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8222550: runtime/MemberName/MemberNameLeak.java times out Reviewed-by: coleenp, dholmes
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mr@50885 22 <h1 class="title">Building the JDK</h1>
ihse@45227 23 </header>
ihse@45763 24 <nav id="TOC">
ihse@45763 25 <ul>
ihse@45763 26 <li><a href="#tldr-instructions-for-the-impatient">TL;DR (Instructions for the Impatient)</a></li>
ihse@45763 27 <li><a href="#introduction">Introduction</a></li>
ihse@45763 28 <li><a href="#getting-the-source-code">Getting the Source Code</a><ul>
ihse@45763 29 <li><a href="#special-considerations">Special Considerations</a></li>
ihse@45763 30 </ul></li>
ihse@45763 31 <li><a href="#build-hardware-requirements">Build Hardware Requirements</a><ul>
ihse@45763 32 <li><a href="#building-on-x86">Building on x86</a></li>
ihse@45763 33 <li><a href="#building-on-sparc">Building on sparc</a></li>
ihse@51644 34 <li><a href="#building-on-aarch64">Building on aarch64</a></li>
ihse@51644 35 <li><a href="#building-on-32-bit-arm">Building on 32-bit arm</a></li>
ihse@45763 36 </ul></li>
ihse@45763 37 <li><a href="#operating-system-requirements">Operating System Requirements</a><ul>
ihse@45763 38 <li><a href="#windows">Windows</a></li>
ihse@45763 39 <li><a href="#solaris">Solaris</a></li>
ihse@45763 40 <li><a href="#macos">macOS</a></li>
ihse@45763 41 <li><a href="#linux">Linux</a></li>
ihse@45763 42 <li><a href="#aix">AIX</a></li>
ihse@45763 43 </ul></li>
ihse@45763 44 <li><a href="#native-compiler-toolchain-requirements">Native Compiler (Toolchain) Requirements</a><ul>
ihse@45763 45 <li><a href="#gcc">gcc</a></li>
ihse@45763 46 <li><a href="#clang">clang</a></li>
ihse@45763 47 <li><a href="#apple-xcode">Apple Xcode</a></li>
ihse@45763 48 <li><a href="#oracle-solaris-studio">Oracle Solaris Studio</a></li>
ihse@45763 49 <li><a href="#microsoft-visual-studio">Microsoft Visual Studio</a></li>
ihse@45763 50 <li><a href="#ibm-xl-cc">IBM XL C/C++</a></li>
ihse@45763 51 </ul></li>
ihse@45763 52 <li><a href="#boot-jdk-requirements">Boot JDK Requirements</a><ul>
erikj@49159 53 <li><a href="#getting-jdk-binaries">Getting JDK binaries</a></li>
ihse@45763 54 </ul></li>
ihse@45763 55 <li><a href="#external-library-requirements">External Library Requirements</a><ul>
ihse@45763 56 <li><a href="#freetype">FreeType</a></li>
ihse@45763 57 <li><a href="#cups">CUPS</a></li>
ihse@45763 58 <li><a href="#x11">X11</a></li>
ihse@45763 59 <li><a href="#alsa">ALSA</a></li>
ihse@45763 60 <li><a href="#libffi">libffi</a></li>
ihse@45763 61 </ul></li>
ihse@48743 62 <li><a href="#build-tools-requirements">Build Tools Requirements</a><ul>
ihse@48743 63 <li><a href="#autoconf">Autoconf</a></li>
ihse@45763 64 <li><a href="#gnu-make">GNU Make</a></li>
ihse@45763 65 <li><a href="#gnu-bash">GNU Bash</a></li>
ihse@45763 66 </ul></li>
ihse@45763 67 <li><a href="#running-configure">Running Configure</a><ul>
ihse@45763 68 <li><a href="#common-configure-arguments">Common Configure Arguments</a></li>
ihse@45763 69 <li><a href="#configure-control-variables">Configure Control Variables</a></li>
ihse@45763 70 </ul></li>
ihse@45763 71 <li><a href="#running-make">Running Make</a><ul>
ihse@45763 72 <li><a href="#common-make-targets">Common Make Targets</a></li>
ihse@45763 73 <li><a href="#make-control-variables">Make Control Variables</a></li>
ihse@45763 74 </ul></li>
ihse@45763 75 <li><a href="#running-tests">Running Tests</a></li>
ihse@45763 76 <li><a href="#cross-compiling">Cross-compiling</a><ul>
simonis@52665 77 <li><a href="#cross-compiling-the-easy-way-with-openjdk-devkits">Cross compiling the easy way with OpenJDK devkits</a></li>
ihse@45763 78 <li><a href="#boot-jdk-and-build-jdk">Boot JDK and Build JDK</a></li>
ihse@45763 79 <li><a href="#specifying-the-target-platform">Specifying the Target Platform</a></li>
ihse@45763 80 <li><a href="#toolchain-considerations">Toolchain Considerations</a></li>
ihse@45763 81 <li><a href="#native-libraries">Native Libraries</a></li>
shade@51515 82 <li><a href="#creating-and-using-sysroots-with-qemu-deboostrap">Creating And Using Sysroots With qemu-deboostrap</a></li>
ihse@45763 83 <li><a href="#building-for-armaarch64">Building for ARM/aarch64</a></li>
ihse@45763 84 <li><a href="#verifying-the-build">Verifying the Build</a></li>
ihse@45763 85 </ul></li>
ihse@45763 86 <li><a href="#build-performance">Build Performance</a><ul>
ihse@45763 87 <li><a href="#disk-speed">Disk Speed</a></li>
ihse@45763 88 <li><a href="#virus-checking">Virus Checking</a></li>
ihse@45763 89 <li><a href="#ccache">Ccache</a></li>
ihse@45763 90 <li><a href="#precompiled-headers">Precompiled Headers</a></li>
ihse@45763 91 <li><a href="#icecc-icecream">Icecc / icecream</a></li>
ihse@45763 92 <li><a href="#using-sjavac">Using sjavac</a></li>
ihse@45763 93 <li><a href="#building-the-right-target">Building the Right Target</a></li>
ihse@45763 94 </ul></li>
ihse@45763 95 <li><a href="#troubleshooting">Troubleshooting</a><ul>
ihse@45763 96 <li><a href="#locating-the-source-of-the-error">Locating the Source of the Error</a></li>
ihse@45763 97 <li><a href="#fixing-unexpected-build-failures">Fixing Unexpected Build Failures</a></li>
ihse@45763 98 <li><a href="#specific-build-issues">Specific Build Issues</a></li>
ihse@45763 99 <li><a href="#getting-help">Getting Help</a></li>
ihse@45763 100 </ul></li>
ihse@45763 101 <li><a href="#hints-and-suggestions-for-advanced-users">Hints and Suggestions for Advanced Users</a><ul>
erikj@52610 102 <li><a href="#setting-up-a-repository-for-pushing-changes-defpath">Setting Up a Repository for Pushing Changes (defpath)</a></li>
ihse@45763 103 <li><a href="#bash-completion">Bash Completion</a></li>
ihse@45763 104 <li><a href="#using-multiple-configurations">Using Multiple Configurations</a></li>
ihse@45763 105 <li><a href="#handling-reconfigurations">Handling Reconfigurations</a></li>
ihse@45763 106 <li><a href="#using-fine-grained-make-targets">Using Fine-Grained Make Targets</a></li>
ihse@45763 107 <li><a href="#learn-about-mercurial">Learn About Mercurial</a></li>
ihse@45763 108 </ul></li>
ihse@45763 109 <li><a href="#understanding-the-build-system">Understanding the Build System</a><ul>
ihse@45763 110 <li><a href="#configurations">Configurations</a></li>
ihse@45763 111 <li><a href="#build-output-structure">Build Output Structure</a></li>
ihse@45763 112 <li><a href="#fixpath">Fixpath</a></li>
ihse@45763 113 <li><a href="#native-debug-symbols">Native Debug Symbols</a></li>
ihse@45763 114 <li><a href="#autoconf-details">Autoconf Details</a></li>
ihse@45763 115 <li><a href="#developing-the-build-system-itself">Developing the Build System Itself</a></li>
ihse@45763 116 </ul></li>
mr@50885 117 <li><a href="#contributing-to-the-jdk">Contributing to the JDK</a></li>
ihse@45763 118 </ul>
ihse@45763 119 </nav>
ihse@45763 120 <h2 id="tldr-instructions-for-the-impatient">TL;DR (Instructions for the Impatient)</h2>
mr@50885 121 <p>If you are eager to try out building the JDK, these simple steps works most of the time. They assume that you have installed Mercurial (and Cygwin if running on Windows) and cloned the top-level JDK repository that you want to build.</p>
ihse@45763 122 <ol type="1">
ihse@45763 123 <li><p><a href="#getting-the-source-code">Get the complete source code</a>:<br />
ihse@48743 124 <code>hg clone http://hg.openjdk.java.net/jdk/jdk</code></p></li>
ihse@45763 125 <li><p><a href="#running-configure">Run configure</a>:<br />
ihse@45763 126 <code>bash configure</code></p>
ihse@48743 127 <p>If <code>configure</code> fails due to missing dependencies (to either the <a href="#native-compiler-toolchain-requirements">toolchain</a>, <a href="#build-tools-requirements">build tools</a>, <a href="#external-library-requirements">external libraries</a> or the <a href="#boot-jdk-requirements">boot JDK</a>), most of the time it prints a suggestion on how to resolve the situation on your platform. Follow the instructions, and try running <code>bash configure</code> again.</p></li>
ihse@45763 128 <li><p><a href="#running-make">Run make</a>:<br />
ihse@45763 129 <code>make images</code></p></li>
ihse@45763 130 <li><p>Verify your newly built JDK:<br />
ihse@45763 131 <code>./build/*/images/jdk/bin/java -version</code></p></li>
ihse@45763 132 <li><p><a href="##running-tests">Run basic tests</a>:<br />
ihse@45763 133 <code>make run-test-tier1</code></p></li>
ihse@45763 134 </ol>
ihse@45763 135 <p>If any of these steps failed, or if you want to know more about build requirements or build functionality, please continue reading this document.</p>
ihse@44078 136 <h2 id="introduction">Introduction</h2>
mr@50885 137 <p>The JDK is a complex software project. Building it requires a certain amount of technical expertise, a fair number of dependencies on external software, and reasonably powerful hardware.</p>
mr@50885 138 <p>If you just want to use the JDK and not build it yourself, this document is not for you. See for instance <a href="http://openjdk.java.net/install">OpenJDK installation</a> for some methods of installing a prebuilt JDK.</p>
ihse@45763 139 <h2 id="getting-the-source-code">Getting the Source Code</h2>
erikj@52610 140 <p>Make sure you are getting the correct version. As of JDK 10, the source is no longer split into separate repositories so you only need to clone one single repository. At the <a href="http://hg.openjdk.java.net/">OpenJDK Mercurial server</a> you can see a list of all available repositories. If you want to build an older version, e.g. JDK 8, it is recommended that you get the <code>jdk8u</code> forest, which contains incremental updates, instead of the <code>jdk8</code> forest, which was frozen at JDK 8 GA.</p>
erikj@51237 141 <p>If you are new to Mercurial, a good place to start is the <a href="http://www.mercurial-scm.org/guide">Mercurial Beginner's Guide</a>. The rest of this document assumes a working knowledge of Mercurial.</p>
ihse@45763 142 <h3 id="special-considerations">Special Considerations</h3>
ihse@45763 143 <p>For a smooth building experience, it is recommended that you follow these rules on where and how to check out the source code.</p>
ihse@33030 144 <ul>
ihse@45763 145 <li><p>Do not check out the source code in a path which contains spaces. Chances are the build will not work. This is most likely to be an issue on Windows systems.</p></li>
ihse@45763 146 <li><p>Do not check out the source code in a path which has a very long name or is nested many levels deep. Chances are you will hit an OS limitation during the build.</p></li>
ihse@45763 147 <li><p>Put the source code on a local disk, not a network share. If possible, use an SSD. The build process is very disk intensive, and having slow disk access will significantly increase build times. If you need to use a network share for the source code, see below for suggestions on how to keep the build artifacts on a local disk.</p></li>
erikj@53110 148 <li><p>On Windows, if using <a href="#cygwin">Cygwin</a>, extra care must be taken to make sure the environment is consistent. It is recommended that you follow this procedure:</p>
ihse@45763 149 <ul>
erikj@51237 150 <li><p>Create the directory that is going to contain the top directory of the JDK clone by using the <code>mkdir</code> command in the Cygwin bash shell. That is, do <em>not</em> create it using Windows Explorer. This will ensure that it will have proper Cygwin attributes, and that it's children will inherit those attributes.</p></li>
mr@50885 151 <li><p>Do not put the JDK clone in a path under your Cygwin home directory. This is especially important if your user name contains spaces and/or mixed upper and lower case letters.</p></li>
mr@50885 152 <li><p>Clone the JDK repository using the Cygwin command line <code>hg</code> client as instructed in this document. That is, do <em>not</em> use another Mercurial client such as TortoiseHg.</p></li>
ihse@33030 153 </ul>
ihse@45763 154 <p>Failure to follow this procedure might result in hard-to-debug build problems.</p></li>
ihse@45763 155 </ul>
ihse@45763 156 <h2 id="build-hardware-requirements">Build Hardware Requirements</h2>
mr@50885 157 <p>The JDK is a massive project, and require machines ranging from decent to powerful to be able to build in a reasonable amount of time, or to be able to complete a build at all.</p>
ihse@45763 158 <p>We <em>strongly</em> recommend usage of an SSD disk for the build, since disk speed is one of the limiting factors for build performance.</p>
ihse@45763 159 <h3 id="building-on-x86">Building on x86</h3>
ihse@45763 160 <p>At a minimum, a machine with 2-4 cores is advisable, as well as 2-4 GB of RAM. (The more cores to use, the more memory you need.) At least 6 GB of free disk space is required (8 GB minimum for building on Solaris).</p>
ihse@45763 161 <p>Even for 32-bit builds, it is recommended to use a 64-bit build machine, and instead create a 32-bit target using <code>--with-target-bits=32</code>.</p>
ihse@45763 162 <h3 id="building-on-sparc">Building on sparc</h3>
ihse@45763 163 <p>At a minimum, a machine with 4 cores is advisable, as well as 4 GB of RAM. (The more cores to use, the more memory you need.) At least 8 GB of free disk space is required.</p>
ihse@51644 164 <h3 id="building-on-aarch64">Building on aarch64</h3>
ihse@51644 165 <p>At a minimum, a machine with 8 cores is advisable, as well as 8 GB of RAM. (The more cores to use, the more memory you need.) At least 6 GB of free disk space is required.</p>
ihse@51644 166 <p>If you do not have access to sufficiently powerful hardware, it is also possible to use <a href="#cross-compiling">cross-compiling</a>.</p>
ihse@51644 167 <h3 id="building-on-32-bit-arm">Building on 32-bit arm</h3>
ihse@45763 168 <p>This is not recommended. Instead, see the section on <a href="#cross-compiling">Cross-compiling</a>.</p>
ihse@45763 169 <h2 id="operating-system-requirements">Operating System Requirements</h2>
erikj@51237 170 <p>The mainline JDK project supports Linux, Solaris, macOS, AIX and Windows. Support for other operating system, e.g. BSD, exists in separate &quot;port&quot; projects.</p>
mr@50885 171 <p>In general, the JDK can be built on a wide range of versions of these operating systems, but the further you deviate from what is tested on a daily basis, the more likely you are to run into problems.</p>
mr@50885 172 <p>This table lists the OS versions used by Oracle when building the JDK. Such information is always subject to change, but this table is up to date at the time of writing.</p>
ihse@45763 173 <table>
ihse@45763 174 <thead>
ihse@45763 175 <tr class="header">
ihse@45763 176 <th style="text-align: left;">Operating system</th>
ihse@45763 177 <th style="text-align: left;">Vendor/version used</th>
ihse@45763 178 </tr>
ihse@45763 179 </thead>
ihse@45763 180 <tbody>
ihse@45763 181 <tr class="odd">
ihse@45763 182 <td style="text-align: left;">Linux</td>
ihse@45763 183 <td style="text-align: left;">Oracle Enterprise Linux 6.4 / 7.1 (using kernel 3.8.13)</td>
ihse@45763 184 </tr>
ihse@45763 185 <tr class="even">
ihse@45763 186 <td style="text-align: left;">Solaris</td>
ihse@45763 187 <td style="text-align: left;">Solaris 11.1 SRU 21.4.1 / 11.2 SRU 5.5</td>
ihse@45763 188 </tr>
ihse@45763 189 <tr class="odd">
ihse@45763 190 <td style="text-align: left;">macOS</td>
ihse@45763 191 <td style="text-align: left;">Mac OS X 10.9 (Mavericks) / 10.10 (Yosemite)</td>
ihse@45763 192 </tr>
ihse@45763 193 <tr class="even">
ihse@45763 194 <td style="text-align: left;">Windows</td>
ihse@45763 195 <td style="text-align: left;">Windows Server 2012 R2</td>
ihse@45763 196 </tr>
ihse@45763 197 </tbody>
ihse@45763 198 </table>
mr@50885 199 <p>The double version numbers for Linux, Solaris and macOS is due to the hybrid model used at Oracle, where header files and external libraries from an older version are used when building on a more modern version of the OS.</p>
mr@50885 200 <p>The Build Group has a wiki page with <a href="https://wiki.openjdk.java.net/display/Build/Supported+Build+Platforms">Supported Build Platforms</a>. From time to time, this is updated by contributors to list successes or failures of building on different platforms.</p>
ihse@45763 201 <h3 id="windows">Windows</h3>
mr@50885 202 <p>Windows XP is not a supported platform, but all newer Windows should be able to build the JDK.</p>
ihse@45763 203 <p>On Windows, it is important that you pay attention to the instructions in the <a href="#special-considerations">Special Considerations</a>.</p>
erikj@53110 204 <p>Windows is the only non-POSIX OS supported by the JDK, and as such, requires some extra care. A POSIX support layer is required to build on Windows. Currently, the only supported such layers are Cygwin and Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL). (Msys is no longer supported due to a too old bash; msys2 would likely be possible to support in a future version but that would require effort to implement.)</p>
erikj@51237 205 <p>Internally in the build system, all paths are represented as Unix-style paths, e.g. <code>/cygdrive/c/hg/jdk9/Makefile</code> rather than <code>C:\hg\jdk9\Makefile</code>. This rule also applies to input to the build system, e.g. in arguments to <code>configure</code>. So, use <code>--with-msvcr-dll=/cygdrive/c/msvcr100.dll</code> rather than <code>--with-msvcr-dll=c:\msvcr100.dll</code>. For details on this conversion, see the section on <a href="#fixpath">Fixpath</a>.</p>
ihse@45763 206 <h4 id="cygwin">Cygwin</h4>
erikj@53110 207 <p>A functioning <a href="http://www.cygwin.com/">Cygwin</a> environment is required for building the JDK on Windows. If you have a 64-bit OS, we strongly recommend using the 64-bit version of Cygwin.</p>
mr@50885 208 <p><strong>Note:</strong> Cygwin has a model of continuously updating all packages without any easy way to install or revert to a specific version of a package. This means that whenever you add or update a package in Cygwin, you might (inadvertently) update tools that are used by the JDK build process, and that can cause unexpected build problems.</p>
erikj@53110 209 <p>The JDK requires GNU Make 4.0 or greater in Cygwin. This is usually not a problem, since Cygwin currently only distributes GNU Make at a version above 4.0.</p>
ihse@45763 210 <p>Apart from the basic Cygwin installation, the following packages must also be installed:</p>
ihse@33030 211 <ul>
ihse@48743 212 <li><code>autoconf</code></li>
ihse@45763 213 <li><code>make</code></li>
ihse@45763 214 <li><code>zip</code></li>
ihse@45763 215 <li><code>unzip</code></li>
ihse@33030 216 </ul>
ihse@45763 217 <p>Often, you can install these packages using the following command line:</p>
ihse@48743 218 <pre><code>&lt;path to Cygwin setup&gt;/setup-x86_64 -q -P autoconf -P make -P unzip -P zip</code></pre>
erikj@51237 219 <p>Unfortunately, Cygwin can be unreliable in certain circumstances. If you experience build tool crashes or strange issues when building on Windows, please check the Cygwin FAQ on the <a href="https://cygwin.com/faq/faq.html#faq.using.bloda">&quot;BLODA&quot; list</a> and the section on <a href="https://cygwin.com/faq/faq.html#faq.using.fixing-fork-failures">fork() failures</a>.</p>
erikj@53110 220 <h4 id="windows-subsystem-for-linux-wsl">Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL)</h4>
erikj@53110 221 <p>Windows 10 1809 or newer is supported due to a dependency on the wslpath utility and support for environment variable sharing through WSLENV. Version 1803 can work but intermittent build failures have been observed.</p>
erikj@53110 222 <p>It's possible to build both Windows and Linux binaries from WSL. To build Windows binaries, you must use a Windows boot JDK (located in a Windows-accessible directory). To build Linux binaries, you must use a Linux boot JDK. The default behavior is to build for Windows. To build for Linux, pass <code>--build=x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu --host=x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu</code> to <code>configure</code>.</p>
erikj@53110 223 <p>If building Windows binaries, the source code must be located in a Windows- accessible directory. This is because Windows executables (such as Visual Studio and the boot JDK) must be able to access the source code. Also, the drive where the source is stored must be mounted as case-insensitive by changing either /etc/fstab or /etc/wsl.conf in WSL. Individual directories may be corrected using the fsutil tool in case the source was cloned before changing the mount options.</p>
erikj@53110 224 <p>Note that while it's possible to build on WSL, testing is still not fully supported.</p>
ihse@45763 225 <h3 id="solaris">Solaris</h3>
ihse@45763 226 <p>See <code>make/devkit/solaris11.1-package-list.txt</code> for a list of recommended packages to install when building on Solaris. The versions specified in this list is the versions used by the daily builds at Oracle, and is likely to work properly.</p>
ihse@45763 227 <p>Older versions of Solaris shipped a broken version of <code>objcopy</code>. At least version 2.21.1 is needed, which is provided by Solaris 11 Update 1. Objcopy is needed if you want to have external debug symbols. Please make sure you are using at least version 2.21.1 of objcopy, or that you disable external debug symbols.</p>
ihse@45763 228 <h3 id="macos">macOS</h3>
mr@50885 229 <p>Apple is using a quite aggressive scheme of pushing OS updates, and coupling these updates with required updates of Xcode. Unfortunately, this makes it difficult for a project such as the JDK to keep pace with a continuously updated machine running macOS. See the section on <a href="#apple-xcode">Apple Xcode</a> on some strategies to deal with this.</p>
erikj@51237 230 <p>It is recommended that you use at least Mac OS X 10.13 (High Sierra). At the time of writing, the JDK has been successfully compiled on macOS 10.12 (Sierra).</p>
mr@50885 231 <p>The standard macOS environment contains the basic tooling needed to build, but for external libraries a package manager is recommended. The JDK uses <a href="https://brew.sh/">homebrew</a> in the examples, but feel free to use whatever manager you want (or none).</p>
ihse@45763 232 <h3 id="linux">Linux</h3>
mr@50885 233 <p>It is often not much problem to build the JDK on Linux. The only general advice is to try to use the compilers, external libraries and header files as provided by your distribution.</p>
ihse@45763 234 <p>The basic tooling is provided as part of the core operating system, but you will most likely need to install developer packages.</p>
ihse@45763 235 <p>For apt-based distributions (Debian, Ubuntu, etc), try this:</p>
ihse@45763 236 <pre><code>sudo apt-get install build-essential</code></pre>
ihse@45763 237 <p>For rpm-based distributions (Fedora, Red Hat, etc), try this:</p>
ihse@45763 238 <pre><code>sudo yum groupinstall &quot;Development Tools&quot;</code></pre>
ihse@45763 239 <h3 id="aix">AIX</h3>
simonis@54001 240 <p>Please consult the AIX section of the <a href="https://wiki.openjdk.java.net/display/Build/Supported+Build+Platforms">Supported Build Platforms</a> OpenJDK Build Wiki page for details about which versions of AIX are supported.</p>
ihse@45763 241 <h2 id="native-compiler-toolchain-requirements">Native Compiler (Toolchain) Requirements</h2>
erikj@51237 242 <p>Large portions of the JDK consists of native code, that needs to be compiled to be able to run on the target platform. In theory, toolchain and operating system should be independent factors, but in practice there's more or less a one-to-one correlation between target operating system and toolchain.</p>
ihse@45763 243 <table>
ihse@45763 244 <thead>
ihse@45763 245 <tr class="header">
ihse@45763 246 <th style="text-align: left;">Operating system</th>
ihse@45763 247 <th style="text-align: left;">Supported toolchain</th>
ihse@45763 248 </tr>
ihse@45763 249 </thead>
ihse@45763 250 <tbody>
ihse@45763 251 <tr class="odd">
ihse@45763 252 <td style="text-align: left;">Linux</td>
ihse@45763 253 <td style="text-align: left;">gcc, clang</td>
ihse@45763 254 </tr>
ihse@45763 255 <tr class="even">
ihse@45763 256 <td style="text-align: left;">macOS</td>
ihse@45763 257 <td style="text-align: left;">Apple Xcode (using clang)</td>
ihse@45763 258 </tr>
ihse@45763 259 <tr class="odd">
ihse@45763 260 <td style="text-align: left;">Solaris</td>
ihse@45763 261 <td style="text-align: left;">Oracle Solaris Studio</td>
ihse@45763 262 </tr>
ihse@45763 263 <tr class="even">
ihse@45763 264 <td style="text-align: left;">AIX</td>
ihse@45763 265 <td style="text-align: left;">IBM XL C/C++</td>
ihse@45763 266 </tr>
ihse@45763 267 <tr class="odd">
ihse@45763 268 <td style="text-align: left;">Windows</td>
ihse@45763 269 <td style="text-align: left;">Microsoft Visual Studio</td>
ihse@45763 270 </tr>
ihse@45763 271 </tbody>
ihse@45763 272 </table>
mr@50885 273 <p>Please see the individual sections on the toolchains for version recommendations. As a reference, these versions of the toolchains are used, at the time of writing, by Oracle for the daily builds of the JDK. It should be possible to compile the JDK with both older and newer versions, but the closer you stay to this list, the more likely you are to compile successfully without issues.</p>
ihse@45763 274 <table>
ihse@45763 275 <thead>
ihse@45763 276 <tr class="header">
ihse@45763 277 <th style="text-align: left;">Operating system</th>
ihse@45763 278 <th style="text-align: left;">Toolchain version</th>
ihse@45763 279 </tr>
ihse@45763 280 </thead>
ihse@45763 281 <tbody>
ihse@45763 282 <tr class="odd">
ihse@45763 283 <td style="text-align: left;">Linux</td>
ihse@50586 284 <td style="text-align: left;">gcc 7.3.0</td>
ihse@45763 285 </tr>
ihse@45763 286 <tr class="even">
ihse@45763 287 <td style="text-align: left;">macOS</td>
erikj@51237 288 <td style="text-align: left;">Apple Xcode 9.4 (using clang 9.1.0)</td>
ihse@45763 289 </tr>
ihse@45763 290 <tr class="odd">
ihse@45763 291 <td style="text-align: left;">Solaris</td>
ihse@45763 292 <td style="text-align: left;">Oracle Solaris Studio 12.4 (with compiler version 5.13)</td>
ihse@45763 293 </tr>
ihse@45763 294 <tr class="even">
ihse@45763 295 <td style="text-align: left;">Windows</td>
erikj@51237 296 <td style="text-align: left;">Microsoft Visual Studio 2017 update 15.5.5</td>
ihse@45763 297 </tr>
ihse@45763 298 </tbody>
ihse@45763 299 </table>
ihse@45763 300 <h3 id="gcc">gcc</h3>
ihse@50586 301 <p>The minimum accepted version of gcc is 4.8. Older versions will generate a warning by <code>configure</code> and are unlikely to work.</p>
mr@50885 302 <p>The JDK is currently known to be able to compile with at least version 7.4 of gcc.</p>
ihse@45763 303 <p>In general, any version between these two should be usable.</p>
ihse@45763 304 <h3 id="clang">clang</h3>
ihse@45763 305 <p>The minimum accepted version of clang is 3.2. Older versions will not be accepted by <code>configure</code>.</p>
ihse@45763 306 <p>To use clang instead of gcc on Linux, use <code>--with-toolchain-type=clang</code>.</p>
ihse@45763 307 <h3 id="apple-xcode">Apple Xcode</h3>
erikj@51237 308 <p>The oldest supported version of Xcode is 8.</p>
mr@50885 309 <p>You will need the Xcode command lines developers tools to be able to build the JDK. (Actually, <em>only</em> the command lines tools are needed, not the IDE.) The simplest way to install these is to run:</p>
ihse@45763 310 <pre><code>xcode-select --install</code></pre>
erikj@51237 311 <p>It is advisable to keep an older version of Xcode for building the JDK when updating Xcode. This <a href="http://iosdevelopertips.com/xcode/install-multiple-versions-of-xcode.html">blog page</a> has good suggestions on managing multiple Xcode versions. To use a specific version of Xcode, use <code>xcode-select -s</code> before running <code>configure</code>, or use <code>--with-toolchain-path</code> to point to the version of Xcode to use, e.g. <code>configure --with-toolchain-path=/Applications/Xcode8.app/Contents/Developer/usr/bin</code></p>
mr@50885 312 <p>If you have recently (inadvertently) updated your OS and/or Xcode version, and the JDK can no longer be built, please see the section on <a href="#problems-with-the-build-environment">Problems with the Build Environment</a>, and <a href="#getting-help">Getting Help</a> to find out if there are any recent, non-merged patches available for this update.</p>
ihse@45763 313 <h3 id="oracle-solaris-studio">Oracle Solaris Studio</h3>
ihse@45763 314 <p>The minimum accepted version of the Solaris Studio compilers is 5.13 (corresponding to Solaris Studio 12.4). Older versions will not be accepted by configure.</p>
erikj@34595 315 <p>The Solaris Studio installation should contain at least these packages:</p>
ihse@44078 316 <table>
ihse@44078 317 <thead>
ihse@44078 318 <tr class="header">
ihse@45227 319 <th style="text-align: left;">Package</th>
ihse@45227 320 <th style="text-align: left;">Version</th>
ihse@44078 321 </tr>
ihse@44078 322 </thead>
ihse@44078 323 <tbody>
ihse@44078 324 <tr class="odd">
ihse@45227 325 <td style="text-align: left;">developer/solarisstudio-124/backend</td>
ihse@45227 326 <td style="text-align: left;">12.4-1.0.6.0</td>
ihse@44078 327 </tr>
ihse@44078 328 <tr class="even">
ihse@45227 329 <td style="text-align: left;">developer/solarisstudio-124/c++</td>
ihse@45227 330 <td style="text-align: left;">12.4-1.0.10.0</td>
ihse@44078 331 </tr>
ihse@44078 332 <tr class="odd">
ihse@45227 333 <td style="text-align: left;">developer/solarisstudio-124/cc</td>
ihse@45227 334 <td style="text-align: left;">12.4-1.0.4.0</td>
ihse@44078 335 </tr>
ihse@44078 336 <tr class="even">
ihse@45227 337 <td style="text-align: left;">developer/solarisstudio-124/library/c++-libs</td>
ihse@45227 338 <td style="text-align: left;">12.4-1.0.10.0</td>
ihse@44078 339 </tr>
ihse@44078 340 <tr class="odd">
ihse@45227 341 <td style="text-align: left;">developer/solarisstudio-124/library/math-libs</td>
ihse@45227 342 <td style="text-align: left;">12.4-1.0.0.1</td>
ihse@44078 343 </tr>
ihse@44078 344 <tr class="even">
ihse@45227 345 <td style="text-align: left;">developer/solarisstudio-124/library/studio-gccrt</td>
ihse@45227 346 <td style="text-align: left;">12.4-1.0.0.1</td>
ihse@44078 347 </tr>
ihse@44078 348 <tr class="odd">
ihse@45227 349 <td style="text-align: left;">developer/solarisstudio-124/studio-common</td>
ihse@45227 350 <td style="text-align: left;">12.4-1.0.0.1</td>
ihse@44078 351 </tr>
ihse@44078 352 <tr class="even">
ihse@45227 353 <td style="text-align: left;">developer/solarisstudio-124/studio-ja</td>
ihse@45227 354 <td style="text-align: left;">12.4-1.0.0.1</td>
ihse@44078 355 </tr>
ihse@44078 356 <tr class="odd">
ihse@45227 357 <td style="text-align: left;">developer/solarisstudio-124/studio-legal</td>
ihse@45227 358 <td style="text-align: left;">12.4-1.0.0.1</td>
ihse@44078 359 </tr>
ihse@44078 360 <tr class="even">
ihse@45227 361 <td style="text-align: left;">developer/solarisstudio-124/studio-zhCN</td>
ihse@45227 362 <td style="text-align: left;">12.4-1.0.0.1</td>
ihse@44078 363 </tr>
ihse@44078 364 </tbody>
ihse@44078 365 </table>
ihse@45763 366 <p>Compiling with Solaris Studio can sometimes be finicky. This is the exact version used by Oracle, which worked correctly at the time of writing:</p>
ihse@45763 367 <pre><code>$ cc -V
ihse@45763 368 cc: Sun C 5.13 SunOS_i386 2014/10/20
ihse@45763 369 $ CC -V
ihse@45763 370 CC: Sun C++ 5.13 SunOS_i386 151846-10 2015/10/30</code></pre>
ihse@45763 371 <h3 id="microsoft-visual-studio">Microsoft Visual Studio</h3>
erikj@51237 372 <p>The minimum accepted version of Visual Studio is 2010. Older versions will not be accepted by <code>configure</code>. The maximum accepted version of Visual Studio is 2017. Versions older than 2017 are unlikely to continue working for long.</p>
erikj@51237 373 <p>If you have multiple versions of Visual Studio installed, <code>configure</code> will by default pick the latest. You can request a specific version to be used by setting <code>--with-toolchain-version</code>, e.g. <code>--with-toolchain-version=2015</code>.</p>
ihse@45763 374 <p>If you get <code>LINK: fatal error LNK1123: failure during conversion to COFF: file invalid</code> when building using Visual Studio 2010, you have encountered <a href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2757355">KB2757355</a>, a bug triggered by a specific installation order. However, the solution suggested by the KB article does not always resolve the problem. See <a href="https://stackoverflow.com/questions/10888391">this stackoverflow discussion</a> for other suggestions.</p>
ihse@45763 375 <h3 id="ibm-xl-cc">IBM XL C/C++</h3>
simonis@54001 376 <p>Please consult the AIX section of the <a href="https://wiki.openjdk.java.net/display/Build/Supported+Build+Platforms">Supported Build Platforms</a> OpenJDK Build Wiki page for details about which versions of XLC are supported.</p>
ihse@45763 377 <h2 id="boot-jdk-requirements">Boot JDK Requirements</h2>
erikj@51237 378 <p>Paradoxically, building the JDK requires a pre-existing JDK. This is called the &quot;boot JDK&quot;. The boot JDK does not, however, have to be a JDK built directly from the source code available in the OpenJDK Community. If you are porting the JDK to a new platform, chances are that there already exists another JDK for that platform that is usable as boot JDK.</p>
erikj@51237 379 <p>The rule of thumb is that the boot JDK for building JDK major version <em>N</em> should be a JDK of major version <em>N-1</em>, so for building JDK 9 a JDK 8 would be suitable as boot JDK. However, the JDK should be able to &quot;build itself&quot;, so an up-to-date build of the current JDK source is an acceptable alternative. If you are following the <em>N-1</em> rule, make sure you've got the latest update version, since JDK 8 GA might not be able to build JDK 9 on all platforms.</p>
erikj@49159 380 <p>Early in the release cycle, version <em>N-1</em> may not yet have been released. In that case, the preferred boot JDK will be version <em>N-2</em> until version <em>N-1</em> is available.</p>
mr@50885 381 <p>If the boot JDK is not automatically detected, or the wrong JDK is picked, use <code>--with-boot-jdk</code> to point to the JDK to use.</p>
erikj@49159 382 <h3 id="getting-jdk-binaries">Getting JDK binaries</h3>
mr@50885 383 <p>JDK binaries for Linux, Windows and macOS can be downloaded from <a href="http://jdk.java.net">jdk.java.net</a>. An alternative is to download the <a href="http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/downloads">Oracle JDK</a>. Another is the <a href="https://adoptopenjdk.net/">Adopt OpenJDK Project</a>, which publishes experimental prebuilt binaries for various platforms.</p>
mr@50885 384 <p>On Linux you can also get a JDK from the Linux distribution. On apt-based distros (like Debian and Ubuntu), <code>sudo apt-get install openjdk-&lt;VERSION&gt;-jdk</code> is typically enough to install a JDK &lt;VERSION&gt;. On rpm-based distros (like Fedora and Red Hat), try <code>sudo yum install java-&lt;VERSION&gt;-openjdk-devel</code>.</p>
ihse@45763 385 <h2 id="external-library-requirements">External Library Requirements</h2>
ihse@45763 386 <p>Different platforms require different external libraries. In general, libraries are not optional - that is, they are either required or not used.</p>
ihse@45763 387 <p>If a required library is not detected by <code>configure</code>, you need to provide the path to it. There are two forms of the <code>configure</code> arguments to point to an external library: <code>--with-&lt;LIB&gt;=&lt;path&gt;</code> or <code>--with-&lt;LIB&gt;-include=&lt;path to include&gt; --with-&lt;LIB&gt;-lib=&lt;path to lib&gt;</code>. The first variant is more concise, but require the include files an library files to reside in a default hierarchy under this directory. In most cases, it works fine.</p>
ihse@45763 388 <p>As a fallback, the second version allows you to point to the include directory and the lib directory separately.</p>
ihse@45763 389 <h3 id="freetype">FreeType</h3>
mr@50885 390 <p>FreeType2 from <a href="http://www.freetype.org/">The FreeType Project</a> is not required on any platform. The exception is on Unix-based platforms when configuring such that the build artifacts will reference a system installed library, rather than bundling the JDK’s own copy.</p>
ihse@33030 391 <ul>
prr@49234 392 <li>To install on an apt-based Linux, try running <code>sudo apt-get install libfreetype6-dev</code>.</li>
prr@49234 393 <li>To install on an rpm-based Linux, try running <code>sudo yum install freetype-devel</code>.</li>
ihse@45763 394 <li>To install on Solaris, try running <code>pkg install system/library/freetype-2</code>.</li>
ihse@33030 395 </ul>
prr@49234 396 <p>Use <code>--with-freetype-include=&lt;path&gt;</code> and <code>--with-freetype-lib=&lt;path&gt;</code> if <code>configure</code> does not automatically locate the platform FreeType files.</p>
ihse@45763 397 <h3 id="cups">CUPS</h3>
ihse@45763 398 <p>CUPS, <a href="http://www.cups.org">Common UNIX Printing System</a> header files are required on all platforms, except Windows. Often these files are provided by your operating system.</p>
ihse@45763 399 <ul>
ihse@45763 400 <li>To install on an apt-based Linux, try running <code>sudo apt-get install libcups2-dev</code>.</li>
ihse@45763 401 <li>To install on an rpm-based Linux, try running <code>sudo yum install cups-devel</code>.</li>
ihse@45763 402 <li>To install on Solaris, try running <code>pkg install print/cups</code>.</li>
ihse@45763 403 </ul>
ihse@45763 404 <p>Use <code>--with-cups=&lt;path&gt;</code> if <code>configure</code> does not properly locate your CUPS files.</p>
ihse@45763 405 <h3 id="x11">X11</h3>
ihse@45763 406 <p>Certain <a href="http://www.x.org/">X11</a> libraries and include files are required on Linux and Solaris.</p>
ihse@45763 407 <ul>
ihse@52921 408 <li>To install on an apt-based Linux, try running <code>sudo apt-get install libx11-dev libxext-dev libxrender-dev libxrandr-dev libxtst-dev libxt-dev</code>.</li>
ihse@52921 409 <li>To install on an rpm-based Linux, try running <code>sudo yum install libXtst-devel libXt-devel libXrender-devel libXrandr-devel libXi-devel</code>.</li>
ihse@52921 410 <li>To install on Solaris, try running <code>pkg install x11/header/x11-protocols x11/library/libice x11/library/libpthread-stubs x11/library/libsm x11/library/libx11 x11/library/libxau x11/library/libxcb x11/library/libxdmcp x11/library/libxevie x11/library/libxext x11/library/libxrender x11/library/libxrandr x11/library/libxscrnsaver x11/library/libxtst x11/library/toolkit/libxt</code>.</li>
ihse@45763 411 </ul>
ihse@45763 412 <p>Use <code>--with-x=&lt;path&gt;</code> if <code>configure</code> does not properly locate your X11 files.</p>
ihse@45763 413 <h3 id="alsa">ALSA</h3>
ihse@45763 414 <p>ALSA, <a href="https://www.alsa-project.org/">Advanced Linux Sound Architecture</a> is required on Linux. At least version 0.9.1 of ALSA is required.</p>
ihse@45763 415 <ul>
ihse@45763 416 <li>To install on an apt-based Linux, try running <code>sudo apt-get install libasound2-dev</code>.</li>
ihse@45763 417 <li>To install on an rpm-based Linux, try running <code>sudo yum install alsa-lib-devel</code>.</li>
ihse@45763 418 </ul>
ihse@45763 419 <p>Use <code>--with-alsa=&lt;path&gt;</code> if <code>configure</code> does not properly locate your ALSA files.</p>
ihse@45763 420 <h3 id="libffi">libffi</h3>
ihse@45763 421 <p>libffi, the <a href="http://sourceware.org/libffi">Portable Foreign Function Interface Library</a> is required when building the Zero version of Hotspot.</p>
ihse@45763 422 <ul>
ihse@45763 423 <li>To install on an apt-based Linux, try running <code>sudo apt-get install libffi-dev</code>.</li>
ihse@45763 424 <li>To install on an rpm-based Linux, try running <code>sudo yum install libffi-devel</code>.</li>
ihse@45763 425 </ul>
ihse@45763 426 <p>Use <code>--with-libffi=&lt;path&gt;</code> if <code>configure</code> does not properly locate your libffi files.</p>
ihse@48743 427 <h2 id="build-tools-requirements">Build Tools Requirements</h2>
ihse@48743 428 <h3 id="autoconf">Autoconf</h3>
mr@50885 429 <p>The JDK requires <a href="http://www.gnu.org/software/autoconf">Autoconf</a> on all platforms. At least version 2.69 is required.</p>
ihse@48743 430 <ul>
ihse@48743 431 <li>To install on an apt-based Linux, try running <code>sudo apt-get install autoconf</code>.</li>
ihse@48743 432 <li>To install on an rpm-based Linux, try running <code>sudo yum install autoconf</code>.</li>
ihse@48743 433 <li>To install on macOS, try running <code>brew install autoconf</code>.</li>
ihse@48743 434 <li>To install on Windows, try running <code>&lt;path to Cygwin setup&gt;/setup-x86_64 -q -P autoconf</code>.</li>
ihse@48743 435 </ul>
ihse@48743 436 <p>If <code>configure</code> has problems locating your installation of autoconf, you can specify it using the <code>AUTOCONF</code> environment variable, like this:</p>
ihse@48743 437 <pre><code>AUTOCONF=&lt;path to autoconf&gt; configure ...</code></pre>
ihse@45763 438 <h3 id="gnu-make">GNU Make</h3>
mr@50885 439 <p>The JDK requires <a href="http://www.gnu.org/software/make">GNU Make</a>. No other flavors of make are supported.</p>
ihse@45763 440 <p>At least version 3.81 of GNU Make must be used. For distributions supporting GNU Make 4.0 or above, we strongly recommend it. GNU Make 4.0 contains useful functionality to handle parallel building (supported by <code>--with-output-sync</code>) and speed and stability improvements.</p>
erikj@51237 441 <p>Note that <code>configure</code> locates and verifies a properly functioning version of <code>make</code> and stores the path to this <code>make</code> binary in the configuration. If you start a build using <code>make</code> on the command line, you will be using the version of make found first in your <code>PATH</code>, and not necessarily the one stored in the configuration. This initial make will be used as &quot;bootstrap make&quot;, and in a second stage, the make located by <code>configure</code> will be called. Normally, this will present no issues, but if you have a very old <code>make</code>, or a non-GNU Make <code>make</code> in your path, this might cause issues.</p>
ihse@45763 442 <p>If you want to override the default make found by <code>configure</code>, use the <code>MAKE</code> configure variable, e.g. <code>configure MAKE=/opt/gnu/make</code>.</p>
ihse@45763 443 <p>On Solaris, it is common to call the GNU version of make by using <code>gmake</code>.</p>
ihse@45763 444 <h3 id="gnu-bash">GNU Bash</h3>
mr@50885 445 <p>The JDK requires <a href="http://www.gnu.org/software/bash">GNU Bash</a>. No other shells are supported.</p>
ihse@45763 446 <p>At least version 3.2 of GNU Bash must be used.</p>
ihse@45763 447 <h2 id="running-configure">Running Configure</h2>
erikj@51237 448 <p>To build the JDK, you need a &quot;configuration&quot;, which consists of a directory where to store the build output, coupled with information about the platform, the specific build machine, and choices that affect how the JDK is built.</p>
ihse@45763 449 <p>The configuration is created by the <code>configure</code> script. The basic invocation of the <code>configure</code> script looks like this:</p>
ihse@45763 450 <pre><code>bash configure [options]</code></pre>
ihse@45763 451 <p>This will create an output directory containing the configuration and setup an area for the build result. This directory typically looks like <code>build/linux-x64-normal-server-release</code>, but the actual name depends on your specific configuration. (It can also be set directly, see <a href="#using-multiple-configurations">Using Multiple Configurations</a>). This directory is referred to as <code>$BUILD</code> in this documentation.</p>
ihse@45763 452 <p><code>configure</code> will try to figure out what system you are running on and where all necessary build components are. If you have all prerequisites for building installed, it should find everything. If it fails to detect any component automatically, it will exit and inform you about the problem.</p>
ihse@45763 453 <p>Some command line examples:</p>
ihse@45763 454 <ul>
ihse@45763 455 <li><p>Create a 32-bit build for Windows with FreeType2 in <code>C:\freetype-i586</code>:</p>
ihse@45763 456 <pre><code>bash configure --with-freetype=/cygdrive/c/freetype-i586 --with-target-bits=32</code></pre></li>
ihse@45763 457 <li><p>Create a debug build with the <code>server</code> JVM and DTrace enabled:</p>
ihse@45763 458 <pre><code>bash configure --enable-debug --with-jvm-variants=server --enable-dtrace</code></pre></li>
ihse@45763 459 </ul>
ihse@45763 460 <h3 id="common-configure-arguments">Common Configure Arguments</h3>
ihse@45763 461 <p>Here follows some of the most common and important <code>configure</code> argument.</p>
ihse@45763 462 <p>To get up-to-date information on <em>all</em> available <code>configure</code> argument, please run:</p>
ihse@45763 463 <pre><code>bash configure --help</code></pre>
mr@50885 464 <p>(Note that this help text also include general autoconf options, like <code>--dvidir</code>, that is not relevant to the JDK. To list only JDK-specific features, use <code>bash configure --help=short</code> instead.)</p>
ihse@45763 465 <h4 id="configure-arguments-for-tailoring-the-build">Configure Arguments for Tailoring the Build</h4>
ihse@45763 466 <ul>
ihse@45763 467 <li><code>--enable-debug</code> - Set the debug level to <code>fastdebug</code> (this is a shorthand for <code>--with-debug-level=fastdebug</code>)</li>
ihse@45763 468 <li><code>--with-debug-level=&lt;level&gt;</code> - Set the debug level, which can be <code>release</code>, <code>fastdebug</code>, <code>slowdebug</code> or <code>optimized</code>. Default is <code>release</code>. <code>optimized</code> is variant of <code>release</code> with additional Hotspot debug code.</li>
ihse@45763 469 <li><code>--with-native-debug-symbols=&lt;method&gt;</code> - Specify if and how native debug symbols should be built. Available methods are <code>none</code>, <code>internal</code>, <code>external</code>, <code>zipped</code>. Default behavior depends on platform. See <a href="#native-debug-symbols">Native Debug Symbols</a> for more details.</li>
ihse@45763 470 <li><code>--with-version-string=&lt;string&gt;</code> - Specify the version string this build will be identified with.</li>
ihse@45763 471 <li><code>--with-version-&lt;part&gt;=&lt;value&gt;</code> - A group of options, where <code>&lt;part&gt;</code> can be any of <code>pre</code>, <code>opt</code>, <code>build</code>, <code>major</code>, <code>minor</code>, <code>security</code> or <code>patch</code>. Use these options to modify just the corresponding part of the version string from the default, or the value provided by <code>--with-version-string</code>.</li>
rkennke@47687 472 <li><code>--with-jvm-variants=&lt;variant&gt;[,&lt;variant&gt;...]</code> - Build the specified variant (or variants) of Hotspot. Valid variants are: <code>server</code>, <code>client</code>, <code>minimal</code>, <code>core</code>, <code>zero</code>, <code>custom</code>. Note that not all variants are possible to combine in a single build.</li>
ihse@45763 473 <li><code>--with-jvm-features=&lt;feature&gt;[,&lt;feature&gt;...]</code> - Use the specified JVM features when building Hotspot. The list of features will be enabled on top of the default list. For the <code>custom</code> JVM variant, this default list is empty. A complete list of available JVM features can be found using <code>bash configure --help</code>.</li>
ihse@45763 474 <li><code>--with-target-bits=&lt;bits&gt;</code> - Create a target binary suitable for running on a <code>&lt;bits&gt;</code> platform. Use this to create 32-bit output on a 64-bit build platform, instead of doing a full cross-compile. (This is known as a <em>reduced</em> build.)</li>
ihse@45763 475 </ul>
dholmes@52734 476 <p>On Linux, BSD and AIX, it is possible to override where Java by default searches for runtime/JNI libraries. This can be useful in situations where there is a special shared directory for system JNI libraries. This setting can in turn be overriden at runtime by setting the <code>java.library.path</code> property.</p>
dholmes@52734 477 <ul>
dholmes@52734 478 <li><code>--with-jni-libpath=&lt;path&gt;</code> - Use the specified path as a default when searching for runtime libraries.</li>
dholmes@52734 479 </ul>
ihse@45763 480 <h4 id="configure-arguments-for-native-compilation">Configure Arguments for Native Compilation</h4>
ihse@45763 481 <ul>
ihse@45763 482 <li><code>--with-devkit=&lt;path&gt;</code> - Use this devkit for compilers, tools and resources</li>
ihse@45763 483 <li><code>--with-sysroot=&lt;path&gt;</code> - Use this directory as sysroot</li>
ihse@45763 484 <li><code>--with-extra-path=&lt;path&gt;[;&lt;path&gt;]</code> - Prepend these directories to the default path when searching for all kinds of binaries</li>
ihse@45763 485 <li><code>--with-toolchain-path=&lt;path&gt;[;&lt;path&gt;]</code> - Prepend these directories when searching for toolchain binaries (compilers etc)</li>
ihse@45763 486 <li><code>--with-extra-cflags=&lt;flags&gt;</code> - Append these flags when compiling JDK C files</li>
ihse@45763 487 <li><code>--with-extra-cxxflags=&lt;flags&gt;</code> - Append these flags when compiling JDK C++ files</li>
ihse@45763 488 <li><code>--with-extra-ldflags=&lt;flags&gt;</code> - Append these flags when linking JDK libraries</li>
ihse@45763 489 </ul>
ihse@45763 490 <h4 id="configure-arguments-for-external-dependencies">Configure Arguments for External Dependencies</h4>
ihse@45763 491 <ul>
ihse@45763 492 <li><code>--with-boot-jdk=&lt;path&gt;</code> - Set the path to the <a href="#boot-jdk-requirements">Boot JDK</a></li>
ihse@45763 493 <li><code>--with-freetype=&lt;path&gt;</code> - Set the path to <a href="#freetype">FreeType</a></li>
ihse@45763 494 <li><code>--with-cups=&lt;path&gt;</code> - Set the path to <a href="#cups">CUPS</a></li>
ihse@45763 495 <li><code>--with-x=&lt;path&gt;</code> - Set the path to <a href="#x11">X11</a></li>
ihse@45763 496 <li><code>--with-alsa=&lt;path&gt;</code> - Set the path to <a href="#alsa">ALSA</a></li>
ihse@45763 497 <li><code>--with-libffi=&lt;path&gt;</code> - Set the path to <a href="#libffi">libffi</a></li>
ihse@45763 498 <li><code>--with-jtreg=&lt;path&gt;</code> - Set the path to JTReg. See <a href="#running-tests">Running Tests</a></li>
ihse@45763 499 </ul>
mr@50885 500 <p>Certain third-party libraries used by the JDK (libjpeg, giflib, libpng, lcms and zlib) are included in the JDK repository. The default behavior of the JDK build is to use this version of these libraries, but they might be replaced by an external version. To do so, specify <code>system</code> as the <code>&lt;source&gt;</code> option in these arguments. (The default is <code>bundled</code>).</p>
ihse@45763 501 <ul>
ihse@45763 502 <li><code>--with-libjpeg=&lt;source&gt;</code> - Use the specified source for libjpeg</li>
ihse@45763 503 <li><code>--with-giflib=&lt;source&gt;</code> - Use the specified source for giflib</li>
ihse@45763 504 <li><code>--with-libpng=&lt;source&gt;</code> - Use the specified source for libpng</li>
ihse@45763 505 <li><code>--with-lcms=&lt;source&gt;</code> - Use the specified source for lcms</li>
ihse@45763 506 <li><code>--with-zlib=&lt;source&gt;</code> - Use the specified source for zlib</li>
ihse@45763 507 </ul>
ihse@45763 508 <p>On Linux, it is possible to select either static or dynamic linking of the C++ runtime. The default is static linking, with dynamic linking as fallback if the static library is not found.</p>
ihse@45763 509 <ul>
ihse@45763 510 <li><code>--with-stdc++lib=&lt;method&gt;</code> - Use the specified method (<code>static</code>, <code>dynamic</code> or <code>default</code>) for linking the C++ runtime.</li>
ihse@45763 511 </ul>
ihse@45763 512 <h3 id="configure-control-variables">Configure Control Variables</h3>
ihse@45763 513 <p>It is possible to control certain aspects of <code>configure</code> by overriding the value of <code>configure</code> variables, either on the command line or in the environment.</p>
erikj@51237 514 <p>Normally, this is <strong>not recommended</strong>. If used improperly, it can lead to a broken configuration. Unless you're well versed in the build system, this is hard to use properly. Therefore, <code>configure</code> will print a warning if this is detected.</p>
ihse@45763 515 <p>However, there are a few <code>configure</code> variables, known as <em>control variables</em> that are supposed to be overriden on the command line. These are variables that describe the location of tools needed by the build, like <code>MAKE</code> or <code>GREP</code>. If any such variable is specified, <code>configure</code> will use that value instead of trying to autodetect the tool. For instance, <code>bash configure MAKE=/opt/gnumake4.0/bin/make</code>.</p>
erikj@51237 516 <p>If a configure argument exists, use that instead, e.g. use <code>--with-jtreg</code> instead of setting <code>JTREGEXE</code>.</p>
ihse@45763 517 <p>Also note that, despite what autoconf claims, setting <code>CFLAGS</code> will not accomplish anything. Instead use <code>--with-extra-cflags</code> (and similar for <code>cxxflags</code> and <code>ldflags</code>).</p>
ihse@45763 518 <h2 id="running-make">Running Make</h2>
mr@50885 519 <p>When you have a proper configuration, all you need to do to build the JDK is to run <code>make</code>. (But see the warning at <a href="#gnu-make">GNU Make</a> about running the correct version of make.)</p>
erikj@51237 520 <p>When running <code>make</code> without any arguments, the default target is used, which is the same as running <code>make default</code> or <code>make jdk</code>. This will build a minimal (or roughly minimal) set of compiled output (known as an &quot;exploded image&quot;) needed for a developer to actually execute the newly built JDK. The idea is that in an incremental development fashion, when doing a normal make, you should only spend time recompiling what's changed (making it purely incremental) and only do the work that's needed to actually run and test your code.</p>
ihse@45763 521 <p>The output of the exploded image resides in <code>$BUILD/jdk</code>. You can test the newly built JDK like this: <code>$BUILD/jdk/bin/java -version</code>.</p>
ihse@45763 522 <h3 id="common-make-targets">Common Make Targets</h3>
ihse@45763 523 <p>Apart from the default target, here are some common make targets:</p>
ihse@45763 524 <ul>
ihse@45763 525 <li><code>hotspot</code> - Build all of hotspot (but only hotspot)</li>
ihse@45763 526 <li><code>hotspot-&lt;variant&gt;</code> - Build just the specified jvm variant</li>
erikj@50490 527 <li><code>images</code> or <code>product-images</code> - Build the JDK image</li>
ihse@45763 528 <li><code>docs</code> or <code>docs-image</code> - Build the documentation image</li>
ihse@45763 529 <li><code>test-image</code> - Build the test image</li>
ihse@45763 530 <li><code>all</code> or <code>all-images</code> - Build all images (product, docs and test)</li>
ihse@45763 531 <li><code>bootcycle-images</code> - Build images twice, second time with newly built JDK (good for testing)</li>
ihse@45763 532 <li><code>clean</code> - Remove all files generated by make, but not those generated by configure</li>
ihse@45763 533 <li><code>dist-clean</code> - Remove all files, including configuration</li>
ihse@45763 534 </ul>
ihse@45763 535 <p>Run <code>make help</code> to get an up-to-date list of important make targets and make control variables.</p>
ihse@45763 536 <p>It is possible to build just a single module, a single phase, or a single phase of a single module, by creating make targets according to these followin patterns. A phase can be either of <code>gensrc</code>, <code>gendata</code>, <code>copy</code>, <code>java</code>, <code>launchers</code>, <code>libs</code> or <code>rmic</code>. See <a href="#using-fine-grained-make-targets">Using Fine-Grained Make Targets</a> for more details about this functionality.</p>
ihse@45763 537 <ul>
ihse@45763 538 <li><code>&lt;phase&gt;</code> - Build the specified phase and everything it depends on</li>
ihse@45763 539 <li><code>&lt;module&gt;</code> - Build the specified module and everything it depends on</li>
ihse@45763 540 <li><code>&lt;module&gt;-&lt;phase&gt;</code> - Compile the specified phase for the specified module and everything it depends on</li>
ihse@45763 541 </ul>
ihse@45763 542 <p>Similarly, it is possible to clean just a part of the build by creating make targets according to these patterns:</p>
ihse@45763 543 <ul>
ihse@45763 544 <li><code>clean-&lt;outputdir&gt;</code> - Remove the subdir in the output dir with the name</li>
ihse@45763 545 <li><code>clean-&lt;phase&gt;</code> - Remove all build results related to a certain build phase</li>
ihse@45763 546 <li><code>clean-&lt;module&gt;</code> - Remove all build results related to a certain module</li>
ihse@45763 547 <li><code>clean-&lt;module&gt;-&lt;phase&gt;</code> - Remove all build results related to a certain module and phase</li>
ihse@45763 548 </ul>
ihse@45763 549 <h3 id="make-control-variables">Make Control Variables</h3>
ihse@45763 550 <p>It is possible to control <code>make</code> behavior by overriding the value of <code>make</code> variables, either on the command line or in the environment.</p>
erikj@51237 551 <p>Normally, this is <strong>not recommended</strong>. If used improperly, it can lead to a broken build. Unless you're well versed in the build system, this is hard to use properly. Therefore, <code>make</code> will print a warning if this is detected.</p>
erikj@51237 552 <p>However, there are a few <code>make</code> variables, known as <em>control variables</em> that are supposed to be overriden on the command line. These make up the &quot;make time&quot; configuration, as opposed to the &quot;configure time&quot; configuration.</p>
ihse@45763 553 <h4 id="general-make-control-variables">General Make Control Variables</h4>
ihse@45763 554 <ul>
ihse@45763 555 <li><code>JOBS</code> - Specify the number of jobs to build with. See <a href="#build-performance">Build Performance</a>.</li>
ihse@45763 556 <li><code>LOG</code> - Specify the logging level and functionality. See <a href="#checking-the-build-log-file">Checking the Build Log File</a></li>
ihse@45763 557 <li><code>CONF</code> and <code>CONF_NAME</code> - Selecting the configuration(s) to use. See <a href="#using-multiple-configurations">Using Multiple Configurations</a></li>
ihse@45763 558 </ul>
ihse@45763 559 <h4 id="test-make-control-variables">Test Make Control Variables</h4>
mr@50885 560 <p>These make control variables only make sense when running tests. Please see <a href="testing.html">Testing the JDK</a> for details.</p>
ihse@45763 561 <ul>
ihse@45763 562 <li><code>TEST</code></li>
ihse@45763 563 <li><code>TEST_JOBS</code></li>
ihse@45763 564 <li><code>JTREG</code></li>
ihse@45763 565 <li><code>GTEST</code></li>
ihse@45763 566 </ul>
ihse@45763 567 <h4 id="advanced-make-control-variables">Advanced Make Control Variables</h4>
ihse@45763 568 <p>These advanced make control variables can be potentially unsafe. See <a href="#hints-and-suggestions-for-advanced-users">Hints and Suggestions for Advanced Users</a> and <a href="#understanding-the-build-system">Understanding the Build System</a> for details.</p>
ihse@45763 569 <ul>
ihse@45763 570 <li><code>SPEC</code></li>
ihse@45763 571 <li><code>CONF_CHECK</code></li>
ihse@45763 572 <li><code>COMPARE_BUILD</code></li>
ihse@45763 573 <li><code>JDK_FILTER</code></li>
ihse@45763 574 </ul>
ihse@45763 575 <h2 id="running-tests">Running Tests</h2>
erikj@51237 576 <p>Most of the JDK tests are using the <a href="http://openjdk.java.net/jtreg">JTReg</a> test framework. Make sure that your configuration knows where to find your installation of JTReg. If this is not picked up automatically, use the <code>--with-jtreg=&lt;path to jtreg home&gt;</code> option to point to the JTReg framework. Note that this option should point to the JTReg home, i.e. the top directory, containing <code>lib/jtreg.jar</code> etc.</p>
ihse@50267 577 <p>The <a href="https://wiki.openjdk.java.net/display/Adoption">Adoption Group</a> provides recent builds of jtreg <a href="https://adopt-openjdk.ci.cloudbees.com/job/jtreg/lastSuccessfulBuild/artifact">here</a>. Download the latest <code>.tar.gz</code> file, unpack it, and point <code>--with-jtreg</code> to the <code>jtreg</code> directory that you just unpacked.</p>
ihse@45763 578 <p>To execute the most basic tests (tier 1), use:</p>
ihse@45763 579 <pre><code>make run-test-tier1</code></pre>
mr@50885 580 <p>For more details on how to run tests, please see the <a href="testing.html">Testing the JDK</a> document.</p>
ihse@45763 581 <h2 id="cross-compiling">Cross-compiling</h2>
ihse@45763 582 <p>Cross-compiling means using one platform (the <em>build</em> platform) to generate output that can ran on another platform (the <em>target</em> platform).</p>
ihse@45763 583 <p>The typical reason for cross-compiling is that the build is performed on a more powerful desktop computer, but the resulting binaries will be able to run on a different, typically low-performing system. Most of the complications that arise when building for embedded is due to this separation of <em>build</em> and <em>target</em> systems.</p>
mr@50885 584 <p>This requires a more complex setup and build procedure. This section assumes you are familiar with cross-compiling in general, and will only deal with the particularities of cross-compiling the JDK. If you are new to cross-compiling, please see the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross_compiler#External_links">external links at Wikipedia</a> for a good start on reading materials.</p>
mr@50885 585 <p>Cross-compiling the JDK requires you to be able to build both for the build platform and for the target platform. The reason for the former is that we need to build and execute tools during the build process, both native tools and Java tools.</p>
erikj@51237 586 <p>If all you want to do is to compile a 32-bit version, for the same OS, on a 64-bit machine, consider using <code>--with-target-bits=32</code> instead of doing a full-blown cross-compilation. (While this surely is possible, it's a lot more work and will take much longer to build.)</p>
simonis@52665 587 <h3 id="cross-compiling-the-easy-way-with-openjdk-devkits">Cross compiling the easy way with OpenJDK devkits</h3>
simonis@52665 588 <p>The OpenJDK build system provides out-of-the box support for creating and using so called devkits. A <code>devkit</code> is basically a collection of a cross-compiling toolchain and a sysroot environment which can easily be used together with the <code>--with-devkit</code> configure option to cross compile the OpenJDK. On Linux/x86_64, the following command:</p>
simonis@52665 589 <pre><code>bash configure --with-devkit=&lt;devkit-path&gt; --openjdk-target=ppc64-linux-gnu &amp;&amp; make</code></pre>
simonis@52665 590 <p>will configure and build OpenJDK for Linux/ppc64 assuming that <code>&lt;devkit-path&gt;</code> points to a Linux/x86_64 to Linux/ppc64 devkit.</p>
simonis@52665 591 <p>Devkits can be created from the <code>make/devkit</code> directory by executing:</p>
simonis@52665 592 <pre><code>make [ TARGETS=&quot;&lt;TARGET_TRIPLET&gt;+&quot; ] [ BASE_OS=&lt;OS&gt; ] [ BASE_OS_VERSION=&lt;VER&gt; ]</code></pre>
simonis@52665 593 <p>where <code>TARGETS</code> contains one or more <code>TARGET_TRIPLET</code>s of the form described in <a href="https://sourceware.org/autobook/autobook/autobook_17.html">section 3.4 of the GNU Autobook</a>. If no targets are given, a native toolchain for the current platform will be created. Currently, at least the following targets are known to work:</p>
simonis@52665 594 <table>
simonis@52665 595 <thead>
simonis@52665 596 <tr class="header">
simonis@52665 597 <th style="text-align: left;">Supported devkit targets</th>
simonis@52665 598 </tr>
simonis@52665 599 </thead>
simonis@52665 600 <tbody>
simonis@52665 601 <tr class="odd">
simonis@52665 602 <td style="text-align: left;">x86_64-linux-gnu</td>
simonis@52665 603 </tr>
simonis@52665 604 <tr class="even">
simonis@52665 605 <td style="text-align: left;">aarch64-linux-gnu</td>
simonis@52665 606 </tr>
simonis@52665 607 <tr class="odd">
simonis@52665 608 <td style="text-align: left;">arm-linux-gnueabihf</td>
simonis@52665 609 </tr>
simonis@52665 610 <tr class="even">
simonis@52665 611 <td style="text-align: left;">ppc64-linux-gnu</td>
simonis@52665 612 </tr>
simonis@52665 613 <tr class="odd">
simonis@52665 614 <td style="text-align: left;">ppc64le-linux-gnu</td>
simonis@52665 615 </tr>
simonis@52665 616 <tr class="even">
simonis@52665 617 <td style="text-align: left;">s390x-linux-gnu</td>
simonis@52665 618 </tr>
simonis@52665 619 </tbody>
simonis@52665 620 </table>
simonis@52665 621 <p><code>BASE_OS</code> must be one of &quot;OEL6&quot; for Oracle Enterprise Linux 6 or &quot;Fedora&quot; (if not specified &quot;OEL6&quot; will be the default). If the base OS is &quot;Fedora&quot; the corresponding Fedora release can be specified with the help of the <code>BASE_OS_VERSION</code> option (with &quot;27&quot; as default version). If the build is successful, the new devkits can be found in the <code>build/devkit/result</code> subdirectory:</p>
simonis@52665 622 <pre><code>cd make/devkit
simonis@52665 623 make TARGETS=&quot;ppc64le-linux-gnu aarch64-linux-gnu&quot; BASE_OS=Fedora BASE_OS_VERSION=21
simonis@52665 624 ls -1 ../../build/devkit/result/
simonis@52665 625 x86_64-linux-gnu-to-aarch64-linux-gnu
simonis@52665 626 x86_64-linux-gnu-to-ppc64le-linux-gnu</code></pre>
simonis@52665 627 <p>Notice that devkits are not only useful for targeting different build platforms. Because they contain the full build dependencies for a system (i.e. compiler and root file system), they can easily be used to build well-known, reliable and reproducible build environments. You can for example create and use a devkit with GCC 7.3 and a Fedora 12 sysroot environment (with glibc 2.11) on Ubuntu 14.04 (which doesn't have GCC 7.3 by default) to produce OpenJDK binaries which will run on all Linux systems with runtime libraries newer than the ones from Fedora 12 (e.g. Ubuntu 16.04, SLES 11 or RHEL 6).</p>
ihse@45763 628 <h3 id="boot-jdk-and-build-jdk">Boot JDK and Build JDK</h3>
ihse@45763 629 <p>When cross-compiling, make sure you use a boot JDK that runs on the <em>build</em> system, and not on the <em>target</em> system.</p>
erikj@51237 630 <p>To be able to build, we need a &quot;Build JDK&quot;, which is a JDK built from the current sources (that is, the same as the end result of the entire build process), but able to run on the <em>build</em> system, and not the <em>target</em> system. (In contrast, the Boot JDK should be from an older release, e.g. JDK 8 when building JDK 9.)</p>
ihse@45763 631 <p>The build process will create a minimal Build JDK for you, as part of building. To speed up the build, you can use <code>--with-build-jdk</code> to <code>configure</code> to point to a pre-built Build JDK. Please note that the build result is unpredictable, and can possibly break in subtle ways, if the Build JDK does not <strong>exactly</strong> match the current sources.</p>
ihse@45763 632 <h3 id="specifying-the-target-platform">Specifying the Target Platform</h3>
erikj@51237 633 <p>You <em>must</em> specify the target platform when cross-compiling. Doing so will also automatically turn the build into a cross-compiling mode. The simplest way to do this is to use the <code>--openjdk-target</code> argument, e.g. <code>--openjdk-target=arm-linux-gnueabihf</code>. or <code>--openjdk-target=aarch64-oe-linux</code>. This will automatically set the <code>--build</code>, <code>--host</code> and <code>--target</code> options for autoconf, which can otherwise be confusing. (In autoconf terminology, the &quot;target&quot; is known as &quot;host&quot;, and &quot;target&quot; is used for building a Canadian cross-compiler.)</p>
ihse@45763 634 <h3 id="toolchain-considerations">Toolchain Considerations</h3>
ihse@45763 635 <p>You will need two copies of your toolchain, one which generates output that can run on the target system (the normal, or <em>target</em>, toolchain), and one that generates output that can run on the build system (the <em>build</em> toolchain). Note that cross-compiling is only supported for gcc at the time being. The gcc standard is to prefix cross-compiling toolchains with the target denominator. If you follow this standard, <code>configure</code> is likely to pick up the toolchain correctly.</p>
ihse@45763 636 <p>The <em>build</em> toolchain will be autodetected just the same way the normal <em>build</em>/<em>target</em> toolchain will be autodetected when not cross-compiling. If this is not what you want, or if the autodetection fails, you can specify a devkit containing the <em>build</em> toolchain using <code>--with-build-devkit</code> to <code>configure</code>, or by giving <code>BUILD_CC</code> and <code>BUILD_CXX</code> arguments.</p>
ihse@45763 637 <p>It is often helpful to locate the cross-compilation tools, headers and libraries in a separate directory, outside the normal path, and point out that directory to <code>configure</code>. Do this by setting the sysroot (<code>--with-sysroot</code>) and appending the directory when searching for cross-compilations tools (<code>--with-toolchain-path</code>). As a compact form, you can also use <code>--with-devkit</code> to point to a single directory, if it is correctly setup. (See <code>basics.m4</code> for details.)</p>
ihse@45763 638 <p>If you are unsure what toolchain and versions to use, these have been proved working at the time of writing:</p>
ihse@45763 639 <ul>
ihse@45763 640 <li><a href="https://releases.linaro.org/archive/13.11/components/toolchain/binaries/gcc-linaro-aarch64-linux-gnu-4.8-2013.11_linux.tar.xz">aarch64</a></li>
ihse@45763 641 <li><a href="https://launchpad.net/linaro-toolchain-unsupported/trunk/2012.09/+download/gcc-linaro-arm-linux-gnueabihf-raspbian-2012.09-20120921_linux.tar.bz2">arm 32-bit hardware floating point</a></li>
ihse@45763 642 </ul>
ihse@45763 643 <h3 id="native-libraries">Native Libraries</h3>
ihse@45763 644 <p>You will need copies of external native libraries for the <em>target</em> system, present on the <em>build</em> machine while building.</p>
erikj@51237 645 <p>Take care not to replace the <em>build</em> system's version of these libraries by mistake, since that can render the <em>build</em> machine unusable.</p>
ihse@45763 646 <p>Make sure that the libraries you point to (ALSA, X11, etc) are for the <em>target</em>, not the <em>build</em>, platform.</p>
ihse@45763 647 <h4 id="alsa-1">ALSA</h4>
erikj@51237 648 <p>You will need alsa libraries suitable for your <em>target</em> system. For most cases, using Debian's pre-built libraries work fine.</p>
ihse@45763 649 <p>Note that alsa is needed even if you only want to build a headless JDK.</p>
ihse@45763 650 <ul>
ihse@45763 651 <li><p>Go to <a href="https://www.debian.org/distrib/packages">Debian Package Search</a> and search for the <code>libasound2</code> and <code>libasound2-dev</code> packages for your <em>target</em> system. Download them to /tmp.</p></li>
ihse@52941 652 <li>Install the libraries into the cross-compilation toolchain. For instance:</li>
ihse@52941 653 </ul>
ihse@45763 654 <pre><code>cd /tools/gcc-linaro-arm-linux-gnueabihf-raspbian-2012.09-20120921_linux/arm-linux-gnueabihf/libc
ihse@45763 655 dpkg-deb -x /tmp/libasound2_1.0.25-4_armhf.deb .
ihse@52941 656 dpkg-deb -x /tmp/libasound2-dev_1.0.25-4_armhf.deb .</code></pre>
ihse@52941 657 <ul>
ihse@52941 658 <li>If alsa is not properly detected by <code>configure</code>, you can point it out by <code>--with-alsa</code>.</li>
ihse@45763 659 </ul>
ihse@45763 660 <h4 id="x11-1">X11</h4>
erikj@51237 661 <p>You will need X11 libraries suitable for your <em>target</em> system. For most cases, using Debian's pre-built libraries work fine.</p>
ihse@45763 662 <p>Note that X11 is needed even if you only want to build a headless JDK.</p>
ihse@45763 663 <ul>
ihse@45763 664 <li>Go to <a href="https://www.debian.org/distrib/packages">Debian Package Search</a>, search for the following packages for your <em>target</em> system, and download them to /tmp/target-x11:
ihse@45763 665 <ul>
ihse@45763 666 <li>libxi</li>
ihse@45763 667 <li>libxi-dev</li>
ihse@45763 668 <li>x11proto-core-dev</li>
ihse@45763 669 <li>x11proto-input-dev</li>
ihse@45763 670 <li>x11proto-kb-dev</li>
ihse@45763 671 <li>x11proto-render-dev</li>
ihse@45763 672 <li>x11proto-xext-dev</li>
ihse@45763 673 <li>libice-dev</li>
ihse@45763 674 <li>libxrender</li>
ihse@45763 675 <li>libxrender-dev</li>
ihse@52921 676 <li>libxrandr-dev</li>
ihse@45763 677 <li>libsm-dev</li>
ihse@45763 678 <li>libxt-dev</li>
ihse@45763 679 <li>libx11</li>
ihse@45763 680 <li>libx11-dev</li>
ihse@45763 681 <li>libxtst</li>
ihse@45763 682 <li>libxtst-dev</li>
ihse@45763 683 <li>libxext</li>
ihse@45763 684 <li>libxext-dev</li>
ihse@45763 685 </ul></li>
ihse@45763 686 <li><p>Install the libraries into the cross-compilation toolchain. For instance:</p>
ihse@45763 687 <pre><code>cd /tools/gcc-linaro-arm-linux-gnueabihf-raspbian-2012.09-20120921_linux/arm-linux-gnueabihf/libc/usr
ihse@45763 688 mkdir X11R6
ihse@45763 689 cd X11R6
ihse@45763 690 for deb in /tmp/target-x11/*.deb ; do dpkg-deb -x $deb . ; done
ihse@45763 691 mv usr/* .
ihse@45763 692 cd lib
ihse@45763 693 cp arm-linux-gnueabihf/* .</code></pre>
ihse@45763 694 <p>You can ignore the following messages. These libraries are not needed to successfully complete a full JDK build.</p>
ihse@45763 695 <pre><code>cp: cannot stat `arm-linux-gnueabihf/libICE.so&#39;: No such file or directory
ihse@45763 696 cp: cannot stat `arm-linux-gnueabihf/libSM.so&#39;: No such file or directory
ihse@45763 697 cp: cannot stat `arm-linux-gnueabihf/libXt.so&#39;: No such file or directory</code></pre></li>
ihse@45763 698 <li><p>If the X11 libraries are not properly detected by <code>configure</code>, you can point them out by <code>--with-x</code>.</p></li>
ihse@45763 699 </ul>
shade@51515 700 <h3 id="creating-and-using-sysroots-with-qemu-deboostrap">Creating And Using Sysroots With qemu-deboostrap</h3>
shade@51515 701 <p>Fortunately, you can create sysroots for foreign architectures with tools provided by your OS. On Debian/Ubuntu systems, one could use <code>qemu-deboostrap</code> to create the <em>target</em> system chroot, which would have the native libraries and headers specific to that <em>target</em> system. After that, we can use the cross-compiler on the <em>build</em> system, pointing into chroot to get the build dependencies right. This allows building for foreign architectures with native compilation speed.</p>
shade@51515 702 <p>For example, cross-compiling to AArch64 from x86_64 could be done like this:</p>
shade@51515 703 <ul>
ihse@52941 704 <li>Install cross-compiler on the <em>build</em> system:</li>
ihse@52941 705 </ul>
ihse@52941 706 <pre><code>apt install g++-aarch64-linux-gnu gcc-aarch64-linux-gnu</code></pre>
ihse@52941 707 <ul>
ihse@52941 708 <li>Create chroot on the <em>build</em> system, configuring it for <em>target</em> system:</li>
ihse@52941 709 </ul>
shade@51515 710 <pre><code>sudo qemu-debootstrap --arch=arm64 --verbose \
ihse@52941 711 --include=fakeroot,build-essential,libx11-dev,libxext-dev,libxrender-dev,libxrandr-dev,libxtst-dev,libxt-dev,libcups2-dev,libfontconfig1-dev,libasound2-dev,libfreetype6-dev,libpng12-dev \
ihse@52941 712 --resolve-deps jessie /chroots/arm64 http://httpredir.debian.org/debian/</code></pre>
ihse@52941 713 <ul>
ihse@52941 714 <li>Configure and build with newly created chroot as sysroot/toolchain-path:</li>
ihse@52941 715 </ul>
shade@51515 716 <pre><code>CC=aarch64-linux-gnu-gcc CXX=aarch64-linux-gnu-g++ sh ./configure --openjdk-target=aarch64-linux-gnu --with-sysroot=/chroots/arm64/ --with-toolchain-path=/chroots/arm64/
shade@51515 717 make images
ihse@52941 718 ls build/linux-aarch64-normal-server-release/</code></pre>
shade@51515 719 <p>The build does not create new files in that chroot, so it can be reused for multiple builds without additional cleanup.</p>
shade@51515 720 <p>Architectures that are known to successfully cross-compile like this are:</p>
shade@51515 721 <table>
shade@51515 722 <thead>
shade@51515 723 <tr class="header">
shade@51515 724 <th style="text-align: left;">Target</th>
shade@51515 725 <th style="text-align: left;"><code>CC</code></th>
shade@51515 726 <th style="text-align: left;"><code>CXX</code></th>
simonis@52665 727 <th style="text-align: left;"><code>--arch=...</code></th>
simonis@52665 728 <th style="text-align: left;"><code>--openjdk-target=...</code></th>
shade@51515 729 </tr>
shade@51515 730 </thead>
shade@51515 731 <tbody>
shade@51515 732 <tr class="odd">
shade@51515 733 <td style="text-align: left;">x86</td>
shade@51515 734 <td style="text-align: left;">default</td>
shade@51515 735 <td style="text-align: left;">default</td>
simonis@52665 736 <td style="text-align: left;">i386</td>
simonis@52665 737 <td style="text-align: left;">i386-linux-gnu</td>
shade@51515 738 </tr>
shade@51515 739 <tr class="even">
shade@51515 740 <td style="text-align: left;">armhf</td>
shade@51515 741 <td style="text-align: left;">gcc-arm-linux-gnueabihf</td>
shade@51515 742 <td style="text-align: left;">g++-arm-linux-gnueabihf</td>
simonis@52665 743 <td style="text-align: left;">armhf</td>
simonis@52665 744 <td style="text-align: left;">arm-linux-gnueabihf</td>
shade@51515 745 </tr>
shade@51515 746 <tr class="odd">
shade@51515 747 <td style="text-align: left;">aarch64</td>
shade@51515 748 <td style="text-align: left;">gcc-aarch64-linux-gnu</td>
shade@51515 749 <td style="text-align: left;">g++-aarch64-linux-gnu</td>
simonis@52665 750 <td style="text-align: left;">arm64</td>
simonis@52665 751 <td style="text-align: left;">aarch64-linux-gnu</td>
shade@51515 752 </tr>
shade@51515 753 <tr class="even">
shade@51515 754 <td style="text-align: left;">ppc64el</td>
shade@51515 755 <td style="text-align: left;">gcc-powerpc64le-linux-gnu</td>
shade@51515 756 <td style="text-align: left;">g++-powerpc64le-linux-gnu</td>
simonis@52665 757 <td style="text-align: left;">ppc64el</td>
simonis@52665 758 <td style="text-align: left;">powerpc64le-linux-gnu</td>
shade@51515 759 </tr>
shade@51515 760 <tr class="odd">
shade@51515 761 <td style="text-align: left;">s390x</td>
shade@51515 762 <td style="text-align: left;">gcc-s390x-linux-gnu</td>
shade@51515 763 <td style="text-align: left;">g++-s390x-linux-gnu</td>
simonis@52665 764 <td style="text-align: left;">s390x</td>
simonis@52665 765 <td style="text-align: left;">s390x-linux-gnu</td>
shade@51515 766 </tr>
shade@51515 767 </tbody>
shade@51515 768 </table>
shade@51515 769 <p>Additional architectures might be supported by Debian/Ubuntu Ports.</p>
ihse@45763 770 <h3 id="building-for-armaarch64">Building for ARM/aarch64</h3>
mr@50885 771 <p>A common cross-compilation target is the ARM CPU. When building for ARM, it is useful to set the ABI profile. A number of pre-defined ABI profiles are available using <code>--with-abi-profile</code>: arm-vfp-sflt, arm-vfp-hflt, arm-sflt, armv5-vfp-sflt, armv6-vfp-hflt. Note that soft-float ABIs are no longer properly supported by the JDK.</p>
ihse@45763 772 <h3 id="verifying-the-build">Verifying the Build</h3>
ihse@45763 773 <p>The build will end up in a directory named like <code>build/linux-arm-normal-server-release</code>.</p>
erikj@50490 774 <p>Inside this build output directory, the <code>images/jdk</code> will contain the newly built JDK, for your <em>target</em> system.</p>
ihse@45763 775 <p>Copy these folders to your <em>target</em> system. Then you can run e.g. <code>images/jdk/bin/java -version</code>.</p>
ihse@45763 776 <h2 id="build-performance">Build Performance</h2>
mr@50885 777 <p>Building the JDK requires a lot of horsepower. Some of the build tools can be adjusted to utilize more or less of resources such as parallel threads and memory. The <code>configure</code> script analyzes your system and selects reasonable values for such options based on your hardware. If you encounter resource problems, such as out of memory conditions, you can modify the detected values with:</p>
ihse@33030 778 <ul>
erikj@51237 779 <li><p><code>--with-num-cores</code> -- number of cores in the build system, e.g. <code>--with-num-cores=8</code>.</p></li>
erikj@51237 780 <li><p><code>--with-memory-size</code> -- memory (in MB) available in the build system, e.g. <code>--with-memory-size=1024</code></p></li>
ihse@33030 781 </ul>
ihse@45763 782 <p>You can also specify directly the number of build jobs to use with <code>--with-jobs=N</code> to <code>configure</code>, or <code>JOBS=N</code> to <code>make</code>. Do not use the <code>-j</code> flag to <code>make</code>. In most cases it will be ignored by the makefiles, but it can cause problems for some make targets.</p>
ihse@45763 783 <p>It might also be necessary to specify the JVM arguments passed to the Boot JDK, using e.g. <code>--with-boot-jdk-jvmargs=&quot;-Xmx8G&quot;</code>. Doing so will override the default JVM arguments passed to the Boot JDK.</p>
ihse@44078 784 <p>At the end of a successful execution of <code>configure</code>, you will get a performance summary, indicating how well the build will perform. Here you will also get performance hints. If you want to build fast, pay attention to those!</p>
ihse@45763 785 <p>If you want to tweak build performance, run with <code>make LOG=info</code> to get a build time summary at the end of the build process.</p>
ihse@45763 786 <h3 id="disk-speed">Disk Speed</h3>
erikj@51237 787 <p>If you are using network shares, e.g. via NFS, for your source code, make sure the build directory is situated on local disk (e.g. by <code>ln -s /localdisk/jdk-build $JDK-SHARE/build</code>). The performance penalty is extremely high for building on a network share; close to unusable.</p>
ihse@45763 788 <p>Also, make sure that your build tools (including Boot JDK and toolchain) is located on a local disk and not a network share.</p>
ihse@45763 789 <p>As has been stressed elsewhere, do use SSD for source code and build directory, as well as (if possible) the build tools.</p>
ihse@45763 790 <h3 id="virus-checking">Virus Checking</h3>
mr@50885 791 <p>The use of virus checking software, especially on Windows, can <em>significantly</em> slow down building of the JDK. If possible, turn off such software, or exclude the directory containing the JDK source code from on-the-fly checking.</p>
ihse@45763 792 <h3 id="ccache">Ccache</h3>
erikj@51237 793 <p>The JDK build supports building with ccache when using gcc or clang. Using ccache can radically speed up compilation of native code if you often rebuild the same sources. Your milage may vary however, so we recommend evaluating it for yourself. To enable it, make sure it's on the path and configure with <code>--enable-ccache</code>.</p>
ihse@45763 794 <h3 id="precompiled-headers">Precompiled Headers</h3>
ihse@45763 795 <p>By default, the Hotspot build uses preccompiled headers (PCH) on the toolchains were it is properly supported (clang, gcc, and Visual Studio). Normally, this speeds up the build process, but in some circumstances, it can actually slow things down.</p>
ihse@45763 796 <p>You can experiment by disabling precompiled headers using <code>--disable-precompiled-headers</code>.</p>
ihse@45763 797 <h3 id="icecc-icecream">Icecc / icecream</h3>
mr@50885 798 <p><a href="http://github.com/icecc/icecream">icecc/icecream</a> is a simple way to setup a distributed compiler network. If you have multiple machines available for building the JDK, you can drastically cut individual build times by utilizing it.</p>
ihse@45763 799 <p>To use, setup an icecc network, and install icecc on the build machine. Then run <code>configure</code> using <code>--enable-icecc</code>.</p>
ihse@45763 800 <h3 id="using-sjavac">Using sjavac</h3>
ihse@45763 801 <p>To speed up Java compilation, especially incremental compilations, you can try the experimental sjavac compiler by using <code>--enable-sjavac</code>.</p>
ihse@45763 802 <h3 id="building-the-right-target">Building the Right Target</h3>
ihse@45763 803 <p>Selecting the proper target to build can have dramatic impact on build time. For normal usage, <code>jdk</code> or the default target is just fine. You only need to build <code>images</code> for shipping, or if your tests require it.</p>
ihse@45763 804 <p>See also <a href="#using-fine-grained-make-targets">Using Fine-Grained Make Targets</a> on how to build an even smaller subset of the product.</p>
ihse@45763 805 <h2 id="troubleshooting">Troubleshooting</h2>
ihse@45763 806 <p>If your build fails, it can sometimes be difficult to pinpoint the problem or find a proper solution.</p>
ihse@45763 807 <h3 id="locating-the-source-of-the-error">Locating the Source of the Error</h3>
ihse@45763 808 <p>When a build fails, it can be hard to pinpoint the actual cause of the error. In a typical build process, different parts of the product build in parallel, with the output interlaced.</p>
ihse@45763 809 <h4 id="build-failure-summary">Build Failure Summary</h4>
ihse@45763 810 <p>To help you, the build system will print a failure summary at the end. It looks like this:</p>
ihse@45763 811 <pre><code>ERROR: Build failed for target &#39;hotspot&#39; in configuration &#39;linux-x64&#39; (exit code 2)
ihse@45763 812
ihse@45763 813 === Output from failing command(s) repeated here ===
ihse@45763 814 * For target hotspot_variant-server_libjvm_objs_psMemoryPool.o:
ihse@45763 815 /localhome/hg/jdk9-sandbox/hotspot/src/share/vm/services/psMemoryPool.cpp:1:1: error: &#39;failhere&#39; does not name a type
ihse@45763 816 ... (rest of output omitted)
ihse@45763 817
ihse@45763 818 * All command lines available in /localhome/hg/jdk9-sandbox/build/linux-x64/make-support/failure-logs.
ihse@45763 819 === End of repeated output ===
ihse@45763 820
ihse@45763 821 === Make failed targets repeated here ===
ihse@45763 822 lib/CompileJvm.gmk:207: recipe for target &#39;/localhome/hg/jdk9-sandbox/build/linux-x64/hotspot/variant-server/libjvm/objs/psMemoryPool.o&#39; failed
ihse@45763 823 make/Main.gmk:263: recipe for target &#39;hotspot-server-libs&#39; failed
ihse@45763 824 === End of repeated output ===
ihse@45763 825
ihse@45763 826 Hint: Try searching the build log for the name of the first failed target.
ihse@45763 827 Hint: If caused by a warning, try configure --disable-warnings-as-errors.</code></pre>
erikj@51237 828 <p>Let's break it down! First, the selected configuration, and the top-level target you entered on the command line that caused the failure is printed.</p>
ihse@45763 829 <p>Then, between the <code>Output from failing command(s) repeated here</code> and <code>End of repeated output</code> the first lines of output (stdout and stderr) from the actual failing command is repeated. In most cases, this is the error message that caused the build to fail. If multiple commands were failing (this can happen in a parallel build), output from all failed commands will be printed here.</p>
ihse@45763 830 <p>The path to the <code>failure-logs</code> directory is printed. In this file you will find a <code>&lt;target&gt;.log</code> file that contains the output from this command in its entirety, and also a <code>&lt;target&gt;.cmd</code>, which contain the complete command line used for running this command. You can re-run the failing command by executing <code>. &lt;path to failure-logs&gt;/&lt;target&gt;.cmd</code> in your shell.</p>
ihse@45763 831 <p>Another way to trace the failure is to follow the chain of make targets, from top-level targets to individual file targets. Between <code>Make failed targets repeated here</code> and <code>End of repeated output</code> the output from make showing this chain is repeated. The first failed recipe will typically contain the full path to the file in question that failed to compile. Following lines will show a trace of make targets why we ended up trying to compile that file.</p>
erikj@51237 832 <p>Finally, some hints are given on how to locate the error in the complete log. In this example, we would try searching the log file for &quot;<code>psMemoryPool.o</code>&quot;. Another way to quickly locate make errors in the log is to search for &quot;<code>] Error</code>&quot; or &quot;<code>***</code>&quot;.</p>
ihse@45763 833 <p>Note that the build failure summary will only help you if the issue was a compilation failure or similar. If the problem is more esoteric, or is due to errors in the build machinery, you will likely get empty output logs, and <code>No indication of failed target found</code> instead of the make target chain.</p>
ihse@45763 834 <h4 id="checking-the-build-log-file">Checking the Build Log File</h4>
ihse@45763 835 <p>The output (stdout and stderr) from the latest build is always stored in <code>$BUILD/build.log</code>. The previous build log is stored as <code>build.log.old</code>. This means that it is not necessary to redirect the build output yourself if you want to process it.</p>
ihse@45763 836 <p>You can increase the verbosity of the log file, by the <code>LOG</code> control variable to <code>make</code>. If you want to see the command lines used in compilations, use <code>LOG=cmdlines</code>. To increase the general verbosity, use <code>LOG=info</code>, <code>LOG=debug</code> or <code>LOG=trace</code>. Both of these can be combined with <code>cmdlines</code>, e.g. <code>LOG=info,cmdlines</code>. The <code>debug</code> log level will show most shell commands executed by make, and <code>trace</code> will show all. Beware that both these log levels will produce a massive build log!</p>
ihse@45763 837 <h3 id="fixing-unexpected-build-failures">Fixing Unexpected Build Failures</h3>
ihse@45763 838 <p>Most of the time, the build will fail due to incorrect changes in the source code.</p>
mr@50885 839 <p>Sometimes the build can fail with no apparent changes that have caused the failure. If this is the first time you are building the JDK on this particular computer, and the build fails, the problem is likely with your build environment. But even if you have previously built the JDK with success, and it now fails, your build environment might have changed (perhaps due to OS upgrades or similar). But most likely, such failures are due to problems with the incremental rebuild.</p>
ihse@45763 840 <h4 id="problems-with-the-build-environment">Problems with the Build Environment</h4>
ihse@45763 841 <p>Make sure your configuration is correct. Re-run <code>configure</code>, and look for any warnings. Warnings that appear in the middle of the <code>configure</code> output is also repeated at the end, after the summary. The entire log is stored in <code>$BUILD/configure.log</code>.</p>
ihse@45763 842 <p>Verify that the summary at the end looks correct. Are you indeed using the Boot JDK and native toolchain that you expect?</p>
mr@50885 843 <p>By default, the JDK has a strict approach where warnings from the compiler is considered errors which fail the build. For very new or very old compiler versions, this can trigger new classes of warnings, which thus fails the build. Run <code>configure</code> with <code>--disable-warnings-as-errors</code> to turn of this behavior. (The warnings will still show, but not make the build fail.)</p>
ihse@45763 844 <h4 id="problems-with-incremental-rebuilds">Problems with Incremental Rebuilds</h4>
erikj@52610 845 <p>Incremental rebuilds mean that when you modify part of the product, only the affected parts get rebuilt. While this works great in most cases, and significantly speed up the development process, from time to time complex interdependencies will result in an incorrect build result. This is the most common cause for unexpected build problems.</p>
ihse@45763 846 <p>Here are a suggested list of things to try if you are having unexpected build problems. Each step requires more time than the one before, so try them in order. Most issues will be solved at step 1 or 2.</p>
ihse@45763 847 <ol type="1">
erikj@52610 848 <li><p>Make sure your repository is up-to-date</p>
erikj@52610 849 <p>Run <code>hg pull -u</code> to make sure you have the latest changes.</p></li>
ihse@45763 850 <li><p>Clean build results</p>
ihse@45763 851 <p>The simplest way to fix incremental rebuild issues is to run <code>make clean</code>. This will remove all build results, but not the configuration or any build system support artifacts. In most cases, this will solve build errors resulting from incremental build mismatches.</p></li>
ihse@45763 852 <li><p>Completely clean the build directory.</p>
erikj@51237 853 <p>If this does not work, the next step is to run <code>make dist-clean</code>, or removing the build output directory (<code>$BUILD</code>). This will clean all generated output, including your configuration. You will need to re-run <code>configure</code> after this step. A good idea is to run <code>make print-configuration</code> before running <code>make dist-clean</code>, as this will print your current <code>configure</code> command line. Here's a way to do this:</p>
ihse@45763 854 <pre><code>make print-configuration &gt; current-configuration
ihse@45763 855 make dist-clean
ihse@45763 856 bash configure $(cat current-configuration)
ihse@45763 857 make</code></pre></li>
erikj@52610 858 <li><p>Re-clone the Mercurial repository</p>
erikj@52610 859 <p>Sometimes the Mercurial repository gets in a state that causes the product to be un-buildable. In such a case, the simplest solution is often the &quot;sledgehammer approach&quot;: delete the entire repository, and re-clone it. If you have local changes, save them first to a different location using <code>hg export</code>.</p></li>
ihse@45763 860 </ol>
ihse@45763 861 <h3 id="specific-build-issues">Specific Build Issues</h3>
ihse@45763 862 <h4 id="clock-skew">Clock Skew</h4>
ihse@45763 863 <p>If you get an error message like this:</p>
ihse@45763 864 <pre><code>File &#39;xxx&#39; has modification time in the future.
ihse@45763 865 Clock skew detected. Your build may be incomplete.</code></pre>
ihse@45763 866 <p>then the clock on your build machine is out of sync with the timestamps on the source files. Other errors, apparently unrelated but in fact caused by the clock skew, can occur along with the clock skew warnings. These secondary errors may tend to obscure the fact that the true root cause of the problem is an out-of-sync clock.</p>
ihse@45763 867 <p>If you see these warnings, reset the clock on the build machine, run <code>make clean</code> and restart the build.</p>
ihse@45763 868 <h4 id="out-of-memory-errors">Out of Memory Errors</h4>
ihse@45763 869 <p>On Solaris, you might get an error message like this:</p>
ihse@45763 870 <pre><code>Trouble writing out table to disk</code></pre>
ihse@45763 871 <p>To solve this, increase the amount of swap space on your build machine.</p>
ihse@45763 872 <p>On Windows, you might get error messages like this:</p>
ihse@45763 873 <pre><code>fatal error - couldn&#39;t allocate heap
ihse@45763 874 cannot create ... Permission denied
ihse@45763 875 spawn failed</code></pre>
ihse@45763 876 <p>This can be a sign of a Cygwin problem. See the information about solving problems in the <a href="#cygwin">Cygwin</a> section. Rebooting the computer might help temporarily.</p>
ihse@45763 877 <h3 id="getting-help">Getting Help</h3>
ihse@52941 878 <p>If none of the suggestions in this document helps you, or if you find what you believe is a bug in the build system, please contact the Build Group by sending a mail to <a href="mailto:build-dev@openjdk.java.net">build-dev@openjdk.java.net</a>. Please include the relevant parts of the configure and/or build log.</p>
mr@50885 879 <p>If you need general help or advice about developing for the JDK, you can also contact the Adoption Group. See the section on <a href="#contributing-to-openjdk">Contributing to OpenJDK</a> for more information.</p>
ihse@45763 880 <h2 id="hints-and-suggestions-for-advanced-users">Hints and Suggestions for Advanced Users</h2>
erikj@52610 881 <h3 id="setting-up-a-repository-for-pushing-changes-defpath">Setting Up a Repository for Pushing Changes (defpath)</h3>
mr@50885 882 <p>To help you prepare a proper push path for a Mercurial repository, there exists a useful tool known as <a href="http://openjdk.java.net/projects/code-tools/defpath">defpath</a>. It will help you setup a proper push path for pushing changes to the JDK.</p>
erikj@51237 883 <p>Install the extension by cloning <code>http://hg.openjdk.java.net/code-tools/defpath</code> and updating your <code>.hgrc</code> file. Here's one way to do this:</p>
ihse@45763 884 <pre><code>cd ~
ihse@45763 885 mkdir hg-ext
ihse@45763 886 cd hg-ext
ihse@45763 887 hg clone http://hg.openjdk.java.net/code-tools/defpath
ihse@45763 888 cat &lt;&lt; EOT &gt;&gt; ~/.hgrc
ihse@45763 889 [extensions]
ihse@45763 890 defpath=~/hg-ext/defpath/defpath.py
ihse@45763 891 EOT</code></pre>
ihse@45763 892 <p>You can now setup a proper push path using:</p>
ihse@45763 893 <pre><code>hg defpath -d -u &lt;your OpenJDK username&gt;</code></pre>
ihse@45763 894 <h3 id="bash-completion">Bash Completion</h3>
ihse@45763 895 <p>The <code>configure</code> and <code>make</code> commands tries to play nice with bash command-line completion (using <code>&lt;tab&gt;</code> or <code>&lt;tab&gt;&lt;tab&gt;</code>). To use this functionality, make sure you enable completion in your <code>~/.bashrc</code> (see instructions for bash in your operating system).</p>
ihse@45763 896 <p>Make completion will work out of the box, and will complete valid make targets. For instance, typing <code>make jdk-i&lt;tab&gt;</code> will complete to <code>make jdk-image</code>.</p>
ihse@45763 897 <p>The <code>configure</code> script can get completion for options, but for this to work you need to help <code>bash</code> on the way. The standard way of running the script, <code>bash configure</code>, will not be understood by bash completion. You need <code>configure</code> to be the command to run. One way to achieve this is to add a simple helper script to your path:</p>
ihse@45763 898 <pre><code>cat &lt;&lt; EOT &gt; /tmp/configure
ihse@45763 899 #!/bin/bash
ihse@45763 900 if [ \$(pwd) = \$(cd \$(dirname \$0); pwd) ] ; then
ihse@45763 901 echo &gt;&amp;2 &quot;Abort: Trying to call configure helper recursively&quot;
ihse@45763 902 exit 1
ihse@45763 903 fi
ihse@45763 904
ihse@45763 905 bash \$PWD/configure &quot;\$@&quot;
ihse@45763 906 EOT
ihse@45763 907 chmod +x /tmp/configure
ihse@45763 908 sudo mv /tmp/configure /usr/local/bin</code></pre>
ihse@45763 909 <p>Now <code>configure --en&lt;tab&gt;-dt&lt;tab&gt;</code> will result in <code>configure --enable-dtrace</code>.</p>
ihse@45763 910 <h3 id="using-multiple-configurations">Using Multiple Configurations</h3>
erikj@52610 911 <p>You can have multiple configurations for a single source repository. When you create a new configuration, run <code>configure --with-conf-name=&lt;name&gt;</code> to create a configuration with the name <code>&lt;name&gt;</code>. Alternatively, you can create a directory under <code>build</code> and run <code>configure</code> from there, e.g. <code>mkdir build/&lt;name&gt; &amp;&amp; cd build/&lt;name&gt; &amp;&amp; bash ../../configure</code>.</p>
ihse@45763 912 <p>Then you can build that configuration using <code>make CONF_NAME=&lt;name&gt;</code> or <code>make CONF=&lt;pattern&gt;</code>, where <code>&lt;pattern&gt;</code> is a substring matching one or several configurations, e.g. <code>CONF=debug</code>. The special empty pattern (<code>CONF=</code>) will match <em>all</em> available configuration, so <code>make CONF= hotspot</code> will build the <code>hotspot</code> target for all configurations. Alternatively, you can execute <code>make</code> in the configuration directory, e.g. <code>cd build/&lt;name&gt; &amp;&amp; make</code>.</p>
ihse@45763 913 <h3 id="handling-reconfigurations">Handling Reconfigurations</h3>
erikj@52610 914 <p>If you update the repository and part of the configure script has changed, the build system will force you to re-run <code>configure</code>.</p>
ihse@45763 915 <p>Most of the time, you will be fine by running <code>configure</code> again with the same arguments as the last time, which can easily be performed by <code>make reconfigure</code>. To simplify this, you can use the <code>CONF_CHECK</code> make control variable, either as <code>make CONF_CHECK=auto</code>, or by setting an environment variable. For instance, if you add <code>export CONF_CHECK=auto</code> to your <code>.bashrc</code> file, <code>make</code> will always run <code>reconfigure</code> automatically whenever the configure script has changed.</p>
erikj@51237 916 <p>You can also use <code>CONF_CHECK=ignore</code> to skip the check for a needed configure update. This might speed up the build, but comes at the risk of an incorrect build result. This is only recommended if you know what you're doing.</p>
ihse@45763 917 <p>From time to time, you will also need to modify the command line to <code>configure</code> due to changes. Use <code>make print-configure</code> to show the command line used for your current configuration.</p>
ihse@45763 918 <h3 id="using-fine-grained-make-targets">Using Fine-Grained Make Targets</h3>
ihse@45763 919 <p>The default behavior for make is to create consistent and correct output, at the expense of build speed, if necessary.</p>
ihse@45763 920 <p>If you are prepared to take some risk of an incorrect build, and know enough of the system to understand how things build and interact, you can speed up the build process considerably by instructing make to only build a portion of the product.</p>
ihse@45763 921 <h4 id="building-individual-modules">Building Individual Modules</h4>
mr@50885 922 <p>The safe way to use fine-grained make targets is to use the module specific make targets. All source code in the JDK is organized so it belongs to a module, e.g. <code>java.base</code> or <code>jdk.jdwp.agent</code>. You can build only a specific module, by giving it as make target: <code>make jdk.jdwp.agent</code>. If the specified module depends on other modules (e.g. <code>java.base</code>), those modules will be built first.</p>
ihse@45763 923 <p>You can also specify a set of modules, just as you can always specify a set of make targets: <code>make jdk.crypto.cryptoki jdk.crypto.ec jdk.crypto.mscapi jdk.crypto.ucrypto</code></p>
ihse@45763 924 <h4 id="building-individual-module-phases">Building Individual Module Phases</h4>
ihse@45763 925 <p>The build process for each module is divided into separate phases. Not all modules need all phases. Which are needed depends on what kind of source code and other artifact the module consists of. The phases are:</p>
ihse@33030 926 <ul>
ihse@45763 927 <li><code>gensrc</code> (Generate source code to compile)</li>
ihse@45763 928 <li><code>gendata</code> (Generate non-source code artifacts)</li>
ihse@45763 929 <li><code>copy</code> (Copy resource artifacts)</li>
ihse@45763 930 <li><code>java</code> (Compile Java code)</li>
ihse@45763 931 <li><code>launchers</code> (Compile native executables)</li>
ihse@45763 932 <li><code>libs</code> (Compile native libraries)</li>
ihse@45763 933 <li><code>rmic</code> (Run the <code>rmic</code> tool)</li>
ihse@44078 934 </ul>
ihse@45763 935 <p>You can build only a single phase for a module by using the notation <code>$MODULE-$PHASE</code>. For instance, to build the <code>gensrc</code> phase for <code>java.base</code>, use <code>make java.base-gensrc</code>.</p>
ihse@45763 936 <p>Note that some phases may depend on others, e.g. <code>java</code> depends on <code>gensrc</code> (if present). Make will build all needed prerequisites before building the requested phase.</p>
ihse@45763 937 <h4 id="skipping-the-dependency-check">Skipping the Dependency Check</h4>
ihse@45763 938 <p>When using an iterative development style with frequent quick rebuilds, the dependency check made by make can take up a significant portion of the time spent on the rebuild. In such cases, it can be useful to bypass the dependency check in make.</p>
ihse@45763 939 <blockquote>
ihse@45763 940 <p><strong>Note that if used incorrectly, this can lead to a broken build!</strong></p>
ihse@45763 941 </blockquote>
ihse@45763 942 <p>To achieve this, append <code>-only</code> to the build target. For instance, <code>make jdk.jdwp.agent-java-only</code> will <em>only</em> build the <code>java</code> phase of the <code>jdk.jdwp.agent</code> module. If the required dependencies are not present, the build can fail. On the other hand, the execution time measures in milliseconds.</p>
ihse@45763 943 <p>A useful pattern is to build the first time normally (e.g. <code>make jdk.jdwp.agent</code>) and then on subsequent builds, use the <code>-only</code> make target.</p>
ihse@45763 944 <h4 id="rebuilding-part-of-java.base-jdk_filter">Rebuilding Part of java.base (JDK_FILTER)</h4>
mr@50885 945 <p>If you are modifying files in <code>java.base</code>, which is the by far largest module in the JDK, then you need to rebuild all those files whenever a single file has changed. (This inefficiency will hopefully be addressed in JDK 10.)</p>
ihse@45763 946 <p>As a hack, you can use the make control variable <code>JDK_FILTER</code> to specify a pattern that will be used to limit the set of files being recompiled. For instance, <code>make java.base JDK_FILTER=javax/crypto</code> (or, to combine methods, <code>make java.base-java-only JDK_FILTER=javax/crypto</code>) will limit the compilation to files in the <code>javax.crypto</code> package.</p>
ihse@45763 947 <h3 id="learn-about-mercurial">Learn About Mercurial</h3>
mr@50885 948 <p>To become an efficient JDK developer, it is recommended that you invest in learning Mercurial properly. Here are some links that can get you started:</p>
ihse@44078 949 <ul>
ihse@45763 950 <li><a href="http://www.mercurial-scm.org/wiki/GitConcepts">Mercurial for git users</a></li>
ihse@45763 951 <li><a href="http://www.mercurial-scm.org/wiki/Tutorial">The official Mercurial tutorial</a></li>
ihse@45763 952 <li><a href="http://hginit.com/">hg init</a></li>
ihse@45763 953 <li><a href="http://hgbook.red-bean.com/read/">Mercurial: The Definitive Guide</a></li>
ihse@44078 954 </ul>
ihse@45763 955 <h2 id="understanding-the-build-system">Understanding the Build System</h2>
ihse@45763 956 <p>This section will give you a more technical description on the details of the build system.</p>
ihse@45763 957 <h3 id="configurations">Configurations</h3>
ihse@45763 958 <p>The build system expects to find one or more configuration. These are technically defined by the <code>spec.gmk</code> in a subdirectory to the <code>build</code> subdirectory. The <code>spec.gmk</code> file is generated by <code>configure</code>, and contains in principle the configuration (directly or by files included by <code>spec.gmk</code>).</p>
ihse@45763 959 <p>You can, in fact, select a configuration to build by pointing to the <code>spec.gmk</code> file with the <code>SPEC</code> make control variable, e.g. <code>make SPEC=$BUILD/spec.gmk</code>. While this is not the recommended way to call <code>make</code> as a user, it is what is used under the hood by the build system.</p>
ihse@45763 960 <h3 id="build-output-structure">Build Output Structure</h3>
ihse@45763 961 <p>The build output for a configuration will end up in <code>build/&lt;configuration name&gt;</code>, which we refer to as <code>$BUILD</code> in this document. The <code>$BUILD</code> directory contains the following important directories:</p>
ihse@45763 962 <pre><code>buildtools/
ihse@45763 963 configure-support/
ihse@45763 964 hotspot/
ihse@45763 965 images/
ihse@45763 966 jdk/
ihse@45763 967 make-support/
ihse@45763 968 support/
ihse@45763 969 test-results/
ihse@45763 970 test-support/</code></pre>
ihse@45763 971 <p>This is what they are used for:</p>
ihse@44078 972 <ul>
ihse@45763 973 <li><p><code>images</code>: This is the directory were the output of the <code>*-image</code> make targets end up. For instance, <code>make jdk-image</code> ends up in <code>images/jdk</code>.</p></li>
erikj@51237 974 <li><p><code>jdk</code>: This is the &quot;exploded image&quot;. After <code>make jdk</code>, you will be able to launch the newly built JDK by running <code>$BUILD/jdk/bin/java</code>.</p></li>
ihse@45763 975 <li><p><code>test-results</code>: This directory contains the results from running tests.</p></li>
erikj@51237 976 <li><p><code>support</code>: This is an area for intermediate files needed during the build, e.g. generated source code, object files and class files. Some noteworthy directories in <code>support</code> is <code>gensrc</code>, which contains the generated source code, and the <code>modules_*</code> directories, which contains the files in a per-module hierarchy that will later be collapsed into the <code>jdk</code> directory of the exploded image.</p></li>
ihse@45763 977 <li><p><code>buildtools</code>: This is an area for tools compiled for the build platform that are used during the rest of the build.</p></li>
ihse@45763 978 <li><p><code>hotspot</code>: This is an area for intermediate files needed when building hotspot.</p></li>
ihse@45763 979 <li><p><code>configure-support</code>, <code>make-support</code> and <code>test-support</code>: These directories contain files that are needed by the build system for <code>configure</code>, <code>make</code> and for running tests.</p></li>
ihse@44078 980 </ul>
ihse@45763 981 <h3 id="fixpath">Fixpath</h3>
ihse@45763 982 <p>Windows path typically look like <code>C:\User\foo</code>, while Unix paths look like <code>/home/foo</code>. Tools with roots from Unix often experience issues related to this mismatch when running on Windows.</p>
mr@50885 983 <p>In the JDK build, we always use Unix paths internally, and only just before calling a tool that does not understand Unix paths do we convert them to Windows paths.</p>
ihse@45763 984 <p>This conversion is done by the <code>fixpath</code> tool, which is a small wrapper that modifies unix-style paths to Windows-style paths in command lines. Fixpath is compiled automatically by <code>configure</code>.</p>
ihse@45763 985 <h3 id="native-debug-symbols">Native Debug Symbols</h3>
ihse@45763 986 <p>Native libraries and executables can have debug symbol (and other debug information) associated with them. How this works is very much platform dependent, but a common problem is that debug symbol information takes a lot of disk space, but is rarely needed by the end user.</p>
mr@50885 987 <p>The JDK supports different methods on how to handle debug symbols. The method used is selected by <code>--with-native-debug-symbols</code>, and available methods are <code>none</code>, <code>internal</code>, <code>external</code>, <code>zipped</code>.</p>
ihse@44078 988 <ul>
ihse@45763 989 <li><p><code>none</code> means that no debug symbols will be generated during the build.</p></li>
ihse@45763 990 <li><p><code>internal</code> means that debug symbols will be generated during the build, and they will be stored in the generated binary.</p></li>
ihse@45763 991 <li><p><code>external</code> means that debug symbols will be generated during the build, and after the compilation, they will be moved into a separate <code>.debuginfo</code> file. (This was previously known as FDS, Full Debug Symbols).</p></li>
ihse@45763 992 <li><p><code>zipped</code> is like <code>external</code>, but the .debuginfo file will also be zipped into a <code>.diz</code> file.</p></li>
ihse@44078 993 </ul>
ihse@45763 994 <p>When building for distribution, <code>zipped</code> is a good solution. Binaries built with <code>internal</code> is suitable for use by developers, since they facilitate debugging, but should be stripped before distributed to end users.</p>
ihse@45763 995 <h3 id="autoconf-details">Autoconf Details</h3>
ihse@45763 996 <p>The <code>configure</code> script is based on the autoconf framework, but in some details deviate from a normal autoconf <code>configure</code> script.</p>
mr@50885 997 <p>The <code>configure</code> script in the top level directory of the JDK is just a thin wrapper that calls <code>make/autoconf/configure</code>. This in turn will run <code>autoconf</code> to create the runnable (generated) configure script, as <code>.build/generated-configure.sh</code>. Apart from being responsible for the generation of the runnable script, the <code>configure</code> script also provides functionality that is not easily expressed in the normal Autoconf framework. As part of this functionality, the generated script is called.</p>
ihse@48743 998 <p>The build system will detect if the Autoconf source files have changed, and will trigger a regeneration of the generated script if needed. You can also manually request such an update by <code>bash configure autogen</code>.</p>
mr@50885 999 <p>In previous versions of the JDK, the generated script was checked in at <code>make/autoconf/generated-configure.sh</code>. This is no longer the case.</p>
ihse@45763 1000 <h3 id="developing-the-build-system-itself">Developing the Build System Itself</h3>
ihse@45763 1001 <p>This section contains a few remarks about how to develop for the build system itself. It is not relevant if you are only making changes in the product source code.</p>
mr@50885 1002 <p>While technically using <code>make</code>, the make source files of the JDK does not resemble most other Makefiles. Instead of listing specific targets and actions (perhaps using patterns), the basic modus operandi is to call a high-level function (or properly, macro) from the API in <code>make/common</code>. For instance, to compile all classes in the <code>jdk.internal.foo</code> package in the <code>jdk.foo</code> module, a call like this would be made:</p>
ihse@45763 1003 <pre><code>$(eval $(call SetupJavaCompilation, BUILD_FOO_CLASSES, \
ihse@45763 1004 SETUP := GENERATE_OLDBYTECODE, \
ihse@47219 1005 SRC := $(TOPDIR)/src/jkd.foo/share/classes, \
ihse@45763 1006 INCLUDES := jdk/internal/foo, \
ihse@45763 1007 BIN := $(SUPPORT_OUTPUTDIR)/foo_classes, \
ihse@45763 1008 ))</code></pre>
ihse@45763 1009 <p>By encapsulating and expressing the high-level knowledge of <em>what</em> should be done, rather than <em>how</em> it should be done (as is normal in Makefiles), we can build a much more powerful and flexible build system.</p>
ihse@45763 1010 <p>Correct dependency tracking is paramount. Sloppy dependency tracking will lead to improper parallelization, or worse, race conditions.</p>
erikj@51237 1011 <p>To test for/debug race conditions, try running <code>make JOBS=1</code> and <code>make JOBS=100</code> and see if it makes any difference. (It shouldn't).</p>
ihse@45763 1012 <p>To compare the output of two different builds and see if, and how, they differ, run <code>$BUILD1/compare.sh -o $BUILD2</code>, where <code>$BUILD1</code> and <code>$BUILD2</code> are the two builds you want to compare.</p>
ihse@45763 1013 <p>To automatically build two consecutive versions and compare them, use <code>COMPARE_BUILD</code>. The value of <code>COMPARE_BUILD</code> is a set of variable=value assignments, like this:</p>
ihse@45763 1014 <pre><code>make COMPARE_BUILD=CONF=--enable-new-hotspot-feature:MAKE=hotspot</code></pre>
ihse@45763 1015 <p>See <code>make/InitSupport.gmk</code> for details on how to use <code>COMPARE_BUILD</code>.</p>
ihse@45763 1016 <p>To analyze build performance, run with <code>LOG=trace</code> and check <code>$BUILD/build-trace-time.log</code>. Use <code>JOBS=1</code> to avoid parallelism.</p>
ihse@48743 1017 <p>Please check that you adhere to the <a href="http://openjdk.java.net/groups/build/doc/code-conventions.html">Code Conventions for the Build System</a> before submitting patches.</p>
mr@50885 1018 <h2 id="contributing-to-the-jdk">Contributing to the JDK</h2>
erikj@51237 1019 <p>So, now you've built your JDK, and made your first patch, and want to contribute it back to the OpenJDK Community.</p>
mr@50885 1020 <p>First of all: Thank you! We gladly welcome your contribution. However, please bear in mind that the JDK is a massive project, and we must ask you to follow our rules and guidelines to be able to accept your contribution.</p>
erikj@51237 1021 <p>The official place to start is the <a href="http://openjdk.java.net/contribute/">'How to contribute' page</a>. There is also an official (but somewhat outdated and skimpy on details) <a href="http://openjdk.java.net/guide/">Developer's Guide</a>.</p>
erikj@51237 1022 <p>If this seems overwhelming to you, the Adoption Group is there to help you! A good place to start is their <a href="https://wiki.openjdk.java.net/display/Adoption/New+Contributor">'New Contributor' page</a>, or start reading the comprehensive <a href="https://adoptopenjdk.gitbooks.io/adoptopenjdk-getting-started-kit/en/">Getting Started Kit</a>. The Adoption Group will also happily answer any questions you have about contributing. Contact them by <a href="http://mail.openjdk.java.net/mailman/listinfo/adoption-discuss">mail</a> or <a href="http://openjdk.java.net/irc/">IRC</a>.</p>
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