmentactivity/rfgovernmentdecisions/archive/2009/09/14/991633.htm
-# </a>
 # or Russian-English translation by WorldTimeZone.com with reference
 # map to local region and new Russia Time Zone map after March 28, 2010
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia03.html">
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia03.html
-# </a>
 #
 # Thus, when Russia will switch to DST on the night of March 28, 2010
 # Kemerovo region (Kemerovo oblast') will not change the clock.
@@ -2334,152 +2520,319 @@
 # As a result, Kemerovo oblast' will be in the same time zone as
 # Novosibirsk, Omsk, Tomsk, Barnaul and Altai Republic.
 
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-02), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
+# The Kemerovo region will remain at UTC+7 through the 2014-10-26 change, thus
+# realigning itself with KRAT.
+
 Zone Asia/Novokuznetsk	 5:48:48 -	NMT	1920 Jan  6
 			 6:00	-	KRAT	1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time
-			 7:00	Russia	KRA%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
-			 6:00	Russia	KRA%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
-			 7:00	Russia	KRA%sT	2010 Mar 28 2:00s
-			 6:00	Russia	NOV%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
-			 7:00	-	NOVT # Novosibirsk/Novokuznetsk Time
+			 7:00	Russia	KRA%sT	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
+			 6:00	Russia	KRA%sT	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
+			 7:00	Russia	KRA%sT	2010 Mar 28  2:00s
+			 6:00	Russia	NOV%sT	2011 Mar 27  2:00s # Novosibirsk
+			 7:00	-	NOVT	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
+			 7:00	-	KRAT	# Krasnoyarsk Time
 
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
+# Asia/Krasnoyarsk covers...
+# 17	RU-TY	Tuva Republic
+# 19	RU-KK	Khakassia, Republic of
+# 24	RU-KYA	Krasnoyarsk Krai
 #
-# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
-# Krasnoyarskij kraj,
-# Tajmyrskij (Dolgano-Nenetskij) avtonomnyj okrug,
-# Respublika Tuva, Respublika Khakasiya, Evenkijskij avtonomnyj okrug.
-Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk	 6:11:20 -	LMT	1920 Jan  6
+# Note: Effective 2007-01-01, (88) Evenk Autonomous Okrug and (84) Taymyr
+# Autonomous Okrug were merged into (24, RU-KYA) Krasnoyarsk Krai.
+
+# Byalokoz 1919 says Krasnoyarsk was 6:11:26.
+
+Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk	 6:11:26 -	LMT	1920 Jan  6
 			 6:00	-	KRAT	1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time
-			 7:00	Russia	KRA%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
-			 6:00	Russia	KRA%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
-			 7:00	Russia	KRA%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
-			 8:00	-	KRAT
+			 7:00	Russia	KRA%sT	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
+			 6:00	Russia	KRA%sT	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
+			 7:00	Russia	KRA%sT	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
+			 8:00	-	KRAT	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
+			 7:00	-	KRAT
+
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
+# Asia/Irkutsk covers...
+# 03	RU-BU	Buryatia, Republic of
+# 38	RU-IRK	Irkutsk Oblast
 #
-# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
-# Respublika Buryatiya, Irkutskaya oblast',
-# Ust'-Ordynskij Buryatskij avtonomnyj okrug.
-Zone Asia/Irkutsk	 6:57:20 -	LMT	1880
-			 6:57:20 -	IMT	1920 Jan 25 # Irkutsk Mean Time
+# Note: Effective 2008-01-01, (85) Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug was
+# merged into (38, RU-IRK) Irkutsk Oblast.
+
+# Milne 1899 says Irkutsk was 6:57:15.
+# Byalokoz 1919 says Irkutsk was 6:57:05.
+# Go with Byalokoz.
+
+Zone Asia/Irkutsk	 6:57:05 -	LMT	1880
+			 6:57:05 -	IMT	1920 Jan 25 # Irkutsk Mean Time
 			 7:00	-	IRKT	1930 Jun 21 # Irkutsk Time
-			 8:00	Russia	IRK%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
-			 7:00	Russia	IRK%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
-			 8:00	Russia	IRK%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
-			 9:00	-	IRKT
+			 8:00	Russia	IRK%sT	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
+			 7:00	Russia	IRK%sT	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
+			 8:00	Russia	IRK%sT	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
+			 9:00	-	IRKT	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
+			 8:00	-	IRKT
+
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
+# Asia/Chita covers...
+# 92	RU-ZAB	Zabaykalsky Krai
 #
-# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of]
-# Aginskij Buryatskij avtonomnyj okrug, Amurskaya oblast',
-# [parts of] Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya), Chitinskaya oblast'.
+# Note: Effective 2008-03-01, (75) Chita Oblast and (80) Agin-Buryat
+# Autonomous Okrug merged to form (92, RU-ZAB) Zabaykalsky Krai.
 
-# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
-# ...some regions of [Russia] were merged with others since 2005...
-# Some names were changed, no big deal, except for one instance: a new name.
-# YAK/YAKST: UTC+9 Zabajkal'skij kraj.
+Zone Asia/Chita	 7:33:52 -	LMT	1919 Dec 15
+			 8:00	-	YAKT	1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
+			 9:00	Russia	YAK%sT	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
+			 8:00	Russia	YAK%sT	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
+			 9:00	Russia	YAK%sT	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
+			10:00	-	YAKT	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
+			 8:00	-	IRKT
 
-# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
-# The Sakha districts are: Aldanskij, Amginskij, Anabarskij,
-# Verkhnevilyujskij, Vilyujskij, Gornyj,
-# Zhiganskij, Kobyajskij, Lenskij, Megino-Kangalasskij, Mirninskij,
-# Namskij, Nyurbinskij, Olenyokskij, Olyokminskij,
-# Suntarskij, Tattinskij, Ust'-Aldanskij, Khangalasskij,
-# Churapchinskij, Eveno-Bytantajskij Natsional'nij.
 
-Zone Asia/Yakutsk	 8:38:40 -	LMT	1919 Dec 15
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
+# Asia/Yakutsk covers...
+# 28	RU-AMU	Amur Oblast
+#
+# ...and parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
+# 14-02	****	Aldansky District
+# 14-04	****	Amginsky District
+# 14-05	****	Anabarsky District
+# 14-06	****	Bulunsky District
+# 14-07	****	Verkhnevilyuysky District
+# 14-10	****	Vilyuysky District
+# 14-11	****	Gorny District
+# 14-12	****	Zhigansky District
+# 14-13	****	Kobyaysky District
+# 14-14	****	Lensky District
+# 14-15	****	Megino-Kangalassky District
+# 14-16	****	Mirninsky District
+# 14-18	****	Namsky District
+# 14-19	****	Neryungrinsky District
+# 14-21	****	Nyurbinsky District
+# 14-23	****	Olenyoksky District
+# 14-24	****	Olyokminsky District
+# 14-26	****	Suntarsky District
+# 14-27	****	Tattinsky District
+# 14-29	****	Ust-Aldansky District
+# 14-32	****	Khangalassky District
+# 14-33	****	Churapchinsky District
+# 14-34	****	Eveno-Bytantaysky National District
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
+# Our commentary seems to have lost mention of (14-19) Neryungrinsky District.
+# Since the surrounding districts of Sakha are all YAKT, assume this is, too.
+# Also assume its history has been the same as the rest of Asia/Yakutsk.
+
+# Byalokoz 1919 says Yakutsk was 8:38:58.
+
+Zone Asia/Yakutsk	 8:38:58 -	LMT	1919 Dec 15
 			 8:00	-	YAKT	1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
-			 9:00	Russia	YAK%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
-			 8:00	Russia	YAK%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
-			 9:00	Russia	YAK%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
-			 10:00	-	YAKT
+			 9:00	Russia	YAK%sT	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
+			 8:00	Russia	YAK%sT	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
+			 9:00	Russia	YAK%sT	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
+			10:00	-	YAKT	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
+			 9:00	-	YAKT
+
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
+# Asia/Vladivostok covers...
+# 25	RU-PRI	Primorsky Krai
+# 27	RU-KHA	Khabarovsk Krai
+# 79	RU-YEV	Jewish Autonomous Oblast
 #
-# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of]
-# Evrejskaya avtonomnaya oblast', Khabarovskij kraj, Primorskij kraj,
-# [parts of] Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya).
+# ...and parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
+# 14-09	****	Verkhoyansky District
+# 14-31	****	Ust-Yansky District
 
-# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
-# The Sakha districts are: Bulunskij, Verkhoyanskij, ... Ust'-Yanskij.
-Zone Asia/Vladivostok	 8:47:44 -	LMT	1922 Nov 15
+# Milne 1899 says Vladivostok was 8:47:33.5.
+# Byalokoz 1919 says Vladivostok was 8:47:31.
+# Go with Byalokoz.
+
+Zone Asia/Vladivostok	 8:47:31 -	LMT	1922 Nov 15
 			 9:00	-	VLAT	1930 Jun 21 # Vladivostok Time
-			10:00	Russia	VLA%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
-			 9:00	Russia	VLA%sST	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
-			10:00	Russia	VLA%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
-			11:00	-	VLAT
+			10:00	Russia	VLA%sT	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
+			 9:00	Russia	VLA%sT	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
+			10:00	Russia	VLA%sT	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
+			11:00	-	VLAT	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
+			10:00	-	VLAT
+
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
+# Asia/Khandyga covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
+# 14-28	****	Tomponsky District
+# 14-30	****	Ust-Maysky District
 
 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):
 # Tomponskij and Ust'-Majskij switched from Vladivostok time to Yakutsk time
 # in 2011.
-#
+
 # From Paul Eggert (2012-11-25):
 # Shanks and Pottenger (2003) has Khandyga on Yakutsk time.
 # Make a wild guess that it switched to Vladivostok time in 2004.
 # This transition is no doubt wrong, but we have no better info.
-#
+
 Zone Asia/Khandyga	 9:02:13 -	LMT	1919 Dec 15
 			 8:00	-	YAKT	1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
-			 9:00	Russia	YAK%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
-			 8:00	Russia	YAK%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+			 9:00	Russia	YAK%sT	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
+			 8:00	Russia	YAK%sT	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
 			 9:00	Russia	YAK%sT	2004
-			10:00	Russia	VLA%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
-			11:00	-	VLAT	2011 Sep 13 0:00s # Decree 725?
-			10:00	-	YAKT
+			10:00	Russia	VLA%sT	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
+			11:00	-	VLAT	2011 Sep 13  0:00s # Decree 725?
+			10:00	-	YAKT	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
+			 9:00	-	YAKT
 
-#
-# Sakhalinskaya oblast'.
-# The Zone name should be Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, but that's too long.
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
+# Asia/Sakhalin covers...
+# 65	RU-SAK	Sakhalin Oblast
+# ...with the exception of:
+# 65-11	****	Severo-Kurilsky District (North Kuril Islands)
+
+# The Zone name should be Asia/Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, but that's too long.
 Zone Asia/Sakhalin	 9:30:48 -	LMT	1905 Aug 23
-			 9:00	-	CJT	1938
+			 9:00	-	JCST	1937 Oct  1
 			 9:00	-	JST	1945 Aug 25
-			11:00	Russia	SAK%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s # Sakhalin T.
-			10:00	Russia	SAK%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
-			11:00	Russia	SAK%sT	1997 Mar lastSun 2:00s
-			10:00	Russia	SAK%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
-			11:00	-	SAKT
-#
-# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of]
-# Magadanskaya oblast', Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya).
-# Probably also: Kuril Islands.
+			11:00	Russia	SAK%sT	1991 Mar 31  2:00s # Sakhalin T
+			10:00	Russia	SAK%sT	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
+			11:00	Russia	SAK%sT	1997 Mar lastSun  2:00s
+			10:00	Russia	SAK%sT	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
+			11:00	-	SAKT	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
+			10:00	-	SAKT
 
-# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
-# The Sakha districts are: Abyjskij, Allaikhovskij, Verkhhhnekolymskij, Momskij,
-# Nizhnekolymskij, ... Srednekolymskij.
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
+# Asia/Magadan covers...
+# 49	RU-MAG	Magadan Oblast
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
+# Magadan Oblast is moving from UTC+12 to UTC+10 on 2014-10-26; however,
+# several districts of Sakha Republic as well as Severo-Kurilsky District of
+# the Sakhalin Oblast (also known as the North Kuril Islands), represented
+# until now by Asia/Magadan, will instead move to UTC+11.  These regions will
+# need their own zone.
+
 Zone Asia/Magadan	10:03:12 -	LMT	1924 May  2
 			10:00	-	MAGT	1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time
-			11:00	Russia	MAG%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
-			10:00	Russia	MAG%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
-			11:00	Russia	MAG%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
-			12:00	-	MAGT
+			11:00	Russia	MAG%sT	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
+			10:00	Russia	MAG%sT	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
+			11:00	Russia	MAG%sT	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
+			12:00	-	MAGT	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
+			10:00	-	MAGT
+
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
+# Asia/Srednekolymsk covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
+# 14-01	****	Abyysky District
+# 14-03	****	Allaikhovsky District
+# 14-08	****	Verkhnekolymsky District
+# 14-17	****	Momsky District
+# 14-20	****	Nizhnekolymsky District
+# 14-25	****	Srednekolymsky District
+#
+# ...and parts of (65, RU-SAK) Sakhalin Oblast:
+# 65-11	****	Severo-Kurilsky District (North Kuril Islands)
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-02):
+# Oymyakonsky District of Sakha Republic (represented by Ust-Nera), along with
+# most of Sakhalin Oblast (represented by Sakhalin) will be moving to UTC+10 on
+# 2014-10-26 to stay aligned with VLAT/SAKT; however, Severo-Kurilsky District
+# of the Sakhalin Oblast (also known as the North Kuril Islands, represented by
+# Severo-Kurilsk) will remain on UTC+11.
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
+# Assume North Kuril Islands have history like Magadan before 2011-03-27.
+# There is a decent chance this is wrong, in which case a new zone
+# Asia/Severo-Kurilsk would become necessary.
+#
+# Srednekolymsk and Zyryanka are the most populous places amongst these
+# districts, but have very similar populations.  In fact, Wikipedia currently
+# lists them both as having 3528 people, exactly 1668 males and 1860 females
+# each!  (Yikes!)
+# http://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Srednekolymsky_District&oldid=603435276
+# http://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Verkhnekolymsky_District&oldid=594378493
+# Assume this is a mistake, albeit an amusing one.
+#
+# Looking at censuses, the populations of the two municipalities seem to have
+# fluctuated recently.  Zyryanka was more populous than Srednekolymsk in the
+# 1989 and 2002 censuses, but Srednekolymsk was more populous in the most
+# recent (2010) census, 3525 to 3170.  (See pages 195 and 197 of
+# http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/Documents/Vol1/pub-01-05.pdf
+# in Russian.)  In addition, Srednekolymsk appears to be a much older
+# settlement and the population of Zyryanka seems to be declining.
+# Go with Srednekolymsk.
+#
+# Since Magadan Oblast moves to UTC+10 on 2014-10-26, we cannot keep using MAGT
+# as the abbreviation.  Use SRET instead.
+
+Zone Asia/Srednekolymsk	10:14:52 -	LMT	1924 May  2
+			10:00	-	MAGT	1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time
+			11:00	Russia	MAG%sT	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
+			10:00	Russia	MAG%sT	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
+			11:00	Russia	MAG%sT	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
+			12:00	-	MAGT	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
+			11:00	-	SRET	# Srednekolymsk Time
+
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
+# Asia/Ust-Nera covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
+# 14-22	****	Oymyakonsky District
 
 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):
-# Ojmyakonskij and the Kuril Islands switched from
+# Ojmyakonskij [and the Kuril Islands] switched from
 # Magadan time to Vladivostok time in 2011.
+#
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
+# It's unlikely that any of the Kuril Islands were involved in such a switch,
+# as the South and Middle Kurils have been on UTC+11 (SAKT) with the rest of
+# Sakhalin Oblast since at least 2011-09, and the North Kurils have been on
+# UTC+12 since at least then, too.
+
 Zone Asia/Ust-Nera	 9:32:54 -	LMT	1919 Dec 15
 			 8:00	-	YAKT	1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
 			 9:00	Russia	YAKT	1981 Apr  1
-			11:00	Russia	MAG%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
-			10:00	Russia	MAG%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
-			11:00	Russia	MAG%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
-			12:00	-	MAGT	2011 Sep 13 0:00s # Decree 725?
-			11:00	-	VLAT
+			11:00	Russia	MAG%sT	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
+			10:00	Russia	MAG%sT	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
+			11:00	Russia	MAG%sT	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
+			12:00	-	MAGT	2011 Sep 13  0:00s # Decree 725?
+			11:00	-	VLAT	2014 Oct 26  2:00s
+			10:00	-	VLAT
 
-# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
-# Kamchatskaya oblast', Koryakskij avtonomnyj okrug.
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
+# Asia/Kamchatka covers...
+# 91	RU-KAM	Kamchatka Krai
 #
-# The Zone name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski, but that's too long.
+# Note: Effective 2007-07-01, (41) Kamchatka Oblast and (82) Koryak
+# Autonomous Okrug merged to form (91, RU-KAM) Kamchatka Krai.
+
+# The Zone name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski or perhaps
+# Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, but these are too long.
 Zone Asia/Kamchatka	10:34:36 -	LMT	1922 Nov 10
 			11:00	-	PETT	1930 Jun 21 # P-K Time
-			12:00	Russia	PET%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
-			11:00	Russia	PET%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
-			12:00	Russia	PET%sT	2010 Mar 28 2:00s
-			11:00	Russia	PET%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
+			12:00	Russia	PET%sT	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
+			11:00	Russia	PET%sT	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
+			12:00	Russia	PET%sT	2010 Mar 28  2:00s
+			11:00	Russia	PET%sT	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
 			12:00	-	PETT
-#
-# Chukotskij avtonomnyj okrug
+
+
+# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
+# Asia/Anadyr covers...
+# 87	RU-CHU	Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
+
 Zone Asia/Anadyr	11:49:56 -	LMT	1924 May  2
 			12:00	-	ANAT	1930 Jun 21 # Anadyr Time
-			13:00	Russia	ANA%sT	1982 Apr  1 0:00s
-			12:00	Russia	ANA%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
-			11:00	Russia	ANA%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
-			12:00	Russia	ANA%sT	2010 Mar 28 2:00s
-			11:00	Russia	ANA%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
+			13:00	Russia	ANA%sT	1982 Apr  1  0:00s
+			12:00	Russia	ANA%sT	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
+			11:00	Russia	ANA%sT	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
+			12:00	Russia	ANA%sT	2010 Mar 28  2:00s
+			11:00	Russia	ANA%sT	2011 Mar 27  2:00s
 			12:00	-	ANAT
 
+
 # San Marino
 # See Europe/Rome.
 
@@ -2488,11 +2841,11 @@
 Zone	Europe/Belgrade	1:22:00	-	LMT	1884
 			1:00	-	CET	1941 Apr 18 23:00
 			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945
-			1:00	-	CET	1945 May 8 2:00s
+			1:00	-	CET	1945 May  8  2:00s
 			1:00	1:00	CEST	1945 Sep 16  2:00s
-# Metod Kozelj reports that the legal date of
+# Metod Koželj reports that the legal date of
 # transition to EU rules was 1982-11-27, for all of Yugoslavia at the time.
-# Shanks & Pottenger don't give as much detail, so go with Kozelj.
+# Shanks & Pottenger don't give as much detail, so go with Koželj.
 			1:00	-	CET	1982 Nov 27
 			1:00	EU	CE%sT
 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana	# Slovenia
@@ -2568,13 +2921,13 @@
 			 0:00	1:00	WEST	1918 Oct  7 23:00
 			 0:00	-	WET	1924
 			 0:00	Spain	WE%sT	1929
-			 0:00 SpainAfrica WE%sT 1984 Mar 16
+			 0:00 SpainAfrica WE%sT	1984 Mar 16
 			 1:00	-	CET	1986
 			 1:00	EU	CE%sT
 Zone	Atlantic/Canary	-1:01:36 -	LMT	1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C.
-			-1:00	-	CANT	1946 Sep 30 1:00 # Canaries Time
-			 0:00	-	WET	1980 Apr  6 0:00s
-			 0:00	1:00	WEST	1980 Sep 28 0:00s
+			-1:00	-	CANT	1946 Sep 30  1:00 # Canaries T
+			 0:00	-	WET	1980 Apr  6  0:00s
+			 0:00	1:00	WEST	1980 Sep 28  0:00s
 			 0:00	EU	WE%sT
 # IATA SSIM (1996-09) says the Canaries switch at 2:00u, not 1:00u.
 # Ignore this for now, as the Canaries are part of the EU.
@@ -2583,7 +2936,7 @@
 
 # From Ivan Nilsson (2001-04-13), superseding Shanks & Pottenger:
 #
-# The law "Svensk forfattningssamling 1878, no 14" about standard time in 1879:
+# The law "Svensk författningssamling 1878, no 14" about standard time in 1879:
 # From the beginning of 1879 (that is 01-01 00:00) the time for all
 # places in the country is "the mean solar time for the meridian at
 # three degrees, or twelve minutes of time, to the west of the
@@ -2594,7 +2947,7 @@
 # national standard time as 01:00:14 ahead of GMT....
 #
 # About the beginning of CET in Sweden. The lawtext ("Svensk
-# forfattningssamling 1899, no 44") states, that "from the beginning
+# författningssamling 1899, no 44") states, that "from the beginning
 # of 1900... ... the same as the mean solar time for the meridian at
 # the distance of one hour of time from the meridian of the English
 # observatory at Greenwich, or at 12 minutes 14 seconds to the west
@@ -2602,7 +2955,7 @@
 # 1899-06-16.  In short: At 1900-01-01 00:00:00 the new standard time
 # in Sweden is 01:00:00 ahead of GMT.
 #
-# 1916: The lawtext ("Svensk forfattningssamling 1916, no 124") states
+# 1916: The lawtext ("Svensk författningssamling 1916, no 124") states
 # that "1916-05-15 is considered to begin one hour earlier". It is
 # pretty obvious that at 05-14 23:00 the clocks are set to 05-15 00:00....
 # Further the law says, that "1916-09-30 is considered to end one hour later".
@@ -2612,7 +2965,7 @@
 # not available on the site (to my knowledge they are only available
 # in Swedish): <http://www.riksdagen.se/english/work/sfst.asp> (type
 # "sommartid" without the quotes in the field "Fritext" and then click
-# the Sok-button).
+# the Sök-button).
 #
 # (2001-05-13):
 #
@@ -2627,9 +2980,9 @@
 
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone Europe/Stockholm	1:12:12 -	LMT	1879 Jan  1
-			1:00:14	-	SET	1900 Jan  1	# Swedish Time
+			1:00:14	-	SET	1900 Jan  1 # Swedish Time
 			1:00	-	CET	1916 May 14 23:00
-			1:00	1:00	CEST	1916 Oct  1 01:00
+			1:00	1:00	CEST	1916 Oct  1  1:00
 			1:00	-	CET	1980
 			1:00	EU	CE%sT
 
@@ -2637,7 +2990,7 @@
 # From Howse:
 # By the end of the 18th century clocks and watches became commonplace
 # and their performance improved enormously.  Communities began to keep
-# mean time in preference to apparent time -- Geneva from 1780 ....
+# mean time in preference to apparent time - Geneva from 1780 ....
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
 # From Whitman (who writes "Midnight?"):
 # Rule	Swiss	1940	only	-	Nov	 2	0:00	1:00	S
@@ -2653,7 +3006,7 @@
 # to be wrong. This is now verified.
 #
 # I have found copies of the original ruling by the Swiss Federal
-# government, in 'Eidgen[o]ssische Gesetzessammlung 1941 and 1942' (Swiss
+# government, in 'Eidgenössische Gesetzessammlung 1941 and 1942' (Swiss
 # federal law collection)...
 #
 # DST began on Monday 5 May 1941, 1:00 am by shifting the clocks to 2:00 am
@@ -2672,7 +3025,7 @@
 # night as an absolute novelty, because this was the first time that such
 # a thing had happened in Switzerland.
 #
-# I have also checked 1916, because one book source (Gabriel, Traite de
+# I have also checked 1916, because one book source (Gabriel, Traité de
 # l'heure dans le monde) claims that Switzerland had DST in 1916. This is
 # false, no official document could be found. Probably Gabriel got misled
 # by references to Germany, which introduced DST in 1916 for the first time.
@@ -2686,19 +3039,19 @@
 # One further detail for Switzerland, which is probably out of scope for
 # most users of tzdata: The [Europe/Zurich zone] ...
 # describes all of Switzerland correctly, with the exception of
-# the Cantone Geneve (Geneva, Genf). Between 1848 and 1894 Geneve did not
+# the Canton de Genève (Geneva, Genf). Between 1848 and 1894 Geneva did not
 # follow Bern Mean Time but kept its own local mean time.
 # To represent this, an extra zone would be needed.
 #
 # From Alois Treindl (2013-09-11):
 # The Federal regulations say
 # http://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/20071096/index.html
-# ... the meridian for Bern mean time ... is 7 degrees 26'22.50".
+# ... the meridian for Bern mean time ... is 7 degrees 26' 22.50".
 # Expressed in time, it is 0h29m45.5s.
 
 # From Pierre-Yves Berger (2013-09-11):
-# the "Circulaire du conseil federal" (December 11 1893)
-# <http://www.amtsdruckschriften.bar.admin.ch/viewOrigDoc.do?id=10071353> ...
+# the "Circulaire du conseil fédéral" (December 11 1893)
+# http://www.amtsdruckschriften.bar.admin.ch/viewOrigDoc.do?id=10071353
 # clearly states that the [1894-06-01] change should be done at midnight
 # but if no one is present after 11 at night, could be postponed until one
 # hour before the beginning of service.
@@ -2709,14 +3062,14 @@
 # We can find no reliable source for Shanks's assertion that all of Switzerland
 # except Geneva switched to Bern Mean Time at 00:00 on 1848-09-12.  This book:
 #
-#	Jakob Messerli. Gleichmassig, punktlich, schnell: Zeiteinteilung und
+#	Jakob Messerli. Gleichmässig, pünktlich, schnell. Zeiteinteilung und
 #	Zeitgebrauch in der Schweiz im 19. Jahrhundert. Chronos, Zurich 1995,
 #	ISBN 3-905311-68-2, OCLC 717570797.
 #
 # suggests that the transition was more gradual, and that the Swiss did not
 # agree about civil time during the transition.  The timekeeping it gives the
 # most detail for is postal and telegraph time: here, federal legislation (the
-# "Bundesgesetz uber die Erstellung von elektrischen Telegraphen") passed on
+# "Bundesgesetz über die Erstellung von elektrischen Telegraphen") passed on
 # 1851-11-23, and an official implementation notice was published 1853-07-16
 # (Bundesblatt 1853, Bd. II, S. 859).  On p 72 Messerli writes that in
 # practice since July 1853 Bernese time was used in "all postal and telegraph
@@ -2730,7 +3083,7 @@
 Rule	Swiss	1941	1942	-	Oct	Mon>=1	2:00	0	-
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Europe/Zurich	0:34:08 -	LMT	1853 Jul 16 # See above comment.
-			0:29:46	-	BMT	1894 Jun # Bern Mean Time
+			0:29:46	-	BMT	1894 Jun    # Bern Mean Time
 			1:00	Swiss	CE%sT	1981
 			1:00	EU	CE%sT
 
@@ -2738,7 +3091,7 @@
 
 # From Amar Devegowda (2007-01-03):
 # The time zone rules for Istanbul, Turkey have not been changed for years now.
-# ... The latest rules are available at -
+# ... The latest rules are available at:
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/timezone.html?n=107
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-01-03):
 # I have been able to find press records back to 1996 which all say that
@@ -2763,8 +3116,7 @@
 # (on a non-government server though) describing dates between 2002 and 2006:
 # http://www.alomaliye.com/bkk_2002_3769.htm
 
-# From G&ouml;kdeniz Karada&#x011f; (2011-03-10):
-#
+# From Gökdeniz Karadağ (2011-03-10):
 # According to the articles linked below, Turkey will change into summer
 # time zone (GMT+3) on March 28, 2011 at 3:00 a.m. instead of March 27.
 # This change is due to a nationwide exam on 27th.
@@ -2777,9 +3129,16 @@
 # Turkish Local election....
 # http://www.sabah.com.tr/Ekonomi/2014/02/12/yaz-saatinde-onemli-degisiklik
 # ... so Turkey will move clocks forward one hour on March 31 at 3:00 a.m.
-# From Paul Eggert (2014-02-17):
-# Here is an English-language source:
-# http://www.worldbulletin.net/turkey/129016/turkey-switches-to-daylight-saving-time-march-31
+# From Randal L. Schwartz (2014-04-15):
+# Having landed on a flight from the states to Istanbul (via AMS) on March 31,
+# I can tell you that NOBODY (even the airlines) respected this timezone DST
+# change delay.  Maybe the word just didn't get out in time.
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-15):
+# The press reported massive confusion, as election officials obeyed the rule
+# change but cell phones (and airline baggage systems) did not.  See:
+# Kostidis M. Eventful elections in Turkey. Balkan News Agency
+# http://www.balkaneu.com/eventful-elections-turkey/ 2014-03-30.
+# I guess the best we can do is document the official time.
 
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
 Rule	Turkey	1916	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	S
@@ -2846,10 +3205,10 @@
 			2:00	Turkey	EE%sT	1978 Oct 15
 			3:00	Turkey	TR%sT	1985 Apr 20 # Turkey Time
 			2:00	Turkey	EE%sT	2007
-			2:00	EU	EE%sT	2011 Mar 27 1:00u
-			2:00	-	EET	2011 Mar 28 1:00u
-			2:00	EU	EE%sT	2014 Mar 30 1:00u
-			2:00	-	EET	2014 Mar 31 1:00u
+			2:00	EU	EE%sT	2011 Mar 27  1:00u
+			2:00	-	EET	2011 Mar 28  1:00u
+			2:00	EU	EE%sT	2014 Mar 30  1:00u
+			2:00	-	EET	2014 Mar 31  1:00u
 			2:00	EU	EE%sT
 Link	Europe/Istanbul	Asia/Istanbul	# Istanbul is in both continents.
 
@@ -2870,7 +3229,7 @@
 # Bill number 8330 of MP from the Party of Regions Oleg Nadoshi got
 # approval from 266 deputies.
 #
-# Ukraine abolishes transter back to the winter time (in Russian)
+# Ukraine abolishes transfer back to the winter time (in Russian)
 # http://news.mail.ru/politics/6861560/
 #
 # The Ukrainians will no longer change the clock (in Russian)
@@ -2931,12 +3290,12 @@
 			2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
 			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Sep 20
 			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1943 Nov  6
-			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1990 Jul  1 2:00
-			2:00	1:00	EEST	1991 Sep 29 3:00
+			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1990 Jul  1  2:00
+			2:00	1:00	EEST	1991 Sep 29  3:00
 			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1995
 			2:00	EU	EE%sT
 # Ruthenia used CET 1990/1991.
-# "Uzhhorod" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but
+# "Uzhhorod" is the transliteration of the Rusyn/Ukrainian pronunciation, but
 # "Uzhgorod" is more common in English.
 Zone Europe/Uzhgorod	1:29:12 -	LMT	1890 Oct
 			1:00	-	CET	1940
@@ -2944,8 +3303,8 @@
 			1:00	1:00	CEST	1944 Oct 26
 			1:00	-	CET	1945 Jun 29
 			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1990
-			3:00	-	MSK	1990 Jul  1 2:00
-			1:00	-	CET	1991 Mar 31 3:00
+			3:00	-	MSK	1990 Jul  1  2:00
+			1:00	-	CET	1991 Mar 31  3:00
 			2:00	-	EET	1992
 			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1995
 			2:00	EU	EE%sT
@@ -2959,42 +3318,9 @@
 			2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
 			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Aug 25
 			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1943 Oct 25
-			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1991 Mar 31 2:00
+			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1991 Mar 31  2:00
 			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1995
 			2:00	EU	EE%sT
-# Central Crimea used Moscow time 1994/1997.
-Zone Europe/Simferopol	2:16:24 -	LMT	1880
-			2:16	-	SMT	1924 May  2 # Simferopol Mean T
-			2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
-			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Nov
-			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Apr 13
-			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1990
-			3:00	-	MSK	1990 Jul  1 2:00
-			2:00	-	EET	1992
-# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
-# The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that central Crimea switched
-# from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections.
-# Shanks (1999) says "date of change uncertain", but implies that it happened
-# sometime between the 1994 DST switches.  Shanks & Pottenger simply say
-# 1994-09-25 03:00, but that can't be right.  For now, guess it
-# changed in May.
-			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1994 May
-# From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev.
-			3:00	E-Eur	MSK/MSD	1996 Mar 31 3:00s
-			3:00	1:00	MSD	1996 Oct 27 3:00s
-# IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST.
-# Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks.
-			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1997
-			3:00	-	MSK	1997 Mar lastSun 1:00u
-# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-03-17):
-# time change at 2:00 (2am) on March 30, 2014
-# http://vz.ru/news/2014/3/17/677464.html
-# From Paul Eggert (2014-03-30):
-# Simferopol and Sevastopol reportedly changed their central town clocks
-# late the previous day, but this appears to have been ceremonial
-# and the discrepancies are small enough to not worry about.
-			2:00	EU	EE%sT	2014 Mar 30 2:00
-			4:00	-	MSK
 
 # Vatican City
 # See Europe/Rome.
@@ -3018,7 +3344,7 @@
 # ...
 #
 # ...the European time rules are...standardized since 1981, when
-# most European coun[tr]ies started DST.  Before that year, only
+# most European countries started DST.  Before that year, only
 # a few countries (UK, France, Italy) had DST, each according
 # to own national rules.  In 1981, however, DST started on
 # 'Apr firstSun', and not on 'Mar lastSun' as in the following
@@ -3026,7 +3352,7 @@
 # But also since 1981 there are some more national exceptions
 # than listed in 'europe': Switzerland, for example, joined DST
 # one year later, Denmark ended DST on 'Oct 1' instead of 'Sep
-# lastSun' in 1981---I don't know how they handle now.
+# lastSun' in 1981 - I don't know how they handle now.
 #
 # Finally, DST ist always from 'Apr 1' to 'Oct 1' in the
 # Soviet Union (as far as I know).
--- a/make/data/tzdata/factory	Thu Sep 11 09:08:56 2014 -0700
+++ b/make/data/tzdata/factory	Thu Sep 11 14:29:21 2014 -0700
@@ -21,7 +21,6 @@
 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
 # questions.
 #
-# <pre>
 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
 
--- a/make/data/tzdata/iso3166.tab	Thu Sep 11 09:08:56 2014 -0700
+++ b/make/data/tzdata/iso3166.tab	Thu Sep 11 14:29:21 2014 -0700
@@ -26,21 +26,21 @@
 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
 #
-# From Paul Eggert (2013-05-27):
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-18):
+# This file contains a table of two-letter country codes.  Columns are
+# separated by a single tab.  Lines beginning with '#' are comments.
+# Although all text currently uses ASCII encoding, this is planned to
+# change to UTF-8 soon.  The columns of the table are as follows:
 #
-# This file contains a table with the following columns:
 # 1.  ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code, current as of
-#     ISO 3166-1 Newsletter VI-15 (2013-05-10).  See: Updates on ISO 3166
+#     ISO 3166-1 Newsletter VI-16 (2013-07-11).  See: Updates on ISO 3166
 #   http://www.iso.org/iso/home/standards/country_codes/updates_on_iso_3166.htm
 # 2.  The usual English name for the coded region,
 #     chosen so that alphabetic sorting of subsets produces helpful lists.
 #     This is not the same as the English name in the ISO 3166 tables.
 #
-# Columns are separated by a single tab.
 # The table is sorted by country code.
 #
-# Lines beginning with `#' are comments.
-#
 # This table is intended as an aid for users, to help them select time
 # zone data appropriate for their practical needs.  It is not intended
 # to take or endorse any position on legal or territorial claims.
--- a/make/data/tzdata/leapseconds	Thu Sep 11 09:08:56 2014 -0700
+++ b/make/data/tzdata/leapseconds	Thu Sep 11 14:29:21 2014 -0700
@@ -21,7 +21,7 @@
 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
 # questions.
 #
-# Allowance for leapseconds added to each timezone file.
+# Allowance for leap seconds added to each time zone file.
 
 # This file is in the public domain.
 
@@ -31,7 +31,7 @@
 # you should be able to pick up leap-seconds.list from a secondary NIST server.
 # For more about leap-seconds.list, please see
 # The NTP Timescale and Leap Seconds
-# <http://www.eecis.udel.edu/~mills/leap.html>.
+# http://www.eecis.udel.edu/~mills/leap.html
 
 # The International Earth Rotation Service periodically uses leap seconds
 # to keep UTC to within 0.9 s of UT1
--- a/make/data/tzdata/northamerica	Thu Sep 11 09:08:56 2014 -0700
+++ b/make/data/tzdata/northamerica	Thu Sep 11 14:29:21 2014 -0700
@@ -21,15 +21,15 @@
 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
 # questions.
 #
-# <pre>
 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
 
 # also includes Central America and the Caribbean
 
-# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
+# This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
-# tz@iana.org for general use in the future).
+# tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
+# the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
 
 # From Paul Eggert (1999-03-22):
 # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
@@ -78,13 +78,13 @@
 #	to push people into bed earlier, and get them up earlier, to make
 #	them healthy, wealthy and wise in spite of themselves.
 #
-#	-- Robertson Davies, The diary of Samuel Marchbanks,
+#	 -- Robertson Davies, The diary of Samuel Marchbanks,
 #	   Clarke, Irwin (1947), XIX, Sunday
 #
 # For more about the first ten years of DST in the United States, see
-# Robert Garland's <a href="http://www.clpgh.org/exhibit/dst.html">
-# Ten years of daylight saving from the Pittsburgh standpoint
-# (Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, 1927)</a>.
+# Robert Garland, Ten years of daylight saving from the Pittsburgh standpoint
+# (Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, 1927).
+# http://www.clpgh.org/exhibit/dst.html
 #
 # Shanks says that DST was called "War Time" in the US in 1918 and 1919.
 # However, DST was imposed by the Standard Time Act of 1918, which
@@ -103,11 +103,11 @@
 # From Arthur David Olson (2000-09-25):
 # Last night I heard part of a rebroadcast of a 1945 Arch Oboler radio drama.
 # In the introduction, Oboler spoke of "Eastern Peace Time."
-# An AltaVista search turned up
-# <a href="http://rowayton.org/rhs/hstaug45.html">:
+# An AltaVista search turned up:
+# http://rowayton.org/rhs/hstaug45.html
 # "When the time is announced over the radio now, it is 'Eastern Peace
 # Time' instead of the old familiar 'Eastern War Time.'  Peace is wonderful."
-# </a> (August 1945) by way of confirmation.
+# (August 1945) by way of confirmation.
 
 # From Joseph Gallant citing
 # George H. Douglas, _The Early Days of Radio Broadcasting_ (1987):
@@ -205,7 +205,7 @@
 # USA  ALASKA STD    9 H  BEHIND UTC    MOST OF ALASKA     (AKST)
 # USA  ALASKA STD    8 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30 (AKDT)
 # USA  ALEUTIAN     10 H  BEHIND UTC    ISLANDS WEST OF 170W
-# USA  - " -         9 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30
+# USA    "           9 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30
 # USA  HAWAII       10 H  BEHIND UTC
 # USA  BERING       11 H  BEHIND UTC    SAMOA, MIDWAY
 
@@ -258,19 +258,19 @@
 # The following was signed into law on 2005-08-08.
 #
 # H.R. 6, Energy Policy Act of 2005, SEC. 110. DAYLIGHT SAVINGS.
-#   (a) Amendment- Section 3(a) of the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (15
+#   (a) Amendment.--Section 3(a) of the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (15
 #   U.S.C. 260a(a)) is amended--
-#     (1) by striking 'first Sunday of April' and inserting 'second
-#     Sunday of March'; and
-#     (2) by striking 'last Sunday of October' and inserting 'first
+#     (1) by striking "first Sunday of April" and inserting "second
+#     Sunday of March"; and
+#     (2) by striking "last Sunday of October" and inserting "first
 #     Sunday of November'.
-#   (b) Effective Date- Subsection (a) shall take effect 1 year after the
+#   (b) Effective Date.--Subsection (a) shall take effect 1 year after the
 #   date of enactment of this Act or March 1, 2007, whichever is later.
-#   (c) Report to Congress- Not later than 9 months after the effective
+#   (c) Report to Congress.--Not later than 9 months after the effective
 #   date stated in subsection (b), the Secretary shall report to Congress
 #   on the impact of this section on energy consumption in the United
 #   States.
-#   (d) Right to Revert- Congress retains the right to revert the
+#   (d) Right to Revert.--Congress retains the right to revert the
 #   Daylight Saving Time back to the 2005 time schedules once the
 #   Department study is complete.
 
@@ -292,7 +292,7 @@
 
 # From Paul Eggert (2005-08-26):
 # According to today's Huntsville Times
-# <http://www.al.com/news/huntsvilletimes/index.ssf?/base/news/1125047783228320.xml&coll=1>
+# http://www.al.com/news/huntsvilletimes/index.ssf?/base/news/1125047783228320.xml&coll=1
 # a few towns on Alabama's "eastern border with Georgia, such as Phenix City
 # in Russell County, Lanett in Chambers County and some towns in Lee County,
 # set their watches and clocks on Eastern time."  It quotes H.H. "Bubba"
@@ -347,15 +347,15 @@
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone America/Chicago	-5:50:36 -	LMT	1883 Nov 18 12:09:24
 			-6:00	US	C%sT	1920
-			-6:00	Chicago	C%sT	1936 Mar  1 2:00
-			-5:00	-	EST	1936 Nov 15 2:00
+			-6:00	Chicago	C%sT	1936 Mar  1  2:00
+			-5:00	-	EST	1936 Nov 15  2:00
 			-6:00	Chicago	C%sT	1942
 			-6:00	US	C%sT	1946
 			-6:00	Chicago	C%sT	1967
 			-6:00	US	C%sT
 # Oliver County, ND switched from mountain to central time on 1992-10-25.
 Zone America/North_Dakota/Center -6:45:12 - LMT	1883 Nov 18 12:14:48
-			-7:00	US	M%sT	1992 Oct 25 02:00
+			-7:00	US	M%sT	1992 Oct 25  2:00
 			-6:00	US	C%sT
 # Morton County, ND, switched from mountain to central time on
 # 2003-10-26, except for the area around Mandan which was already central time.
@@ -364,29 +364,26 @@
 # Jones, Mellette, and Todd Counties in South Dakota;
 # but in practice these other counties were already observing central time.
 # See <http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-IMPACT/2003/October/Day-28/i27056.htm>.
-Zone America/North_Dakota/New_Salem -6:45:39 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:14:21
-			-7:00	US	M%sT	2003 Oct 26 02:00
+Zone America/North_Dakota/New_Salem -6:45:39 - LMT	1883 Nov 18 12:14:21
+			-7:00	US	M%sT	2003 Oct 26  2:00
 			-6:00	US	C%sT
 
 # From Josh Findley (2011-01-21):
 # ...it appears that Mercer County, North Dakota, changed from the
 # mountain time zone to the central time zone at the last transition from
 # daylight-saving to standard time (on Nov. 7, 2010):
-# <a href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-29/html/2010-24376.htm">
 # http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-29/html/2010-24376.htm
-# </a>
-# <a href="http://www.bismarcktribune.com/news/local/article_1eb1b588-c758-11df-b472-001cc4c03286.html">
 # http://www.bismarcktribune.com/news/local/article_1eb1b588-c758-11df-b472-001cc4c03286.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Andy Lipscomb (2011-01-24):
 # ...according to the Census Bureau, the largest city is Beulah (although
 # it's commonly referred to as Beulah-Hazen, with Hazen being the next
 # largest city in Mercer County).  Google Maps places Beulah's city hall
-# at 4715'51" north, 10146'40" west, which yields an offset of 6h47'07".
+# at 47 degrees 15' 51" N, 101 degrees 46' 40" W, which yields an offset
+# of 6h47'07".
 
-Zone America/North_Dakota/Beulah -6:47:07 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:12:53
-			-7:00	US	M%sT	2010 Nov  7 2:00
+Zone America/North_Dakota/Beulah -6:47:07 - LMT	1883 Nov 18 12:12:53
+			-7:00	US	M%sT	2010 Nov  7  2:00
 			-6:00	US	C%sT
 
 # US mountain time, represented by Denver
@@ -448,15 +445,18 @@
 # was destroyed in 1805 by a Yakutat-kon war party.)  However, there
 # were nearby inhabitants in some cases and for our purposes perhaps
 # it's best to simply use the official transition.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-18):
+# One opinion of the early-1980s turmoil in Alaska over time zones and
+# daylight saving time appeared as graffiti on a Juneau airport wall:
+# "Welcome to Juneau.  Please turn your watch back to the 19th century."
+# See: Turner W. Alaska's four time zones now two. NY Times 1983-11-01.
+# http://www.nytimes.com/1983/11/01/us/alaska-s-four-time-zones-now-two.html
 #
-
-# From Steve Ferguson (2011-01-31):
-# The author lives in Alaska and many of the references listed are only
-# available to Alaskan residents.
-#
-# <a href="http://www.alaskahistoricalsociety.org/index.cfm?section=discover%20alaska&page=Glimpses%20of%20the%20Past&viewpost=2&ContentId=98">
-# http://www.alaskahistoricalsociety.org/index.cfm?section=discover%20alaska&page=Glimpses%20of%20the%20Past&viewpost=2&ContentId=98
-# </a>
+# Steve Ferguson (2011-01-31) referred to the following source:
+# Norris F. Keeping time in Alaska: national directives, local response.
+# Alaska History 2001;16(1-2).
+# http://alaskahistoricalsociety.org/discover-alaska/glimpses-of-the-past/keeping-time-in-alaska/
 
 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-02-01):
 # Here's database-relevant material from the 2001 "Alaska History" article:
@@ -482,12 +482,10 @@
 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-02-09):
 # I just spoke by phone with a staff member at the Metlakatla Indian
 # Community office (using contact information available at
-# <a href="http://www.commerce.state.ak.us/dca/commdb/CIS.cfm?Comm_Boro_name=Metlakatla">
 # http://www.commerce.state.ak.us/dca/commdb/CIS.cfm?Comm_Boro_name=Metlakatla
-# </a>).
 # It's shortly after 1:00 here on the east coast of the United States;
 # the staffer said it was shortly after 10:00 there. When I asked whether
-# that meant they were on Pacific time, they said no--they were on their
+# that meant they were on Pacific time, they said no - they were on their
 # own time. I asked about daylight saving; they said it wasn't used. I
 # did not inquire about practices in the past.
 
@@ -501,9 +499,9 @@
 			 -8:00	-	PST	1942
 			 -8:00	US	P%sT	1946
 			 -8:00	-	PST	1969
-			 -8:00	US	P%sT	1980 Apr 27 2:00
-			 -9:00	US	Y%sT	1980 Oct 26 2:00
-			 -8:00	US	P%sT	1983 Oct 30 2:00
+			 -8:00	US	P%sT	1980 Apr 27  2:00
+			 -9:00	US	Y%sT	1980 Oct 26  2:00
+			 -8:00	US	P%sT	1983 Oct 30  2:00
 			 -9:00	US	Y%sT	1983 Nov 30
 			 -9:00	US	AK%sT
 Zone America/Sitka	 14:58:47 -	LMT	1867 Oct 18
@@ -511,7 +509,7 @@
 			 -8:00	-	PST	1942
 			 -8:00	US	P%sT	1946
 			 -8:00	-	PST	1969
-			 -8:00	US	P%sT	1983 Oct 30 2:00
+			 -8:00	US	P%sT	1983 Oct 30  2:00
 			 -9:00	US	Y%sT	1983 Nov 30
 			 -9:00	US	AK%sT
 Zone America/Metlakatla	 15:13:42 -	LMT	1867 Oct 18
@@ -519,8 +517,8 @@
 			 -8:00	-	PST	1942
 			 -8:00	US	P%sT	1946
 			 -8:00	-	PST	1969
-			 -8:00	US	P%sT	1983 Oct 30 2:00
-			 -8:00	-	MeST
+			 -8:00	US	P%sT	1983 Oct 30  2:00
+			 -8:00	-	PST
 Zone America/Yakutat	 14:41:05 -	LMT	1867 Oct 18
 			 -9:18:55 -	LMT	1900 Aug 20 12:00
 			 -9:00	-	YST	1942
@@ -535,7 +533,7 @@
 			-10:00	US	CAT/CAPT 1946 # Peace
 			-10:00	-	CAT	1967 Apr
 			-10:00	-	AHST	1969
-			-10:00	US	AH%sT	1983 Oct 30 2:00
+			-10:00	US	AH%sT	1983 Oct 30  2:00
 			 -9:00	US	Y%sT	1983 Nov 30
 			 -9:00	US	AK%sT
 Zone America/Nome	 12:58:21 -	LMT	1867 Oct 18
@@ -544,7 +542,7 @@
 			-11:00	US	N%sT	1946
 			-11:00	-	NST	1967 Apr
 			-11:00	-	BST	1969
-			-11:00	US	B%sT	1983 Oct 30 2:00
+			-11:00	US	B%sT	1983 Oct 30  2:00
 			 -9:00	US	Y%sT	1983 Nov 30
 			 -9:00	US	AK%sT
 Zone America/Adak	 12:13:21 -	LMT	1867 Oct 18
@@ -553,7 +551,7 @@
 			-11:00	US	N%sT	1946
 			-11:00	-	NST	1967 Apr
 			-11:00	-	BST	1969
-			-11:00	US	B%sT	1983 Oct 30 2:00
+			-11:00	US	B%sT	1983 Oct 30  2:00
 			-10:00	US	AH%sT	1983 Nov 30
 			-10:00	US	HA%sT
 # The following switches don't quite make our 1970 cutoff.
@@ -571,7 +569,7 @@
 #  Minutes of the Unalaska City Council Meeting, January 10, 1967:
 #  "Except for St. Paul and Akutan, Unalaska is the only important
 #  location not on Alaska Standard Time.  The following resolution was
-#  made by William Robinson and seconded by Henry Swanson:  Be it
+#  made by William Robinson and seconded by Henry Swanson: Be it
 #  resolved that the City of Unalaska hereby goes to Alaska Standard
 #  Time as of midnight Friday, January 13, 1967 (1 A.M. Saturday,
 #  January 14, Alaska Standard Time.)  This resolution was passed with
@@ -583,9 +581,7 @@
 # "Hawaiian Time" by Robert C. Schmitt and Doak C. Cox appears on pages 207-225
 # of volume 26 of The Hawaiian Journal of History (1992). As of 2010-12-09,
 # the article is available at
-# <a href="http://evols.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10524/239/2/JL26215.pdf">
 # http://evols.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10524/239/2/JL26215.pdf
-# </a>
 # and indicates that standard time was adopted effective noon, January
 # 13, 1896 (page 218), that in "1933, the Legislature decreed daylight
 # saving for the period between the last Sunday of each April and the
@@ -606,7 +602,7 @@
 # year, the standard time of this Territory shall be advanced one
 # hour...This Act shall take effect upon its approval. Approved this 26th
 # day of April, A. D. 1933. LAWRENCE M JUDD, Governor of the Territory of
-# Hawaii." Page 172:  "Act 163...Act 90 of the Session Laws of 1933 is
+# Hawaii." Page 172: "Act 163...Act 90 of the Session Laws of 1933 is
 # hereby repealed...This Act shall take effect upon its approval, upon
 # which date the standard time of this Territory shall be restored to
 # that existing immediately prior to the taking effect of said Act 90.
@@ -616,14 +612,14 @@
 # Note that 1933-05-21 was a Sunday.
 # We're left to guess the time of day when Act 163 was approved; guess noon.
 
-Zone Pacific/Honolulu	-10:31:26 -	LMT	1896 Jan 13 12:00 #Schmitt&Cox
-			-10:30	-	HST	1933 Apr 30 2:00 #Laws 1933
-			-10:30	1:00	HDT	1933 May 21 12:00 #Laws 1933+12
-			-10:30	-	HST	1942 Feb 09 2:00 #Schmitt&Cox+2
-			-10:30	1:00	HDT	1945 Sep 30 2:00 #Schmitt&Cox+2
-			-10:30	-	HST	1947 Jun  8 2:00 #Schmitt&Cox+2
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Pacific/Honolulu	-10:31:26 -	LMT	1896 Jan 13 12:00
+			-10:30	-	HST	1933 Apr 30  2:00
+			-10:30	1:00	HDT	1933 May 21 12:00
+			-10:30	-	HST	1942 Feb  9  2:00
+			-10:30	1:00	HDT	1945 Sep 30  2:00
+			-10:30	-	HST	1947 Jun  8  2:00
 			-10:00	-	HST
-
 Link Pacific/Honolulu Pacific/Johnston
 
 # Now we turn to US areas that have diverged from the consensus since 1970.
@@ -633,9 +629,9 @@
 # From Paul Eggert (2002-10-20):
 #
 # The information in the rest of this paragraph is derived from the
-# <a href="http://www.dlapr.lib.az.us/links/daylight.htm">
-# Daylight Saving Time web page (2002-01-23)</a> maintained by the
-# Arizona State Library, Archives and Public Records.
+# Daylight Saving Time web page
+# <http://www.dlapr.lib.az.us/links/daylight.htm> (2002-01-23)
+# maintained by the Arizona State Library, Archives and Public Records.
 # Between 1944-01-01 and 1944-04-01 the State of Arizona used standard
 # time, but by federal law railroads, airlines, bus lines, military
 # personnel, and some engaged in interstate commerce continued to
@@ -649,10 +645,11 @@
 # Shanks says the 1944 experiment came to an end on 1944-03-17.
 # Go with the Arizona State Library instead.
 
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone America/Phoenix	-7:28:18 -	LMT	1883 Nov 18 11:31:42
-			-7:00	US	M%sT	1944 Jan  1 00:01
-			-7:00	-	MST	1944 Apr  1 00:01
-			-7:00	US	M%sT	1944 Oct  1 00:01
+			-7:00	US	M%sT	1944 Jan  1  0:01
+			-7:00	-	MST	1944 Apr  1  0:01
+			-7:00	US	M%sT	1944 Oct  1  0:01
 			-7:00	-	MST	1967
 			-7:00	US	M%sT	1968 Mar 21
 			-7:00	-	MST
@@ -676,24 +673,22 @@
 #
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone America/Boise	-7:44:49 -	LMT	1883 Nov 18 12:15:11
-			-8:00	US	P%sT	1923 May 13 2:00
+			-8:00	US	P%sT	1923 May 13  2:00
 			-7:00	US	M%sT	1974
-			-7:00	-	MST	1974 Feb  3 2:00
+			-7:00	-	MST	1974 Feb  3  2:00
 			-7:00	US	M%sT
 
 # Indiana
 #
 # For a map of Indiana's time zone regions, see:
-# <a href="http://www.mccsc.edu/time.html">
-# What time is it in Indiana?
-# </a> (2006-03-01)
+# http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_in_Indiana
 #
 # From Paul Eggert (2007-08-17):
 # Since 1970, most of Indiana has been like America/Indiana/Indianapolis,
 # with the following exceptions:
 #
 # - Gibson, Jasper, Lake, LaPorte, Newton, Porter, Posey, Spencer,
-#   Vandenburgh, and Warrick counties have been like America/Chicago.
+#   Vanderburgh, and Warrick counties have been like America/Chicago.
 #
 # - Dearborn and Ohio counties have been like America/New_York.
 #
@@ -712,22 +707,16 @@
 # that they would be ambiguous if we left them at the 'America' level.
 # So we reluctantly put them all in a subdirectory 'America/Indiana'.
 
-# From Paul Eggert (2005-08-16):
-# http://www.mccsc.edu/time.html says that Indiana will use DST starting 2006.
-
-# From Nathan Stratton Treadway (2006-03-30):
-# http://www.dot.gov/affairs/dot0406.htm [3705 B]
-# From Deborah Goldsmith (2006-01-18):
-# http://dmses.dot.gov/docimages/pdf95/382329_web.pdf [2.9 MB]
-# From Paul Eggert (2006-01-20):
-# It says "DOT is relocating the time zone boundary in Indiana to move Starke,
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-26):
+# https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2006/01/20/06-563/standard-time-zone-boundary-in-the-state-of-indiana
+# says "DOT is relocating the time zone boundary in Indiana to move Starke,
 # Pulaski, Knox, Daviess, Martin, Pike, Dubois, and Perry Counties from the
 # Eastern Time Zone to the Central Time Zone.... The effective date of
-# this rule is 2:OO a.m. EST Sunday, April 2, 2006, which is the
+# this rule is 2 a.m. EST Sunday, April 2, 2006, which is the
 # changeover date from standard time to Daylight Saving Time."
-# Strictly speaking, this means the affected counties will change their
-# clocks twice that night, but this obviously is in error.  The intent
-# is that 01:59:59 EST be followed by 02:00:00 CDT.
+# Strictly speaking, this meant the affected counties changed their
+# clocks twice that night, but this obviously was in error.  The intent
+# was that 01:59:59 EST be followed by 02:00:00 CDT.
 
 # From Gwillim Law (2007-02-10):
 # The Associated Press has been reporting that Pulaski County, Indiana is
@@ -739,13 +728,13 @@
 Rule Indianapolis 1941	1954	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
 Rule Indianapolis 1946	1954	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone America/Indiana/Indianapolis -5:44:38 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:15:22
+Zone America/Indiana/Indianapolis -5:44:38 - LMT	1883 Nov 18 12:15:22
 			-6:00	US	C%sT	1920
 			-6:00 Indianapolis C%sT	1942
 			-6:00	US	C%sT	1946
-			-6:00 Indianapolis C%sT	1955 Apr 24 2:00
-			-5:00	-	EST	1957 Sep 29 2:00
-			-6:00	-	CST	1958 Apr 27 2:00
+			-6:00 Indianapolis C%sT	1955 Apr 24  2:00
+			-5:00	-	EST	1957 Sep 29  2:00
+			-6:00	-	CST	1958 Apr 27  2:00
 			-5:00	-	EST	1969
 			-5:00	US	E%sT	1971
 			-5:00	-	EST	2006
@@ -761,10 +750,10 @@
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone America/Indiana/Marengo -5:45:23 -	LMT	1883 Nov 18 12:14:37
 			-6:00	US	C%sT	1951
-			-6:00	Marengo	C%sT	1961 Apr 30 2:00
+			-6:00	Marengo	C%sT	1961 Apr 30  2:00
 			-5:00	-	EST	1969
-			-5:00	US	E%sT	1974 Jan  6 2:00
-			-6:00	1:00	CDT	1974 Oct 27 2:00
+			-5:00	US	E%sT	1974 Jan  6  2:00
+			-6:00	1:00	CDT	1974 Oct 27  2:00
 			-5:00	US	E%sT	1976
 			-5:00	-	EST	2006
 			-5:00	US	E%sT
@@ -785,11 +774,11 @@
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone America/Indiana/Vincennes -5:50:07 - LMT	1883 Nov 18 12:09:53
 			-6:00	US	C%sT	1946
-			-6:00 Vincennes	C%sT	1964 Apr 26 2:00
+			-6:00 Vincennes	C%sT	1964 Apr 26  2:00
 			-5:00	-	EST	1969
 			-5:00	US	E%sT	1971
-			-5:00	-	EST	2006 Apr  2 2:00
-			-6:00	US	C%sT	2007 Nov  4 2:00
+			-5:00	-	EST	2006 Apr  2  2:00
+			-6:00	US	C%sT	2007 Nov  4  2:00
 			-5:00	US	E%sT
 #
 # Perry County, Indiana, switched from eastern to central time in April 2006.
@@ -806,10 +795,10 @@
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone America/Indiana/Tell_City -5:47:03 - LMT	1883 Nov 18 12:12:57
 			-6:00	US	C%sT	1946
-			-6:00 Perry	C%sT	1964 Apr 26 2:00
+			-6:00 Perry	C%sT	1964 Apr 26  2:00
 			-5:00	-	EST	1969
 			-5:00	US	E%sT	1971
-			-5:00	-	EST	2006 Apr  2 2:00
+			-5:00	-	EST	2006 Apr  2  2:00
 			-6:00	US	C%sT
 #
 # Pike County, Indiana moved from central to eastern time in 1977,
@@ -822,11 +811,11 @@
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone America/Indiana/Petersburg -5:49:07 - LMT	1883 Nov 18 12:10:53
 			-6:00	US	C%sT	1955
-			-6:00	Pike	C%sT	1965 Apr 25 2:00
-			-5:00	-	EST	1966 Oct 30 2:00
-			-6:00	US	C%sT	1977 Oct 30 2:00
-			-5:00	-	EST	2006 Apr  2 2:00
-			-6:00	US	C%sT	2007 Nov  4 2:00
+			-6:00	Pike	C%sT	1965 Apr 25  2:00
+			-5:00	-	EST	1966 Oct 30  2:00
+			-6:00	US	C%sT	1977 Oct 30  2:00
+			-5:00	-	EST	2006 Apr  2  2:00
+			-6:00	US	C%sT	2007 Nov  4  2:00
 			-5:00	US	E%sT
 #
 # Starke County, Indiana moved from central to eastern time in 1991,
@@ -844,10 +833,10 @@
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone America/Indiana/Knox -5:46:30 -	LMT	1883 Nov 18 12:13:30
 			-6:00	US	C%sT	1947
-			-6:00	Starke	C%sT	1962 Apr 29 2:00
-			-5:00	-	EST	1963 Oct 27 2:00
-			-6:00	US	C%sT	1991 Oct 27 2:00
-			-5:00	-	EST	2006 Apr  2 2:00
+			-6:00	Starke	C%sT	1962 Apr 29  2:00
+			-5:00	-	EST	1963 Oct 27  2:00
+			-6:00	US	C%sT	1991 Oct 27  2:00
+			-5:00	-	EST	2006 Apr  2  2:00
 			-6:00	US	C%sT
 #
 # Pulaski County, Indiana, switched from eastern to central time in
@@ -860,17 +849,17 @@
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone America/Indiana/Winamac -5:46:25 - LMT	1883 Nov 18 12:13:35
 			-6:00	US	C%sT	1946
-			-6:00	Pulaski	C%sT	1961 Apr 30 2:00
+			-6:00	Pulaski	C%sT	1961 Apr 30  2:00
 			-5:00	-	EST	1969
 			-5:00	US	E%sT	1971
-			-5:00	-	EST	2006 Apr  2 2:00
-			-6:00	US	C%sT	2007 Mar 11 2:00
+			-5:00	-	EST	2006 Apr  2  2:00
+			-6:00	US	C%sT	2007 Mar 11  2:00
 			-5:00	US	E%sT
 #
 # Switzerland County, Indiana, did not observe DST from 1973 through 2005.
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone America/Indiana/Vevay -5:40:16 -	LMT	1883 Nov 18 12:19:44
-			-6:00	US	C%sT	1954 Apr 25 2:00
+			-6:00	US	C%sT	1954 Apr 25  2:00
 			-5:00	-	EST	1969
 			-5:00	US	E%sT	1973
 			-5:00	-	EST	2006
@@ -891,18 +880,17 @@
 			-6:00	US	C%sT	1921
 			-6:00 Louisville C%sT	1942
 			-6:00	US	C%sT	1946
-			-6:00 Louisville C%sT	1961 Jul 23 2:00
+			-6:00 Louisville C%sT	1961 Jul 23  2:00
 			-5:00	-	EST	1968
-			-5:00	US	E%sT	1974 Jan  6 2:00
-			-6:00	1:00	CDT	1974 Oct 27 2:00
+			-5:00	US	E%sT	1974 Jan  6  2:00
+			-6:00	1:00	CDT	1974 Oct 27  2:00
 			-5:00	US	E%sT
 #
 # Wayne County, Kentucky
 #
-# From
-# <a href="http://www.lake-cumberland.com/life/archive/news990129time.shtml">
-# Lake Cumberland LIFE
-# </a> (1999-01-29) via WKYM-101.7:
+# From Lake Cumberland LIFE
+# http://www.lake-cumberland.com/life/archive/news990129time.shtml
+# (1999-01-29) via WKYM-101.7:
 # Clinton County has joined Wayne County in asking the DoT to change from
 # the Central to the Eastern time zone....  The Wayne County government made
 # the same request in December.  And while Russell County officials have not
@@ -919,9 +907,8 @@
 #
 # From Paul Eggert (2001-07-16):
 # The final rule was published in the
-# <a href="http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=2000_register&docid=fr17au00-22">
-# Federal Register 65, 160 (2000-08-17), page 50154-50158.
-# </a>
+# Federal Register 65, 160 (2000-08-17), pp 50154-50158.
+# http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=2000_register&docid=fr17au00-22
 #
 Zone America/Kentucky/Monticello -5:39:24 - LMT	1883 Nov 18 12:20:36
 			-6:00	US	C%sT	1946
@@ -946,9 +933,8 @@
 # See America/North_Dakota/Center for the Oliver County, ND change.
 # West Wendover, NV officially switched from Pacific to mountain time on
 # 1999-10-31.  See the
-# <a href="http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=1999_register&docid=fr21oc99-15">
-# Federal Register 64, 203 (1999-10-21), page 56705-56707.
-# </a>
+# Federal Register 64, 203 (1999-10-21), pp 56705-56707.
+# http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=1999_register&docid=fr21oc99-15
 # However, the Federal Register says that West Wendover already operated
 # on mountain time, and the rule merely made this official;
 # hence a separate tz entry is not needed.
@@ -986,12 +972,12 @@
 Rule	Detroit	1967	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone America/Detroit	-5:32:11 -	LMT	1905
-			-6:00	-	CST	1915 May 15 2:00
+			-6:00	-	CST	1915 May 15  2:00
 			-5:00	-	EST	1942
 			-5:00	US	E%sT	1946
 			-5:00	Detroit	E%sT	1973
 			-5:00	US	E%sT	1975
-			-5:00	-	EST	1975 Apr 27 2:00
+			-5:00	-	EST	1975 Apr 27  2:00
 			-5:00	US	E%sT
 #
 # Dickinson, Gogebic, Iron, and Menominee Counties, Michigan,
@@ -1004,8 +990,8 @@
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone America/Menominee	-5:50:27 -	LMT	1885 Sep 18 12:00
 			-6:00	US	C%sT	1946
-			-6:00 Menominee	C%sT	1969 Apr 27 2:00
-			-5:00	-	EST	1973 Apr 29 2:00
+			-6:00 Menominee	C%sT	1969 Apr 27  2:00
+			-5:00	-	EST	1973 Apr 29  2:00
 			-6:00	US	C%sT
 
 # Navassa
@@ -1042,9 +1028,9 @@
 #	Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated),
 #	which I found in the UCLA library.
 #
-#	<a href="http://www.pettswoodvillage.co.uk/Daylight_Savings_William_Willett.pdf">
 #	William Willett, The Waste of Daylight, 19th edition
-#	</a> (1914-03)
+#	<http://cs.ucla.edu/~eggert/The-Waste-of-Daylight-19th.pdf>
+#	[PDF] (1914-03)
 #
 #	Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94
 #	<http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>.
@@ -1053,11 +1039,11 @@
 
 # Canada
 
-# From Alain LaBont<e'> (1994-11-14):
+# From Alain LaBonté (1994-11-14):
 # I post here the time zone abbreviations standardized in Canada
 # for both English and French in the CAN/CSA-Z234.4-89 standard....
 #
-#	UTC	Standard time	Daylight savings time
+#	UTC	Standard time	Daylight saving time
 #	offset	French	English	French	English
 #	-2:30	-	-	HAT	NDT
 #	-3	-	-	HAA	ADT
@@ -1070,7 +1056,7 @@
 #	-9	HNY	YST	-	-
 #
 #	HN: Heure Normale	ST: Standard Time
-#	HA: Heure Avanc<e'>e	DT: Daylight saving Time
+#	HA: Heure Avancée	DT: Daylight saving Time
 #
 #	A: de l'Atlantique	Atlantic
 #	C: du Centre		Central
@@ -1085,7 +1071,7 @@
 # From Paul Eggert (1994-11-22):
 # Alas, this sort of thing must be handled by localization software.
 
-# Unless otherwise specified, the data for Canada are all from Shanks
+# Unless otherwise specified, the data entries for Canada are all from Shanks
 # & Pottenger.
 
 # From Chris Walton (2006-04-01, 2006-04-25, 2006-06-26, 2007-01-31,
@@ -1134,15 +1120,15 @@
 
 # From Paul Eggert (2006-04-25):
 # H. David Matthews and Mary Vincent's map
-# <a href="http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/Magazine/SO98/geomap.asp">
 # "It's about TIME", _Canadian Geographic_ (September-October 1998)
-# </a> contains detailed boundaries for regions observing nonstandard
+# http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/Magazine/SO98/geomap.asp
+# contains detailed boundaries for regions observing nonstandard
 # time and daylight saving time arrangements in Canada circa 1998.
 #
-# INMS, the Institute for National Measurement Standards in Ottawa, has <a
-# href="http://inms-ienm.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/en/time_services/daylight_saving_e.php">
+# INMS, the Institute for National Measurement Standards in Ottawa, has
 # information about standard and daylight saving time zones in Canada.
-# </a> (updated periodically).
+# http://inms-ienm.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/en/time_services/daylight_saving_e.php
+# (updated periodically).
 # Its unofficial information is often taken from Matthews and Vincent.
 
 # From Paul Eggert (2006-06-27):
@@ -1151,9 +1137,7 @@
 
 # From Chris Walton (2011-12-01)
 # In the first of Tammy Hardwick's articles
-# <a href="http://www.ilovecreston.com/?p=articles&t=spec&ar=260">
 # http://www.ilovecreston.com/?p=articles&t=spec&ar=260
-# </a>
 # she quotes the Friday November 1/1918 edition of the Creston Review.
 # The quote includes these two statements:
 # 'Sunday the CPR went back to the old system of time...'
@@ -1221,9 +1205,7 @@
 # Time to Standard Time and from Standard Time to Daylight Savings Time
 # now occurs at 2:00AM.
 # ...
-# <a href="http://www.assembly.nl.ca/legislation/sr/annualstatutes/2011/1106.chp.htm">
 # http://www.assembly.nl.ca/legislation/sr/annualstatutes/2011/1106.chp.htm
-# </a>
 # ...
 # MICHAEL PELLEY  |  Manager of Enterprise Architecture - Solution Delivery
 # Office of the Chief Information Officer
@@ -1259,7 +1241,7 @@
 			-3:30	-	NST	1936
 			-3:30	StJohns	N%sT	1942 May 11
 			-3:30	Canada	N%sT	1946
-			-3:30	StJohns	N%sT	1966 Mar 15 2:00
+			-3:30	StJohns	N%sT	1966 Mar 15  2:00
 			-4:00	StJohns	A%sT	2011 Nov
 			-4:00	Canada	A%sT
 
@@ -1320,7 +1302,7 @@
 Zone America/Halifax	-4:14:24 -	LMT	1902 Jun 15
 			-4:00	Halifax	A%sT	1918
 			-4:00	Canada	A%sT	1919
-			-4:00	Halifax	A%sT	1942 Feb  9 2:00s
+			-4:00	Halifax	A%sT	1942 Feb  9  2:00s
 			-4:00	Canada	A%sT	1946
 			-4:00	Halifax	A%sT	1974
 			-4:00	Canada	A%sT
@@ -1379,7 +1361,7 @@
 # meridian is supposed to observe AST, but residents as far east as
 # Natashquan use EST/EDT, and residents east of Natashquan use AST.
 # The Quebec department of justice writes in
-# "The situation in Minganie and Basse-Cote-Nord"
+# "The situation in Minganie and Basse-Côte-Nord"
 # http://www.justice.gouv.qc.ca/english/publications/generale/temps-minganie-a.htm
 # that the coastal strip from just east of Natashquan to Blanc-Sablon
 # observes Atlantic standard time all year round.
@@ -1387,7 +1369,6 @@
 # says this common practice was codified into law as of 2007.
 # For lack of better info, guess this practice began around 1970, contra to
 # Shanks & Pottenger who have this region observing AST/ADT.
-# for post-1970 data America/Puerto_Rico.
 
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
 Rule	Mont	1917	only	-	Mar	25	2:00	1:00	D
@@ -1401,18 +1382,10 @@
 Rule	Mont	1924	only	-	May	17	2:00	1:00	D
 Rule	Mont	1924	1926	-	Sep	lastSun	2:30	0	S
 Rule	Mont	1925	1926	-	May	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
-# The 1927-to-1937 rules can be expressed more simply as
-# Rule	Mont	1927	1937	-	Apr	lastSat	24:00	1:00	D
-# Rule	Mont	1927	1937	-	Sep	lastSat	24:00	0	S
-# The rules below avoid use of 24:00
-# (which pre-1998 versions of zic cannot handle).
-Rule	Mont	1927	only	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Mont	1927	1932	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	S
-Rule	Mont	1928	1931	-	Apr	lastSun	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Mont	1932	only	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Mont	1933	1940	-	Apr	lastSun	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Mont	1933	only	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	S
-Rule	Mont	1934	1939	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Mont	1927	1937	-	Apr	lastSat	24:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Mont	1927	1937	-	Sep	lastSat	24:00	0	S
+Rule	Mont	1938	1940	-	Apr	lastSun	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Mont	1938	1939	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	S
 Rule	Mont	1946	1973	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
 Rule	Mont	1945	1948	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
 Rule	Mont	1949	1950	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
@@ -1426,7 +1399,7 @@
 Zone America/Montreal	-4:54:16 -	LMT	1884
 			-5:00	Mont	E%sT	1918
 			-5:00	Canada	E%sT	1919
-			-5:00	Mont	E%sT	1942 Feb  9 2:00s
+			-5:00	Mont	E%sT	1942 Feb  9  2:00s
 			-5:00	Canada	E%sT	1946
 			-5:00	Mont	E%sT	1974
 			-5:00	Canada	E%sT
@@ -1448,7 +1421,7 @@
 # have already done so.  In Orillia DST was to run until Saturday,
 # 1912-08-31 (no time mentioned), but it was met with considerable
 # hostility from certain segments of the public, and was revoked after
-# only two weeks -- I copied it as Saturday, 1912-07-07, 22:00, but
+# only two weeks - I copied it as Saturday, 1912-07-07, 22:00, but
 # presumably that should be -07-06.  (1912-06-19, -07-12; also letters
 # earlier in June).
 #
@@ -1458,10 +1431,8 @@
 # Mark Brader writes that an article in the 1997-10-14 Toronto Star
 # says that Atikokan, Ontario currently does not observe DST,
 # but will vote on 11-10 whether to use EST/EDT.
-# He also writes that the
-# <a href="http://www.gov.on.ca/MBS/english/publications/statregs/conttext.html">
-# Ontario Time Act (1990, Chapter T.9)
-# </a>
+# He also writes that the Ontario Time Act (1990, Chapter T.9)
+# http://www.gov.on.ca/MBS/english/publications/statregs/conttext.html
 # says that Ontario east of 90W uses EST/EDT, and west of 90W uses CST/CDT.
 # Officially Atikokan is therefore on CST/CDT, and most likely this report
 # concerns a non-official time observed as a matter of local practice.
@@ -1540,9 +1511,7 @@
 # The Journal of The Royal Astronomical Society of Canada,
 # volume 26, number 2 (February 1932) and, as of 2010-07-17,
 # was available at
-# <a href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1932JRASC..26...49S">
 # http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1932JRASC..26...49S
-# </a>
 #
 # It includes the text below (starting on page 57):
 #
@@ -1553,26 +1522,26 @@
 # ing in 1930. The information for the province of Quebec is definite,
 # for the other provinces only approximate:
 #
-# 	Province	Daylight saving time used
+#	Province	Daylight saving time used
 # Prince Edward Island	Not used.
 # Nova Scotia		In Halifax only.
 # New Brunswick		In St. John only.
 # Quebec		In the following places:
-# 			Montreal	Lachine
-# 			Quebec		Mont-Royal
-# 			Levis		Iberville
-# 			St. Lambert	Cap de la Madeleine
-# 			Verdun		Loretteville
-# 			Westmount	Richmond
-# 			Outremont	St. Jerome
-# 			Longueuil	Greenfield Park
-# 			Arvida		Waterloo
-# 			Chambly-Canton	Beaulieu
-# 			Melbourne	La Tuque
-# 			St. Theophile	Buckingham
+#			Montreal	Lachine
+#			Quebec		Mont-Royal
+#			Lévis		Iberville
+#			St. Lambert	Cap de la Madelèine
+#			Verdun		Loretteville
+#			Westmount	Richmond
+#			Outremont	St. Jérôme
+#			Longueuil	Greenfield Park
+#			Arvida		Waterloo
+#			Chambly-Canton	Beaulieu
+#			Melbourne	La Tuque
+#			St. Théophile	Buckingham
 # Ontario		Used generally in the cities and towns along
-# 			the southerly part of the province. Not
-# 			used in the northwesterlhy part.
+#			the southerly part of the province. Not
+#			used in the northwesterly part.
 # Manitoba		Not used.
 # Saskatchewan		In Regina only.
 # Alberta		Not used.
@@ -1641,7 +1610,7 @@
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone America/Toronto	-5:17:32 -	LMT	1895
 			-5:00	Canada	E%sT	1919
-			-5:00	Toronto	E%sT	1942 Feb  9 2:00s
+			-5:00	Toronto	E%sT	1942 Feb  9  2:00s
 			-5:00	Canada	E%sT	1946
 			-5:00	Toronto	E%sT	1974
 			-5:00	Canada	E%sT
@@ -1654,16 +1623,16 @@
 			-5:00	Canada	E%sT
 Zone America/Nipigon	-5:53:04 -	LMT	1895
 			-5:00	Canada	E%sT	1940 Sep 29
-			-5:00	1:00	EDT	1942 Feb  9 2:00s
+			-5:00	1:00	EDT	1942 Feb  9  2:00s
 			-5:00	Canada	E%sT
 Zone America/Rainy_River -6:18:16 -	LMT	1895
 			-6:00	Canada	C%sT	1940 Sep 29
-			-6:00	1:00	CDT	1942 Feb  9 2:00s
+			-6:00	1:00	CDT	1942 Feb  9  2:00s
 			-6:00	Canada	C%sT
 Zone America/Atikokan	-6:06:28 -	LMT	1895
 			-6:00	Canada	C%sT	1940 Sep 29
-			-6:00	1:00	CDT	1942 Feb  9 2:00s
-			-6:00	Canada	C%sT	1945 Sep 30 2:00
+			-6:00	1:00	CDT	1942 Feb  9  2:00s
+			-6:00	Canada	C%sT	1945 Sep 30  2:00
 			-5:00	-	EST
 
 
@@ -1676,7 +1645,7 @@
 # the first Sunday of April of each year and two o'clock Central
 # Standard Time in the morning of the last Sunday of October next
 # following, one hour in advance of Central Standard Time."...
-# I believe that the English legislation [of the old time act] had =
+# I believe that the English legislation [of the old time act] had
 # been assented to (March 22, 1967)....
 # Also, as far as I can tell, there was no order-in-council varying
 # the time of Daylight Saving Time for 2005 and so the provisions of
@@ -1799,12 +1768,12 @@
 Rule	Swift	1960	1961	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone America/Regina	-6:58:36 -	LMT	1905 Sep
-			-7:00	Regina	M%sT	1960 Apr lastSun 2:00
+			-7:00	Regina	M%sT	1960 Apr lastSun  2:00
 			-6:00	-	CST
 Zone America/Swift_Current -7:11:20 -	LMT	1905 Sep
-			-7:00	Canada	M%sT	1946 Apr lastSun 2:00
+			-7:00	Canada	M%sT	1946 Apr lastSun  2:00
 			-7:00	Regina	M%sT	1950
-			-7:00	Swift	M%sT	1972 Apr lastSun 2:00
+			-7:00	Swift	M%sT	1972 Apr lastSun  2:00
 			-6:00	-	CST
 
 
@@ -1854,9 +1823,7 @@
 # Earlier this year I stumbled across a detailed article about the time
 # keeping history of Creston; it was written by Tammy Hardwick who is the
 # manager of the Creston & District Museum. The article was written in May 2009.
-# <a href="http://www.ilovecreston.com/?p=articles&t=spec&ar=260">
 # http://www.ilovecreston.com/?p=articles&t=spec&ar=260
-# </a>
 # According to the article, Creston has not changed its clocks since June 1918.
 # i.e. Creston has been stuck on UTC-7 for 93 years.
 # Dawson Creek, on the other hand, changed its clocks as recently as April 1972.
@@ -1864,18 +1831,16 @@
 # Unfortunately the exact date for the time change in June 1918 remains
 # unknown and will be difficult to ascertain.  I e-mailed Tammy a few months
 # ago to ask if Sunday June 2 was a reasonable guess.  She said it was just
-# as plausible as any other date (in June).  She also said that after writing the
-# article she had discovered another time change in 1916; this is the subject
-# of another article which she wrote in October 2010.
-# <a href="http://www.creston.museum.bc.ca/index.php?module=comments&uop=view_comment&cm+id=56">
+# as plausible as any other date (in June).  She also said that after writing
+# the article she had discovered another time change in 1916; this is the
+# subject of another article which she wrote in October 2010.
 # http://www.creston.museum.bc.ca/index.php?module=comments&uop=view_comment&cm+id=56
-# </a>
 
 # Here is a summary of the three clock change events in Creston's history:
 # 1. 1884 or 1885: adoption of Mountain Standard Time (GMT-7)
 # Exact date unknown
 # 2. Oct 1916: switch to Pacific Standard Time (GMT-8)
-# Exact date in October unknown;  Sunday October 1 is a reasonable guess.
+# Exact date in October unknown; Sunday October 1 is a reasonable guess.
 # 3. June 1918: switch to Pacific Daylight Time (GMT-7)
 # Exact date in June unknown; Sunday June 2 is a reasonable guess.
 # note#1:
@@ -1888,9 +1853,7 @@
 # There is no guarantee that Creston will remain on Mountain Standard Time
 # (UTC-7) forever.
 # The subject was debated at least once this year by the town Council.
-# <a href="http://www.bclocalnews.com/kootenay_rockies/crestonvalleyadvance/news/116760809.html">
 # http://www.bclocalnews.com/kootenay_rockies/crestonvalleyadvance/news/116760809.html
-# </a>
 
 # During a period WWII, summer time (Daylight saying) was mandatory in Canada.
 # In Creston, that was handled by shifting the area to PST (-8:00) then applying
@@ -1917,7 +1880,7 @@
 			-8:00	Canada	P%sT
 Zone America/Dawson_Creek -8:00:56 -	LMT	1884
 			-8:00	Canada	P%sT	1947
-			-8:00	Vanc	P%sT	1972 Aug 30 2:00
+			-8:00	Vanc	P%sT	1972 Aug 30  2:00
 			-7:00	-	MST
 Zone America/Creston	-7:46:04 -	LMT	1884
 			-7:00	-	MST	1916 Oct 1
@@ -1944,18 +1907,17 @@
 
 # From Rives McDow (1999-09-04):
 # Nunavut ... moved ... to incorporate the whole territory into one time zone.
-# <a href="http://www.nunatsiaq.com/nunavut/nvt90903_13.html">
 # Nunavut moves to single time zone Oct. 31
-# </a>
+# http://www.nunatsiaq.com/nunavut/nvt90903_13.html
 #
 # From Antoine Leca (1999-09-06):
 # We then need to create a new timezone for the Kitikmeot region of Nunavut
 # to differentiate it from the Yellowknife region.
 
 # From Paul Eggert (1999-09-20):
-# <a href="http://www.nunavut.com/basicfacts/english/basicfacts_1territory.html">
 # Basic Facts: The New Territory
-# </a> (1999) reports that Pangnirtung operates on eastern time,
+# http://www.nunavut.com/basicfacts/english/basicfacts_1territory.html
+# (1999) reports that Pangnirtung operates on eastern time,
 # and that Coral Harbour does not observe DST.  We don't know when
 # Pangnirtung switched to eastern time; we'll guess 1995.
 
@@ -1983,8 +1945,8 @@
 # the current state of affairs.
 
 # From Michaela Rodrigue, writing in the
-# <a href="http://www.nunatsiaq.com/archives/nunavut991130/nvt91119_17.html">
-# Nunatsiaq News (1999-11-19)</a>:
+# Nunatsiaq News (1999-11-19):
+# http://www.nunatsiaq.com/archives/nunavut991130/nvt91119_17.html
 # Clyde River, Pangnirtung and Sanikiluaq now operate with two time zones,
 # central - or Nunavut time - for government offices, and eastern time
 # for municipal offices and schools....  Igloolik [was similar but then]
@@ -2002,10 +1964,8 @@
 # Central Time and Southampton Island [in the Central zone] is not
 # required to use daylight savings.
 
-# From
-# <a href="http://www.nunatsiaq.com/archives/nunavut001130/nvt21110_02.html">
-# Nunavut now has two time zones
-# </a> (2000-11-10):
+# From <http://www.nunatsiaq.com/archives/nunavut001130/nvt21110_02.html>
+# Nunavut now has two time zones (2000-11-10):
 # The Nunavut government would allow its employees in Kugluktuk and
 # Cambridge Bay to operate on central time year-round, putting them
 # one hour behind the rest of Nunavut for six months during the winter.
@@ -2096,9 +2056,7 @@
 # used to be the mayor of Resolute Bay and he apparently owns half the
 # businesses including "South Camp Inn." This website has some info on
 # Aziz:
-# <a href="http://www.uphere.ca/node/493">
 # http://www.uphere.ca/node/493
-# </a>
 #
 # I sent Aziz an e-mail asking when Resolute Bay had stopped using
 # Eastern Standard Time.
@@ -2136,47 +2094,47 @@
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 # aka Panniqtuuq
 Zone America/Pangnirtung 0	-	zzz	1921 # trading post est.
-			-4:00	NT_YK	A%sT	1995 Apr Sun>=1 2:00
-			-5:00	Canada	E%sT	1999 Oct 31 2:00
-			-6:00	Canada	C%sT	2000 Oct 29 2:00
+			-4:00	NT_YK	A%sT	1995 Apr Sun>=1  2:00
+			-5:00	Canada	E%sT	1999 Oct 31  2:00
+			-6:00	Canada	C%sT	2000 Oct 29  2:00
 			-5:00	Canada	E%sT
 # formerly Frobisher Bay
 Zone America/Iqaluit	0	-	zzz	1942 Aug # Frobisher Bay est.
-			-5:00	NT_YK	E%sT	1999 Oct 31 2:00
-			-6:00	Canada	C%sT	2000 Oct 29 2:00
+			-5:00	NT_YK	E%sT	1999 Oct 31  2:00
+			-6:00	Canada	C%sT	2000 Oct 29  2:00
 			-5:00	Canada	E%sT
 # aka Qausuittuq
 Zone America/Resolute	0	-	zzz	1947 Aug 31 # Resolute founded
-			-6:00	NT_YK	C%sT	2000 Oct 29 2:00
-			-5:00	-	EST	2001 Apr  1 3:00
-			-6:00	Canada	C%sT	2006 Oct 29 2:00
-			-5:00	-	EST	2007 Mar 11 3:00
+			-6:00	NT_YK	C%sT	2000 Oct 29  2:00
+			-5:00	-	EST	2001 Apr  1  3:00
+			-6:00	Canada	C%sT	2006 Oct 29  2:00
+			-5:00	-	EST	2007 Mar 11  3:00
 			-6:00	Canada	C%sT
 # aka Kangiqiniq
 Zone America/Rankin_Inlet 0	-	zzz	1957 # Rankin Inlet founded
-			-6:00	NT_YK	C%sT	2000 Oct 29 2:00
-			-5:00	-	EST	2001 Apr  1 3:00
+			-6:00	NT_YK	C%sT	2000 Oct 29  2:00
+			-5:00	-	EST	2001 Apr  1  3:00
 			-6:00	Canada	C%sT
 # aka Iqaluktuuttiaq
 Zone America/Cambridge_Bay 0	-	zzz	1920 # trading post est.?
-			-7:00	NT_YK	M%sT	1999 Oct 31 2:00
-			-6:00	Canada	C%sT	2000 Oct 29 2:00
-			-5:00	-	EST	2000 Nov  5 0:00
-			-6:00	-	CST	2001 Apr  1 3:00
+			-7:00	NT_YK	M%sT	1999 Oct 31  2:00
+			-6:00	Canada	C%sT	2000 Oct 29  2:00
+			-5:00	-	EST	2000 Nov  5  0:00
+			-6:00	-	CST	2001 Apr  1  3:00
 			-7:00	Canada	M%sT
 Zone America/Yellowknife 0	-	zzz	1935 # Yellowknife founded?
 			-7:00	NT_YK	M%sT	1980
 			-7:00	Canada	M%sT
 Zone America/Inuvik	0	-	zzz	1953 # Inuvik founded
-			-8:00	NT_YK	P%sT	1979 Apr lastSun 2:00
+			-8:00	NT_YK	P%sT	1979 Apr lastSun  2:00
 			-7:00	NT_YK	M%sT	1980
 			-7:00	Canada	M%sT
 Zone America/Whitehorse	-9:00:12 -	LMT	1900 Aug 20
-			-9:00	NT_YK	Y%sT	1966 Jul 1 2:00
+			-9:00	NT_YK	Y%sT	1966 Jul  1  2:00
 			-8:00	NT_YK	P%sT	1980
 			-8:00	Canada	P%sT
 Zone America/Dawson	-9:17:40 -	LMT	1900 Aug 20
-			-9:00	NT_YK	Y%sT	1973 Oct 28 0:00
+			-9:00	NT_YK	Y%sT	1973 Oct 28  0:00
 			-8:00	NT_YK	P%sT	1980
 			-8:00	Canada	P%sT
 
@@ -2188,9 +2146,8 @@
 # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-05):
 # The Investigation and Analysis Service of the
 # Mexican Library of Congress (MLoC) has published a
-# <a href="http://www.cddhcu.gob.mx/bibliot/publica/inveyana/polisoc/horver/">
 # history of Mexican local time (in Spanish)
-# </a>.
+# http://www.cddhcu.gob.mx/bibliot/publica/inveyana/polisoc/horver/
 #
 # Here are the discrepancies between Shanks & Pottenger (S&P) and the MLoC.
 # (In all cases we go with the MLoC.)
@@ -2235,9 +2192,8 @@
 # -------------- End Forwarded Message --------------
 # From Paul Eggert (1996-06-12):
 # For an English translation of the decree, see
-# <a href="http://mexico-travel.com/extra/timezone_eng.html">
 # "Diario Oficial: Time Zone Changeover" (1996-01-04).
-# </a>
+# http://mexico-travel.com/extra/timezone_eng.html
 
 # From Rives McDow (1998-10-08):
 # The State of Quintana Roo has reverted back to central STD and DST times
@@ -2249,7 +2205,7 @@
 # savings time so as to stay on the same time zone as the southern part of
 # Arizona year round.
 
-# From Jesper Norgaard, translating
+# From Jesper Nørgaard, translating
 # <http://www.reforma.com/nacional/articulo/064327/> (2001-01-17):
 # In Oaxaca, the 55.000 teachers from the Section 22 of the National
 # Syndicate of Education Workers, refuse to apply daylight saving each
@@ -2262,7 +2218,7 @@
 # January 17, 2000 - The Energy Secretary, Ernesto Martens, announced
 # that Summer Time will be reduced from seven to five months, starting
 # this year....
-# <http://www.publico.com.mx/scripts/texto3.asp?action=pagina&pag=21&pos=p&secc=naci&date=01/17/2001>
+# http://www.publico.com.mx/scripts/texto3.asp?action=pagina&pag=21&pos=p&secc=naci&date=01/17/2001
 # [translated], says "summer time will ... take effect on the first Sunday
 # in May, and end on the last Sunday of September.
 
@@ -2270,23 +2226,22 @@
 # The 2001-01-24 traditional Washington Post contained the page one
 # story "Timely Issue Divides Mexicans."...
 # http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37383-2001Jan23.html
-# ... Mexico City Mayor Lopez Obrador "...is threatening to keep
+# ... Mexico City Mayor López Obrador "...is threatening to keep
 # Mexico City and its 20 million residents on a different time than
-# the rest of the country..." In particular, Lopez Obrador would abolish
+# the rest of the country..." In particular, López Obrador would abolish
 # observation of Daylight Saving Time.
 
-# <a href="http://www.conae.gob.mx/ahorro/decretohorver2001.html#decre">
 # Official statute published by the Energy Department
-# </a> (2001-02-01) shows Baja and Chihauhua as still using US DST rules,
-# and Sonora with no DST.  This was reported by Jesper Norgaard (2001-02-03).
+# http://www.conae.gob.mx/ahorro/decretohorver2001.html#decre
+# (2001-02-01) shows Baja and Chihauhua as still using US DST rules,
+# and Sonora with no DST.  This was reported by Jesper Nørgaard (2001-02-03).
 
 # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-03):
 #
-# <a href="http://www.latimes.com/news/nation/20010303/t000018766.html">
+# http://www.latimes.com/news/nation/20010303/t000018766.html
 # James F. Smith writes in today's LA Times
-# </a>
 # * Sonora will continue to observe standard time.
-# * Last week Mexico City's mayor Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador decreed that
+# * Last week Mexico City's mayor Andrés Manuel López Obrador decreed that
 #   the Federal District will not adopt DST.
 # * 4 of 16 district leaders announced they'll ignore the decree.
 # * The decree does not affect federal-controlled facilities including
@@ -2294,7 +2249,7 @@
 #
 # For now we'll assume that the Federal District will bow to federal rules.
 
-# From Jesper Norgaard (2001-04-01):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard (2001-04-01):
 # I found some references to the Mexican application of daylight
 # saving, which modifies what I had already sent you, stating earlier
 # that a number of northern Mexican states would go on daylight
@@ -2303,7 +2258,7 @@
 # saving all year) will follow the original decree of president
 # Vicente Fox, starting daylight saving May 6, 2001 and ending
 # September 30, 2001.
-# References: "Diario de Monterrey" <www.diariodemonterrey.com/index.asp>
+# References: "Diario de Monterrey" <http://www.diariodemonterrey.com/index.asp>
 # Palabra <http://palabra.infosel.com/010331/primera/ppri3101.pdf> (2001-03-31)
 
 # From Reuters (2001-09-04):
@@ -2315,7 +2270,7 @@
 # standard time. "This is so residents of the Federal District are not
 # subject to unexpected time changes," a statement from the court said.
 
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2002-03-12):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2002-03-12):
 # ... consulting my local grocery store(!) and my coworkers, they all insisted
 # that a new decision had been made to reinstate US style DST in Mexico....
 # http://www.conae.gob.mx/ahorro/horaver2001_m1_2002.html (2002-02-20)
@@ -2329,48 +2284,36 @@
 # > the United States.
 # Now this has passed both the Congress and the Senate, so starting from
 # 2010, some border regions will be the same:
-# <a href="http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/2009/dec/28/clocks-will-match-both-sides-border/">
 # http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/2009/dec/28/clocks-will-match-both-sides-border/
-# </a>
-# <a href="http://www.elmananarey.com/diario/noticia/nacional/noticias/empatan_horario_de_frontera_con_eu/621939">
 # http://www.elmananarey.com/diario/noticia/nacional/noticias/empatan_horario_de_frontera_con_eu/621939
-# </a>
 # (Spanish)
 #
 # Could not find the new law text, but the proposed law text changes are here:
-# <a href="http://gaceta.diputados.gob.mx/Gaceta/61/2009/dic/20091210-V.pdf">
 # http://gaceta.diputados.gob.mx/Gaceta/61/2009/dic/20091210-V.pdf
-# </a>
 # (Gaceta Parlamentaria)
 #
 # There is also a list of the votes here:
-# <a href="http://gaceta.diputados.gob.mx/Gaceta/61/2009/dic/V2-101209.html">
 # http://gaceta.diputados.gob.mx/Gaceta/61/2009/dic/V2-101209.html
-# </a>
 #
 # Our page:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/north-mexico-dst-change.html">
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/north-mexico-dst-change.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Arthur David Olson (2010-01-20):
 # The page
-# <a href="http://dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5127480&fecha=06/01/2010">
 # http://dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5127480&fecha=06/01/2010
-# </a>
 # includes this text:
 # En los municipios fronterizos de Tijuana y Mexicali en Baja California;
-# Ju&aacute;rez y Ojinaga en Chihuahua; Acu&ntilde;a y Piedras Negras en Coahuila;
-# An&aacute;huac en Nuevo Le&oacute;n; y Nuevo Laredo, Reynosa y Matamoros en
-# Tamaulipas, la aplicaci&oacute;n de este horario estacional surtir&aacute; efecto
-# desde las dos horas del segundo domingo de marzo y concluir&aacute; a las dos
+# Juárez y Ojinaga en Chihuahua; Acuña y Piedras Negras en Coahuila;
+# Anáhuac en Nuevo León; y Nuevo Laredo, Reynosa y Matamoros en
+# Tamaulipas, la aplicación de este horario estacional surtirá efecto
+# desde las dos horas del segundo domingo de marzo y concluirá a las dos
 # horas del primer domingo de noviembre.
 # En los municipios fronterizos que se encuentren ubicados en la franja
-# fronteriza norte en el territorio comprendido entre la l&iacute;nea
-# internacional y la l&iacute;nea paralela ubicada a una distancia de veinte
-# kil&oacute;metros, as&iacute; como la Ciudad de Ensenada, Baja California, hacia el
-# interior del pa&iacute;s, la aplicaci&oacute;n de este horario estacional surtir&aacute;
-# efecto desde las dos horas del segundo domingo de marzo y concluir&aacute; a
+# fronteriza norte en el territorio comprendido entre la línea
+# internacional y la línea paralela ubicada a una distancia de veinte
+# kilómetros, así como la Ciudad de Ensenada, Baja California, hacia el
+# interior del país, la aplicación de este horario estacional surtirá
+# efecto desde las dos horas del segundo domingo de marzo y concluirá a
 # las dos horas del primer domingo de noviembre.
 
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
@@ -2389,39 +2332,39 @@
 Rule	Mexico	2002	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
 Rule	Mexico	2002	max	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-# Quintana Roo
+# Quintana Roo; represented by Cancún
 Zone America/Cancun	-5:47:04 -	LMT	1922 Jan  1  0:12:56
 			-6:00	-	CST	1981 Dec 23
 			-5:00	Mexico	E%sT	1998 Aug  2  2:00
 			-6:00	Mexico	C%sT
-# Campeche, Yucatan
+# Campeche, Yucatán; represented by Mérida
 Zone America/Merida	-5:58:28 -	LMT	1922 Jan  1  0:01:32
 			-6:00	-	CST	1981 Dec 23
 			-5:00	-	EST	1982 Dec  2
 			-6:00	Mexico	C%sT
-# Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas (near US border)
+# Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas (near US border)
 Zone America/Matamoros	-6:40:00 -	LMT	1921 Dec 31 23:20:00
 			-6:00	-	CST	1988
 			-6:00	US	C%sT	1989
 			-6:00	Mexico	C%sT	2010
 			-6:00	US	C%sT
-# Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas (away from US border)
+# Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas (away from US border)
 Zone America/Monterrey	-6:41:16 -	LMT	1921 Dec 31 23:18:44
 			-6:00	-	CST	1988
 			-6:00	US	C%sT	1989
 			-6:00	Mexico	C%sT
 # Central Mexico
-Zone America/Mexico_City -6:36:36 -	LMT	1922 Jan  1 0:23:24
+Zone America/Mexico_City -6:36:36 -	LMT	1922 Jan  1  0:23:24
 			-7:00	-	MST	1927 Jun 10 23:00
 			-6:00	-	CST	1930 Nov 15
 			-7:00	-	MST	1931 May  1 23:00
 			-6:00	-	CST	1931 Oct
 			-7:00	-	MST	1932 Apr  1
-			-6:00	Mexico	C%sT	2001 Sep 30 02:00
+			-6:00	Mexico	C%sT	2001 Sep 30  2:00
 			-6:00	-	CST	2002 Feb 20
 			-6:00	Mexico	C%sT
 # Chihuahua (near US border)
-Zone America/Ojinaga	-6:57:40 -	LMT	1922 Jan 1 0:02:20
+Zone America/Ojinaga	-6:57:40 -	LMT	1922 Jan  1  0:02:20
 			-7:00	-	MST	1927 Jun 10 23:00
 			-6:00	-	CST	1930 Nov 15
 			-7:00	-	MST	1931 May  1 23:00
@@ -2429,7 +2372,7 @@
 			-7:00	-	MST	1932 Apr  1
 			-6:00	-	CST	1996
 			-6:00	Mexico	C%sT	1998
-			-6:00	-	CST	1998 Apr Sun>=1 3:00
+			-6:00	-	CST	1998 Apr Sun>=1  3:00
 			-7:00	Mexico	M%sT	2010
 			-7:00	US	M%sT
 # Chihuahua (away from US border)
@@ -2441,7 +2384,7 @@
 			-7:00	-	MST	1932 Apr  1
 			-6:00	-	CST	1996
 			-6:00	Mexico	C%sT	1998
-			-6:00	-	CST	1998 Apr Sun>=1 3:00
+			-6:00	-	CST	1998 Apr Sun>=1  3:00
 			-7:00	Mexico	M%sT
 # Sonora
 Zone America/Hermosillo	-7:23:52 -	LMT	1921 Dec 31 23:36:08
@@ -2457,42 +2400,33 @@
 			-7:00	-	MST
 
 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-04-21):
-# According to news, Bah&iacute;a de Banderas (Mexican state of Nayarit)
+# According to news, Bahía de Banderas (Mexican state of Nayarit)
 # changed time zone UTC-7 to new time zone UTC-6 on April 4, 2010 (to
 # share the same time zone as nearby city Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco).
 #
 # (Spanish)
-# Bah&iacute;a de Banderas homologa su horario al del centro del
-# pa&iacute;s, a partir de este domingo
-# <a href="http://www.nayarit.gob.mx/notes.asp?id=20748">
+# Bahía de Banderas homologa su horario al del centro del
+# país, a partir de este domingo
 # http://www.nayarit.gob.mx/notes.asp?id=20748
-# </a>
 #
-# Bah&iacute;a de Banderas homologa su horario con el del Centro del
-# Pa&iacute;s
-# <a href="http://www.bahiadebanderas.gob.mx/principal/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=261:bahia-de-banderas-homologa-su-horario-con-el-del-centro-del-pais&catid=42:comunicacion-social&Itemid=50">
-# http://www.bahiadebanderas.gob.mx/principal/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=261:bahia-de-banderas-homologa-su-horario-con-el-del-centro-del-pais&catid=42:comunicacion-social&Itemid=50"
-# </a>
+# Bahía de Banderas homologa su horario con el del Centro del
+# País
+# http://www.bahiadebanderas.gob.mx/principal/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=261:bahia-de-banderas-homologa-su-horario-con-el-del-centro-del-pais&catid=42:comunicacion-social&Itemid=50
 #
 # (English)
-# Puerto Vallarta and Bah&iacute;a de Banderas: One Time Zone
-# <a href="http://virtualvallarta.com/puertovallarta/puertovallarta/localnews/2009-12-03-Puerto-Vallarta-and-Bahia-de-Banderas-One-Time-Zone.shtml">
+# Puerto Vallarta and Bahía de Banderas: One Time Zone
 # http://virtualvallarta.com/puertovallarta/puertovallarta/localnews/2009-12-03-Puerto-Vallarta-and-Bahia-de-Banderas-One-Time-Zone.shtml
-# </a>
-#
-# or
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_mexico08.html">
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_mexico08.html
-# </a>
 #
 # "Mexico's Senate approved the amendments to the Mexican Schedule System that
-# will allow Bah&iacute;a de Banderas and Puerto Vallarta to share the same time
+# will allow Bahía de Banderas and Puerto Vallarta to share the same time
 # zone ..."
 # Baja California Sur, Nayarit, Sinaloa
 
 # From Arthur David Olson (2010-05-01):
 # Use "Bahia_Banderas" to keep the name to fourteen characters.
 
+# Mazatlán
 Zone America/Mazatlan	-7:05:40 -	LMT	1921 Dec 31 23:54:20
 			-7:00	-	MST	1927 Jun 10 23:00
 			-6:00	-	CST	1930 Nov 15
@@ -2504,6 +2438,7 @@
 			-8:00	-	PST	1970
 			-7:00	Mexico	M%sT
 
+# Bahía de Banderas
 Zone America/Bahia_Banderas	-7:01:00 -	LMT	1921 Dec 31 23:59:00
 			-7:00	-	MST	1927 Jun 10 23:00
 			-6:00	-	CST	1930 Nov 15
@@ -2513,7 +2448,7 @@
 			-6:00	-	CST	1942 Apr 24
 			-7:00	-	MST	1949 Jan 14
 			-8:00	-	PST	1970
-			-7:00	Mexico	M%sT	2010 Apr 4 2:00
+			-7:00	Mexico	M%sT	2010 Apr  4  2:00
 			-6:00	Mexico	C%sT
 
 # Baja California (near US border)
@@ -2560,7 +2495,7 @@
 # America/Tijuana only in that it did not observe DST from 1976
 # through 1995.  This was as per Shanks (1999).  But Shanks & Pottenger say
 # Ensenada did not observe DST from 1948 through 1975.  Guy Harris reports
-# that the 1987 OAG says "Only Ensenada, Mexicale, San Felipe and
+# that the 1987 OAG says "Only Ensenada, Mexicali, San Felipe and
 # Tijuana observe DST," which agrees with Shanks & Pottenger but implies that
 # DST-observance was a town-by-town matter back then.  This concerns
 # data after 1970 so most likely there should be at least one Zone
@@ -2573,7 +2508,7 @@
 ###############################################################################
 
 # Anguilla
-# See 'southamerica'.
+# See America/Port_of_Spain.
 
 # Antigua and Barbuda
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
@@ -2609,8 +2544,8 @@
 Rule	Barb	1979	only	-	Sep	30	2:00	0	S
 Rule	Barb	1980	only	-	Sep	25	2:00	0	S
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone America/Barbados	-3:58:29 -	LMT	1924		# Bridgetown
-			-3:58:29 -	BMT	1932	  # Bridgetown Mean Time
+Zone America/Barbados	-3:58:29 -	LMT	1924 # Bridgetown
+			-3:58:29 -	BMT	1932 # Bridgetown Mean Time
 			-4:00	Barb	A%sT
 
 # Belize
@@ -2640,20 +2575,20 @@
 # http://www.theroyalgazette.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060529/NEWS/105290135
 
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Atlantic/Bermuda	-4:19:18 -	LMT	1930 Jan  1 2:00    # Hamilton
-			-4:00	-	AST	1974 Apr 28 2:00
+Zone Atlantic/Bermuda	-4:19:18 -	LMT	1930 Jan  1  2:00 # Hamilton
+			-4:00	-	AST	1974 Apr 28  2:00
 			-4:00	Canada	A%sT	1976
 			-4:00	US	A%sT
 
 # Cayman Is
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	America/Cayman	-5:25:32 -	LMT	1890		# Georgetown
-			-5:07:11 -	KMT	1912 Feb    # Kingston Mean Time
+Zone	America/Cayman	-5:25:32 -	LMT	1890     # Georgetown
+			-5:07:11 -	KMT	1912 Feb # Kingston Mean Time
 			-5:00	-	EST
 
 # Costa Rica
 
-# Milne gives -5:36:13.3 as San Jose mean time; round to nearest.
+# Milne gives -5:36:13.3 as San José mean time; round to nearest.
 
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
 Rule	CR	1979	1980	-	Feb	lastSun	0:00	1:00	D
@@ -2663,10 +2598,10 @@
 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
 Rule	CR	1991	only	-	Jul	 1	0:00	0	S
 Rule	CR	1992	only	-	Mar	15	0:00	0	S
-# There are too many San Joses elsewhere, so we'll use 'Costa Rica'.
+# There are too many San Josés elsewhere, so we'll use 'Costa Rica'.
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone America/Costa_Rica	-5:36:13 -	LMT	1890		# San Jose
-			-5:36:13 -	SJMT	1921 Jan 15 # San Jose Mean Time
+Zone America/Costa_Rica	-5:36:13 -	LMT	1890        # San José
+			-5:36:13 -	SJMT	1921 Jan 15 # San José Mean Time
 			-6:00	CR	C%sT
 # Coco
 # no information; probably like America/Costa_Rica
@@ -2685,8 +2620,8 @@
 # During the game, play-by-play announcer Jim Hunter noted that
 # "We'll be losing two hours of sleep...Cuba switched to Daylight Saving
 # Time today."  (The "two hour" remark referred to losing one hour of
-# sleep on 1999-03-28--when the announcers were in Cuba as it switched
-# to DST--and one more hour on 1999-04-04--when the announcers will have
+# sleep on 1999-03-28 - when the announcers were in Cuba as it switched
+# to DST - and one more hour on 1999-04-04 - when the announcers will have
 # returned to Baltimore, which switches on that date.)
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-11-11):
@@ -2708,16 +2643,16 @@
 # adjustment in Cuba.  We will stay in daylight saving time:
 # http://www.granma.cu/espanol/2005/noviembre/mier9/horario.html
 
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-10-21):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-10-21):
 # An article in GRANMA INTERNACIONAL claims that Cuba will end
 # the 3 years of permanent DST next weekend, see
 # http://www.granma.cu/ingles/2006/octubre/lun16/43horario.html
 # "On Saturday night, October 28 going into Sunday, October 29, at 01:00,
-# watches should be set back one hour -- going back to 00:00 hours -- returning
+# watches should be set back one hour - going back to 00:00 hours - returning
 # to the normal schedule....
 
 # From Paul Eggert (2007-03-02):
-# http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/english/news/art89.html, dated yesterday,
+# <http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/english/news/art89.html>, dated yesterday,
 # says Cuban clocks will advance at midnight on March 10.
 # For lack of better information, assume Cuba will use US rules,
 # except that it switches at midnight standard time as usual.
@@ -2731,10 +2666,10 @@
 # http://www.prensalatina.com.mx/article.asp?ID=%7B4CC32C1B-A9F7-42FB-8A07-8631AFC923AF%7D&language=ES
 # http://actualidad.terra.es/sociedad/articulo/cuba_llama_ahorrar_energia_cambio_1957044.htm
 #
-# From Alex Kryvenishev (2007-10-25):
+# From Alex Krivenyshev (2007-10-25):
 # Here is also article from Granma (Cuba):
 #
-# [Regira] el Horario Normal desde el [proximo] domingo 28 de octubre
+# Regirá el Horario Normal desde el próximo domingo 28 de octubre
 # http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/2007/10/24/nacional/artic07.html
 #
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_cuba03.html
@@ -2742,23 +2677,18 @@
 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-09):
 # I'm in Maryland which is now observing United States Eastern Daylight
 # Time. At 9:44 local time I used RealPlayer to listen to
-# <a href="http://media.enet.cu/radioreloj">
 # http://media.enet.cu/radioreloj
-# </a>, a Cuban information station, and heard
+# a Cuban information station, and heard
 # the time announced as "ocho cuarenta y cuatro" ("eight forty-four"),
 # indicating that Cuba is still on standard time.
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-12):
 # It seems that Cuba will start DST on Sunday, 2007-03-16...
 # It was announced yesterday, according to this source (in Spanish):
-# <a href="http://www.nnc.cubaweb.cu/marzo-2008/cien-1-11-3-08.htm">
 # http://www.nnc.cubaweb.cu/marzo-2008/cien-1-11-3-08.htm
-# </a>
 #
 # Some more background information is posted here:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-march-16.html">
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-march-16.html
-# </a>
 #
 # The article also says that Cuba has been observing DST since 1963,
 # while Shanks (and tzdata) has 1965 as the first date (except in the
@@ -2768,18 +2698,14 @@
 # change some historic records as well.
 #
 # One example:
-# <a href="http://www.radiohc.cu/espanol/noticias/mar07/11mar/hor.htm">
 # http://www.radiohc.cu/espanol/noticias/mar07/11mar/hor.htm
-# </a>
 
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2008-03-13):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2008-03-13):
 # The Cuban time change has just been confirmed on the most authoritative
 # web site, the Granma.  Please check out
-# <a href="http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/2008/03/13/nacional/artic10.html">
 # http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/2008/03/13/nacional/artic10.html
-# </a>
 #
-# Basically as expected after Steffen Thorsens information, the change
+# Basically as expected after Steffen Thorsen's information, the change
 # will take place midnight between Saturday and Sunday.
 
 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-12):
@@ -2790,18 +2716,14 @@
 # midnight between Saturday, March 07, 2009 and Sunday, March 08, 2009-
 # not on midnight March 14 / March 15 as previously thought.
 #
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_cuba05.html">
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_cuba05.html
 # (in Spanish)
-# </a>
 
 # From Arthur David Olson (2009-03-09)
 # I listened over the Internet to
-# <a href="http://media.enet.cu/readioreloj">
 # http://media.enet.cu/readioreloj
-# </a>
 # this morning; when it was 10:05 a. m. here in Bethesda, Maryland the
-# the time was announced as "diez cinco"--the same time as here, indicating
+# the time was announced as "diez cinco" - the same time as here, indicating
 # that has indeed switched to DST. Assume second Sunday from 2009 forward.
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-03-08):
@@ -2810,42 +2732,30 @@
 # changed at all).
 #
 # Source:
-# <a href="http://granma.co.cu/2011/03/08/nacional/artic01.html">
 # http://granma.co.cu/2011/03/08/nacional/artic01.html
-# </a>
 #
 # Our info:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-2011.html">
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-2011.html
-# </a>
 #
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-10-30)
 # Cuba will end DST two weeks later this year. Instead of going back
 # tonight, it has been delayed to 2011-11-13 at 01:00.
 #
 # One source (Spanish)
-# <a href="http://www.radioangulo.cu/noticias/cuba/17105-cuba-restablecera-el-horario-del-meridiano-de-greenwich.html">
 # http://www.radioangulo.cu/noticias/cuba/17105-cuba-restablecera-el-horario-del-meridiano-de-greenwich.html
-# </a>
 #
 # Our page:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-time-changes-2011.html">
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-time-changes-2011.html
-# </a>
 #
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-01)
 # According to Radio Reloj, Cuba will start DST on Midnight between March
 # 31 and April 1.
 #
 # Radio Reloj has the following info (Spanish):
-# <a href="http://www.radioreloj.cu/index.php/noticias-radio-reloj/71-miscelaneas/7529-cuba-aplicara-el-horario-de-verano-desde-el-1-de-abril">
 # http://www.radioreloj.cu/index.php/noticias-radio-reloj/71-miscelaneas/7529-cuba-aplicara-el-horario-de-verano-desde-el-1-de-abril
-# </a>
 #
 # Our info on it:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-2012.html">
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/cuba-starts-dst-2012.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-11-03):
 # Radio Reloj and many other sources report that Cuba is changing back
@@ -2901,7 +2811,7 @@
 			-5:00	Cuba	C%sT
 
 # Dominica
-# See 'southamerica'.
+# See America/Port_of_Spain.
 
 # Dominican Republic
 
@@ -2934,8 +2844,8 @@
 Zone America/Santo_Domingo -4:39:36 -	LMT	1890
 			-4:40	-	SDMT	1933 Apr  1 12:00 # S. Dom. MT
 			-5:00	DR	E%sT	1974 Oct 27
-			-4:00	-	AST	2000 Oct 29 02:00
-			-5:00	US	E%sT	2000 Dec  3 01:00
+			-4:00	-	AST	2000 Oct 29  2:00
+			-5:00	US	E%sT	2000 Dec  3  1:00
 			-4:00	-	AST
 
 # El Salvador
@@ -2946,20 +2856,20 @@
 # There are too many San Salvadors elsewhere, so use America/El_Salvador
 # instead of America/San_Salvador.
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone America/El_Salvador -5:56:48 -	LMT	1921		# San Salvador
+Zone America/El_Salvador -5:56:48 -	LMT	1921 # San Salvador
 			-6:00	Salv	C%sT
 
 # Grenada
 # Guadeloupe
-# St Barthelemy
+# St Barthélemy
 # St Martin (French part)
-# See 'southamerica'.
+# See America/Port_of_Spain.
 
 # Guatemala
 #
 # From Gwillim Law (2006-04-22), after a heads-up from Oscar van Vlijmen:
 # Diario Co Latino, at
-# http://www.diariocolatino.com/internacionales/detalles.asp?NewsID=8079,
+# <http://www.diariocolatino.com/internacionales/detalles.asp?NewsID=8079>,
 # says in an article dated 2006-04-19 that the Guatemalan government had
 # decided on that date to advance official time by 60 minutes, to lessen the
 # impact of the elevated cost of oil....  Daylight saving time will last from
@@ -2967,7 +2877,7 @@
 # From Paul Eggert (2006-06-22):
 # The Ministry of Energy and Mines, press release CP-15/2006
 # (2006-04-19), says DST ends at 24:00.  See
-# <http://www.sieca.org.gt/Sitio_publico/Energeticos/Doc/Medidas/Cambio_Horario_Nac_190406.pdf>.
+# http://www.sieca.org.gt/Sitio_publico/Energeticos/Doc/Medidas/Cambio_Horario_Nac_190406.pdf
 
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
 Rule	Guat	1973	only	-	Nov	25	0:00	1:00	D
@@ -2984,11 +2894,10 @@
 
 # Haiti
 # From Gwillim Law (2005-04-15):
-# Risto O. Nykanen wrote me that Haiti is now on DST.
-# I searched for confirmation, and I found a
-# <a href="http://www.haitianconsulate.org/time.doc"> press release
+# Risto O. Nykänen wrote me that Haiti is now on DST.
+# I searched for confirmation, and I found a press release
 # on the Web page of the Haitian Consulate in Chicago (2005-03-31),
-# </a>.  Translated from French, it says:
+# <http://www.haitianconsulate.org/time.doc>.  Translated from French, it says:
 #
 #  "The Prime Minister's Communication Office notifies the public in general
 #   and the press in particular that, following a decision of the Interior
@@ -3065,14 +2974,14 @@
 # <http://www.latribuna.hn/99299.html> that Manuel Zelaya, the president
 # of Honduras, refused to back down on this.
 
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-08-08):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-08-08):
 # It seems that Honduras has returned from DST to standard time this Monday at
 # 00:00 hours (prolonging Sunday to 25 hours duration).
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_honduras04.html
 
 # From Paul Eggert (2006-08-08):
-# Also see Diario El Heraldo, The country returns to standard time (2006-08-08)
-# <http://www.elheraldo.hn/nota.php?nid=54941&sec=12>.
+# Also see Diario El Heraldo, The country returns to standard time (2006-08-08).
+# http://www.elheraldo.hn/nota.php?nid=54941&sec=12
 # It mentions executive decree 18-2006.
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-08-17):
@@ -3100,22 +3009,22 @@
 # unspecified official document, and says "This time is used throughout the
 # island".  Go with Milne.  Round to the nearest second as required by zic.
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	America/Jamaica	-5:07:11 -	LMT	1890		# Kingston
+Zone	America/Jamaica	-5:07:11 -	LMT	1890        # Kingston
 			-5:07:11 -	KMT	1912 Feb    # Kingston Mean Time
-			-5:00	-	EST	1974 Apr 28 2:00
+			-5:00	-	EST	1974 Apr 28  2:00
 			-5:00	US	E%sT	1984
 			-5:00	-	EST
 
 # Martinique
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone America/Martinique	-4:04:20 -      LMT	1890		# Fort-de-France
-			-4:04:20 -	FFMT	1911 May     # Fort-de-France MT
+Zone America/Martinique	-4:04:20 -      LMT	1890        # Fort-de-France
+			-4:04:20 -	FFMT	1911 May    # Fort-de-France MT
 			-4:00	-	AST	1980 Apr  6
 			-4:00	1:00	ADT	1980 Sep 28
 			-4:00	-	AST
 
 # Montserrat
-# See 'southamerica'.
+# See America/Port_of_Spain.
 
 # Nicaragua
 #
@@ -3138,27 +3047,27 @@
 # From Gwillim Law (2005-04-21):
 # The Associated Press story on the time change, which can be found at
 # http://www.lapalmainteractivo.com/guias/content/gen/ap/America_Latina/AMC_GEN_NICARAGUA_HORA.html
-# and elsewhere, says (fifth paragraph, translated from Spanish):  "The last
+# and elsewhere, says (fifth paragraph, translated from Spanish): "The last
 # time that a change of clocks was applied to save energy was in the year 2000
-# during the Arnoldo Aleman administration."...
+# during the Arnoldo Alemán administration."...
 # The northamerica file says that Nicaragua has been on UTC-6 continuously
 # since December 1998.  I wasn't able to find any details of Nicaraguan time
 # changes in 2000.  Perhaps a note could be added to the northamerica file, to
 # the effect that we have indirect evidence that DST was observed in 2000.
 #
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2005-11-02):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-11-02):
 # Nicaragua left DST the 2005-10-02 at 00:00 (local time).
 # http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/presidencia/files_index/secretaria/comunicados/2005/septiembre/26septiembre-cambio-hora.htm
 # (2005-09-26)
 #
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-05-05):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-05-05):
 # http://www.elnuevodiario.com.ni/2006/05/01/nacionales/18410
 # (my informal translation)
-# By order of the president of the republic, Enrique Bolanos, Nicaragua
+# By order of the president of the republic, Enrique Bolaños, Nicaragua
 # advanced by sixty minutes their official time, yesterday at 2 in the
-# morning, and will stay that way until 30.th. of september.
+# morning, and will stay that way until 30th of September.
 #
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-09-30):
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-09-30):
 # http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/buscador_gaceta/BD/DECRETOS/2006/D-063-2006P-PRN-Cambio-Hora.pdf
 # My informal translation runs:
 # The natural sun time is restored in all the national territory, in that the
@@ -3176,7 +3085,7 @@
 			-5:45:12 -	MMT	1934 Jun 23 # Managua Mean Time?
 			-6:00	-	CST	1973 May
 			-5:00	-	EST	1975 Feb 16
-			-6:00	Nic	C%sT	1992 Jan  1 4:00
+			-6:00	Nic	C%sT	1992 Jan  1  4:00
 			-5:00	-	EST	1992 Sep 24
 			-6:00	-	CST	1993
 			-5:00	-	EST	1997
@@ -3185,36 +3094,36 @@
 # Panama
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	America/Panama	-5:18:08 -	LMT	1890
-			-5:19:36 -	CMT	1908 Apr 22   # Colon Mean Time
+			-5:19:36 -	CMT	1908 Apr 22 # Colón Mean Time
 			-5:00	-	EST
 
 # Puerto Rico
 # There are too many San Juans elsewhere, so we'll use 'Puerto_Rico'.
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone America/Puerto_Rico -4:24:25 -	LMT	1899 Mar 28 12:00    # San Juan
+Zone America/Puerto_Rico -4:24:25 -	LMT	1899 Mar 28 12:00 # San Juan
 			-4:00	-	AST	1942 May  3
 			-4:00	US	A%sT	1946
 			-4:00	-	AST
 
 # St Kitts-Nevis
 # St Lucia
-# See 'southamerica'.
+# See America/Port_of_Spain.
 
 # St Pierre and Miquelon
 # There are too many St Pierres elsewhere, so we'll use 'Miquelon'.
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone America/Miquelon	-3:44:40 -	LMT	1911 May 15	# St Pierre
+Zone America/Miquelon	-3:44:40 -	LMT	1911 May 15 # St Pierre
 			-4:00	-	AST	1980 May
 			-3:00	-	PMST	1987 # Pierre & Miquelon Time
 			-3:00	Canada	PM%sT
 
 # St Vincent and the Grenadines
-# See 'southamerica'.
+# See America/Port_of_Spain.
 
 # Turks and Caicos
 #
 # From Chris Dunn in
-# <http://bugs.debian.org/cgi-bin/bugreport.cgi?bug=415007>
+# http://bugs.debian.org/cgi-bin/bugreport.cgi?bug=415007
 # (2007-03-15): In the Turks & Caicos Islands (America/Grand_Turk) the
 # daylight saving dates for time changes have been adjusted to match
 # the recent U.S. change of dates.
@@ -3227,21 +3136,23 @@
 # Clocks are set back one hour at 2:00 a.m. local Daylight Saving Time"
 # indicating that the normal ET rules are followed.
 #
-# From Paul Eggert (2006-05-01):
-# Shanks & Pottenger say they use US DST rules, but IATA SSIM (1991/1998)
-# says they switch at midnight.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-08-19):
+# The 2014-08-13 Cabinet meeting decided to stay on UTC-4 year-round.  See:
+# http://tcweeklynews.com/daylight-savings-time-to-be-maintained-p5353-127.htm
+# Model this as a switch from EST/EDT to AST on 2014-11-02 at 02:00.
 #
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	TC	1979	1986	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
-Rule	TC	1979	2006	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
-Rule	TC	1987	2006	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
-Rule	TC	2007	max	-	Mar	Sun>=8	2:00	1:00	D
-Rule	TC	2007	max	-	Nov	Sun>=1	2:00	0	S
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone America/Grand_Turk	-4:44:32 -	LMT	1890
-			-5:07:11 -	KMT	1912 Feb    # Kingston Mean Time
-			-5:00	TC	E%sT
+			-5:07:11 -	KMT	1912 Feb # Kingston Mean Time
+			-5:00	-	EST	1979
+			-5:00	US	E%sT	2014 Nov  2  2:00
+			-4:00	-	AST
 
 # British Virgin Is
 # Virgin Is
-# See 'southamerica'.
+# See America/Port_of_Spain.
+
+
+# Local Variables:
+# coding: utf-8
+# End:
--- a/make/data/tzdata/pacificnew	Thu Sep 11 09:08:56 2014 -0700
+++ b/make/data/tzdata/pacificnew	Thu Sep 11 14:29:21 2014 -0700
@@ -21,7 +21,6 @@
 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
 # questions.
 #
-# <pre>
 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
 
--- a/make/data/tzdata/southamerica	Thu Sep 11 09:08:56 2014 -0700
+++ b/make/data/tzdata/southamerica	Thu Sep 11 14:29:21 2014 -0700
@@ -21,13 +21,13 @@
 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
 # questions.
 #
-# <pre>
 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
 
-# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
+# This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
-# tz@iana.org for general use in the future).
+# tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
+# the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
 
 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
 # A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
@@ -35,8 +35,8 @@
 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
 #
 # For data circa 1899, a common source is:
-# Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94
-# <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>.
+# Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94.
+# http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359
 #
 # Gwillim Law writes that a good source
 # for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
@@ -53,24 +53,24 @@
 #	I suggest the use of _Summer time_ instead of the more cumbersome
 #	_daylight-saving time_.  _Summer time_ seems to be in general use
 #	in Europe and South America.
-#	-- E O Cutler, _New York Times_ (1937-02-14), quoted in
+#	-- E O Cutler, _New York Times_ (1937-02-14), quoted in
 #	H L Mencken, _The American Language: Supplement I_ (1960), p 466
 #
 # Earlier editions of these tables also used the North American style
 # for time zones in Brazil, but this was incorrect, as Brazilians say
-# "summer time".  Reinaldo Goulart, a Sao Paulo businessman active in
+# "summer time".  Reinaldo Goulart, a São Paulo businessman active in
 # the railroad sector, writes (1999-07-06):
 #	The subject of time zones is currently a matter of discussion/debate in
-#	Brazil.  Let's say that "the Brasilia time" is considered the
-#	"official time" because Brasilia is the capital city.
-#	The other three time zones are called "Brasilia time "minus one" or
+#	Brazil.  Let's say that "the Brasília time" is considered the
+#	"official time" because Brasília is the capital city.
+#	The other three time zones are called "Brasília time "minus one" or
 #	"plus one" or "plus two".  As far as I know there is no such
 #	name/designation as "Eastern Time" or "Central Time".
 # So I invented the following (English-language) abbreviations for now.
 # Corrections are welcome!
 #		std	dst
 #	-2:00	FNT	FNST	Fernando de Noronha
-#	-3:00	BRT	BRST	Brasilia
+#	-3:00	BRT	BRST	Brasília
 #	-4:00	AMT	AMST	Amazon
 #	-5:00	ACT	ACST	Acre
 
@@ -84,7 +84,7 @@
 # Argentina: first Sunday in October to first Sunday in April since 1976.
 # Double Summer time from 1969 to 1974.  Switches at midnight.
 
-# From U. S. Naval Observatory (1988-01-199):
+# From U. S. Naval Observatory (1988-01-19):
 # ARGENTINA           3 H BEHIND   UTC
 
 # From Hernan G. Otero (1995-06-26):
@@ -118,7 +118,7 @@
 # From Hernan G. Otero (1995-06-26):
 # These corrections were contributed by InterSoft Argentina S.A.,
 # obtaining the data from the:
-# Talleres de Hidrografia Naval Argentina
+# Talleres de Hidrografía Naval Argentina
 # (Argentine Naval Hydrography Institute)
 Rule	Arg	1989	1993	-	Mar	Sun>=1	0:00	0	-
 Rule	Arg	1989	1992	-	Oct	Sun>=15	0:00	1:00	S
@@ -140,13 +140,13 @@
 Rule	Arg	2000	only	-	Mar	3	0:00	0	-
 #
 # From Peter Gradelski via Steffen Thorsen (2000-03-01):
-# We just checked with our Sao Paulo office and they say the government of
+# We just checked with our São Paulo office and they say the government of
 # Argentina decided not to become one of the countries that go on or off DST.
 # So Buenos Aires should be -3 hours from GMT at all times.
 #
-# From Fabian L. Arce Jofre (2000-04-04):
+# From Fabián L. Arce Jofré (2000-04-04):
 # The law that claimed DST for Argentina was derogated by President Fernando
-# de la Rua on March 2, 2000, because it would make people spend more energy
+# de la Rúa on March 2, 2000, because it would make people spend more energy
 # in the winter time, rather than less.  The change took effect on March 3.
 #
 # From Mariano Absatz (2001-06-06):
@@ -179,15 +179,13 @@
 # that Argentina will use DST next year as well, from October to
 # March, although exact rules are not given.
 #
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2007-12-26)
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2007-12-26)
 # The last hurdle of Argentina DST is over, the proposal was approved in
-# the lower chamber too (Deputados) with a vote 192 for and 2 against.
+# the lower chamber too (Diputados) with a vote 192 for and 2 against.
 # By the way thanks to Mariano Absatz and Daniel Mario Vega for the link to
 # the original scanned proposal, where the dates and the zero hours are
 # clear and unambiguous...This is the article about final approval:
-# <a href="http://www.lanacion.com.ar/politica/nota.asp?nota_id=973996">
 # http://www.lanacion.com.ar/politica/nota.asp?nota_id=973996
-# </a>
 #
 # From Paul Eggert (2007-12-22):
 # For dates after mid-2008, the following rules are my guesses and
@@ -197,13 +195,8 @@
 # As per message from Carlos Alberto Fonseca Arauz (Nicaragua),
 # Argentina will start DST on Sunday October 19, 2008.
 #
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_argentina03.html">
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_argentina03.html
-# </a>
-# OR
-# <a href="http://www.impulsobaires.com.ar/nota.php?id=57832 (in spanish)">
 # http://www.impulsobaires.com.ar/nota.php?id=57832 (in spanish)
-# </a>
 
 # From Rodrigo Severo (2008-10-06):
 # Here is some info available at a Gentoo bug related to TZ on Argentina's DST:
@@ -212,48 +205,39 @@
 # Hi, there is a problem with timezone-data-2008e and maybe with
 # timezone-data-2008f
 # Argentinian law [Number] 25.155 is no longer valid.
-# <a href="http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/60000-64999/60036/norma.htm">
 # http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/60000-64999/60036/norma.htm
-# </a>
 # The new one is law [Number] 26.350
-# <a href="http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/135000-139999/136191/norma.htm">
 # http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/135000-139999/136191/norma.htm
-# </a>
 # So there is no summer time in Argentina for now.
 
 # From Mariano Absatz (2008-10-20):
-# Decree 1693/2008 applies Law 26.350 for the summer 2008/2009 establishing DST in Argentina
-# From 2008-10-19 until 2009-03-15
-# <a href="http://www.boletinoficial.gov.ar/Bora.Portal/CustomControls/PdfContent.aspx?fp=16102008&pi=3&pf=4&s=0&sec=01">
+# Decree 1693/2008 applies Law 26.350 for the summer 2008/2009 establishing DST
+# in Argentina from 2008-10-19 until 2009-03-15.
 # http://www.boletinoficial.gov.ar/Bora.Portal/CustomControls/PdfContent.aspx?fp=16102008&pi=3&pf=4&s=0&sec=01
-# </a>
 #
-# Decree 1705/2008 excepting 12 Provinces from applying DST in the summer 2008/2009:
-# Catamarca, La Rioja, Mendoza, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, La Pampa, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Chubut, Santa Cruz
-# and Tierra del Fuego
-# <a href="http://www.boletinoficial.gov.ar/Bora.Portal/CustomControls/PdfContent.aspx?fp=17102008&pi=1&pf=1&s=0&sec=01">
+
+# Decree 1705/2008 excepting 12 Provinces from applying DST in the summer
+# 2008/2009: Catamarca, La Rioja, Mendoza, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, La
+# Pampa, Neuquén, Rio Negro, Chubut, Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego
 # http://www.boletinoficial.gov.ar/Bora.Portal/CustomControls/PdfContent.aspx?fp=17102008&pi=1&pf=1&s=0&sec=01
-# </a>
 #
-# Press release 235 dated Saturday October 18th, from the Government of the Province of Jujuy saying
-# it will not apply DST either (even when it was not included in Decree 1705/2008)
-# <a href="http://www.jujuy.gov.ar/index2/partes_prensa/18_10_08/235-181008.doc">
+# Press release 235 dated Saturday October 18th, from the Government of the
+# Province of Jujuy saying it will not apply DST either (even when it was not
+# included in Decree 1705/2008).
 # http://www.jujuy.gov.ar/index2/partes_prensa/18_10_08/235-181008.doc
-# </a>
 
 # From fullinet (2009-10-18):
 # As announced in
-# <a hef="http://www.argentina.gob.ar/argentina/portal/paginas.dhtml?pagina=356">
 # http://www.argentina.gob.ar/argentina/portal/paginas.dhtml?pagina=356
-# </a>
-# (an official .gob.ar) under title: "Sin Cambio de Hora" (english: "No hour change")
+# (an official .gob.ar) under title: "Sin Cambio de Hora"
+# (English: "No hour change").
 #
-# "Por el momento, el Gobierno Nacional resolvio no modificar la hora
-# oficial, decision que estaba en estudio para su implementacion el
-# domingo 18 de octubre. Desde el Ministerio de Planificacion se anuncio
-# que la Argentina hoy, en estas condiciones meteorologicas, no necesita
-# la modificacion del huso horario, ya que 2009 nos encuentra con
-# crecimiento en la produccion y distribucion energetica."