view src/hotspot/share/prims/jvm.cpp @ 49917:1871c5d07caf

8201622: Reduce unnecessary Package.complete() calls in javadoc Reviewed-by: jlahoda
author jjg
date Fri, 27 Apr 2018 15:55:29 -0700
parents 7444101401b2
children 9fec54fe663d
line wrap: on
line source
/*
 * Copyright (c) 1997, 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
 *
 * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
 * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
 * published by the Free Software Foundation.
 *
 * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
 * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
 * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
 * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
 * accompanied this code).
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
 * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
 * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
 *
 * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
 * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
 * questions.
 *
 */

#include "precompiled.hpp"
#include "jvm.h"
#include "classfile/classFileStream.hpp"
#include "classfile/classLoader.hpp"
#include "classfile/classLoaderData.inline.hpp"
#include "classfile/javaAssertions.hpp"
#include "classfile/javaClasses.inline.hpp"
#include "classfile/moduleEntry.hpp"
#include "classfile/modules.hpp"
#include "classfile/packageEntry.hpp"
#include "classfile/stringTable.hpp"
#include "classfile/systemDictionary.hpp"
#include "classfile/vmSymbols.hpp"
#include "gc/shared/collectedHeap.inline.hpp"
#include "interpreter/bytecode.hpp"
#include "memory/oopFactory.hpp"
#include "memory/referenceType.hpp"
#include "memory/resourceArea.hpp"
#include "memory/universe.hpp"
#include "oops/access.inline.hpp"
#include "oops/fieldStreams.hpp"
#include "oops/instanceKlass.hpp"
#include "oops/method.hpp"
#include "oops/objArrayKlass.hpp"
#include "oops/objArrayOop.inline.hpp"
#include "oops/oop.inline.hpp"
#include "prims/jvm_misc.hpp"
#include "prims/jvmtiExport.hpp"
#include "prims/jvmtiThreadState.hpp"
#include "prims/nativeLookup.hpp"
#include "prims/privilegedStack.hpp"
#include "prims/stackwalk.hpp"
#include "runtime/arguments.hpp"
#include "runtime/atomic.hpp"
#include "runtime/handles.inline.hpp"
#include "runtime/init.hpp"
#include "runtime/interfaceSupport.inline.hpp"
#include "runtime/java.hpp"
#include "runtime/javaCalls.hpp"
#include "runtime/jfieldIDWorkaround.hpp"
#include "runtime/jniHandles.inline.hpp"
#include "runtime/orderAccess.inline.hpp"
#include "runtime/os.inline.hpp"
#include "runtime/perfData.hpp"
#include "runtime/reflection.hpp"
#include "runtime/thread.inline.hpp"
#include "runtime/threadSMR.hpp"
#include "runtime/vframe.inline.hpp"
#include "runtime/vm_operations.hpp"
#include "runtime/vm_version.hpp"
#include "services/attachListener.hpp"
#include "services/management.hpp"
#include "services/threadService.hpp"
#include "trace/tracing.hpp"
#include "utilities/copy.hpp"
#include "utilities/defaultStream.hpp"
#include "utilities/dtrace.hpp"
#include "utilities/events.hpp"
#include "utilities/histogram.hpp"
#include "utilities/macros.hpp"
#include "utilities/utf8.hpp"
#if INCLUDE_CDS
#include "classfile/sharedClassUtil.hpp"
#include "classfile/systemDictionaryShared.hpp"
#endif

#include <errno.h>

/*
  NOTE about use of any ctor or function call that can trigger a safepoint/GC:
  such ctors and calls MUST NOT come between an oop declaration/init and its
  usage because if objects are move this may cause various memory stomps, bus
  errors and segfaults. Here is a cookbook for causing so called "naked oop
  failures":

      JVM_ENTRY(jobjectArray, JVM_GetClassDeclaredFields<etc> {
          JVMWrapper("JVM_GetClassDeclaredFields");

          // Object address to be held directly in mirror & not visible to GC
          oop mirror = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(ofClass);

          // If this ctor can hit a safepoint, moving objects around, then
          ComplexConstructor foo;

          // Boom! mirror may point to JUNK instead of the intended object
          (some dereference of mirror)

          // Here's another call that may block for GC, making mirror stale
          MutexLocker ml(some_lock);

          // And here's an initializer that can result in a stale oop
          // all in one step.
          oop o = call_that_can_throw_exception(TRAPS);


  The solution is to keep the oop declaration BELOW the ctor or function
  call that might cause a GC, do another resolve to reassign the oop, or
  consider use of a Handle instead of an oop so there is immunity from object
  motion. But note that the "QUICK" entries below do not have a handlemark
  and thus can only support use of handles passed in.
*/

static void trace_class_resolution_impl(Klass* to_class, TRAPS) {
  ResourceMark rm;
  int line_number = -1;
  const char * source_file = NULL;
  const char * trace = "explicit";
  InstanceKlass* caller = NULL;
  JavaThread* jthread = JavaThread::current();
  if (jthread->has_last_Java_frame()) {
    vframeStream vfst(jthread);

    // scan up the stack skipping ClassLoader, AccessController and PrivilegedAction frames
    TempNewSymbol access_controller = SymbolTable::new_symbol("java/security/AccessController", CHECK);
    Klass* access_controller_klass = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(access_controller, false, CHECK);
    TempNewSymbol privileged_action = SymbolTable::new_symbol("java/security/PrivilegedAction", CHECK);
    Klass* privileged_action_klass = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(privileged_action, false, CHECK);

    Method* last_caller = NULL;

    while (!vfst.at_end()) {
      Method* m = vfst.method();
      if (!vfst.method()->method_holder()->is_subclass_of(SystemDictionary::ClassLoader_klass())&&
          !vfst.method()->method_holder()->is_subclass_of(access_controller_klass) &&
          !vfst.method()->method_holder()->is_subclass_of(privileged_action_klass)) {
        break;
      }
      last_caller = m;
      vfst.next();
    }
    // if this is called from Class.forName0 and that is called from Class.forName,
    // then print the caller of Class.forName.  If this is Class.loadClass, then print
    // that caller, otherwise keep quiet since this should be picked up elsewhere.
    bool found_it = false;
    if (!vfst.at_end() &&
        vfst.method()->method_holder()->name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_Class() &&
        vfst.method()->name() == vmSymbols::forName0_name()) {
      vfst.next();
      if (!vfst.at_end() &&
          vfst.method()->method_holder()->name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_Class() &&
          vfst.method()->name() == vmSymbols::forName_name()) {
        vfst.next();
        found_it = true;
      }
    } else if (last_caller != NULL &&
               last_caller->method_holder()->name() ==
                 vmSymbols::java_lang_ClassLoader() &&
               last_caller->name() == vmSymbols::loadClass_name()) {
      found_it = true;
    } else if (!vfst.at_end()) {
      if (vfst.method()->is_native()) {
        // JNI call
        found_it = true;
      }
    }
    if (found_it && !vfst.at_end()) {
      // found the caller
      caller = vfst.method()->method_holder();
      line_number = vfst.method()->line_number_from_bci(vfst.bci());
      if (line_number == -1) {
        // show method name if it's a native method
        trace = vfst.method()->name_and_sig_as_C_string();
      }
      Symbol* s = caller->source_file_name();
      if (s != NULL) {
        source_file = s->as_C_string();
      }
    }
  }
  if (caller != NULL) {
    if (to_class != caller) {
      const char * from = caller->external_name();
      const char * to = to_class->external_name();
      // print in a single call to reduce interleaving between threads
      if (source_file != NULL) {
        log_debug(class, resolve)("%s %s %s:%d (%s)", from, to, source_file, line_number, trace);
      } else {
        log_debug(class, resolve)("%s %s (%s)", from, to, trace);
      }
    }
  }
}

void trace_class_resolution(Klass* to_class) {
  EXCEPTION_MARK;
  trace_class_resolution_impl(to_class, THREAD);
  if (HAS_PENDING_EXCEPTION) {
    CLEAR_PENDING_EXCEPTION;
  }
}

// Wrapper to trace JVM functions

#ifdef ASSERT
  Histogram* JVMHistogram;
  volatile int JVMHistogram_lock = 0;

  class JVMHistogramElement : public HistogramElement {
    public:
     JVMHistogramElement(const char* name);
  };

  JVMHistogramElement::JVMHistogramElement(const char* elementName) {
    _name = elementName;
    uintx count = 0;

    while (Atomic::cmpxchg(1, &JVMHistogram_lock, 0) != 0) {
      while (OrderAccess::load_acquire(&JVMHistogram_lock) != 0) {
        count +=1;
        if ( (WarnOnStalledSpinLock > 0)
          && (count % WarnOnStalledSpinLock == 0)) {
          warning("JVMHistogram_lock seems to be stalled");
        }
      }
     }

    if(JVMHistogram == NULL)
      JVMHistogram = new Histogram("JVM Call Counts",100);

    JVMHistogram->add_element(this);
    Atomic::dec(&JVMHistogram_lock);
  }

  #define JVMCountWrapper(arg) \
      static JVMHistogramElement* e = new JVMHistogramElement(arg); \
      if (e != NULL) e->increment_count();  // Due to bug in VC++, we need a NULL check here eventhough it should never happen!

  #define JVMWrapper(arg) JVMCountWrapper(arg);
#else
  #define JVMWrapper(arg)
#endif


// Interface version /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////


JVM_LEAF(jint, JVM_GetInterfaceVersion())
  return JVM_INTERFACE_VERSION;
JVM_END


// java.lang.System //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////


JVM_LEAF(jlong, JVM_CurrentTimeMillis(JNIEnv *env, jclass ignored))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_CurrentTimeMillis");
  return os::javaTimeMillis();
JVM_END

JVM_LEAF(jlong, JVM_NanoTime(JNIEnv *env, jclass ignored))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_NanoTime");
  return os::javaTimeNanos();
JVM_END

// The function below is actually exposed by jdk.internal.misc.VM and not
// java.lang.System, but we choose to keep it here so that it stays next
// to JVM_CurrentTimeMillis and JVM_NanoTime

const jlong MAX_DIFF_SECS = CONST64(0x0100000000); //  2^32
const jlong MIN_DIFF_SECS = -MAX_DIFF_SECS; // -2^32

JVM_LEAF(jlong, JVM_GetNanoTimeAdjustment(JNIEnv *env, jclass ignored, jlong offset_secs))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetNanoTimeAdjustment");
  jlong seconds;
  jlong nanos;

  os::javaTimeSystemUTC(seconds, nanos);

  // We're going to verify that the result can fit in a long.
  // For that we need the difference in seconds between 'seconds'
  // and 'offset_secs' to be such that:
  //     |seconds - offset_secs| < (2^63/10^9)
  // We're going to approximate 10^9 ~< 2^30 (1000^3 ~< 1024^3)
  // which makes |seconds - offset_secs| < 2^33
  // and we will prefer +/- 2^32 as the maximum acceptable diff
  // as 2^32 has a more natural feel than 2^33...
  //
  // So if |seconds - offset_secs| >= 2^32 - we return a special
  // sentinel value (-1) which the caller should take as an
  // exception value indicating that the offset given to us is
  // too far from range of the current time - leading to too big
  // a nano adjustment. The caller is expected to recover by
  // computing a more accurate offset and calling this method
  // again. (For the record 2^32 secs is ~136 years, so that
  // should rarely happen)
  //
  jlong diff = seconds - offset_secs;
  if (diff >= MAX_DIFF_SECS || diff <= MIN_DIFF_SECS) {
     return -1; // sentinel value: the offset is too far off the target
  }

  // return the adjustment. If you compute a time by adding
  // this number of nanoseconds along with the number of seconds
  // in the offset you should get the current UTC time.
  return (diff * (jlong)1000000000) + nanos;
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(void, JVM_ArrayCopy(JNIEnv *env, jclass ignored, jobject src, jint src_pos,
                               jobject dst, jint dst_pos, jint length))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_ArrayCopy");
  // Check if we have null pointers
  if (src == NULL || dst == NULL) {
    THROW(vmSymbols::java_lang_NullPointerException());
  }
  arrayOop s = arrayOop(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(src));
  arrayOop d = arrayOop(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(dst));
  assert(oopDesc::is_oop(s), "JVM_ArrayCopy: src not an oop");
  assert(oopDesc::is_oop(d), "JVM_ArrayCopy: dst not an oop");
  // Do copy
  s->klass()->copy_array(s, src_pos, d, dst_pos, length, thread);
JVM_END


static void set_property(Handle props, const char* key, const char* value, TRAPS) {
  JavaValue r(T_OBJECT);
  // public synchronized Object put(Object key, Object value);
  HandleMark hm(THREAD);
  Handle key_str    = java_lang_String::create_from_platform_dependent_str(key, CHECK);
  Handle value_str  = java_lang_String::create_from_platform_dependent_str((value != NULL ? value : ""), CHECK);
  JavaCalls::call_virtual(&r,
                          props,
                          SystemDictionary::Properties_klass(),
                          vmSymbols::put_name(),
                          vmSymbols::object_object_object_signature(),
                          key_str,
                          value_str,
                          THREAD);
}


#define PUTPROP(props, name, value) set_property((props), (name), (value), CHECK_(properties));


JVM_ENTRY(jobject, JVM_InitProperties(JNIEnv *env, jobject properties))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_InitProperties");
  ResourceMark rm;

  Handle props(THREAD, JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(properties));

  // System property list includes both user set via -D option and
  // jvm system specific properties.
  for (SystemProperty* p = Arguments::system_properties(); p != NULL; p = p->next()) {
    PUTPROP(props, p->key(), p->value());
  }

  // Convert the -XX:MaxDirectMemorySize= command line flag
  // to the sun.nio.MaxDirectMemorySize property.
  // Do this after setting user properties to prevent people
  // from setting the value with a -D option, as requested.
  {
    if (FLAG_IS_DEFAULT(MaxDirectMemorySize)) {
      PUTPROP(props, "sun.nio.MaxDirectMemorySize", "-1");
    } else {
      char as_chars[256];
      jio_snprintf(as_chars, sizeof(as_chars), JULONG_FORMAT, MaxDirectMemorySize);
      PUTPROP(props, "sun.nio.MaxDirectMemorySize", as_chars);
    }
  }

  // JVM monitoring and management support
  // Add the sun.management.compiler property for the compiler's name
  {
#undef CSIZE
#if defined(_LP64) || defined(_WIN64)
  #define CSIZE "64-Bit "
#else
  #define CSIZE
#endif // 64bit

#ifdef TIERED
    const char* compiler_name = "HotSpot " CSIZE "Tiered Compilers";
#else
#if defined(COMPILER1)
    const char* compiler_name = "HotSpot " CSIZE "Client Compiler";
#elif defined(COMPILER2)
    const char* compiler_name = "HotSpot " CSIZE "Server Compiler";
#elif INCLUDE_JVMCI
    #error "INCLUDE_JVMCI should imply TIERED"
#else
    const char* compiler_name = "";
#endif // compilers
#endif // TIERED

    if (*compiler_name != '\0' &&
        (Arguments::mode() != Arguments::_int)) {
      PUTPROP(props, "sun.management.compiler", compiler_name);
    }
  }

  return properties;
JVM_END


/*
 * Return the temporary directory that the VM uses for the attach
 * and perf data files.
 *
 * It is important that this directory is well-known and the
 * same for all VM instances. It cannot be affected by configuration
 * variables such as java.io.tmpdir.
 */
JVM_ENTRY(jstring, JVM_GetTemporaryDirectory(JNIEnv *env))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetTemporaryDirectory");
  HandleMark hm(THREAD);
  const char* temp_dir = os::get_temp_directory();
  Handle h = java_lang_String::create_from_platform_dependent_str(temp_dir, CHECK_NULL);
  return (jstring) JNIHandles::make_local(env, h());
JVM_END


// java.lang.Runtime /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

extern volatile jint vm_created;

JVM_ENTRY_NO_ENV(void, JVM_BeforeHalt())
  JVMWrapper("JVM_BeforeHalt");
  EventShutdown event;
  if (event.should_commit()) {
    event.set_reason("Shutdown requested from Java");
    event.commit();
  }
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY_NO_ENV(void, JVM_Halt(jint code))
  before_exit(thread);
  vm_exit(code);
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY_NO_ENV(void, JVM_GC(void))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GC");
  if (!DisableExplicitGC) {
    Universe::heap()->collect(GCCause::_java_lang_system_gc);
  }
JVM_END


JVM_LEAF(jlong, JVM_MaxObjectInspectionAge(void))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_MaxObjectInspectionAge");
  return Universe::heap()->millis_since_last_gc();
JVM_END


static inline jlong convert_size_t_to_jlong(size_t val) {
  // In the 64-bit vm, a size_t can overflow a jlong (which is signed).
  NOT_LP64 (return (jlong)val;)
  LP64_ONLY(return (jlong)MIN2(val, (size_t)max_jlong);)
}

JVM_ENTRY_NO_ENV(jlong, JVM_TotalMemory(void))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_TotalMemory");
  size_t n = Universe::heap()->capacity();
  return convert_size_t_to_jlong(n);
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY_NO_ENV(jlong, JVM_FreeMemory(void))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_FreeMemory");
  CollectedHeap* ch = Universe::heap();
  size_t n;
  {
     MutexLocker x(Heap_lock);
     n = ch->capacity() - ch->used();
  }
  return convert_size_t_to_jlong(n);
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY_NO_ENV(jlong, JVM_MaxMemory(void))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_MaxMemory");
  size_t n = Universe::heap()->max_capacity();
  return convert_size_t_to_jlong(n);
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY_NO_ENV(jint, JVM_ActiveProcessorCount(void))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_ActiveProcessorCount");
  return os::active_processor_count();
JVM_END



// java.lang.Throwable //////////////////////////////////////////////////////


JVM_ENTRY(void, JVM_FillInStackTrace(JNIEnv *env, jobject receiver))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_FillInStackTrace");
  Handle exception(thread, JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(receiver));
  java_lang_Throwable::fill_in_stack_trace(exception);
JVM_END


// java.lang.StackTraceElement //////////////////////////////////////////////


JVM_ENTRY(void, JVM_InitStackTraceElementArray(JNIEnv *env, jobjectArray elements, jobject throwable))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_InitStackTraceElementArray");
  Handle exception(THREAD, JNIHandles::resolve(throwable));
  objArrayOop st = objArrayOop(JNIHandles::resolve(elements));
  objArrayHandle stack_trace(THREAD, st);
  // Fill in the allocated stack trace
  java_lang_Throwable::get_stack_trace_elements(exception, stack_trace, CHECK);
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(void, JVM_InitStackTraceElement(JNIEnv* env, jobject element, jobject stackFrameInfo))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_InitStackTraceElement");
  Handle stack_frame_info(THREAD, JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(stackFrameInfo));
  Handle stack_trace_element(THREAD, JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(element));
  java_lang_StackFrameInfo::to_stack_trace_element(stack_frame_info, stack_trace_element, THREAD);
JVM_END


// java.lang.StackWalker //////////////////////////////////////////////////////


JVM_ENTRY(jobject, JVM_CallStackWalk(JNIEnv *env, jobject stackStream, jlong mode,
                                     jint skip_frames, jint frame_count, jint start_index,
                                     jobjectArray frames))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_CallStackWalk");
  JavaThread* jt = (JavaThread*) THREAD;
  if (!jt->is_Java_thread() || !jt->has_last_Java_frame()) {
    THROW_MSG_(vmSymbols::java_lang_InternalError(), "doStackWalk: no stack trace", NULL);
  }

  Handle stackStream_h(THREAD, JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(stackStream));

  // frames array is a Class<?>[] array when only getting caller reference,
  // and a StackFrameInfo[] array (or derivative) otherwise. It should never
  // be null.
  objArrayOop fa = objArrayOop(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(frames));
  objArrayHandle frames_array_h(THREAD, fa);

  int limit = start_index + frame_count;
  if (frames_array_h->length() < limit) {
    THROW_MSG_(vmSymbols::java_lang_IllegalArgumentException(), "not enough space in buffers", NULL);
  }

  oop result = StackWalk::walk(stackStream_h, mode, skip_frames, frame_count,
                               start_index, frames_array_h, CHECK_NULL);
  return JNIHandles::make_local(env, result);
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(jint, JVM_MoreStackWalk(JNIEnv *env, jobject stackStream, jlong mode, jlong anchor,
                                  jint frame_count, jint start_index,
                                  jobjectArray frames))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_MoreStackWalk");
  JavaThread* jt = (JavaThread*) THREAD;

  // frames array is a Class<?>[] array when only getting caller reference,
  // and a StackFrameInfo[] array (or derivative) otherwise. It should never
  // be null.
  objArrayOop fa = objArrayOop(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(frames));
  objArrayHandle frames_array_h(THREAD, fa);

  int limit = start_index+frame_count;
  if (frames_array_h->length() < limit) {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_IllegalArgumentException(), "not enough space in buffers");
  }

  Handle stackStream_h(THREAD, JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(stackStream));
  return StackWalk::fetchNextBatch(stackStream_h, mode, anchor, frame_count,
                                   start_index, frames_array_h, THREAD);
JVM_END

// java.lang.Object ///////////////////////////////////////////////


JVM_ENTRY(jint, JVM_IHashCode(JNIEnv* env, jobject handle))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_IHashCode");
  // as implemented in the classic virtual machine; return 0 if object is NULL
  return handle == NULL ? 0 : ObjectSynchronizer::FastHashCode (THREAD, JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(handle)) ;
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(void, JVM_MonitorWait(JNIEnv* env, jobject handle, jlong ms))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_MonitorWait");
  Handle obj(THREAD, JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(handle));
  JavaThreadInObjectWaitState jtiows(thread, ms != 0);
  if (JvmtiExport::should_post_monitor_wait()) {
    JvmtiExport::post_monitor_wait((JavaThread *)THREAD, (oop)obj(), ms);

    // The current thread already owns the monitor and it has not yet
    // been added to the wait queue so the current thread cannot be
    // made the successor. This means that the JVMTI_EVENT_MONITOR_WAIT
    // event handler cannot accidentally consume an unpark() meant for
    // the ParkEvent associated with this ObjectMonitor.
  }
  ObjectSynchronizer::wait(obj, ms, CHECK);
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(void, JVM_MonitorNotify(JNIEnv* env, jobject handle))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_MonitorNotify");
  Handle obj(THREAD, JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(handle));
  ObjectSynchronizer::notify(obj, CHECK);
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(void, JVM_MonitorNotifyAll(JNIEnv* env, jobject handle))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_MonitorNotifyAll");
  Handle obj(THREAD, JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(handle));
  ObjectSynchronizer::notifyall(obj, CHECK);
JVM_END


template<DecoratorSet decorators>
static void fixup_clone_referent(oop src, oop new_obj) {
  typedef HeapAccess<decorators> RefAccess;
  const int ref_offset = java_lang_ref_Reference::referent_offset;
  oop referent = RefAccess::oop_load_at(src, ref_offset);
  RefAccess::oop_store_at(new_obj, ref_offset, referent);
}

static void fixup_cloned_reference(ReferenceType ref_type, oop src, oop clone) {
  // Kludge: After unbarriered clone, re-copy the referent with
  // correct barriers. This works for current collectors, but won't
  // work for ZGC and maybe other future collectors or variants of
  // existing ones (like G1 with concurrent reference processing).
  if (ref_type == REF_PHANTOM) {
    fixup_clone_referent<ON_PHANTOM_OOP_REF>(src, clone);
  } else {
    fixup_clone_referent<ON_WEAK_OOP_REF>(src, clone);
  }
  if ((java_lang_ref_Reference::next(clone) != NULL) ||
      (java_lang_ref_Reference::queue(clone) == java_lang_ref_ReferenceQueue::ENQUEUED_queue())) {
    // If the source has been enqueued or is being enqueued, don't
    // register the clone with a queue.
    java_lang_ref_Reference::set_queue(clone, java_lang_ref_ReferenceQueue::NULL_queue());
  }
  // discovered and next are list links; the clone is not in those lists.
  java_lang_ref_Reference::set_discovered(clone, NULL);
  java_lang_ref_Reference::set_next(clone, NULL);
}

JVM_ENTRY(jobject, JVM_Clone(JNIEnv* env, jobject handle))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_Clone");
  Handle obj(THREAD, JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(handle));
  Klass* klass = obj->klass();
  JvmtiVMObjectAllocEventCollector oam;

#ifdef ASSERT
  // Just checking that the cloneable flag is set correct
  if (obj->is_array()) {
    guarantee(klass->is_cloneable(), "all arrays are cloneable");
  } else {
    guarantee(obj->is_instance(), "should be instanceOop");
    bool cloneable = klass->is_subtype_of(SystemDictionary::Cloneable_klass());
    guarantee(cloneable == klass->is_cloneable(), "incorrect cloneable flag");
  }
#endif

  // Check if class of obj supports the Cloneable interface.
  // All arrays are considered to be cloneable (See JLS 20.1.5)
  if (!klass->is_cloneable()) {
    ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_CloneNotSupportedException(), klass->external_name());
  }

  // Make shallow object copy
  ReferenceType ref_type = REF_NONE;
  const int size = obj->size();
  oop new_obj_oop = NULL;
  if (obj->is_array()) {
    const int length = ((arrayOop)obj())->length();
    new_obj_oop = CollectedHeap::array_allocate(klass, size, length, CHECK_NULL);
  } else {
    ref_type = InstanceKlass::cast(klass)->reference_type();
    assert((ref_type == REF_NONE) ==
           !klass->is_subclass_of(SystemDictionary::Reference_klass()),
           "invariant");
    new_obj_oop = CollectedHeap::obj_allocate(klass, size, CHECK_NULL);
  }

  HeapAccess<>::clone(obj(), new_obj_oop, size);

  // If cloning a Reference, set Reference fields to a safe state.
  // Fixup must be completed before any safepoint.
  if (ref_type != REF_NONE) {
    fixup_cloned_reference(ref_type, obj(), new_obj_oop);
  }

  Handle new_obj(THREAD, new_obj_oop);
  // Caution: this involves a java upcall, so the clone should be
  // "gc-robust" by this stage.
  if (klass->has_finalizer()) {
    assert(obj->is_instance(), "should be instanceOop");
    new_obj_oop = InstanceKlass::register_finalizer(instanceOop(new_obj()), CHECK_NULL);
    new_obj = Handle(THREAD, new_obj_oop);
  }

  return JNIHandles::make_local(env, new_obj());
JVM_END

// java.io.File ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

JVM_LEAF(char*, JVM_NativePath(char* path))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_NativePath");
  return os::native_path(path);
JVM_END


// Misc. class handling ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////


JVM_ENTRY(jclass, JVM_GetCallerClass(JNIEnv* env))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetCallerClass");

  // Getting the class of the caller frame.
  //
  // The call stack at this point looks something like this:
  //
  // [0] [ @CallerSensitive public sun.reflect.Reflection.getCallerClass ]
  // [1] [ @CallerSensitive API.method                                   ]
  // [.] [ (skipped intermediate frames)                                 ]
  // [n] [ caller                                                        ]
  vframeStream vfst(thread);
  // Cf. LibraryCallKit::inline_native_Reflection_getCallerClass
  for (int n = 0; !vfst.at_end(); vfst.security_next(), n++) {
    Method* m = vfst.method();
    assert(m != NULL, "sanity");
    switch (n) {
    case 0:
      // This must only be called from Reflection.getCallerClass
      if (m->intrinsic_id() != vmIntrinsics::_getCallerClass) {
        THROW_MSG_NULL(vmSymbols::java_lang_InternalError(), "JVM_GetCallerClass must only be called from Reflection.getCallerClass");
      }
      // fall-through
    case 1:
      // Frame 0 and 1 must be caller sensitive.
      if (!m->caller_sensitive()) {
        THROW_MSG_NULL(vmSymbols::java_lang_InternalError(), err_msg("CallerSensitive annotation expected at frame %d", n));
      }
      break;
    default:
      if (!m->is_ignored_by_security_stack_walk()) {
        // We have reached the desired frame; return the holder class.
        return (jclass) JNIHandles::make_local(env, m->method_holder()->java_mirror());
      }
      break;
    }
  }
  return NULL;
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(jclass, JVM_FindPrimitiveClass(JNIEnv* env, const char* utf))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_FindPrimitiveClass");
  oop mirror = NULL;
  BasicType t = name2type(utf);
  if (t != T_ILLEGAL && t != T_OBJECT && t != T_ARRAY) {
    mirror = Universe::java_mirror(t);
  }
  if (mirror == NULL) {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_ClassNotFoundException(), (char*) utf);
  } else {
    return (jclass) JNIHandles::make_local(env, mirror);
  }
JVM_END


// Returns a class loaded by the bootstrap class loader; or null
// if not found.  ClassNotFoundException is not thrown.
// FindClassFromBootLoader is exported to the launcher for windows.
JVM_ENTRY(jclass, JVM_FindClassFromBootLoader(JNIEnv* env,
                                              const char* name))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_FindClassFromBootLoader");

  // Java libraries should ensure that name is never null...
  if (name == NULL || (int)strlen(name) > Symbol::max_length()) {
    // It's impossible to create this class;  the name cannot fit
    // into the constant pool.
    return NULL;
  }

  TempNewSymbol h_name = SymbolTable::new_symbol(name, CHECK_NULL);
  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_null(h_name, CHECK_NULL);
  if (k == NULL) {
    return NULL;
  }

  if (log_is_enabled(Debug, class, resolve)) {
    trace_class_resolution(k);
  }
  return (jclass) JNIHandles::make_local(env, k->java_mirror());
JVM_END

// Find a class with this name in this loader, using the caller's protection domain.
JVM_ENTRY(jclass, JVM_FindClassFromCaller(JNIEnv* env, const char* name,
                                          jboolean init, jobject loader,
                                          jclass caller))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_FindClassFromCaller throws ClassNotFoundException");
  // Java libraries should ensure that name is never null...
  if (name == NULL || (int)strlen(name) > Symbol::max_length()) {
    // It's impossible to create this class;  the name cannot fit
    // into the constant pool.
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_ClassNotFoundException(), name);
  }

  TempNewSymbol h_name = SymbolTable::new_symbol(name, CHECK_NULL);

  oop loader_oop = JNIHandles::resolve(loader);
  oop from_class = JNIHandles::resolve(caller);
  oop protection_domain = NULL;
  // If loader is null, shouldn't call ClassLoader.checkPackageAccess; otherwise get
  // NPE. Put it in another way, the bootstrap class loader has all permission and
  // thus no checkPackageAccess equivalence in the VM class loader.
  // The caller is also passed as NULL by the java code if there is no security
  // manager to avoid the performance cost of getting the calling class.
  if (from_class != NULL && loader_oop != NULL) {
    protection_domain = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(from_class)->protection_domain();
  }

  Handle h_loader(THREAD, loader_oop);
  Handle h_prot(THREAD, protection_domain);
  jclass result = find_class_from_class_loader(env, h_name, init, h_loader,
                                               h_prot, false, THREAD);

  if (log_is_enabled(Debug, class, resolve) && result != NULL) {
    trace_class_resolution(java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(result)));
  }
  return result;
JVM_END

// Currently only called from the old verifier.
JVM_ENTRY(jclass, JVM_FindClassFromClass(JNIEnv *env, const char *name,
                                         jboolean init, jclass from))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_FindClassFromClass");
  if (name == NULL) {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_NoClassDefFoundError(), "No class name given");
  }
  if ((int)strlen(name) > Symbol::max_length()) {
    // It's impossible to create this class;  the name cannot fit
    // into the constant pool.
    Exceptions::fthrow(THREAD_AND_LOCATION,
                       vmSymbols::java_lang_NoClassDefFoundError(),
                       "Class name exceeds maximum length of %d: %s",
                       Symbol::max_length(),
                       name);
    return 0;
  }
  TempNewSymbol h_name = SymbolTable::new_symbol(name, CHECK_NULL);
  oop from_class_oop = JNIHandles::resolve(from);
  Klass* from_class = (from_class_oop == NULL)
                           ? (Klass*)NULL
                           : java_lang_Class::as_Klass(from_class_oop);
  oop class_loader = NULL;
  oop protection_domain = NULL;
  if (from_class != NULL) {
    class_loader = from_class->class_loader();
    protection_domain = from_class->protection_domain();
  }
  Handle h_loader(THREAD, class_loader);
  Handle h_prot  (THREAD, protection_domain);
  jclass result = find_class_from_class_loader(env, h_name, init, h_loader,
                                               h_prot, true, thread);
  if (result != NULL) {
    oop mirror = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(result);
    Klass* to_class = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(mirror);
    ClassLoaderData::class_loader_data(h_loader())->record_dependency(to_class);
  }

  if (log_is_enabled(Debug, class, resolve) && result != NULL) {
    // this function is generally only used for class loading during verification.
    ResourceMark rm;
    oop from_mirror = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(from);
    Klass* from_class = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(from_mirror);
    const char * from_name = from_class->external_name();

    oop mirror = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(result);
    Klass* to_class = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(mirror);
    const char * to = to_class->external_name();
    log_debug(class, resolve)("%s %s (verification)", from_name, to);
  }

  return result;
JVM_END

static void is_lock_held_by_thread(Handle loader, PerfCounter* counter, TRAPS) {
  if (loader.is_null()) {
    return;
  }

  // check whether the current caller thread holds the lock or not.
  // If not, increment the corresponding counter
  if (ObjectSynchronizer::query_lock_ownership((JavaThread*)THREAD, loader) !=
      ObjectSynchronizer::owner_self) {
    counter->inc();
  }
}

// common code for JVM_DefineClass() and JVM_DefineClassWithSource()
static jclass jvm_define_class_common(JNIEnv *env, const char *name,
                                      jobject loader, const jbyte *buf,
                                      jsize len, jobject pd, const char *source,
                                      TRAPS) {
  if (source == NULL)  source = "__JVM_DefineClass__";

  assert(THREAD->is_Java_thread(), "must be a JavaThread");
  JavaThread* jt = (JavaThread*) THREAD;

  PerfClassTraceTime vmtimer(ClassLoader::perf_define_appclass_time(),
                             ClassLoader::perf_define_appclass_selftime(),
                             ClassLoader::perf_define_appclasses(),
                             jt->get_thread_stat()->perf_recursion_counts_addr(),
                             jt->get_thread_stat()->perf_timers_addr(),
                             PerfClassTraceTime::DEFINE_CLASS);

  if (UsePerfData) {
    ClassLoader::perf_app_classfile_bytes_read()->inc(len);
  }

  // Since exceptions can be thrown, class initialization can take place
  // if name is NULL no check for class name in .class stream has to be made.
  TempNewSymbol class_name = NULL;
  if (name != NULL) {
    const int str_len = (int)strlen(name);
    if (str_len > Symbol::max_length()) {
      // It's impossible to create this class;  the name cannot fit
      // into the constant pool.
      Exceptions::fthrow(THREAD_AND_LOCATION,
                         vmSymbols::java_lang_NoClassDefFoundError(),
                         "Class name exceeds maximum length of %d: %s",
                         Symbol::max_length(),
                         name);
      return 0;
    }
    class_name = SymbolTable::new_symbol(name, str_len, CHECK_NULL);
  }

  ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
  ClassFileStream st((u1*)buf, len, source, ClassFileStream::verify);
  Handle class_loader (THREAD, JNIHandles::resolve(loader));
  if (UsePerfData) {
    is_lock_held_by_thread(class_loader,
                           ClassLoader::sync_JVMDefineClassLockFreeCounter(),
                           THREAD);
  }
  Handle protection_domain (THREAD, JNIHandles::resolve(pd));
  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::resolve_from_stream(class_name,
                                                   class_loader,
                                                   protection_domain,
                                                   &st,
                                                   CHECK_NULL);

  if (log_is_enabled(Debug, class, resolve) && k != NULL) {
    trace_class_resolution(k);
  }

  return (jclass) JNIHandles::make_local(env, k->java_mirror());
}


JVM_ENTRY(jclass, JVM_DefineClass(JNIEnv *env, const char *name, jobject loader, const jbyte *buf, jsize len, jobject pd))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_DefineClass");

  return jvm_define_class_common(env, name, loader, buf, len, pd, NULL, THREAD);
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(jclass, JVM_DefineClassWithSource(JNIEnv *env, const char *name, jobject loader, const jbyte *buf, jsize len, jobject pd, const char *source))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_DefineClassWithSource");

  return jvm_define_class_common(env, name, loader, buf, len, pd, source, THREAD);
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(jclass, JVM_FindLoadedClass(JNIEnv *env, jobject loader, jstring name))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_FindLoadedClass");
  ResourceMark rm(THREAD);

  Handle h_name (THREAD, JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(name));
  Handle string = java_lang_String::internalize_classname(h_name, CHECK_NULL);

  const char* str   = java_lang_String::as_utf8_string(string());
  // Sanity check, don't expect null
  if (str == NULL) return NULL;

  const int str_len = (int)strlen(str);
  if (str_len > Symbol::max_length()) {
    // It's impossible to create this class;  the name cannot fit
    // into the constant pool.
    return NULL;
  }
  TempNewSymbol klass_name = SymbolTable::new_symbol(str, str_len, CHECK_NULL);

  // Security Note:
  //   The Java level wrapper will perform the necessary security check allowing
  //   us to pass the NULL as the initiating class loader.
  Handle h_loader(THREAD, JNIHandles::resolve(loader));
  if (UsePerfData) {
    is_lock_held_by_thread(h_loader,
                           ClassLoader::sync_JVMFindLoadedClassLockFreeCounter(),
                           THREAD);
  }

  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::find_instance_or_array_klass(klass_name,
                                                              h_loader,
                                                              Handle(),
                                                              CHECK_NULL);
#if INCLUDE_CDS
  if (k == NULL) {
    // If the class is not already loaded, try to see if it's in the shared
    // archive for the current classloader (h_loader).
    k = SystemDictionaryShared::find_or_load_shared_class(klass_name, h_loader, CHECK_NULL);
  }
#endif
  return (k == NULL) ? NULL :
            (jclass) JNIHandles::make_local(env, k->java_mirror());
JVM_END

// Module support //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

JVM_ENTRY(void, JVM_DefineModule(JNIEnv *env, jobject module, jboolean is_open, jstring version,
                                 jstring location, const char* const* packages, jsize num_packages))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_DefineModule");
  Modules::define_module(module, is_open, version, location, packages, num_packages, CHECK);
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(void, JVM_SetBootLoaderUnnamedModule(JNIEnv *env, jobject module))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_SetBootLoaderUnnamedModule");
  Modules::set_bootloader_unnamed_module(module, CHECK);
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(void, JVM_AddModuleExports(JNIEnv *env, jobject from_module, const char* package, jobject to_module))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_AddModuleExports");
  Modules::add_module_exports_qualified(from_module, package, to_module, CHECK);
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(void, JVM_AddModuleExportsToAllUnnamed(JNIEnv *env, jobject from_module, const char* package))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_AddModuleExportsToAllUnnamed");
  Modules::add_module_exports_to_all_unnamed(from_module, package, CHECK);
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(void, JVM_AddModuleExportsToAll(JNIEnv *env, jobject from_module, const char* package))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_AddModuleExportsToAll");
  Modules::add_module_exports(from_module, package, NULL, CHECK);
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY (void, JVM_AddReadsModule(JNIEnv *env, jobject from_module, jobject source_module))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_AddReadsModule");
  Modules::add_reads_module(from_module, source_module, CHECK);
JVM_END

// Reflection support //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

JVM_ENTRY(jstring, JVM_GetClassName(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls))
  assert (cls != NULL, "illegal class");
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetClassName");
  JvmtiVMObjectAllocEventCollector oam;
  ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
  const char* name;
  if (java_lang_Class::is_primitive(JNIHandles::resolve(cls))) {
    name = type2name(java_lang_Class::primitive_type(JNIHandles::resolve(cls)));
  } else {
    // Consider caching interned string in Klass
    Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve(cls));
    assert(k->is_klass(), "just checking");
    name = k->external_name();
  }
  oop result = StringTable::intern((char*) name, CHECK_NULL);
  return (jstring) JNIHandles::make_local(env, result);
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(jobjectArray, JVM_GetClassInterfaces(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetClassInterfaces");
  JvmtiVMObjectAllocEventCollector oam;
  oop mirror = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls);

  // Special handling for primitive objects
  if (java_lang_Class::is_primitive(mirror)) {
    // Primitive objects does not have any interfaces
    objArrayOop r = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::Class_klass(), 0, CHECK_NULL);
    return (jobjectArray) JNIHandles::make_local(env, r);
  }

  Klass* klass = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(mirror);
  // Figure size of result array
  int size;
  if (klass->is_instance_klass()) {
    size = InstanceKlass::cast(klass)->local_interfaces()->length();
  } else {
    assert(klass->is_objArray_klass() || klass->is_typeArray_klass(), "Illegal mirror klass");
    size = 2;
  }

  // Allocate result array
  objArrayOop r = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::Class_klass(), size, CHECK_NULL);
  objArrayHandle result (THREAD, r);
  // Fill in result
  if (klass->is_instance_klass()) {
    // Regular instance klass, fill in all local interfaces
    for (int index = 0; index < size; index++) {
      Klass* k = InstanceKlass::cast(klass)->local_interfaces()->at(index);
      result->obj_at_put(index, k->java_mirror());
    }
  } else {
    // All arrays implement java.lang.Cloneable and java.io.Serializable
    result->obj_at_put(0, SystemDictionary::Cloneable_klass()->java_mirror());
    result->obj_at_put(1, SystemDictionary::Serializable_klass()->java_mirror());
  }
  return (jobjectArray) JNIHandles::make_local(env, result());
JVM_END


JVM_QUICK_ENTRY(jboolean, JVM_IsInterface(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_IsInterface");
  oop mirror = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls);
  if (java_lang_Class::is_primitive(mirror)) {
    return JNI_FALSE;
  }
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(mirror);
  jboolean result = k->is_interface();
  assert(!result || k->is_instance_klass(),
         "all interfaces are instance types");
  // The compiler intrinsic for isInterface tests the
  // Klass::_access_flags bits in the same way.
  return result;
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(jobjectArray, JVM_GetClassSigners(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetClassSigners");
  JvmtiVMObjectAllocEventCollector oam;
  if (java_lang_Class::is_primitive(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls))) {
    // There are no signers for primitive types
    return NULL;
  }

  objArrayOop signers = java_lang_Class::signers(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));

  // If there are no signers set in the class, or if the class
  // is an array, return NULL.
  if (signers == NULL) return NULL;

  // copy of the signers array
  Klass* element = ObjArrayKlass::cast(signers->klass())->element_klass();
  objArrayOop signers_copy = oopFactory::new_objArray(element, signers->length(), CHECK_NULL);
  for (int index = 0; index < signers->length(); index++) {
    signers_copy->obj_at_put(index, signers->obj_at(index));
  }

  // return the copy
  return (jobjectArray) JNIHandles::make_local(env, signers_copy);
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(void, JVM_SetClassSigners(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, jobjectArray signers))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_SetClassSigners");
  if (!java_lang_Class::is_primitive(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls))) {
    // This call is ignored for primitive types and arrays.
    // Signers are only set once, ClassLoader.java, and thus shouldn't
    // be called with an array.  Only the bootstrap loader creates arrays.
    Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
    if (k->is_instance_klass()) {
      java_lang_Class::set_signers(k->java_mirror(), objArrayOop(JNIHandles::resolve(signers)));
    }
  }
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(jobject, JVM_GetProtectionDomain(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetProtectionDomain");
  if (JNIHandles::resolve(cls) == NULL) {
    THROW_(vmSymbols::java_lang_NullPointerException(), NULL);
  }

  if (java_lang_Class::is_primitive(JNIHandles::resolve(cls))) {
    // Primitive types does not have a protection domain.
    return NULL;
  }

  oop pd = java_lang_Class::protection_domain(JNIHandles::resolve(cls));
  return (jobject) JNIHandles::make_local(env, pd);
JVM_END


static bool is_authorized(Handle context, InstanceKlass* klass, TRAPS) {
  // If there is a security manager and protection domain, check the access
  // in the protection domain, otherwise it is authorized.
  if (java_lang_System::has_security_manager()) {

    // For bootstrapping, if pd implies method isn't in the JDK, allow
    // this context to revert to older behavior.
    // In this case the isAuthorized field in AccessControlContext is also not
    // present.
    if (Universe::protection_domain_implies_method() == NULL) {
      return true;
    }

    // Whitelist certain access control contexts
    if (java_security_AccessControlContext::is_authorized(context)) {
      return true;
    }

    oop prot = klass->protection_domain();
    if (prot != NULL) {
      // Call pd.implies(new SecurityPermission("createAccessControlContext"))
      // in the new wrapper.
      methodHandle m(THREAD, Universe::protection_domain_implies_method());
      Handle h_prot(THREAD, prot);
      JavaValue result(T_BOOLEAN);
      JavaCallArguments args(h_prot);
      JavaCalls::call(&result, m, &args, CHECK_false);
      return (result.get_jboolean() != 0);
    }
  }
  return true;
}

// Create an AccessControlContext with a protection domain with null codesource
// and null permissions - which gives no permissions.
oop create_dummy_access_control_context(TRAPS) {
  InstanceKlass* pd_klass = SystemDictionary::ProtectionDomain_klass();
  Handle obj = pd_klass->allocate_instance_handle(CHECK_NULL);
  // Call constructor ProtectionDomain(null, null);
  JavaValue result(T_VOID);
  JavaCalls::call_special(&result, obj, pd_klass,
                          vmSymbols::object_initializer_name(),
                          vmSymbols::codesource_permissioncollection_signature(),
                          Handle(), Handle(), CHECK_NULL);

  // new ProtectionDomain[] {pd};
  objArrayOop context = oopFactory::new_objArray(pd_klass, 1, CHECK_NULL);
  context->obj_at_put(0, obj());

  // new AccessControlContext(new ProtectionDomain[] {pd})
  objArrayHandle h_context(THREAD, context);
  oop acc = java_security_AccessControlContext::create(h_context, false, Handle(), CHECK_NULL);
  return acc;
}

JVM_ENTRY(jobject, JVM_DoPrivileged(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, jobject action, jobject context, jboolean wrapException))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_DoPrivileged");

  if (action == NULL) {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_NullPointerException(), "Null action");
  }

  // Compute the frame initiating the do privileged operation and setup the privileged stack
  vframeStream vfst(thread);
  vfst.security_get_caller_frame(1);

  if (vfst.at_end()) {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_InternalError(), "no caller?");
  }

  Method* method        = vfst.method();
  InstanceKlass* klass  = method->method_holder();

  // Check that action object understands "Object run()"
  Handle h_context;
  if (context != NULL) {
    h_context = Handle(THREAD, JNIHandles::resolve(context));
    bool authorized = is_authorized(h_context, klass, CHECK_NULL);
    if (!authorized) {
      // Create an unprivileged access control object and call it's run function
      // instead.
      oop noprivs = create_dummy_access_control_context(CHECK_NULL);
      h_context = Handle(THREAD, noprivs);
    }
  }

  // Check that action object understands "Object run()"
  Handle object (THREAD, JNIHandles::resolve(action));

  // get run() method
  Method* m_oop = object->klass()->uncached_lookup_method(
                                           vmSymbols::run_method_name(),
                                           vmSymbols::void_object_signature(),
                                           Klass::find_overpass);

  // See if there is a default method for "Object run()".
  if (m_oop == NULL && object->klass()->is_instance_klass()) {
    InstanceKlass* iklass = InstanceKlass::cast(object->klass());
    m_oop = iklass->lookup_method_in_ordered_interfaces(
                                           vmSymbols::run_method_name(),
                                           vmSymbols::void_object_signature());
  }

  methodHandle m (THREAD, m_oop);
  if (m.is_null() || !m->is_method() || !m()->is_public() || m()->is_static() || m()->is_abstract()) {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_InternalError(), "No run method");
  }

  // Stack allocated list of privileged stack elements
  PrivilegedElement pi;
  if (!vfst.at_end()) {
    pi.initialize(&vfst, h_context(), thread->privileged_stack_top(), CHECK_NULL);
    thread->set_privileged_stack_top(&pi);
  }


  // invoke the Object run() in the action object. We cannot use call_interface here, since the static type
  // is not really known - it is either java.security.PrivilegedAction or java.security.PrivilegedExceptionAction
  Handle pending_exception;
  JavaValue result(T_OBJECT);
  JavaCallArguments args(object);
  JavaCalls::call(&result, m, &args, THREAD);

  // done with action, remove ourselves from the list
  if (!vfst.at_end()) {
    assert(thread->privileged_stack_top() != NULL && thread->privileged_stack_top() == &pi, "wrong top element");
    thread->set_privileged_stack_top(thread->privileged_stack_top()->next());
  }

  if (HAS_PENDING_EXCEPTION) {
    pending_exception = Handle(THREAD, PENDING_EXCEPTION);
    CLEAR_PENDING_EXCEPTION;
    // JVMTI has already reported the pending exception
    // JVMTI internal flag reset is needed in order to report PrivilegedActionException
    if (THREAD->is_Java_thread()) {
      JvmtiExport::clear_detected_exception((JavaThread*) THREAD);
    }
    if ( pending_exception->is_a(SystemDictionary::Exception_klass()) &&
        !pending_exception->is_a(SystemDictionary::RuntimeException_klass())) {
      // Throw a java.security.PrivilegedActionException(Exception e) exception
      JavaCallArguments args(pending_exception);
      THROW_ARG_0(vmSymbols::java_security_PrivilegedActionException(),
                  vmSymbols::exception_void_signature(),
                  &args);
    }
  }

  if (pending_exception.not_null()) THROW_OOP_0(pending_exception());
  return JNIHandles::make_local(env, (oop) result.get_jobject());
JVM_END


// Returns the inherited_access_control_context field of the running thread.
JVM_ENTRY(jobject, JVM_GetInheritedAccessControlContext(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetInheritedAccessControlContext");
  oop result = java_lang_Thread::inherited_access_control_context(thread->threadObj());
  return JNIHandles::make_local(env, result);
JVM_END

class RegisterArrayForGC {
 private:
  JavaThread *_thread;
 public:
  RegisterArrayForGC(JavaThread *thread, GrowableArray<oop>* array)  {
    _thread = thread;
    _thread->register_array_for_gc(array);
  }

  ~RegisterArrayForGC() {
    _thread->register_array_for_gc(NULL);
  }
};


JVM_ENTRY(jobject, JVM_GetStackAccessControlContext(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetStackAccessControlContext");
  if (!UsePrivilegedStack) return NULL;

  ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
  GrowableArray<oop>* local_array = new GrowableArray<oop>(12);
  JvmtiVMObjectAllocEventCollector oam;

  // count the protection domains on the execution stack. We collapse
  // duplicate consecutive protection domains into a single one, as
  // well as stopping when we hit a privileged frame.

  // Use vframeStream to iterate through Java frames
  vframeStream vfst(thread);

  oop previous_protection_domain = NULL;
  Handle privileged_context(thread, NULL);
  bool is_privileged = false;
  oop protection_domain = NULL;

  for(; !vfst.at_end(); vfst.next()) {
    // get method of frame
    Method* method = vfst.method();
    intptr_t* frame_id   = vfst.frame_id();

    // check the privileged frames to see if we have a match
    if (thread->privileged_stack_top() && thread->privileged_stack_top()->frame_id() == frame_id) {
      // this frame is privileged
      is_privileged = true;
      privileged_context = Handle(thread, thread->privileged_stack_top()->privileged_context());
      protection_domain  = thread->privileged_stack_top()->protection_domain();
    } else {
      protection_domain = method->method_holder()->protection_domain();
    }

    if ((!oopDesc::equals(previous_protection_domain, protection_domain)) && (protection_domain != NULL)) {
      local_array->push(protection_domain);
      previous_protection_domain = protection_domain;
    }

    if (is_privileged) break;
  }


  // either all the domains on the stack were system domains, or
  // we had a privileged system domain
  if (local_array->is_empty()) {
    if (is_privileged && privileged_context.is_null()) return NULL;

    oop result = java_security_AccessControlContext::create(objArrayHandle(), is_privileged, privileged_context, CHECK_NULL);
    return JNIHandles::make_local(env, result);
  }

  // the resource area must be registered in case of a gc
  RegisterArrayForGC ragc(thread, local_array);
  objArrayOop context = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::ProtectionDomain_klass(),
                                                 local_array->length(), CHECK_NULL);
  objArrayHandle h_context(thread, context);
  for (int index = 0; index < local_array->length(); index++) {
    h_context->obj_at_put(index, local_array->at(index));
  }

  oop result = java_security_AccessControlContext::create(h_context, is_privileged, privileged_context, CHECK_NULL);

  return JNIHandles::make_local(env, result);
JVM_END


JVM_QUICK_ENTRY(jboolean, JVM_IsArrayClass(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_IsArrayClass");
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
  return (k != NULL) && k->is_array_klass() ? true : false;
JVM_END


JVM_QUICK_ENTRY(jboolean, JVM_IsPrimitiveClass(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_IsPrimitiveClass");
  oop mirror = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls);
  return (jboolean) java_lang_Class::is_primitive(mirror);
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(jint, JVM_GetClassModifiers(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetClassModifiers");
  if (java_lang_Class::is_primitive(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls))) {
    // Primitive type
    return JVM_ACC_ABSTRACT | JVM_ACC_FINAL | JVM_ACC_PUBLIC;
  }

  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
  debug_only(int computed_modifiers = k->compute_modifier_flags(CHECK_0));
  assert(k->modifier_flags() == computed_modifiers, "modifiers cache is OK");
  return k->modifier_flags();
JVM_END


// Inner class reflection ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

JVM_ENTRY(jobjectArray, JVM_GetDeclaredClasses(JNIEnv *env, jclass ofClass))
  JvmtiVMObjectAllocEventCollector oam;
  // ofClass is a reference to a java_lang_Class object. The mirror object
  // of an InstanceKlass

  if (java_lang_Class::is_primitive(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(ofClass)) ||
      ! java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(ofClass))->is_instance_klass()) {
    oop result = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::Class_klass(), 0, CHECK_NULL);
    return (jobjectArray)JNIHandles::make_local(env, result);
  }

  InstanceKlass* k = InstanceKlass::cast(java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(ofClass)));
  InnerClassesIterator iter(k);

  if (iter.length() == 0) {
    // Neither an inner nor outer class
    oop result = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::Class_klass(), 0, CHECK_NULL);
    return (jobjectArray)JNIHandles::make_local(env, result);
  }

  // find inner class info
  constantPoolHandle cp(thread, k->constants());
  int length = iter.length();

  // Allocate temp. result array
  objArrayOop r = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::Class_klass(), length/4, CHECK_NULL);
  objArrayHandle result (THREAD, r);
  int members = 0;

  for (; !iter.done(); iter.next()) {
    int ioff = iter.inner_class_info_index();
    int ooff = iter.outer_class_info_index();

    if (ioff != 0 && ooff != 0) {
      // Check to see if the name matches the class we're looking for
      // before attempting to find the class.
      if (cp->klass_name_at_matches(k, ooff)) {
        Klass* outer_klass = cp->klass_at(ooff, CHECK_NULL);
        if (outer_klass == k) {
           Klass* ik = cp->klass_at(ioff, CHECK_NULL);
           InstanceKlass* inner_klass = InstanceKlass::cast(ik);

           // Throws an exception if outer klass has not declared k as
           // an inner klass
           Reflection::check_for_inner_class(k, inner_klass, true, CHECK_NULL);

           result->obj_at_put(members, inner_klass->java_mirror());
           members++;
        }
      }
    }
  }

  if (members != length) {
    // Return array of right length
    objArrayOop res = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::Class_klass(), members, CHECK_NULL);
    for(int i = 0; i < members; i++) {
      res->obj_at_put(i, result->obj_at(i));
    }
    return (jobjectArray)JNIHandles::make_local(env, res);
  }

  return (jobjectArray)JNIHandles::make_local(env, result());
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(jclass, JVM_GetDeclaringClass(JNIEnv *env, jclass ofClass))
{
  // ofClass is a reference to a java_lang_Class object.
  if (java_lang_Class::is_primitive(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(ofClass)) ||
      ! java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(ofClass))->is_instance_klass()) {
    return NULL;
  }

  bool inner_is_member = false;
  Klass* outer_klass
    = InstanceKlass::cast(java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(ofClass))
                          )->compute_enclosing_class(&inner_is_member, CHECK_NULL);
  if (outer_klass == NULL)  return NULL;  // already a top-level class
  if (!inner_is_member)  return NULL;     // an anonymous class (inside a method)
  return (jclass) JNIHandles::make_local(env, outer_klass->java_mirror());
}
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(jstring, JVM_GetSimpleBinaryName(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls))
{
  oop mirror = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls);
  if (java_lang_Class::is_primitive(mirror) ||
      !java_lang_Class::as_Klass(mirror)->is_instance_klass()) {
    return NULL;
  }
  InstanceKlass* k = InstanceKlass::cast(java_lang_Class::as_Klass(mirror));
  int ooff = 0, noff = 0;
  if (k->find_inner_classes_attr(&ooff, &noff, THREAD)) {
    if (noff != 0) {
      constantPoolHandle i_cp(thread, k->constants());
      Symbol* name = i_cp->symbol_at(noff);
      Handle str = java_lang_String::create_from_symbol(name, CHECK_NULL);
      return (jstring) JNIHandles::make_local(env, str());
    }
  }
  return NULL;
}
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(jstring, JVM_GetClassSignature(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls))
  assert (cls != NULL, "illegal class");
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetClassSignature");
  JvmtiVMObjectAllocEventCollector oam;
  ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
  // Return null for arrays and primatives
  if (!java_lang_Class::is_primitive(JNIHandles::resolve(cls))) {
    Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve(cls));
    if (k->is_instance_klass()) {
      Symbol* sym = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->generic_signature();
      if (sym == NULL) return NULL;
      Handle str = java_lang_String::create_from_symbol(sym, CHECK_NULL);
      return (jstring) JNIHandles::make_local(env, str());
    }
  }
  return NULL;
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(jbyteArray, JVM_GetClassAnnotations(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls))
  assert (cls != NULL, "illegal class");
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetClassAnnotations");

  // Return null for arrays and primitives
  if (!java_lang_Class::is_primitive(JNIHandles::resolve(cls))) {
    Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve(cls));
    if (k->is_instance_klass()) {
      typeArrayOop a = Annotations::make_java_array(InstanceKlass::cast(k)->class_annotations(), CHECK_NULL);
      return (jbyteArray) JNIHandles::make_local(env, a);
    }
  }
  return NULL;
JVM_END


static bool jvm_get_field_common(jobject field, fieldDescriptor& fd, TRAPS) {
  // some of this code was adapted from from jni_FromReflectedField

  oop reflected = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(field);
  oop mirror    = java_lang_reflect_Field::clazz(reflected);
  Klass* k    = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(mirror);
  int slot      = java_lang_reflect_Field::slot(reflected);
  int modifiers = java_lang_reflect_Field::modifiers(reflected);

  InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(k);
  intptr_t offset = ik->field_offset(slot);

  if (modifiers & JVM_ACC_STATIC) {
    // for static fields we only look in the current class
    if (!ik->find_local_field_from_offset(offset, true, &fd)) {
      assert(false, "cannot find static field");
      return false;
    }
  } else {
    // for instance fields we start with the current class and work
    // our way up through the superclass chain
    if (!ik->find_field_from_offset(offset, false, &fd)) {
      assert(false, "cannot find instance field");
      return false;
    }
  }
  return true;
}

static Method* jvm_get_method_common(jobject method) {
  // some of this code was adapted from from jni_FromReflectedMethod

  oop reflected = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(method);
  oop mirror    = NULL;
  int slot      = 0;

  if (reflected->klass() == SystemDictionary::reflect_Constructor_klass()) {
    mirror = java_lang_reflect_Constructor::clazz(reflected);
    slot   = java_lang_reflect_Constructor::slot(reflected);
  } else {
    assert(reflected->klass() == SystemDictionary::reflect_Method_klass(),
           "wrong type");
    mirror = java_lang_reflect_Method::clazz(reflected);
    slot   = java_lang_reflect_Method::slot(reflected);
  }
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(mirror);

  Method* m = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->method_with_idnum(slot);
  assert(m != NULL, "cannot find method");
  return m;  // caller has to deal with NULL in product mode
}

/* Type use annotations support (JDK 1.8) */

JVM_ENTRY(jbyteArray, JVM_GetClassTypeAnnotations(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls))
  assert (cls != NULL, "illegal class");
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetClassTypeAnnotations");
  ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
  // Return null for arrays and primitives
  if (!java_lang_Class::is_primitive(JNIHandles::resolve(cls))) {
    Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve(cls));
    if (k->is_instance_klass()) {
      AnnotationArray* type_annotations = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->class_type_annotations();
      if (type_annotations != NULL) {
        typeArrayOop a = Annotations::make_java_array(type_annotations, CHECK_NULL);
        return (jbyteArray) JNIHandles::make_local(env, a);
      }
    }
  }
  return NULL;
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(jbyteArray, JVM_GetMethodTypeAnnotations(JNIEnv *env, jobject method))
  assert (method != NULL, "illegal method");
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetMethodTypeAnnotations");

  // method is a handle to a java.lang.reflect.Method object
  Method* m = jvm_get_method_common(method);
  if (m == NULL) {
    return NULL;
  }

  AnnotationArray* type_annotations = m->type_annotations();
  if (type_annotations != NULL) {
    typeArrayOop a = Annotations::make_java_array(type_annotations, CHECK_NULL);
    return (jbyteArray) JNIHandles::make_local(env, a);
  }

  return NULL;
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(jbyteArray, JVM_GetFieldTypeAnnotations(JNIEnv *env, jobject field))
  assert (field != NULL, "illegal field");
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetFieldTypeAnnotations");

  fieldDescriptor fd;
  bool gotFd = jvm_get_field_common(field, fd, CHECK_NULL);
  if (!gotFd) {
    return NULL;
  }

  return (jbyteArray) JNIHandles::make_local(env, Annotations::make_java_array(fd.type_annotations(), THREAD));
JVM_END

static void bounds_check(const constantPoolHandle& cp, jint index, TRAPS) {
  if (!cp->is_within_bounds(index)) {
    THROW_MSG(vmSymbols::java_lang_IllegalArgumentException(), "Constant pool index out of bounds");
  }
}

JVM_ENTRY(jobjectArray, JVM_GetMethodParameters(JNIEnv *env, jobject method))
{
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetMethodParameters");
  // method is a handle to a java.lang.reflect.Method object
  Method* method_ptr = jvm_get_method_common(method);
  methodHandle mh (THREAD, method_ptr);
  Handle reflected_method (THREAD, JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(method));
  const int num_params = mh->method_parameters_length();

  if (num_params < 0) {
    // A -1 return value from method_parameters_length means there is no
    // parameter data.  Return null to indicate this to the reflection
    // API.
    assert(num_params == -1, "num_params should be -1 if it is less than zero");
    return (jobjectArray)NULL;
  } else {
    // Otherwise, we return something up to reflection, even if it is
    // a zero-length array.  Why?  Because in some cases this can
    // trigger a MalformedParametersException.

    // make sure all the symbols are properly formatted
    for (int i = 0; i < num_params; i++) {
      MethodParametersElement* params = mh->method_parameters_start();
      int index = params[i].name_cp_index;
      bounds_check(mh->constants(), index, CHECK_NULL);

      if (0 != index && !mh->constants()->tag_at(index).is_utf8()) {
        THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_IllegalArgumentException(),
                    "Wrong type at constant pool index");
      }

    }

    objArrayOop result_oop = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::reflect_Parameter_klass(), num_params, CHECK_NULL);
    objArrayHandle result (THREAD, result_oop);

    for (int i = 0; i < num_params; i++) {
      MethodParametersElement* params = mh->method_parameters_start();
      // For a 0 index, give a NULL symbol
      Symbol* sym = 0 != params[i].name_cp_index ?
        mh->constants()->symbol_at(params[i].name_cp_index) : NULL;
      int flags = params[i].flags;
      oop param = Reflection::new_parameter(reflected_method, i, sym,
                                            flags, CHECK_NULL);
      result->obj_at_put(i, param);
    }
    return (jobjectArray)JNIHandles::make_local(env, result());
  }
}
JVM_END

// New (JDK 1.4) reflection implementation /////////////////////////////////////

JVM_ENTRY(jobjectArray, JVM_GetClassDeclaredFields(JNIEnv *env, jclass ofClass, jboolean publicOnly))
{
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetClassDeclaredFields");
  JvmtiVMObjectAllocEventCollector oam;

  // Exclude primitive types and array types
  if (java_lang_Class::is_primitive(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(ofClass)) ||
      java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(ofClass))->is_array_klass()) {
    // Return empty array
    oop res = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::reflect_Field_klass(), 0, CHECK_NULL);
    return (jobjectArray) JNIHandles::make_local(env, res);
  }

  InstanceKlass* k = InstanceKlass::cast(java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(ofClass)));
  constantPoolHandle cp(THREAD, k->constants());

  // Ensure class is linked
  k->link_class(CHECK_NULL);

  // Allocate result
  int num_fields;

  if (publicOnly) {
    num_fields = 0;
    for (JavaFieldStream fs(k); !fs.done(); fs.next()) {
      if (fs.access_flags().is_public()) ++num_fields;
    }
  } else {
    num_fields = k->java_fields_count();
  }

  objArrayOop r = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::reflect_Field_klass(), num_fields, CHECK_NULL);
  objArrayHandle result (THREAD, r);

  int out_idx = 0;
  fieldDescriptor fd;
  for (JavaFieldStream fs(k); !fs.done(); fs.next()) {
    if (!publicOnly || fs.access_flags().is_public()) {
      fd.reinitialize(k, fs.index());
      oop field = Reflection::new_field(&fd, CHECK_NULL);
      result->obj_at_put(out_idx, field);
      ++out_idx;
    }
  }
  assert(out_idx == num_fields, "just checking");
  return (jobjectArray) JNIHandles::make_local(env, result());
}
JVM_END

static bool select_method(const methodHandle& method, bool want_constructor) {
  if (want_constructor) {
    return (method->is_initializer() && !method->is_static());
  } else {
    return  (!method->is_initializer() && !method->is_overpass());
  }
}

static jobjectArray get_class_declared_methods_helper(
                                  JNIEnv *env,
                                  jclass ofClass, jboolean publicOnly,
                                  bool want_constructor,
                                  Klass* klass, TRAPS) {

  JvmtiVMObjectAllocEventCollector oam;

  // Exclude primitive types and array types
  if (java_lang_Class::is_primitive(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(ofClass))
      || java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(ofClass))->is_array_klass()) {
    // Return empty array
    oop res = oopFactory::new_objArray(klass, 0, CHECK_NULL);
    return (jobjectArray) JNIHandles::make_local(env, res);
  }

  InstanceKlass* k = InstanceKlass::cast(java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(ofClass)));

  // Ensure class is linked
  k->link_class(CHECK_NULL);

  Array<Method*>* methods = k->methods();
  int methods_length = methods->length();

  // Save original method_idnum in case of redefinition, which can change
  // the idnum of obsolete methods.  The new method will have the same idnum
  // but if we refresh the methods array, the counts will be wrong.
  ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
  GrowableArray<int>* idnums = new GrowableArray<int>(methods_length);
  int num_methods = 0;

  for (int i = 0; i < methods_length; i++) {
    methodHandle method(THREAD, methods->at(i));
    if (select_method(method, want_constructor)) {
      if (!publicOnly || method->is_public()) {
        idnums->push(method->method_idnum());
        ++num_methods;
      }
    }
  }

  // Allocate result
  objArrayOop r = oopFactory::new_objArray(klass, num_methods, CHECK_NULL);
  objArrayHandle result (THREAD, r);

  // Now just put the methods that we selected above, but go by their idnum
  // in case of redefinition.  The methods can be redefined at any safepoint,
  // so above when allocating the oop array and below when creating reflect
  // objects.
  for (int i = 0; i < num_methods; i++) {
    methodHandle method(THREAD, k->method_with_idnum(idnums->at(i)));
    if (method.is_null()) {
      // Method may have been deleted and seems this API can handle null
      // Otherwise should probably put a method that throws NSME
      result->obj_at_put(i, NULL);
    } else {
      oop m;
      if (want_constructor) {
        m = Reflection::new_constructor(method, CHECK_NULL);
      } else {
        m = Reflection::new_method(method, false, CHECK_NULL);
      }
      result->obj_at_put(i, m);
    }
  }

  return (jobjectArray) JNIHandles::make_local(env, result());
}

JVM_ENTRY(jobjectArray, JVM_GetClassDeclaredMethods(JNIEnv *env, jclass ofClass, jboolean publicOnly))
{
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetClassDeclaredMethods");
  return get_class_declared_methods_helper(env, ofClass, publicOnly,
                                           /*want_constructor*/ false,
                                           SystemDictionary::reflect_Method_klass(), THREAD);
}
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(jobjectArray, JVM_GetClassDeclaredConstructors(JNIEnv *env, jclass ofClass, jboolean publicOnly))
{
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetClassDeclaredConstructors");
  return get_class_declared_methods_helper(env, ofClass, publicOnly,
                                           /*want_constructor*/ true,
                                           SystemDictionary::reflect_Constructor_klass(), THREAD);
}
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(jint, JVM_GetClassAccessFlags(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls))
{
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetClassAccessFlags");
  if (java_lang_Class::is_primitive(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls))) {
    // Primitive type
    return JVM_ACC_ABSTRACT | JVM_ACC_FINAL | JVM_ACC_PUBLIC;
  }

  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
  return k->access_flags().as_int() & JVM_ACC_WRITTEN_FLAGS;
}
JVM_END


// Constant pool access //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

JVM_ENTRY(jobject, JVM_GetClassConstantPool(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls))
{
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetClassConstantPool");
  JvmtiVMObjectAllocEventCollector oam;

  // Return null for primitives and arrays
  if (!java_lang_Class::is_primitive(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls))) {
    Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
    if (k->is_instance_klass()) {
      InstanceKlass* k_h = InstanceKlass::cast(k);
      Handle jcp = reflect_ConstantPool::create(CHECK_NULL);
      reflect_ConstantPool::set_cp(jcp(), k_h->constants());
      return JNIHandles::make_local(jcp());
    }
  }
  return NULL;
}
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(jint, JVM_ConstantPoolGetSize(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jobject unused))
{
  JVMWrapper("JVM_ConstantPoolGetSize");
  constantPoolHandle cp = constantPoolHandle(THREAD, reflect_ConstantPool::get_cp(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(obj)));
  return cp->length();
}
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(jclass, JVM_ConstantPoolGetClassAt(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jobject unused, jint index))
{
  JVMWrapper("JVM_ConstantPoolGetClassAt");
  constantPoolHandle cp = constantPoolHandle(THREAD, reflect_ConstantPool::get_cp(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(obj)));
  bounds_check(cp, index, CHECK_NULL);
  constantTag tag = cp->tag_at(index);
  if (!tag.is_klass() && !tag.is_unresolved_klass()) {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_IllegalArgumentException(), "Wrong type at constant pool index");
  }
  Klass* k = cp->klass_at(index, CHECK_NULL);
  return (jclass) JNIHandles::make_local(k->java_mirror());
}
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(jclass, JVM_ConstantPoolGetClassAtIfLoaded(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jobject unused, jint index))
{
  JVMWrapper("JVM_ConstantPoolGetClassAtIfLoaded");
  constantPoolHandle cp = constantPoolHandle(THREAD, reflect_ConstantPool::get_cp(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(obj)));
  bounds_check(cp, index, CHECK_NULL);
  constantTag tag = cp->tag_at(index);
  if (!tag.is_klass() && !tag.is_unresolved_klass()) {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_IllegalArgumentException(), "Wrong type at constant pool index");
  }
  Klass* k = ConstantPool::klass_at_if_loaded(cp, index);
  if (k == NULL) return NULL;
  return (jclass) JNIHandles::make_local(k->java_mirror());
}
JVM_END

static jobject get_method_at_helper(const constantPoolHandle& cp, jint index, bool force_resolution, TRAPS) {
  constantTag tag = cp->tag_at(index);
  if (!tag.is_method() && !tag.is_interface_method()) {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_IllegalArgumentException(), "Wrong type at constant pool index");
  }
  int klass_ref  = cp->uncached_klass_ref_index_at(index);
  Klass* k_o;
  if (force_resolution) {
    k_o = cp->klass_at(klass_ref, CHECK_NULL);
  } else {
    k_o = ConstantPool::klass_at_if_loaded(cp, klass_ref);
    if (k_o == NULL) return NULL;
  }
  InstanceKlass* k = InstanceKlass::cast(k_o);
  Symbol* name = cp->uncached_name_ref_at(index);
  Symbol* sig  = cp->uncached_signature_ref_at(index);
  methodHandle m (THREAD, k->find_method(name, sig));
  if (m.is_null()) {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_RuntimeException(), "Unable to look up method in target class");
  }
  oop method;
  if (!m->is_initializer() || m->is_static()) {
    method = Reflection::new_method(m, true, CHECK_NULL);
  } else {
    method = Reflection::new_constructor(m, CHECK_NULL);
  }
  return JNIHandles::make_local(method);
}

JVM_ENTRY(jobject, JVM_ConstantPoolGetMethodAt(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jobject unused, jint index))
{
  JVMWrapper("JVM_ConstantPoolGetMethodAt");
  JvmtiVMObjectAllocEventCollector oam;
  constantPoolHandle cp = constantPoolHandle(THREAD, reflect_ConstantPool::get_cp(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(obj)));
  bounds_check(cp, index, CHECK_NULL);
  jobject res = get_method_at_helper(cp, index, true, CHECK_NULL);
  return res;
}
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(jobject, JVM_ConstantPoolGetMethodAtIfLoaded(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jobject unused, jint index))
{
  JVMWrapper("JVM_ConstantPoolGetMethodAtIfLoaded");
  JvmtiVMObjectAllocEventCollector oam;
  constantPoolHandle cp = constantPoolHandle(THREAD, reflect_ConstantPool::get_cp(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(obj)));
  bounds_check(cp, index, CHECK_NULL);
  jobject res = get_method_at_helper(cp, index, false, CHECK_NULL);
  return res;
}
JVM_END

static jobject get_field_at_helper(constantPoolHandle cp, jint index, bool force_resolution, TRAPS) {
  constantTag tag = cp->tag_at(index);
  if (!tag.is_field()) {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_IllegalArgumentException(), "Wrong type at constant pool index");
  }
  int klass_ref  = cp->uncached_klass_ref_index_at(index);
  Klass* k_o;
  if (force_resolution) {
    k_o = cp->klass_at(klass_ref, CHECK_NULL);
  } else {
    k_o = ConstantPool::klass_at_if_loaded(cp, klass_ref);
    if (k_o == NULL) return NULL;
  }
  InstanceKlass* k = InstanceKlass::cast(k_o);
  Symbol* name = cp->uncached_name_ref_at(index);
  Symbol* sig  = cp->uncached_signature_ref_at(index);
  fieldDescriptor fd;
  Klass* target_klass = k->find_field(name, sig, &fd);
  if (target_klass == NULL) {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_RuntimeException(), "Unable to look up field in target class");
  }
  oop field = Reflection::new_field(&fd, CHECK_NULL);
  return JNIHandles::make_local(field);
}

JVM_ENTRY(jobject, JVM_ConstantPoolGetFieldAt(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jobject unusedl, jint index))
{
  JVMWrapper("JVM_ConstantPoolGetFieldAt");
  JvmtiVMObjectAllocEventCollector oam;
  constantPoolHandle cp = constantPoolHandle(THREAD, reflect_ConstantPool::get_cp(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(obj)));
  bounds_check(cp, index, CHECK_NULL);
  jobject res = get_field_at_helper(cp, index, true, CHECK_NULL);
  return res;
}
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(jobject, JVM_ConstantPoolGetFieldAtIfLoaded(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jobject unused, jint index))
{
  JVMWrapper("JVM_ConstantPoolGetFieldAtIfLoaded");
  JvmtiVMObjectAllocEventCollector oam;
  constantPoolHandle cp = constantPoolHandle(THREAD, reflect_ConstantPool::get_cp(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(obj)));
  bounds_check(cp, index, CHECK_NULL);
  jobject res = get_field_at_helper(cp, index, false, CHECK_NULL);
  return res;
}
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(jobjectArray, JVM_ConstantPoolGetMemberRefInfoAt(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jobject unused, jint index))
{
  JVMWrapper("JVM_ConstantPoolGetMemberRefInfoAt");
  JvmtiVMObjectAllocEventCollector oam;
  constantPoolHandle cp = constantPoolHandle(THREAD, reflect_ConstantPool::get_cp(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(obj)));
  bounds_check(cp, index, CHECK_NULL);
  constantTag tag = cp->tag_at(index);
  if (!tag.is_field_or_method()) {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_IllegalArgumentException(), "Wrong type at constant pool index");
  }
  int klass_ref = cp->uncached_klass_ref_index_at(index);
  Symbol*  klass_name  = cp->klass_name_at(klass_ref);
  Symbol*  member_name = cp->uncached_name_ref_at(index);
  Symbol*  member_sig  = cp->uncached_signature_ref_at(index);
  objArrayOop  dest_o = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::String_klass(), 3, CHECK_NULL);
  objArrayHandle dest(THREAD, dest_o);
  Handle str = java_lang_String::create_from_symbol(klass_name, CHECK_NULL);
  dest->obj_at_put(0, str());
  str = java_lang_String::create_from_symbol(member_name, CHECK_NULL);
  dest->obj_at_put(1, str());
  str = java_lang_String::create_from_symbol(member_sig, CHECK_NULL);
  dest->obj_at_put(2, str());
  return (jobjectArray) JNIHandles::make_local(dest());
}
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(jint, JVM_ConstantPoolGetClassRefIndexAt(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jobject unused, jint index))
{
  JVMWrapper("JVM_ConstantPoolGetClassRefIndexAt");
  JvmtiVMObjectAllocEventCollector oam;
  constantPoolHandle cp(THREAD, reflect_ConstantPool::get_cp(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(obj)));
  bounds_check(cp, index, CHECK_0);
  constantTag tag = cp->tag_at(index);
  if (!tag.is_field_or_method()) {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_IllegalArgumentException(), "Wrong type at constant pool index");
  }
  return (jint) cp->uncached_klass_ref_index_at(index);
}
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(jint, JVM_ConstantPoolGetNameAndTypeRefIndexAt(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jobject unused, jint index))
{
  JVMWrapper("JVM_ConstantPoolGetNameAndTypeRefIndexAt");
  JvmtiVMObjectAllocEventCollector oam;
  constantPoolHandle cp(THREAD, reflect_ConstantPool::get_cp(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(obj)));
  bounds_check(cp, index, CHECK_0);
  constantTag tag = cp->tag_at(index);
  if (!tag.is_invoke_dynamic() && !tag.is_field_or_method()) {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_IllegalArgumentException(), "Wrong type at constant pool index");
  }
  return (jint) cp->uncached_name_and_type_ref_index_at(index);
}
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(jobjectArray, JVM_ConstantPoolGetNameAndTypeRefInfoAt(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jobject unused, jint index))
{
  JVMWrapper("JVM_ConstantPoolGetNameAndTypeRefInfoAt");
  JvmtiVMObjectAllocEventCollector oam;
  constantPoolHandle cp(THREAD, reflect_ConstantPool::get_cp(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(obj)));
  bounds_check(cp, index, CHECK_NULL);
  constantTag tag = cp->tag_at(index);
  if (!tag.is_name_and_type()) {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_IllegalArgumentException(), "Wrong type at constant pool index");
  }
  Symbol* member_name = cp->symbol_at(cp->name_ref_index_at(index));
  Symbol* member_sig = cp->symbol_at(cp->signature_ref_index_at(index));
  objArrayOop dest_o = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::String_klass(), 2, CHECK_NULL);
  objArrayHandle dest(THREAD, dest_o);
  Handle str = java_lang_String::create_from_symbol(member_name, CHECK_NULL);
  dest->obj_at_put(0, str());
  str = java_lang_String::create_from_symbol(member_sig, CHECK_NULL);
  dest->obj_at_put(1, str());
  return (jobjectArray) JNIHandles::make_local(dest());
}
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(jint, JVM_ConstantPoolGetIntAt(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jobject unused, jint index))
{
  JVMWrapper("JVM_ConstantPoolGetIntAt");
  constantPoolHandle cp = constantPoolHandle(THREAD, reflect_ConstantPool::get_cp(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(obj)));
  bounds_check(cp, index, CHECK_0);
  constantTag tag = cp->tag_at(index);
  if (!tag.is_int()) {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_IllegalArgumentException(), "Wrong type at constant pool index");
  }
  return cp->int_at(index);
}
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(jlong, JVM_ConstantPoolGetLongAt(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jobject unused, jint index))
{
  JVMWrapper("JVM_ConstantPoolGetLongAt");
  constantPoolHandle cp = constantPoolHandle(THREAD, reflect_ConstantPool::get_cp(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(obj)));
  bounds_check(cp, index, CHECK_(0L));
  constantTag tag = cp->tag_at(index);
  if (!tag.is_long()) {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_IllegalArgumentException(), "Wrong type at constant pool index");
  }
  return cp->long_at(index);
}
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(jfloat, JVM_ConstantPoolGetFloatAt(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jobject unused, jint index))
{
  JVMWrapper("JVM_ConstantPoolGetFloatAt");
  constantPoolHandle cp = constantPoolHandle(THREAD, reflect_ConstantPool::get_cp(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(obj)));
  bounds_check(cp, index, CHECK_(0.0f));
  constantTag tag = cp->tag_at(index);
  if (!tag.is_float()) {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_IllegalArgumentException(), "Wrong type at constant pool index");
  }
  return cp->float_at(index);
}
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(jdouble, JVM_ConstantPoolGetDoubleAt(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jobject unused, jint index))
{
  JVMWrapper("JVM_ConstantPoolGetDoubleAt");
  constantPoolHandle cp = constantPoolHandle(THREAD, reflect_ConstantPool::get_cp(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(obj)));
  bounds_check(cp, index, CHECK_(0.0));
  constantTag tag = cp->tag_at(index);
  if (!tag.is_double()) {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_IllegalArgumentException(), "Wrong type at constant pool index");
  }
  return cp->double_at(index);
}
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(jstring, JVM_ConstantPoolGetStringAt(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jobject unused, jint index))
{
  JVMWrapper("JVM_ConstantPoolGetStringAt");
  constantPoolHandle cp = constantPoolHandle(THREAD, reflect_ConstantPool::get_cp(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(obj)));
  bounds_check(cp, index, CHECK_NULL);
  constantTag tag = cp->tag_at(index);
  if (!tag.is_string()) {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_IllegalArgumentException(), "Wrong type at constant pool index");
  }
  oop str = cp->string_at(index, CHECK_NULL);
  return (jstring) JNIHandles::make_local(str);
}
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(jstring, JVM_ConstantPoolGetUTF8At(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jobject unused, jint index))
{
  JVMWrapper("JVM_ConstantPoolGetUTF8At");
  JvmtiVMObjectAllocEventCollector oam;
  constantPoolHandle cp = constantPoolHandle(THREAD, reflect_ConstantPool::get_cp(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(obj)));
  bounds_check(cp, index, CHECK_NULL);
  constantTag tag = cp->tag_at(index);
  if (!tag.is_symbol()) {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_IllegalArgumentException(), "Wrong type at constant pool index");
  }
  Symbol* sym = cp->symbol_at(index);
  Handle str = java_lang_String::create_from_symbol(sym, CHECK_NULL);
  return (jstring) JNIHandles::make_local(str());
}
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(jbyte, JVM_ConstantPoolGetTagAt(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj, jobject unused, jint index))
{
  JVMWrapper("JVM_ConstantPoolGetTagAt");
  constantPoolHandle cp = constantPoolHandle(THREAD, reflect_ConstantPool::get_cp(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(obj)));
  bounds_check(cp, index, CHECK_0);
  constantTag tag = cp->tag_at(index);
  jbyte result = tag.value();
  // If returned tag values are not from the JVM spec, e.g. tags from 100 to 105,
  // they are changed to the corresponding tags from the JVM spec, so that java code in
  // sun.reflect.ConstantPool will return only tags from the JVM spec, not internal ones.
  if (tag.is_klass_or_reference()) {
      result = JVM_CONSTANT_Class;
  } else if (tag.is_string_index()) {
      result = JVM_CONSTANT_String;
  } else if (tag.is_method_type_in_error()) {
      result = JVM_CONSTANT_MethodType;
  } else if (tag.is_method_handle_in_error()) {
      result = JVM_CONSTANT_MethodHandle;
  } else if (tag.is_dynamic_constant_in_error()) {
      result = JVM_CONSTANT_Dynamic;
  }
  return result;
}
JVM_END

// Assertion support. //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

JVM_ENTRY(jboolean, JVM_DesiredAssertionStatus(JNIEnv *env, jclass unused, jclass cls))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_DesiredAssertionStatus");
  assert(cls != NULL, "bad class");

  oop r = JNIHandles::resolve(cls);
  assert(! java_lang_Class::is_primitive(r), "primitive classes not allowed");
  if (java_lang_Class::is_primitive(r)) return false;

  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(r);
  assert(k->is_instance_klass(), "must be an instance klass");
  if (!k->is_instance_klass()) return false;

  ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
  const char* name = k->name()->as_C_string();
  bool system_class = k->class_loader() == NULL;
  return JavaAssertions::enabled(name, system_class);

JVM_END


// Return a new AssertionStatusDirectives object with the fields filled in with
// command-line assertion arguments (i.e., -ea, -da).
JVM_ENTRY(jobject, JVM_AssertionStatusDirectives(JNIEnv *env, jclass unused))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_AssertionStatusDirectives");
  JvmtiVMObjectAllocEventCollector oam;
  oop asd = JavaAssertions::createAssertionStatusDirectives(CHECK_NULL);
  return JNIHandles::make_local(env, asd);
JVM_END

// Verification ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

// Reflection for the verifier /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

// RedefineClasses support: bug 6214132 caused verification to fail.
// All functions from this section should call the jvmtiThreadSate function:
//   Klass* class_to_verify_considering_redefinition(Klass* klass).
// The function returns a Klass* of the _scratch_class if the verifier
// was invoked in the middle of the class redefinition.
// Otherwise it returns its argument value which is the _the_class Klass*.
// Please, refer to the description in the jvmtiThreadSate.hpp.

JVM_ENTRY(const char*, JVM_GetClassNameUTF(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetClassNameUTF");
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
  k = JvmtiThreadState::class_to_verify_considering_redefinition(k, thread);
  return k->name()->as_utf8();
JVM_END


JVM_QUICK_ENTRY(void, JVM_GetClassCPTypes(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, unsigned char *types))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetClassCPTypes");
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
  k = JvmtiThreadState::class_to_verify_considering_redefinition(k, thread);
  // types will have length zero if this is not an InstanceKlass
  // (length is determined by call to JVM_GetClassCPEntriesCount)
  if (k->is_instance_klass()) {
    ConstantPool* cp = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->constants();
    for (int index = cp->length() - 1; index >= 0; index--) {
      constantTag tag = cp->tag_at(index);
      types[index] = (tag.is_unresolved_klass()) ? JVM_CONSTANT_Class : tag.value();
    }
  }
JVM_END


JVM_QUICK_ENTRY(jint, JVM_GetClassCPEntriesCount(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetClassCPEntriesCount");
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
  k = JvmtiThreadState::class_to_verify_considering_redefinition(k, thread);
  return (!k->is_instance_klass()) ? 0 : InstanceKlass::cast(k)->constants()->length();
JVM_END


JVM_QUICK_ENTRY(jint, JVM_GetClassFieldsCount(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetClassFieldsCount");
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
  k = JvmtiThreadState::class_to_verify_considering_redefinition(k, thread);
  return (!k->is_instance_klass()) ? 0 : InstanceKlass::cast(k)->java_fields_count();
JVM_END


JVM_QUICK_ENTRY(jint, JVM_GetClassMethodsCount(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetClassMethodsCount");
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
  k = JvmtiThreadState::class_to_verify_considering_redefinition(k, thread);
  return (!k->is_instance_klass()) ? 0 : InstanceKlass::cast(k)->methods()->length();
JVM_END


// The following methods, used for the verifier, are never called with
// array klasses, so a direct cast to InstanceKlass is safe.
// Typically, these methods are called in a loop with bounds determined
// by the results of JVM_GetClass{Fields,Methods}Count, which return
// zero for arrays.
JVM_QUICK_ENTRY(void, JVM_GetMethodIxExceptionIndexes(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, jint method_index, unsigned short *exceptions))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetMethodIxExceptionIndexes");
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
  k = JvmtiThreadState::class_to_verify_considering_redefinition(k, thread);
  Method* method = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->methods()->at(method_index);
  int length = method->checked_exceptions_length();
  if (length > 0) {
    CheckedExceptionElement* table= method->checked_exceptions_start();
    for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
      exceptions[i] = table[i].class_cp_index;
    }
  }
JVM_END


JVM_QUICK_ENTRY(jint, JVM_GetMethodIxExceptionsCount(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, jint method_index))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetMethodIxExceptionsCount");
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
  k = JvmtiThreadState::class_to_verify_considering_redefinition(k, thread);
  Method* method = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->methods()->at(method_index);
  return method->checked_exceptions_length();
JVM_END


JVM_QUICK_ENTRY(void, JVM_GetMethodIxByteCode(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, jint method_index, unsigned char *code))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetMethodIxByteCode");
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
  k = JvmtiThreadState::class_to_verify_considering_redefinition(k, thread);
  Method* method = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->methods()->at(method_index);
  memcpy(code, method->code_base(), method->code_size());
JVM_END


JVM_QUICK_ENTRY(jint, JVM_GetMethodIxByteCodeLength(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, jint method_index))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetMethodIxByteCodeLength");
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
  k = JvmtiThreadState::class_to_verify_considering_redefinition(k, thread);
  Method* method = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->methods()->at(method_index);
  return method->code_size();
JVM_END


JVM_QUICK_ENTRY(void, JVM_GetMethodIxExceptionTableEntry(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, jint method_index, jint entry_index, JVM_ExceptionTableEntryType *entry))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetMethodIxExceptionTableEntry");
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
  k = JvmtiThreadState::class_to_verify_considering_redefinition(k, thread);
  Method* method = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->methods()->at(method_index);
  ExceptionTable extable(method);
  entry->start_pc   = extable.start_pc(entry_index);
  entry->end_pc     = extable.end_pc(entry_index);
  entry->handler_pc = extable.handler_pc(entry_index);
  entry->catchType  = extable.catch_type_index(entry_index);
JVM_END


JVM_QUICK_ENTRY(jint, JVM_GetMethodIxExceptionTableLength(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, int method_index))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetMethodIxExceptionTableLength");
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
  k = JvmtiThreadState::class_to_verify_considering_redefinition(k, thread);
  Method* method = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->methods()->at(method_index);
  return method->exception_table_length();
JVM_END


JVM_QUICK_ENTRY(jint, JVM_GetMethodIxModifiers(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, int method_index))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetMethodIxModifiers");
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
  k = JvmtiThreadState::class_to_verify_considering_redefinition(k, thread);
  Method* method = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->methods()->at(method_index);
  return method->access_flags().as_int() & JVM_RECOGNIZED_METHOD_MODIFIERS;
JVM_END


JVM_QUICK_ENTRY(jint, JVM_GetFieldIxModifiers(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, int field_index))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetFieldIxModifiers");
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
  k = JvmtiThreadState::class_to_verify_considering_redefinition(k, thread);
  return InstanceKlass::cast(k)->field_access_flags(field_index) & JVM_RECOGNIZED_FIELD_MODIFIERS;
JVM_END


JVM_QUICK_ENTRY(jint, JVM_GetMethodIxLocalsCount(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, int method_index))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetMethodIxLocalsCount");
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
  k = JvmtiThreadState::class_to_verify_considering_redefinition(k, thread);
  Method* method = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->methods()->at(method_index);
  return method->max_locals();
JVM_END


JVM_QUICK_ENTRY(jint, JVM_GetMethodIxArgsSize(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, int method_index))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetMethodIxArgsSize");
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
  k = JvmtiThreadState::class_to_verify_considering_redefinition(k, thread);
  Method* method = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->methods()->at(method_index);
  return method->size_of_parameters();
JVM_END


JVM_QUICK_ENTRY(jint, JVM_GetMethodIxMaxStack(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, int method_index))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetMethodIxMaxStack");
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
  k = JvmtiThreadState::class_to_verify_considering_redefinition(k, thread);
  Method* method = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->methods()->at(method_index);
  return method->verifier_max_stack();
JVM_END


JVM_QUICK_ENTRY(jboolean, JVM_IsConstructorIx(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, int method_index))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_IsConstructorIx");
  ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
  k = JvmtiThreadState::class_to_verify_considering_redefinition(k, thread);
  Method* method = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->methods()->at(method_index);
  return method->name() == vmSymbols::object_initializer_name();
JVM_END


JVM_QUICK_ENTRY(jboolean, JVM_IsVMGeneratedMethodIx(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, int method_index))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_IsVMGeneratedMethodIx");
  ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
  k = JvmtiThreadState::class_to_verify_considering_redefinition(k, thread);
  Method* method = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->methods()->at(method_index);
  return method->is_overpass();
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(const char*, JVM_GetMethodIxNameUTF(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, jint method_index))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetMethodIxIxUTF");
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
  k = JvmtiThreadState::class_to_verify_considering_redefinition(k, thread);
  Method* method = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->methods()->at(method_index);
  return method->name()->as_utf8();
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(const char*, JVM_GetMethodIxSignatureUTF(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, jint method_index))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetMethodIxSignatureUTF");
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
  k = JvmtiThreadState::class_to_verify_considering_redefinition(k, thread);
  Method* method = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->methods()->at(method_index);
  return method->signature()->as_utf8();
JVM_END

/**
 * All of these JVM_GetCP-xxx methods are used by the old verifier to
 * read entries in the constant pool.  Since the old verifier always
 * works on a copy of the code, it will not see any rewriting that
 * may possibly occur in the middle of verification.  So it is important
 * that nothing it calls tries to use the cpCache instead of the raw
 * constant pool, so we must use cp->uncached_x methods when appropriate.
 */
JVM_ENTRY(const char*, JVM_GetCPFieldNameUTF(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, jint cp_index))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetCPFieldNameUTF");
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
  k = JvmtiThreadState::class_to_verify_considering_redefinition(k, thread);
  ConstantPool* cp = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->constants();
  switch (cp->tag_at(cp_index).value()) {
    case JVM_CONSTANT_Fieldref:
      return cp->uncached_name_ref_at(cp_index)->as_utf8();
    default:
      fatal("JVM_GetCPFieldNameUTF: illegal constant");
  }
  ShouldNotReachHere();
  return NULL;
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(const char*, JVM_GetCPMethodNameUTF(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, jint cp_index))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetCPMethodNameUTF");
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
  k = JvmtiThreadState::class_to_verify_considering_redefinition(k, thread);
  ConstantPool* cp = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->constants();
  switch (cp->tag_at(cp_index).value()) {
    case JVM_CONSTANT_InterfaceMethodref:
    case JVM_CONSTANT_Methodref:
      return cp->uncached_name_ref_at(cp_index)->as_utf8();
    default:
      fatal("JVM_GetCPMethodNameUTF: illegal constant");
  }
  ShouldNotReachHere();
  return NULL;
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(const char*, JVM_GetCPMethodSignatureUTF(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, jint cp_index))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetCPMethodSignatureUTF");
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
  k = JvmtiThreadState::class_to_verify_considering_redefinition(k, thread);
  ConstantPool* cp = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->constants();
  switch (cp->tag_at(cp_index).value()) {
    case JVM_CONSTANT_InterfaceMethodref:
    case JVM_CONSTANT_Methodref:
      return cp->uncached_signature_ref_at(cp_index)->as_utf8();
    default:
      fatal("JVM_GetCPMethodSignatureUTF: illegal constant");
  }
  ShouldNotReachHere();
  return NULL;
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(const char*, JVM_GetCPFieldSignatureUTF(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, jint cp_index))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetCPFieldSignatureUTF");
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
  k = JvmtiThreadState::class_to_verify_considering_redefinition(k, thread);
  ConstantPool* cp = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->constants();
  switch (cp->tag_at(cp_index).value()) {
    case JVM_CONSTANT_Fieldref:
      return cp->uncached_signature_ref_at(cp_index)->as_utf8();
    default:
      fatal("JVM_GetCPFieldSignatureUTF: illegal constant");
  }
  ShouldNotReachHere();
  return NULL;
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(const char*, JVM_GetCPClassNameUTF(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, jint cp_index))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetCPClassNameUTF");
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
  k = JvmtiThreadState::class_to_verify_considering_redefinition(k, thread);
  ConstantPool* cp = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->constants();
  Symbol* classname = cp->klass_name_at(cp_index);
  return classname->as_utf8();
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(const char*, JVM_GetCPFieldClassNameUTF(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, jint cp_index))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetCPFieldClassNameUTF");
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
  k = JvmtiThreadState::class_to_verify_considering_redefinition(k, thread);
  ConstantPool* cp = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->constants();
  switch (cp->tag_at(cp_index).value()) {
    case JVM_CONSTANT_Fieldref: {
      int class_index = cp->uncached_klass_ref_index_at(cp_index);
      Symbol* classname = cp->klass_name_at(class_index);
      return classname->as_utf8();
    }
    default:
      fatal("JVM_GetCPFieldClassNameUTF: illegal constant");
  }
  ShouldNotReachHere();
  return NULL;
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(const char*, JVM_GetCPMethodClassNameUTF(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, jint cp_index))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetCPMethodClassNameUTF");
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
  k = JvmtiThreadState::class_to_verify_considering_redefinition(k, thread);
  ConstantPool* cp = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->constants();
  switch (cp->tag_at(cp_index).value()) {
    case JVM_CONSTANT_Methodref:
    case JVM_CONSTANT_InterfaceMethodref: {
      int class_index = cp->uncached_klass_ref_index_at(cp_index);
      Symbol* classname = cp->klass_name_at(class_index);
      return classname->as_utf8();
    }
    default:
      fatal("JVM_GetCPMethodClassNameUTF: illegal constant");
  }
  ShouldNotReachHere();
  return NULL;
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(jint, JVM_GetCPFieldModifiers(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, int cp_index, jclass called_cls))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetCPFieldModifiers");
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
  Klass* k_called = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(called_cls));
  k        = JvmtiThreadState::class_to_verify_considering_redefinition(k, thread);
  k_called = JvmtiThreadState::class_to_verify_considering_redefinition(k_called, thread);
  ConstantPool* cp = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->constants();
  ConstantPool* cp_called = InstanceKlass::cast(k_called)->constants();
  switch (cp->tag_at(cp_index).value()) {
    case JVM_CONSTANT_Fieldref: {
      Symbol* name      = cp->uncached_name_ref_at(cp_index);
      Symbol* signature = cp->uncached_signature_ref_at(cp_index);
      InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(k_called);
      for (JavaFieldStream fs(ik); !fs.done(); fs.next()) {
        if (fs.name() == name && fs.signature() == signature) {
          return fs.access_flags().as_short() & JVM_RECOGNIZED_FIELD_MODIFIERS;
        }
      }
      return -1;
    }
    default:
      fatal("JVM_GetCPFieldModifiers: illegal constant");
  }
  ShouldNotReachHere();
  return 0;
JVM_END


JVM_QUICK_ENTRY(jint, JVM_GetCPMethodModifiers(JNIEnv *env, jclass cls, int cp_index, jclass called_cls))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetCPMethodModifiers");
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(cls));
  Klass* k_called = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(called_cls));
  k        = JvmtiThreadState::class_to_verify_considering_redefinition(k, thread);
  k_called = JvmtiThreadState::class_to_verify_considering_redefinition(k_called, thread);
  ConstantPool* cp = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->constants();
  switch (cp->tag_at(cp_index).value()) {
    case JVM_CONSTANT_Methodref:
    case JVM_CONSTANT_InterfaceMethodref: {
      Symbol* name      = cp->uncached_name_ref_at(cp_index);
      Symbol* signature = cp->uncached_signature_ref_at(cp_index);
      Array<Method*>* methods = InstanceKlass::cast(k_called)->methods();
      int methods_count = methods->length();
      for (int i = 0; i < methods_count; i++) {
        Method* method = methods->at(i);
        if (method->name() == name && method->signature() == signature) {
            return method->access_flags().as_int() & JVM_RECOGNIZED_METHOD_MODIFIERS;
        }
      }
      return -1;
    }
    default:
      fatal("JVM_GetCPMethodModifiers: illegal constant");
  }
  ShouldNotReachHere();
  return 0;
JVM_END


// Misc //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

JVM_LEAF(void, JVM_ReleaseUTF(const char *utf))
  // So long as UTF8::convert_to_utf8 returns resource strings, we don't have to do anything
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(jboolean, JVM_IsSameClassPackage(JNIEnv *env, jclass class1, jclass class2))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_IsSameClassPackage");
  oop class1_mirror = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(class1);
  oop class2_mirror = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(class2);
  Klass* klass1 = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(class1_mirror);
  Klass* klass2 = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(class2_mirror);
  return (jboolean) Reflection::is_same_class_package(klass1, klass2);
JVM_END

// Printing support //////////////////////////////////////////////////
extern "C" {

ATTRIBUTE_PRINTF(3, 0)
int jio_vsnprintf(char *str, size_t count, const char *fmt, va_list args) {
  // Reject count values that are negative signed values converted to
  // unsigned; see bug 4399518, 4417214
  if ((intptr_t)count <= 0) return -1;

  int result = os::vsnprintf(str, count, fmt, args);
  if (result > 0 && (size_t)result >= count) {
    result = -1;
  }

  return result;
}

ATTRIBUTE_PRINTF(3, 4)
int jio_snprintf(char *str, size_t count, const char *fmt, ...) {
  va_list args;
  int len;
  va_start(args, fmt);
  len = jio_vsnprintf(str, count, fmt, args);
  va_end(args);
  return len;
}

ATTRIBUTE_PRINTF(2, 3)
int jio_fprintf(FILE* f, const char *fmt, ...) {
  int len;
  va_list args;
  va_start(args, fmt);
  len = jio_vfprintf(f, fmt, args);
  va_end(args);
  return len;
}

ATTRIBUTE_PRINTF(2, 0)
int jio_vfprintf(FILE* f, const char *fmt, va_list args) {
  if (Arguments::vfprintf_hook() != NULL) {
     return Arguments::vfprintf_hook()(f, fmt, args);
  } else {
    return vfprintf(f, fmt, args);
  }
}

ATTRIBUTE_PRINTF(1, 2)
JNIEXPORT int jio_printf(const char *fmt, ...) {
  int len;
  va_list args;
  va_start(args, fmt);
  len = jio_vfprintf(defaultStream::output_stream(), fmt, args);
  va_end(args);
  return len;
}

// HotSpot specific jio method
void jio_print(const char* s, size_t len) {
  // Try to make this function as atomic as possible.
  if (Arguments::vfprintf_hook() != NULL) {
    jio_fprintf(defaultStream::output_stream(), "%.*s", (int)len, s);
  } else {
    // Make an unused local variable to avoid warning from gcc 4.x compiler.
    size_t count = ::write(defaultStream::output_fd(), s, (int)len);
  }
}

} // Extern C

// java.lang.Thread //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

// In most of the JVM thread support functions we need to access the
// thread through a ThreadsListHandle to prevent it from exiting and
// being reclaimed while we try to operate on it. The exceptions to this
// rule are when operating on the current thread, or if the monitor of
// the target java.lang.Thread is locked at the Java level - in both
// cases the target cannot exit.

static void thread_entry(JavaThread* thread, TRAPS) {
  HandleMark hm(THREAD);
  Handle obj(THREAD, thread->threadObj());
  JavaValue result(T_VOID);
  JavaCalls::call_virtual(&result,
                          obj,
                          SystemDictionary::Thread_klass(),
                          vmSymbols::run_method_name(),
                          vmSymbols::void_method_signature(),
                          THREAD);
}


JVM_ENTRY(void, JVM_StartThread(JNIEnv* env, jobject jthread))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_StartThread");
  JavaThread *native_thread = NULL;

  // We cannot hold the Threads_lock when we throw an exception,
  // due to rank ordering issues. Example:  we might need to grab the
  // Heap_lock while we construct the exception.
  bool throw_illegal_thread_state = false;

  // We must release the Threads_lock before we can post a jvmti event
  // in Thread::start.
  {
    // Ensure that the C++ Thread and OSThread structures aren't freed before
    // we operate.
    MutexLocker mu(Threads_lock);

    // Since JDK 5 the java.lang.Thread threadStatus is used to prevent
    // re-starting an already started thread, so we should usually find
    // that the JavaThread is null. However for a JNI attached thread
    // there is a small window between the Thread object being created
    // (with its JavaThread set) and the update to its threadStatus, so we
    // have to check for this
    if (java_lang_Thread::thread(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(jthread)) != NULL) {
      throw_illegal_thread_state = true;
    } else {
      // We could also check the stillborn flag to see if this thread was already stopped, but
      // for historical reasons we let the thread detect that itself when it starts running

      jlong size =
             java_lang_Thread::stackSize(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(jthread));
      // Allocate the C++ Thread structure and create the native thread.  The
      // stack size retrieved from java is 64-bit signed, but the constructor takes
      // size_t (an unsigned type), which may be 32 or 64-bit depending on the platform.
      //  - Avoid truncating on 32-bit platforms if size is greater than UINT_MAX.
      //  - Avoid passing negative values which would result in really large stacks.
      NOT_LP64(if (size > SIZE_MAX) size = SIZE_MAX;)
      size_t sz = size > 0 ? (size_t) size : 0;
      native_thread = new JavaThread(&thread_entry, sz);

      // At this point it may be possible that no osthread was created for the
      // JavaThread due to lack of memory. Check for this situation and throw
      // an exception if necessary. Eventually we may want to change this so
      // that we only grab the lock if the thread was created successfully -
      // then we can also do this check and throw the exception in the
      // JavaThread constructor.
      if (native_thread->osthread() != NULL) {
        // Note: the current thread is not being used within "prepare".
        native_thread->prepare(jthread);
      }
    }
  }

  if (throw_illegal_thread_state) {
    THROW(vmSymbols::java_lang_IllegalThreadStateException());
  }

  assert(native_thread != NULL, "Starting null thread?");

  if (native_thread->osthread() == NULL) {
    // No one should hold a reference to the 'native_thread'.
    native_thread->smr_delete();
    if (JvmtiExport::should_post_resource_exhausted()) {
      JvmtiExport::post_resource_exhausted(
        JVMTI_RESOURCE_EXHAUSTED_OOM_ERROR | JVMTI_RESOURCE_EXHAUSTED_THREADS,
        os::native_thread_creation_failed_msg());
    }
    THROW_MSG(vmSymbols::java_lang_OutOfMemoryError(),
              os::native_thread_creation_failed_msg());
  }

  Thread::start(native_thread);

JVM_END


// JVM_Stop is implemented using a VM_Operation, so threads are forced to safepoints
// before the quasi-asynchronous exception is delivered.  This is a little obtrusive,
// but is thought to be reliable and simple. In the case, where the receiver is the
// same thread as the sender, no VM_Operation is needed.
JVM_ENTRY(void, JVM_StopThread(JNIEnv* env, jobject jthread, jobject throwable))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_StopThread");

  // A nested ThreadsListHandle will grab the Threads_lock so create
  // tlh before we resolve throwable.
  ThreadsListHandle tlh(thread);
  oop java_throwable = JNIHandles::resolve(throwable);
  if (java_throwable == NULL) {
    THROW(vmSymbols::java_lang_NullPointerException());
  }
  oop java_thread = NULL;
  JavaThread* receiver = NULL;
  bool is_alive = tlh.cv_internal_thread_to_JavaThread(jthread, &receiver, &java_thread);
  Events::log_exception(thread,
                        "JVM_StopThread thread JavaThread " INTPTR_FORMAT " as oop " INTPTR_FORMAT " [exception " INTPTR_FORMAT "]",
                        p2i(receiver), p2i((address)java_thread), p2i(throwable));

  if (is_alive) {
    // jthread refers to a live JavaThread.
    if (thread == receiver) {
      // Exception is getting thrown at self so no VM_Operation needed.
      THROW_OOP(java_throwable);
    } else {
      // Use a VM_Operation to throw the exception.
      Thread::send_async_exception(java_thread, java_throwable);
    }
  } else {
    // Either:
    // - target thread has not been started before being stopped, or
    // - target thread already terminated
    // We could read the threadStatus to determine which case it is
    // but that is overkill as it doesn't matter. We must set the
    // stillborn flag for the first case, and if the thread has already
    // exited setting this flag has no effect.
    java_lang_Thread::set_stillborn(java_thread);
  }
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(jboolean, JVM_IsThreadAlive(JNIEnv* env, jobject jthread))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_IsThreadAlive");

  oop thread_oop = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(jthread);
  return java_lang_Thread::is_alive(thread_oop);
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(void, JVM_SuspendThread(JNIEnv* env, jobject jthread))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_SuspendThread");

  ThreadsListHandle tlh(thread);
  JavaThread* receiver = NULL;
  bool is_alive = tlh.cv_internal_thread_to_JavaThread(jthread, &receiver, NULL);
  if (is_alive) {
    // jthread refers to a live JavaThread.
    {
      MutexLockerEx ml(receiver->SR_lock(), Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
      if (receiver->is_external_suspend()) {
        // Don't allow nested external suspend requests. We can't return
        // an error from this interface so just ignore the problem.
        return;
      }
      if (receiver->is_exiting()) { // thread is in the process of exiting
        return;
      }
      receiver->set_external_suspend();
    }

    // java_suspend() will catch threads in the process of exiting
    // and will ignore them.
    receiver->java_suspend();

    // It would be nice to have the following assertion in all the
    // time, but it is possible for a racing resume request to have
    // resumed this thread right after we suspended it. Temporarily
    // enable this assertion if you are chasing a different kind of
    // bug.
    //
    // assert(java_lang_Thread::thread(receiver->threadObj()) == NULL ||
    //   receiver->is_being_ext_suspended(), "thread is not suspended");
  }
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(void, JVM_ResumeThread(JNIEnv* env, jobject jthread))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_ResumeThread");

  ThreadsListHandle tlh(thread);
  JavaThread* receiver = NULL;
  bool is_alive = tlh.cv_internal_thread_to_JavaThread(jthread, &receiver, NULL);
  if (is_alive) {
    // jthread refers to a live JavaThread.

    // This is the original comment for this Threads_lock grab:
    //   We need to *always* get the threads lock here, since this operation cannot be allowed during
    //   a safepoint. The safepoint code relies on suspending a thread to examine its state. If other
    //   threads randomly resumes threads, then a thread might not be suspended when the safepoint code
    //   looks at it.
    //
    // The above comment dates back to when we had both internal and
    // external suspend APIs that shared a common underlying mechanism.
    // External suspend is now entirely cooperative and doesn't share
    // anything with internal suspend. That said, there are some
    // assumptions in the VM that an external resume grabs the
    // Threads_lock. We can't drop the Threads_lock grab here until we
    // resolve the assumptions that exist elsewhere.
    //
    MutexLocker ml(Threads_lock);
    receiver->java_resume();
  }
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(void, JVM_SetThreadPriority(JNIEnv* env, jobject jthread, jint prio))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_SetThreadPriority");

  ThreadsListHandle tlh(thread);
  oop java_thread = NULL;
  JavaThread* receiver = NULL;
  bool is_alive = tlh.cv_internal_thread_to_JavaThread(jthread, &receiver, &java_thread);
  java_lang_Thread::set_priority(java_thread, (ThreadPriority)prio);

  if (is_alive) {
    // jthread refers to a live JavaThread.
    Thread::set_priority(receiver, (ThreadPriority)prio);
  }
  // Implied else: If the JavaThread hasn't started yet, then the
  // priority set in the java.lang.Thread object above will be pushed
  // down when it does start.
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(void, JVM_Yield(JNIEnv *env, jclass threadClass))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_Yield");
  if (os::dont_yield()) return;
  HOTSPOT_THREAD_YIELD();
  os::naked_yield();
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(void, JVM_Sleep(JNIEnv* env, jclass threadClass, jlong millis))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_Sleep");

  if (millis < 0) {
    THROW_MSG(vmSymbols::java_lang_IllegalArgumentException(), "timeout value is negative");
  }

  if (Thread::is_interrupted (THREAD, true) && !HAS_PENDING_EXCEPTION) {
    THROW_MSG(vmSymbols::java_lang_InterruptedException(), "sleep interrupted");
  }

  // Save current thread state and restore it at the end of this block.
  // And set new thread state to SLEEPING.
  JavaThreadSleepState jtss(thread);

  HOTSPOT_THREAD_SLEEP_BEGIN(millis);

  EventThreadSleep event;

  if (millis == 0) {
    os::naked_yield();
  } else {
    ThreadState old_state = thread->osthread()->get_state();
    thread->osthread()->set_state(SLEEPING);
    if (os::sleep(thread, millis, true) == OS_INTRPT) {
      // An asynchronous exception (e.g., ThreadDeathException) could have been thrown on
      // us while we were sleeping. We do not overwrite those.
      if (!HAS_PENDING_EXCEPTION) {
        if (event.should_commit()) {
          event.set_time(millis);
          event.commit();
        }
        HOTSPOT_THREAD_SLEEP_END(1);

        // TODO-FIXME: THROW_MSG returns which means we will not call set_state()
        // to properly restore the thread state.  That's likely wrong.
        THROW_MSG(vmSymbols::java_lang_InterruptedException(), "sleep interrupted");
      }
    }
    thread->osthread()->set_state(old_state);
  }
  if (event.should_commit()) {
    event.set_time(millis);
    event.commit();
  }
  HOTSPOT_THREAD_SLEEP_END(0);
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(jobject, JVM_CurrentThread(JNIEnv* env, jclass threadClass))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_CurrentThread");
  oop jthread = thread->threadObj();
  assert (thread != NULL, "no current thread!");
  return JNIHandles::make_local(env, jthread);
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(jint, JVM_CountStackFrames(JNIEnv* env, jobject jthread))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_CountStackFrames");

  uint32_t debug_bits = 0;
  ThreadsListHandle tlh(thread);
  JavaThread* receiver = NULL;
  bool is_alive = tlh.cv_internal_thread_to_JavaThread(jthread, &receiver, NULL);
  int count = 0;
  if (is_alive) {
    // jthread refers to a live JavaThread.
    if (receiver->is_thread_fully_suspended(true /* wait for suspend completion */, &debug_bits)) {
      // Count all java activation, i.e., number of vframes.
      for (vframeStream vfst(receiver); !vfst.at_end(); vfst.next()) {
        // Native frames are not counted.
        if (!vfst.method()->is_native()) count++;
      }
    } else {
      THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_IllegalThreadStateException(),
                  "this thread is not suspended");
    }
  }
  // Implied else: if JavaThread is not alive simply return a count of 0.

  return count;
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(void, JVM_Interrupt(JNIEnv* env, jobject jthread))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_Interrupt");

  ThreadsListHandle tlh(thread);
  JavaThread* receiver = NULL;
  bool is_alive = tlh.cv_internal_thread_to_JavaThread(jthread, &receiver, NULL);
  if (is_alive) {
    // jthread refers to a live JavaThread.
    Thread::interrupt(receiver);
  }
JVM_END


JVM_QUICK_ENTRY(jboolean, JVM_IsInterrupted(JNIEnv* env, jobject jthread, jboolean clear_interrupted))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_IsInterrupted");

  ThreadsListHandle tlh(thread);
  JavaThread* receiver = NULL;
  bool is_alive = tlh.cv_internal_thread_to_JavaThread(jthread, &receiver, NULL);
  if (is_alive) {
    // jthread refers to a live JavaThread.
    return (jboolean) Thread::is_interrupted(receiver, clear_interrupted != 0);
  } else {
    return JNI_FALSE;
  }
JVM_END


// Return true iff the current thread has locked the object passed in

JVM_ENTRY(jboolean, JVM_HoldsLock(JNIEnv* env, jclass threadClass, jobject obj))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_HoldsLock");
  assert(THREAD->is_Java_thread(), "sanity check");
  if (obj == NULL) {
    THROW_(vmSymbols::java_lang_NullPointerException(), JNI_FALSE);
  }
  Handle h_obj(THREAD, JNIHandles::resolve(obj));
  return ObjectSynchronizer::current_thread_holds_lock((JavaThread*)THREAD, h_obj);
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(void, JVM_DumpAllStacks(JNIEnv* env, jclass))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_DumpAllStacks");
  VM_PrintThreads op;
  VMThread::execute(&op);
  if (JvmtiExport::should_post_data_dump()) {
    JvmtiExport::post_data_dump();
  }
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(void, JVM_SetNativeThreadName(JNIEnv* env, jobject jthread, jstring name))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_SetNativeThreadName");

  // We don't use a ThreadsListHandle here because the current thread
  // must be alive.
  oop java_thread = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(jthread);
  JavaThread* thr = java_lang_Thread::thread(java_thread);
  if (thread == thr && !thr->has_attached_via_jni()) {
    // Thread naming is only supported for the current thread and
    // we don't set the name of an attached thread to avoid stepping
    // on other programs.
    ResourceMark rm(thread);
    const char *thread_name = java_lang_String::as_utf8_string(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(name));
    os::set_native_thread_name(thread_name);
  }
JVM_END

// java.lang.SecurityManager ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

JVM_ENTRY(jobjectArray, JVM_GetClassContext(JNIEnv *env))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetClassContext");
  ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
  JvmtiVMObjectAllocEventCollector oam;
  vframeStream vfst(thread);

  if (SystemDictionary::reflect_CallerSensitive_klass() != NULL) {
    // This must only be called from SecurityManager.getClassContext
    Method* m = vfst.method();
    if (!(m->method_holder() == SystemDictionary::SecurityManager_klass() &&
          m->name()          == vmSymbols::getClassContext_name() &&
          m->signature()     == vmSymbols::void_class_array_signature())) {
      THROW_MSG_NULL(vmSymbols::java_lang_InternalError(), "JVM_GetClassContext must only be called from SecurityManager.getClassContext");
    }
  }

  // Collect method holders
  GrowableArray<Klass*>* klass_array = new GrowableArray<Klass*>();
  for (; !vfst.at_end(); vfst.security_next()) {
    Method* m = vfst.method();
    // Native frames are not returned
    if (!m->is_ignored_by_security_stack_walk() && !m->is_native()) {
      Klass* holder = m->method_holder();
      assert(holder->is_klass(), "just checking");
      klass_array->append(holder);
    }
  }

  // Create result array of type [Ljava/lang/Class;
  objArrayOop result = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::Class_klass(), klass_array->length(), CHECK_NULL);
  // Fill in mirrors corresponding to method holders
  for (int i = 0; i < klass_array->length(); i++) {
    result->obj_at_put(i, klass_array->at(i)->java_mirror());
  }

  return (jobjectArray) JNIHandles::make_local(env, result);
JVM_END


// java.lang.Package ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////


JVM_ENTRY(jstring, JVM_GetSystemPackage(JNIEnv *env, jstring name))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetSystemPackage");
  ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
  JvmtiVMObjectAllocEventCollector oam;
  char* str = java_lang_String::as_utf8_string(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(name));
  oop result = ClassLoader::get_system_package(str, CHECK_NULL);
  return (jstring) JNIHandles::make_local(result);
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(jobjectArray, JVM_GetSystemPackages(JNIEnv *env))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetSystemPackages");
  JvmtiVMObjectAllocEventCollector oam;
  objArrayOop result = ClassLoader::get_system_packages(CHECK_NULL);
  return (jobjectArray) JNIHandles::make_local(result);
JVM_END


// java.lang.ref.Reference ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////


JVM_ENTRY(jobject, JVM_GetAndClearReferencePendingList(JNIEnv* env))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetAndClearReferencePendingList");

  MonitorLockerEx ml(Heap_lock);
  oop ref = Universe::reference_pending_list();
  if (ref != NULL) {
    Universe::set_reference_pending_list(NULL);
  }
  return JNIHandles::make_local(env, ref);
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(jboolean, JVM_HasReferencePendingList(JNIEnv* env))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_HasReferencePendingList");
  MonitorLockerEx ml(Heap_lock);
  return Universe::has_reference_pending_list();
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(void, JVM_WaitForReferencePendingList(JNIEnv* env))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_WaitForReferencePendingList");
  MonitorLockerEx ml(Heap_lock);
  while (!Universe::has_reference_pending_list()) {
    ml.wait();
  }
JVM_END


// ObjectInputStream ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

// Return the first user-defined class loader up the execution stack, or null
// if only code from the bootstrap or platform class loader is on the stack.

JVM_ENTRY(jobject, JVM_LatestUserDefinedLoader(JNIEnv *env))
  for (vframeStream vfst(thread); !vfst.at_end(); vfst.next()) {
    vfst.skip_reflection_related_frames(); // Only needed for 1.4 reflection
    oop loader = vfst.method()->method_holder()->class_loader();
    if (loader != NULL && !SystemDictionary::is_platform_class_loader(loader)) {
      return JNIHandles::make_local(env, loader);
    }
  }
  return NULL;
JVM_END


// Array ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////


// resolve array handle and check arguments
static inline arrayOop check_array(JNIEnv *env, jobject arr, bool type_array_only, TRAPS) {
  if (arr == NULL) {
    THROW_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_NullPointerException());
  }
  oop a = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(arr);
  if (!a->is_array()) {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_IllegalArgumentException(), "Argument is not an array");
  } else if (type_array_only && !a->is_typeArray()) {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_IllegalArgumentException(), "Argument is not an array of primitive type");
  }
  return arrayOop(a);
}


JVM_ENTRY(jint, JVM_GetArrayLength(JNIEnv *env, jobject arr))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetArrayLength");
  arrayOop a = check_array(env, arr, false, CHECK_0);
  return a->length();
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(jobject, JVM_GetArrayElement(JNIEnv *env, jobject arr, jint index))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_Array_Get");
  JvmtiVMObjectAllocEventCollector oam;
  arrayOop a = check_array(env, arr, false, CHECK_NULL);
  jvalue value;
  BasicType type = Reflection::array_get(&value, a, index, CHECK_NULL);
  oop box = Reflection::box(&value, type, CHECK_NULL);
  return JNIHandles::make_local(env, box);
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(jvalue, JVM_GetPrimitiveArrayElement(JNIEnv *env, jobject arr, jint index, jint wCode))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetPrimitiveArrayElement");
  jvalue value;
  value.i = 0; // to initialize value before getting used in CHECK
  arrayOop a = check_array(env, arr, true, CHECK_(value));
  assert(a->is_typeArray(), "just checking");
  BasicType type = Reflection::array_get(&value, a, index, CHECK_(value));
  BasicType wide_type = (BasicType) wCode;
  if (type != wide_type) {
    Reflection::widen(&value, type, wide_type, CHECK_(value));
  }
  return value;
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(void, JVM_SetArrayElement(JNIEnv *env, jobject arr, jint index, jobject val))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_SetArrayElement");
  arrayOop a = check_array(env, arr, false, CHECK);
  oop box = JNIHandles::resolve(val);
  jvalue value;
  value.i = 0; // to initialize value before getting used in CHECK
  BasicType value_type;
  if (a->is_objArray()) {
    // Make sure we do no unbox e.g. java/lang/Integer instances when storing into an object array
    value_type = Reflection::unbox_for_regular_object(box, &value);
  } else {
    value_type = Reflection::unbox_for_primitive(box, &value, CHECK);
  }
  Reflection::array_set(&value, a, index, value_type, CHECK);
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(void, JVM_SetPrimitiveArrayElement(JNIEnv *env, jobject arr, jint index, jvalue v, unsigned char vCode))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_SetPrimitiveArrayElement");
  arrayOop a = check_array(env, arr, true, CHECK);
  assert(a->is_typeArray(), "just checking");
  BasicType value_type = (BasicType) vCode;
  Reflection::array_set(&v, a, index, value_type, CHECK);
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(jobject, JVM_NewArray(JNIEnv *env, jclass eltClass, jint length))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_NewArray");
  JvmtiVMObjectAllocEventCollector oam;
  oop element_mirror = JNIHandles::resolve(eltClass);
  oop result = Reflection::reflect_new_array(element_mirror, length, CHECK_NULL);
  return JNIHandles::make_local(env, result);
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(jobject, JVM_NewMultiArray(JNIEnv *env, jclass eltClass, jintArray dim))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_NewMultiArray");
  JvmtiVMObjectAllocEventCollector oam;
  arrayOop dim_array = check_array(env, dim, true, CHECK_NULL);
  oop element_mirror = JNIHandles::resolve(eltClass);
  assert(dim_array->is_typeArray(), "just checking");
  oop result = Reflection::reflect_new_multi_array(element_mirror, typeArrayOop(dim_array), CHECK_NULL);
  return JNIHandles::make_local(env, result);
JVM_END


// Library support ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

JVM_ENTRY_NO_ENV(void*, JVM_LoadLibrary(const char* name))
  //%note jvm_ct
  JVMWrapper("JVM_LoadLibrary");
  char ebuf[1024];
  void *load_result;
  {
    ThreadToNativeFromVM ttnfvm(thread);
    load_result = os::dll_load(name, ebuf, sizeof ebuf);
  }
  if (load_result == NULL) {
    char msg[1024];
    jio_snprintf(msg, sizeof msg, "%s: %s", name, ebuf);
    // Since 'ebuf' may contain a string encoded using
    // platform encoding scheme, we need to pass
    // Exceptions::unsafe_to_utf8 to the new_exception method
    // as the last argument. See bug 6367357.
    Handle h_exception =
      Exceptions::new_exception(thread,
                                vmSymbols::java_lang_UnsatisfiedLinkError(),
                                msg, Exceptions::unsafe_to_utf8);

    THROW_HANDLE_0(h_exception);
  }
  return load_result;
JVM_END


JVM_LEAF(void, JVM_UnloadLibrary(void* handle))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_UnloadLibrary");
  os::dll_unload(handle);
JVM_END


JVM_LEAF(void*, JVM_FindLibraryEntry(void* handle, const char* name))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_FindLibraryEntry");
  return os::dll_lookup(handle, name);
JVM_END


// JNI version ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

JVM_LEAF(jboolean, JVM_IsSupportedJNIVersion(jint version))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_IsSupportedJNIVersion");
  return Threads::is_supported_jni_version_including_1_1(version);
JVM_END


// String support ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

JVM_ENTRY(jstring, JVM_InternString(JNIEnv *env, jstring str))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_InternString");
  JvmtiVMObjectAllocEventCollector oam;
  if (str == NULL) return NULL;
  oop string = JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(str);
  oop result = StringTable::intern(string, CHECK_NULL);
  return (jstring) JNIHandles::make_local(env, result);
JVM_END


// Raw monitor support //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

// The lock routine below calls lock_without_safepoint_check in order to get a raw lock
// without interfering with the safepoint mechanism. The routines are not JVM_LEAF because
// they might be called by non-java threads. The JVM_LEAF installs a NoHandleMark check
// that only works with java threads.


JNIEXPORT void* JNICALL JVM_RawMonitorCreate(void) {
  VM_Exit::block_if_vm_exited();
  JVMWrapper("JVM_RawMonitorCreate");
  return new Mutex(Mutex::native, "JVM_RawMonitorCreate");
}


JNIEXPORT void JNICALL  JVM_RawMonitorDestroy(void *mon) {
  VM_Exit::block_if_vm_exited();
  JVMWrapper("JVM_RawMonitorDestroy");
  delete ((Mutex*) mon);
}


JNIEXPORT jint JNICALL JVM_RawMonitorEnter(void *mon) {
  VM_Exit::block_if_vm_exited();
  JVMWrapper("JVM_RawMonitorEnter");
  ((Mutex*) mon)->jvm_raw_lock();
  return 0;
}


JNIEXPORT void JNICALL JVM_RawMonitorExit(void *mon) {
  VM_Exit::block_if_vm_exited();
  JVMWrapper("JVM_RawMonitorExit");
  ((Mutex*) mon)->jvm_raw_unlock();
}


// Shared JNI/JVM entry points //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

jclass find_class_from_class_loader(JNIEnv* env, Symbol* name, jboolean init,
                                    Handle loader, Handle protection_domain,
                                    jboolean throwError, TRAPS) {
  // Security Note:
  //   The Java level wrapper will perform the necessary security check allowing
  //   us to pass the NULL as the initiating class loader.  The VM is responsible for
  //   the checkPackageAccess relative to the initiating class loader via the
  //   protection_domain. The protection_domain is passed as NULL by the java code
  //   if there is no security manager in 3-arg Class.forName().
  Klass* klass = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(name, loader, protection_domain, throwError != 0, CHECK_NULL);

  // Check if we should initialize the class
  if (init && klass->is_instance_klass()) {
    klass->initialize(CHECK_NULL);
  }
  return (jclass) JNIHandles::make_local(env, klass->java_mirror());
}


// Method ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

JVM_ENTRY(jobject, JVM_InvokeMethod(JNIEnv *env, jobject method, jobject obj, jobjectArray args0))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_InvokeMethod");
  Handle method_handle;
  if (thread->stack_available((address) &method_handle) >= JVMInvokeMethodSlack) {
    method_handle = Handle(THREAD, JNIHandles::resolve(method));
    Handle receiver(THREAD, JNIHandles::resolve(obj));
    objArrayHandle args(THREAD, objArrayOop(JNIHandles::resolve(args0)));
    oop result = Reflection::invoke_method(method_handle(), receiver, args, CHECK_NULL);
    jobject res = JNIHandles::make_local(env, result);
    if (JvmtiExport::should_post_vm_object_alloc()) {
      oop ret_type = java_lang_reflect_Method::return_type(method_handle());
      assert(ret_type != NULL, "sanity check: ret_type oop must not be NULL!");
      if (java_lang_Class::is_primitive(ret_type)) {
        // Only for primitive type vm allocates memory for java object.
        // See box() method.
        JvmtiExport::post_vm_object_alloc(JavaThread::current(), result);
      }
    }
    return res;
  } else {
    THROW_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_StackOverflowError());
  }
JVM_END


JVM_ENTRY(jobject, JVM_NewInstanceFromConstructor(JNIEnv *env, jobject c, jobjectArray args0))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_NewInstanceFromConstructor");
  oop constructor_mirror = JNIHandles::resolve(c);
  objArrayHandle args(THREAD, objArrayOop(JNIHandles::resolve(args0)));
  oop result = Reflection::invoke_constructor(constructor_mirror, args, CHECK_NULL);
  jobject res = JNIHandles::make_local(env, result);
  if (JvmtiExport::should_post_vm_object_alloc()) {
    JvmtiExport::post_vm_object_alloc(JavaThread::current(), result);
  }
  return res;
JVM_END

// Atomic ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

JVM_LEAF(jboolean, JVM_SupportsCX8())
  JVMWrapper("JVM_SupportsCX8");
  return VM_Version::supports_cx8();
JVM_END

// Returns an array of all live Thread objects (VM internal JavaThreads,
// jvmti agent threads, and JNI attaching threads  are skipped)
// See CR 6404306 regarding JNI attaching threads
JVM_ENTRY(jobjectArray, JVM_GetAllThreads(JNIEnv *env, jclass dummy))
  ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
  ThreadsListEnumerator tle(THREAD, false, false);
  JvmtiVMObjectAllocEventCollector oam;

  int num_threads = tle.num_threads();
  objArrayOop r = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::Thread_klass(), num_threads, CHECK_NULL);
  objArrayHandle threads_ah(THREAD, r);

  for (int i = 0; i < num_threads; i++) {
    Handle h = tle.get_threadObj(i);
    threads_ah->obj_at_put(i, h());
  }

  return (jobjectArray) JNIHandles::make_local(env, threads_ah());
JVM_END


// Support for java.lang.Thread.getStackTrace() and getAllStackTraces() methods
// Return StackTraceElement[][], each element is the stack trace of a thread in
// the corresponding entry in the given threads array
JVM_ENTRY(jobjectArray, JVM_DumpThreads(JNIEnv *env, jclass threadClass, jobjectArray threads))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_DumpThreads");
  JvmtiVMObjectAllocEventCollector oam;

  // Check if threads is null
  if (threads == NULL) {
    THROW_(vmSymbols::java_lang_NullPointerException(), 0);
  }

  objArrayOop a = objArrayOop(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(threads));
  objArrayHandle ah(THREAD, a);
  int num_threads = ah->length();
  // check if threads is non-empty array
  if (num_threads == 0) {
    THROW_(vmSymbols::java_lang_IllegalArgumentException(), 0);
  }

  // check if threads is not an array of objects of Thread class
  Klass* k = ObjArrayKlass::cast(ah->klass())->element_klass();
  if (k != SystemDictionary::Thread_klass()) {
    THROW_(vmSymbols::java_lang_IllegalArgumentException(), 0);
  }

  ResourceMark rm(THREAD);

  GrowableArray<instanceHandle>* thread_handle_array = new GrowableArray<instanceHandle>(num_threads);
  for (int i = 0; i < num_threads; i++) {
    oop thread_obj = ah->obj_at(i);
    instanceHandle h(THREAD, (instanceOop) thread_obj);
    thread_handle_array->append(h);
  }

  // The JavaThread references in thread_handle_array are validated
  // in VM_ThreadDump::doit().
  Handle stacktraces = ThreadService::dump_stack_traces(thread_handle_array, num_threads, CHECK_NULL);
  return (jobjectArray)JNIHandles::make_local(env, stacktraces());

JVM_END

// JVM monitoring and management support
JVM_ENTRY_NO_ENV(void*, JVM_GetManagement(jint version))
  return Management::get_jmm_interface(version);
JVM_END

// com.sun.tools.attach.VirtualMachine agent properties support
//
// Initialize the agent properties with the properties maintained in the VM
JVM_ENTRY(jobject, JVM_InitAgentProperties(JNIEnv *env, jobject properties))
  JVMWrapper("JVM_InitAgentProperties");
  ResourceMark rm;

  Handle props(THREAD, JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(properties));

  PUTPROP(props, "sun.java.command", Arguments::java_command());
  PUTPROP(props, "sun.jvm.flags", Arguments::jvm_flags());
  PUTPROP(props, "sun.jvm.args", Arguments::jvm_args());
  return properties;
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(jobjectArray, JVM_GetEnclosingMethodInfo(JNIEnv *env, jclass ofClass))
{
  JVMWrapper("JVM_GetEnclosingMethodInfo");
  JvmtiVMObjectAllocEventCollector oam;

  if (ofClass == NULL) {
    return NULL;
  }
  Handle mirror(THREAD, JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(ofClass));
  // Special handling for primitive objects
  if (java_lang_Class::is_primitive(mirror())) {
    return NULL;
  }
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(mirror());
  if (!k->is_instance_klass()) {
    return NULL;
  }
  InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(k);
  int encl_method_class_idx = ik->enclosing_method_class_index();
  if (encl_method_class_idx == 0) {
    return NULL;
  }
  objArrayOop dest_o = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::Object_klass(), 3, CHECK_NULL);
  objArrayHandle dest(THREAD, dest_o);
  Klass* enc_k = ik->constants()->klass_at(encl_method_class_idx, CHECK_NULL);
  dest->obj_at_put(0, enc_k->java_mirror());
  int encl_method_method_idx = ik->enclosing_method_method_index();
  if (encl_method_method_idx != 0) {
    Symbol* sym = ik->constants()->symbol_at(
                        extract_low_short_from_int(
                          ik->constants()->name_and_type_at(encl_method_method_idx)));
    Handle str = java_lang_String::create_from_symbol(sym, CHECK_NULL);
    dest->obj_at_put(1, str());
    sym = ik->constants()->symbol_at(
              extract_high_short_from_int(
                ik->constants()->name_and_type_at(encl_method_method_idx)));
    str = java_lang_String::create_from_symbol(sym, CHECK_NULL);
    dest->obj_at_put(2, str());
  }
  return (jobjectArray) JNIHandles::make_local(dest());
}
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY(void, JVM_GetVersionInfo(JNIEnv* env, jvm_version_info* info, size_t info_size))
{
  memset(info, 0, info_size);

  info->jvm_version = Abstract_VM_Version::jvm_version();
  info->patch_version = Abstract_VM_Version::vm_patch_version();

  // when we add a new capability in the jvm_version_info struct, we should also
  // consider to expose this new capability in the sun.rt.jvmCapabilities jvmstat
  // counter defined in runtimeService.cpp.
  info->is_attach_supported = AttachListener::is_attach_supported();
}
JVM_END

// Returns an array of java.lang.String objects containing the input arguments to the VM.
JVM_ENTRY(jobjectArray, JVM_GetVmArguments(JNIEnv *env))
  ResourceMark rm(THREAD);

  if (Arguments::num_jvm_args() == 0 && Arguments::num_jvm_flags() == 0) {
    return NULL;
  }

  char** vm_flags = Arguments::jvm_flags_array();
  char** vm_args = Arguments::jvm_args_array();
  int num_flags = Arguments::num_jvm_flags();
  int num_args = Arguments::num_jvm_args();

  InstanceKlass* ik = SystemDictionary::String_klass();
  objArrayOop r = oopFactory::new_objArray(ik, num_args + num_flags, CHECK_NULL);
  objArrayHandle result_h(THREAD, r);

  int index = 0;
  for (int j = 0; j < num_flags; j++, index++) {
    Handle h = java_lang_String::create_from_platform_dependent_str(vm_flags[j], CHECK_NULL);
    result_h->obj_at_put(index, h());
  }
  for (int i = 0; i < num_args; i++, index++) {
    Handle h = java_lang_String::create_from_platform_dependent_str(vm_args[i], CHECK_NULL);
    result_h->obj_at_put(index, h());
  }
  return (jobjectArray) JNIHandles::make_local(env, result_h());
JVM_END

JVM_ENTRY_NO_ENV(jint, JVM_FindSignal(const char *name))
  return os::get_signal_number(name);
JVM_END