changeset 55666:340d73f42b3c

8227602: Update nroff version of man pages Reviewed-by: mchung
author jjg
date Thu, 11 Jul 2019 12:13:52 -0700
parents 70b1c1bec669
children 6521aec1c26e
files src/java.base/share/man/java.1 src/jdk.compiler/share/man/javac.1 src/jdk.javadoc/share/man/javadoc.1 src/jdk.jdeps/share/man/javap.1 src/jdk.jdeps/share/man/jdeps.1 src/jdk.jlink/share/man/jlink.1 src/jdk.jlink/share/man/jmod.1 src/jdk.rmic/share/man/rmic.1
diffstat 8 files changed, 1342 insertions(+), 732 deletions(-) [+]
line wrap: on
line diff
--- a/src/java.base/share/man/java.1	Thu Jul 11 17:11:54 2019 +0200
+++ b/src/java.base/share/man/java.1	Thu Jul 11 12:13:52 2019 -0700
@@ -109,7 +109,7 @@
 .SH DESCRIPTION
 .PP
 The \f[CB]java\f[R] command starts a Java application.
-It does this by starting the Java Runtime Environment (JRE), loading the
+It does this by starting the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), loading the
 specified class, and calling that class\[aq]s \f[CB]main()\f[R] method.
 The method must be declared \f[CB]public\f[R] and \f[CB]static\f[R], it must
 not return any value, and it must accept a \f[CB]String\f[R] array as a
@@ -566,7 +566,7 @@
 .RS
 .RE
 .TP
-.B \f[CB]\-disableassertions\f[R][\f[CB]:\f[R][\f[I]packagename\f[R]]...|\f[CB]:\f[R]\f[I]classname\f[R]] or \f[CB]\-da\\[\f[R]:\f[CB]\\[*packagename*\\]...|\f[R]:`\f[I]classname\f[R]]
+.B \f[CB]\-disableassertions\f[R][\f[CB]:\f[R][\f[I]packagename\f[R]]...|\f[CB]:\f[R]\f[I]classname\f[R]] or \f[CB]\-da\f[R][\f[CB]:\f[R][\f[I]packagename\f[R]]...|\f[CB]:\f[R]\f[I]classname\f[R]]
 Disables assertions.
 By default, assertions are disabled in all packages and classes.
 With no arguments, \f[CB]\-disableassertions\f[R] (\f[CB]\-da\f[R]) disables
@@ -606,7 +606,7 @@
 .RS
 .RE
 .TP
-.B \f[CB]\-enableassertions\f[R][\f[CB]:\f[R][\f[I]packagename\f[R]]...|\f[CB]:\f[R]\f[I]classname\f[R]] or \f[CB]\-ea\\[\f[R]:\f[CB]\\[*packagename*\\]...|\f[R]:`\f[I]classname\f[R]]
+.B \f[CB]\-enableassertions\f[R][\f[CB]:\f[R][\f[I]packagename\f[R]]...|\f[CB]:\f[R]\f[I]classname\f[R]] or \f[CB]\-ea\f[R][\f[CB]:\f[R][\f[I]packagename\f[R]]...|\f[CB]:\f[R]\f[I]classname\f[R]]
 Enables assertions.
 By default, assertions are disabled in all packages and classes.
 With no arguments, \f[CB]\-enableassertions\f[R] (\f[CB]\-ea\f[R]) enables
@@ -659,6 +659,7 @@
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-javaagent:\f[R]\f[I]jarpath\f[R][\f[CB]=\f[R]\f[I]options\f[R]]
 Loads the specified Java programming language agent.
+See \f[CB]java.lang.instrument\f[R].
 .RS
 .RE
 .TP
@@ -718,15 +719,15 @@
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-\-version\f[R]
+Prints product version to the output stream and exits.
+.RS
+.RE
+.TP
+.B \f[CB]\-version\f[R]
 Prints product version to the error stream and exits.
 .RS
 .RE
 .TP
-.B \f[CB]\-version\f[R]
-Prints product version to the output stream and exits.
-.RS
-.RE
-.TP
 .B \f[CB]\-X\f[R]
 Prints the help on extra options to the error stream.
 .RS
@@ -747,7 +748,7 @@
 files after shell expansion, but before argument processing.
 Contents in the argument files are expanded because otherwise, they
 would be specified on the command line until the
-\f[CB]\-Xdisable\-\@files\f[R] option was encountered.
+\f[CB]\-\-disable\-\@files\f[R] option was encountered.
 .RS
 .PP
 The argument files can also contain the main class name and all options.
@@ -856,7 +857,7 @@
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-Xmn\f[R] \f[I]size\f[R]
 Sets the initial and maximum size (in bytes) of the heap for the young
-generation (nursery).
+generation (nursery) in the generational collectors.
 Append the letter \f[CB]k\f[R] or \f[CB]K\f[R] to indicate kilobytes,
 \f[CB]m\f[R] or \f[CB]M\f[R] to indicate megabytes, or \f[CB]g\f[R] or
 \f[CB]G\f[R] to indicate gigabytes.
@@ -866,8 +867,10 @@
 garbage collections are performed.
 If the size is too large, then only full garbage collections are
 performed, which can take a long time to complete.
-It is recommended that you keep the size for the young generation
-greater than 25% and less than 50% of the overall heap size.
+It is recommended that you do not set the size for the young generation
+for the G1 collector, and keep the size for the young generation greater
+than 25% and less than 50% of the overall heap size for other
+collectors.
 The following examples show how to set the initial and maximum size of
 young generation to 256 MB using various units:
 .RS
@@ -887,7 +890,7 @@
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-Xms\f[R] \f[I]size\f[R]
-Sets the initial size (in bytes) of the heap.
+Sets the minimum and initial size (in bytes) of the heap.
 This value must be a multiple of 1024 and greater than 1 MB.
 Append the letter \f[CB]k\f[R] or \f[CB]K\f[R] to indicate kilobytes,
 \f[CB]m\f[R] or \f[CB]M\f[R] to indicate megabytes, \f[CB]g\f[R] or \f[CB]G\f[R]
@@ -904,16 +907,18 @@
 \f[R]
 .fi
 .PP
-If you don\[aq]t set this option, then the initial size is set as the
-sum of the sizes allocated for the old generation and the young
-generation.
+Instead of the \f[CB]\-Xms\f[R] option to set both the minimum and initial
+size of the heap, you can use \f[CB]\-XX:MinHeapSize\f[R] to set the
+minimum size and \f[CB]\-XX:InitialHeapSize\f[R] to set the initial size.
+.PP
+If you don\[aq]t set this option, the initial size is set as the sum of
+the sizes allocated for the old generation and the young generation.
 The initial size of the heap for the young generation can be set using
 the \f[CB]\-Xmn\f[R] option or the \f[CB]\-XX:NewSize\f[R] option.
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-Xmx\f[R] \f[I]size\f[R]
-Specifies the maximum size (in bytes) of the memory allocation pool in
-bytes.
+Specifies the maximum size (in bytes) of the heap.
 This value must be a multiple of 1024 and greater than 2 MB.
 Append the letter \f[CB]k\f[R] or \f[CB]K\f[R] to indicate kilobytes,
 \f[CB]m\f[R] or \f[CB]M\f[R] to indicate megabytes, or \f[CB]g\f[R] or
@@ -1205,13 +1210,6 @@
 .RS
 .RE
 .TP
-.B \f[CB]\-\-disable\-\@files\f[R]
-Can be used anywhere on the command line, including in an argument file,
-to prevent further \f[CB]\@\f[R]\f[I]filename\f[R] expansion.
-This option stops expanding \f[CB]\@\f[R]\-argfiles after the option.
-.RS
-.RE
-.TP
 .B \f[CB]\-\-source\f[R] \f[I]version\f[R]
 Sets the version of the source in source\-file mode.
 .RS
@@ -1392,32 +1390,13 @@
 .RS
 .RE
 .TP
-.B \f[CB]\-XX:+FlightRecorder\f[R]
-Enables the use of Java Flight Recorder (JFR) during the runtime of the
-application.
-.RS
-.RS
-.PP
-\f[B]Note:\f[R] The \f[CB]\-XX:+FlightRecorder\f[R] option is no longer
-required to use JFR.
-This was a change made in JDK 8u40.
-.RE
-.RE
-.TP
-.B \f[CB]\-XX:FlightRecorderOptions=\f[R]\f[I]parameter\f[R]\f[CB]=\f[R]\f[I]value\f[R]
+.B \f[CB]\-XX:FlightRecorderOptions=\f[R]\f[I]parameter\f[R]\f[CB]=\f[R]\f[I]value\f[R] (or)\f[CB]\-XX:FlightRecorderOptions:\f[R]\f[I]parameter\f[R]\f[CB]=\f[R]\f[I]value\f[R]
 Sets the parameters that control the behavior of JFR.
 .RS
 .PP
 The following list contains the available JFR
 \f[I]parameter\f[R]\f[CB]=\f[R]\f[I]value\f[R] entries:
 .TP
-.B \f[CB]allow_threadbuffers_to_disk=\f[R]{\f[CB]true\f[R]|\f[CB]false\f[R]}
-Specifies whether thread buffers are written directly to disk if the
-buffer thread is blocked.
-By default, this parameter is disabled.
-.RS
-.RE
-.TP
 .B \f[CB]globalbuffersize=\f[R]\f[I]size\f[R]
 Specifies the total amount of primary memory used for data retention.
 The default value is based on the value specified for
@@ -1492,7 +1471,8 @@
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]threadbuffersize=\f[R]\f[I]size\f[R]
 Specifies the per\-thread local buffer size (in bytes).
-By default, the local buffer size is set to 8 kilobytes.
+By default, the local buffer size is set to 8 kilobytes, with a minimum
+value of 4 kilobytes.
 Overriding this parameter could reduce performance and is not
 recommended.
 .RS
@@ -2978,19 +2958,17 @@
 This sets various parameters to be optimal for long\-running jobs with
 intensive memory allocation, based on the configuration of the computer
 (RAM and CPU).
-By default, the option is disabled and the heap isn't optimized.
+By default, the option is disabled and the heap sizes are configured
+less aggressively.
 .RS
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-XX:+AlwaysPreTouch\f[R]
-Enables touching of every page on the Java heap during JVM
-initialization.
-This gets all pages into memory before entering the \f[CB]main()\f[R]
-method.
-The option can be used in testing to simulate a long\-running system
-with all virtual memory mapped to physical memory.
-By default, this option is disabled and all pages are committed as JVM
-heap space fills.
+Requests the VM to touch every page on the Java heap after requesting it
+from the operating system and before handing memory out to the
+application.
+By default, this option is disabled and all pages are committed as the
+application uses the heap space.
 .RS
 .RE
 .TP
@@ -3026,12 +3004,10 @@
 .RS
 .PP
 The following example shows how to set the factor to 20%:
-.IP
-.nf
-\f[CB]
->\ \ \ `\-XX:CMSInitiatingOccupancyFraction=20`
-\f[R]
-.fi
+.RS
+.PP
+\f[CB]\-XX:CMSInitiatingOccupancyFraction=20\f[R]
+.RE
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-XX:CMSIncrementalDutySafetyFactor=\f[R]\f[I]percent\f[R]
@@ -3095,11 +3071,14 @@
 .RS
 .RE
 .TP
-.B \f[CB]\-XX:+ExplicitGCInvokesConcurrentAndUnloadsClasses\f[R]
-Enables invoking of concurrent GC by using the \f[CB]System.gc()\f[R]
-request and unloading of classes during the concurrent GC cycle.
-This option is disabled by default and can be enabled only with the
-deprecated \f[CB]\-XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC\f[R] option.
+.B \f[CB]\-XX:G1AdaptiveIHOPNumInitialSamples=\f[R]\f[I]number\f[R]
+When \f[CB]\-XX:UseAdaptiveIHOP\f[R] is enabled, this option sets the
+number of completed marking cycles used to gather samples until G1
+adaptively determines the optimum value of
+\f[CB]\-XX:InitiatingHeapOccupancyPercent\f[R].
+Before, G1 uses the value of
+\f[CB]\-XX:InitiatingHeapOccupancyPercent\f[R] directly for this purpose.
+The default value is 3.
 .RS
 .RE
 .TP
@@ -3107,10 +3086,8 @@
 Sets the size of the regions into which the Java heap is subdivided when
 using the garbage\-first (G1) collector.
 The value is a power of 2 and can range from 1 MB to 32 MB.
-The goal is to have around 2048 regions based on the minimum Java heap
-size.
 The default region size is determined ergonomically based on the heap
-size.
+size with a goal of approximately 2048 regions.
 .RS
 .PP
 The following example sets the size of the subdivisions to 16 MB:
@@ -3137,8 +3114,6 @@
 .PP
 This is an experimental flag.
 This setting replaces the \f[CB]\-XX:DefaultMaxNewGenPercent\f[R] setting.
-.PP
-This setting isn\[aq]t available in Java HotSpot VM build 23 or earlier.
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-XX:G1MixedGCCountTarget=\f[R]\f[I]number\f[R]
@@ -3148,8 +3123,6 @@
 The default is 8 mixed garbage collections.
 The goal for mixed collections is to be within this target number.
 .RS
-.PP
-This setting isn\[aq]t available in Java HotSpot VM build 23 or earlier.
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-XX:G1MixedGCLiveThresholdPercent=\f[R]\f[I]percent\f[R]
@@ -3161,8 +3134,6 @@
 This is an experimental flag.
 This setting replaces the
 \f[CB]\-XX:G1OldCSetRegionLiveThresholdPercent\f[R] setting.
-.PP
-This setting isn\[aq]t available in Java HotSpot VM build 23 or earlier.
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-XX:G1NewSizePercent=\f[R]\f[I]percent\f[R]
@@ -3173,8 +3144,6 @@
 .PP
 This is an experimental flag.
 This setting replaces the \f[CB]\-XX:DefaultMinNewGenPercent\f[R] setting.
-.PP
-This setting isn\[aq]t available in Java HotSpot VM build 23 or earlier.
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-XX:G1OldCSetRegionThresholdPercent=\f[R]\f[I]percent\f[R]
@@ -3182,8 +3151,6 @@
 a mixed garbage collection cycle.
 The default is 10 percent of the Java heap.
 .RS
-.PP
-This setting isn\[aq]t available in Java HotSpot VM build 23 or earlier.
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-XX:G1ReservePercent=\f[R]\f[I]percent\f[R]
@@ -3202,10 +3169,20 @@
 .RE
 .RE
 .TP
-.B \f[CB]\-XX:InitialHeapOccupancyPercent=\f[R]\f[I]percent\f[R]
-Sets the Java heap occupancy threshold that triggers a marking cycle.
-The default occupancy is 45 percent of the entire Java heap.
-.RS
+.B \f[CB]\-XX:+G1UseAdaptiveIHOP\f[R]
+Controls adaptive calculation of the old generation occupancy to start
+background work preparing for an old generation collection.
+If enabled, G1 uses \f[CB]\-XX:InitiatingHeapOccupancyPercent\f[R] for the
+first few times as specified by the value of
+\f[CB]\-XX:G1AdaptiveIHOPNumInitialSamples\f[R], and after that adaptively
+calculates a new optimum value for the initiating occupancy
+automatically.
+Otherwise, the old generation collection process always starts at the
+old generation occupancy determined by
+\f[CB]\-XX:InitiatingHeapOccupancyPercent\f[R].
+.RS
+.PP
+The default is enabled.
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-XX:InitialHeapSize=\f[R]\f[I]size\f[R]
@@ -3276,15 +3253,18 @@
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-XX:InitiatingHeapOccupancyPercent=\f[R]\f[I]percent\f[R]
-Sets the percentage of the heap occupancy (0 to 100) at which to start a
-concurrent GC cycle.
-It\[aq]s used by garbage collectors that trigger a concurrent GC cycle
-based on the occupancy of the entire heap, not just one of the
-generations (for example, the G1 garbage collector).
+Sets the percentage of the old generation occupancy (0 to 100) at which
+to start the first few concurrent marking cycles for the G1 garbage
+collector.
 .RS
 .PP
 By default, the initiating value is set to 45%.
-A value of 0 implies nonstop GC cycles.
+A value of 0 implies nonstop concurrent GC cycles from the beginning
+until G1 adaptively sets this value.
+.PP
+See also the \f[CB]\-XX:G1UseAdaptiveIHOP\f[R] and
+\f[CB]\-XX:G1AdaptiveIHOPNumInitialSamples\f[R] options.
+.PP
 The following example shows how to set the initiating heap occupancy to
 75%:
 .RS
@@ -3298,7 +3278,9 @@
 This is a soft goal, and the JVM will make its best effort to achieve
 it.
 The specified value doesn\[aq]t adapt to your heap size.
-By default, there\[aq]s no maximum pause time value.
+By default, for G1 the maximum pause time target is 200 milliseconds.
+The other generational collectors do not use a pause time goal by
+default.
 .RS
 .PP
 The following example shows how to set the maximum target pause time to
@@ -3332,13 +3314,6 @@
 \f[R]
 .fi
 .PP
-On Oracle Solaris 7 and Oracle Solaris 8 SPARC platforms, the upper
-limit for this value is approximately 4,000 MB minus overhead amounts.
-On Oracle Solaris 2.6 and x86 platforms, the upper limit is
-approximately 2,000 MB minus overhead amounts.
-On Linux platforms, the upper limit is approximately 2,000 MB minus
-overhead amounts.
-.PP
 The \f[CB]\-XX:MaxHeapSize\f[R] option is equivalent to \f[CB]\-Xmx\f[R].
 .RE
 .TP
@@ -3450,6 +3425,32 @@
 embedded applications.
 .RE
 .TP
+.B \f[CB]\-XX:MinHeapSize=\f[R]\f[I]size\f[R]
+Sets the minimum size (in bytes) of the memory allocation pool.
+This value must be either 0, or a multiple of 1024 and greater than 1
+MB.
+Append the letter \f[CB]k\f[R] or \f[CB]K\f[R] to indicate kilobytes,
+\f[CB]m\f[R] or \f[CB]M\f[R] to indicate megabytes, or \f[CB]g\f[R] or
+\f[CB]G\f[R] to indicate gigabytes.
+The default value is selected at run time based on the system
+configuration.
+.RS
+.PP
+The following examples show how to set the mimimum size of allocated
+memory to 6 MB using various units:
+.IP
+.nf
+\f[CB]
+\-XX:MinHeapSize=6291456
+\-XX:MinHeapSize=6144k
+\-XX:MinHeapSize=6m
+\f[R]
+.fi
+.PP
+If you set this option to 0, then the minimum size is set to the same
+value as the initial size.
+.RE
+.TP
 .B \f[CB]\-XX:NewRatio=\f[R]\f[I]ratio\f[R]
 Sets the ratio between young and old generation sizes.
 By default, this option is set to 2.
@@ -3493,23 +3494,13 @@
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-XX:ParallelGCThreads=\f[R]\f[I]threads\f[R]
-Sets the value of the stop\-the\-world (STW) worker threads.
-This option sets the value of \f[I]threads\f[R] to the number of logical
-processors.
-The value of \f[I]threads\f[R] is the same as the number of logical
-processors up to a value of 8.
-.RS
-.PP
-If there are more than 8 logical processors, then this option sets the
-value of \f[I]threads\f[R] to approximately 5/8 of the logical
-processors.
-This works in most cases except for larger SPARC systems where the value
-of \f[I]threads\f[R] can be approximately 5/16 of the logical processors.
-.PP
-The default value depends on the number of CPUs available to the JVM.
-.PP
-For example, to set the number of threads for parallel GC to 2, specify
-the following option:
+Sets the number of the stop\-the\-world (STW) worker threads.
+The default value depends on the number of CPUs available to the JVM and
+the garbage collector selected.
+.RS
+.PP
+For example, to set the number of threads for G1 GC to 2, specify the
+following option:
 .RS
 .PP
 \f[CB]\-XX:ParallelGCThreads=2\f[R]
@@ -3749,6 +3740,22 @@
 To disable the use of TLABs, specify the option \f[CB]\-XX:\-UseTLAB\f[R].
 .RS
 .RE
+.TP
+.B \f[CB]\-XX:+UseZGC\f[R]
+Enables the use of the Z garbage collector.
+This garbage collector is best for providing lowest latency with large
+Java heaps at some throughput cost.
+This is an experimental garbage collector, you need to specify
+\f[CB]\-XX:+UnlockExperimentalVMOptions\f[R] before \f[CB]\-XX:+UseZGC\f[R]
+on the command line.
+.RS
+.PP
+Example:
+.RS
+.PP
+\f[CB]\-XX:+UnlockExperimentalVMOptions\ \-XX:+UseZGC\f[R]
+.RE
+.RE
 .SH DEPRECATED JAVA OPTIONS
 .PP
 These \f[CB]java\f[R] options are deprecated and might be removed in a
@@ -3788,6 +3795,13 @@
 .RS
 .RE
 .TP
+.B \f[CB]\-XX:+FlightRecorder\f[R]
+Enables the use of Java Flight Recorder (JFR) during the runtime of the
+application.
+Since JDK 8u40 this option has not been required to use JFR.
+.RS
+.RE
+.TP
 .B \f[CB]\-XX:+TraceClassLoading\f[R]
 Enables tracing of classes as they are loaded.
 By default, this option is disabled and classes aren\[aq]t traced.
@@ -3926,8 +3940,8 @@
 argument list just as they would be specified on the command line.
 .PP
 The \f[CB]java\f[R] launcher expands the argument file contents until it
-encounters the \f[CB]\-Xdisable\-\@files\f[R] option.
-You can use the \f[CB]\-Xdisable\-\@files\f[R] option anywhere on the
+encounters the \f[CB]\-\-disable\-\@files\f[R] option.
+You can use the \f[CB]\-\-disable\-\@files\f[R] option anywhere on the
 command line, including in an argument file, to stop \f[CB]\@\f[R]
 argument files expansion.
 .PP
@@ -5603,7 +5617,7 @@
 response times for your application:
 .RS
 .PP
-\f[CB]java\ \-XX:+UseG1GC\ \-Xms26g\ Xmx26g\ \-XX:MaxGCPauseMillis=500\f[R]
+\f[CB]java\ \-XX:+UseG1GC\ \-XX:MaxGCPauseMillis=100\f[R]
 .RE
 .SS Keeping the Java Heap Small and Reducing the Dynamic Footprint of
 Embedded Applications
--- a/src/jdk.compiler/share/man/javac.1	Thu Jul 11 17:11:54 2019 +0200
+++ b/src/jdk.compiler/share/man/javac.1	Thu Jul 11 12:13:52 2019 -0700
@@ -21,147 +21,140 @@
 .\"
 .\" Automatically generated by Pandoc 2.3.1
 .\"
-.TH "JAVAC" "1" "2018" "JDK 13" "JDK Commands"
+.TH "JAVAC" "1" "2019" "JDK 13" "JDK Commands"
 .hy
 .SH NAME
 .PP
-javac \- read Java class and interface definitions and compile them into
-bytecode and class files
+javac \- read Java declarations and compile them into class files
 .SH SYNOPSIS
 .PP
-\f[CB]javac\f[R] [\f[I]options\f[R]] [\f[I]sourcefiles\f[R]]
+\f[CB]javac\f[R] [\f[I]options\f[R]] [\f[I]sourcefiles\-or\-classnames\f[R]]
 .TP
 .B \f[I]options\f[R]
 Command\-line options.
-See \f[B]Overview of javac Options\f[R].
 .RS
 .RE
 .TP
-.B \f[I]sourcefiles\f[R]
-One or more source files to be compiled (such as \f[CB]MyClass.java\f[R])
-or processed for annotations (such as \f[CB]MyPackage.MyClass\f[R]).
+.B \f[I]sourcefiles\-or\-classnames\f[R]
+Source files to be compiled (for example, \f[CB]Shape.java\f[R]) or the
+names of previously compiled classes to be processed for annotations
+(for example, \f[CB]geometry.MyShape\f[R]).
 .RS
 .RE
 .SH DESCRIPTION
 .PP
-The \f[CB]javac\f[R] command reads class and interface definitions,
-written in the Java programming language, and compiles them into
-bytecode class files.
-The \f[CB]javac\f[R] command can also process annotations in Java source
-files and classes.
+The \f[CB]javac\f[R] command reads \f[I]source files\f[R] that contain
+module, package and type declarations written in the Java programming
+language, and compiles them into \f[I]class files\f[R] that run on the
+Java Virtual Machine.
 .PP
-A new launcher environment variable, \f[CB]JDK_JAVAC_OPTIONS\f[R], was
-introduced in JDK 9 that prepended its content to the command line to
-\f[CB]javac\f[R] .
-See \f[B]Using JDK_JAVAC_OPTIONS Environment Variable\f[R].
+The \f[CB]javac\f[R] command can also \f[B]process annotations\f[R] in Java
+source files and classes.
 .PP
-There are two ways to pass source code file names to \f[CB]javac\f[R].
+Source files must have a file name extension of \f[CB]\&.java\f[R].
+Class files have a file name extension of \f[CB]\&.class\f[R].
+Both source and class files normally have file names that identify the
+contents.
+For example, a class called \f[CB]Shape\f[R] would be declared in a source
+file called \f[CB]Shape.java\f[R], and compiled into a class file called
+\f[CB]Shape.class\f[R].
+.PP
+There are two ways to specify source files to \f[CB]javac\f[R]:
 .IP \[bu] 2
-For a small number of source files, you can list the file names on the
+For a small number of source files, you can list their file names on the
 command line.
 .IP \[bu] 2
 For a large number of source files, you can use the
-\f[CB]\@\f[R]\f[I]filename\f[R] option on the \f[CB]javac\f[R] command line
-to include a file that lists the source file names.
+\f[CB]\@\f[R]\f[I]filename\f[R] option on the command line to specify an
+\f[I]argument file\f[R] that lists their file names.
 See \f[B]Standard Options\f[R] for a description of the option and
-\f[B]javac Command\-Line Argument Files\f[R] for a description of
+\f[B]Command\-Line Argument Files\f[R] for a description of
 \f[CB]javac\f[R] argument files.
 .PP
-Source code file names must have \f[CB]\&.java\f[R] suffixes, class file
-names must have \f[CB]\&.class\f[R] suffixes, and both source and class
-files must have root names that identify the class.
-For example, a class called \f[CB]MyClass\f[R] would be written in a
-source file called \f[CB]MyClass.java\f[R] and compiled into a bytecode
-class file called \f[CB]MyClass.class\f[R].
+The order of source files specified on the command line or in an
+argument file is not important.
+\f[CB]javac\f[R] will compile the files together, as a group, and will
+automatically resolve any dependencies between the declarations in the
+various source files.
 .PP
-Inner class definitions produce additional class files.
-These class files have names that combine the inner and outer class
-names, such as \f[CB]MyClass$MyInnerClass.class\f[R].
+\f[CB]javac\f[R] expects that source files are arranged in one or more
+directory hierarchies on the file system, described in \f[B]Arrangement
+of Source Code\f[R].
 .PP
-You should arrange the source files in a directory tree that reflects
-their package tree.
-For example:
+To compile a source file, \f[CB]javac\f[R] needs to find the declaration
+of every class or interface that is used, extended, or implemented by
+the code in the source file.
+This lets \f[CB]javac\f[R] check that the code has the right to access
+those classes and interfaces.
+Rather than specifying the source files of those classes and interfaces
+explicitly, you can use command\-line options to tell \f[CB]javac\f[R]
+where to search for their source files.
+If you have compiled those source files previously, you can use options
+to tell \f[CB]javac\f[R] where to search for the corresponding class
+files.
+The options, which all have names ending in "path", are described in
+\f[B]Standard Options\f[R], and further described in \f[B]Configuring a
+Compilation\f[R] and \f[B]Searching for Module, Package and Type
+Declarations\f[R].
+.PP
+By default, \f[CB]javac\f[R] compiles each source file to a class file in
+the same directory as the source file.
+However, it is recommended to specify a separate destination directory
+with the \f[CB]\-d\f[R] option described in \f[B]Standard Options\f[R].
+.PP
+Command\-line \f[B]options\f[R] and \f[B]environment variables\f[R] also
+control how \f[CB]javac\f[R] performs various tasks:
 .IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]Oracle Solaris, Linux, and OS X:\f[R] If all of your source files
-are in \f[CB]/workspace\f[R], then put the source code for
-\f[CB]com.mysoft.mypack.MyClass\f[R] in
-\f[CB]/workspace/com/mysoft/mypack/MyClass.java\f[R].
+Compiling code to run on earlier releases of the JDK.
 .IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]Windows:\f[R] If all of your source files are in
-\f[CB]\\workspace\f[R], then put the source code for
-\f[CB]com.mysoft.mypack.MyClass\f[R] in
-\f[CB]\\workspace\\com\\mysoft\\mypack\\MyClass.java\f[R].
+Compiling code to run under a debugger.
+.IP \[bu] 2
+Checking for stylistic issues in Java source code.
+.IP \[bu] 2
+Checking for problems in \f[CB]javadoc\f[R] comments
+(\f[CB]/**\ ...\ */\f[R]).
+.IP \[bu] 2
+Processing annotations in source files and class files.
+.IP \[bu] 2
+Upgrading and patching modules in the compile\-time environment.
 .PP
-By default, the compiler puts each class file in the same directory as
-its source file.
-You can specify a separate destination directory with the \f[CB]\-d\f[R]
-option described in \f[B]Standard Options\f[R].
-.SH PROGRAMMATIC INTERFACE
+\f[CB]javac\f[R] supports \f[B]Compiling for Earlier Releases Of The
+Platform\f[R] and can also be invoked from Java code using one of a
+number of \f[B]APIs\f[R]
+.SH OPTIONS
 .PP
-The \f[CB]javac\f[R] command supports the new Java Compiler API defined by
-the classes and interfaces in the \f[CB]javax.tools\f[R] package.
-.SH IMPLICITLY LOADED SOURCE FILES
+\f[CB]javac\f[R] provides \f[B]standard options\f[R], and \f[B]extra
+options\f[R] that are either non\-standard or are for advanced use.
 .PP
-To compile a set of source files, the compiler might need to implicitly
-load additional source files.
-See \f[B]Searching for Types\f[R].
-Such files are currently not subject to annotation processing.
-By default, the compiler gives a warning when annotation processing
-occurs and any implicitly loaded source files are compiled.
-The \f[CB]\-implicit\f[R] option provides a way to suppress the warning.
-.SH USING JDK_JAVAC_OPTIONS ENVIRONMENT VARIABLE
+Some options take one or more arguments.
+If an argument contains spaces or other whitespace characters, the value
+should be quoted according to the conventions of the environment being
+used to invoke javac.
+If the option begins with a single dash (\f[CB]\-\f[R]) the argument
+should either directly follow the option name, or should be separated
+with a colon (\f[CB]:\f[R]) or whitespace, depending on the option.
+If the option begins with a double dash (\f[CB]\-\-\f[R]), the argument
+may be separated either by whitespace or by an equals (\f[CB]=\f[R])
+character with no additional whitespace.
+For example,
+.IP
+.nf
+\f[CB]
+\-Aname="J.\ Duke"
+\-proc:only
+\-d\ myDirectory
+\-\-module\-version\ 3
+\-\-module\-version=3
+\f[R]
+.fi
 .PP
-The content of the \f[CB]JDK_JAVAC_OPTIONS\f[R] environment variable,
-separated by white\-spaces ( ) or white\-space characters (\f[CB]\\n\f[R],
-\f[CB]\\t\f[R], \f[CB]\\r\f[R], or \f[CB]\\f\f[R]) is prepended to the command
-line arguments passed to \f[CB]javac\f[R] as a list of arguments.
-.PP
-The encoding requirement for the environment variable is the same as the
-\f[CB]javac\f[R] command line on the system.
-\f[CB]JDK_JAVAC_OPTIONS\f[R] environment variable content is treated in
-the same manner as that specified in the command line.
-.PP
-Single quotes (\f[CB]\[aq]\f[R]) or double quotes (\f[CB]"\f[R]) can be used
-to enclose arguments that\ contain whitespace characters.
-All content between the open quote and the first matching close quote
-are preserved by simply removing the pair of quotes.
-In case a matching quote is not found, the launcher will abort with an
-error message.
-\f[CB]\@\f[R]\f[I]files\f[R] are supported as they are specified in the
-command line.
-However, as in \f[CB]\@\f[R]\f[I]files\f[R], use of a wildcard is not
-supported.
-.PP
-\f[B]Examples of quoting arguments containing white spaces:\f[R]
-.RS
-.PP
-\f[CB]export\ JDK_JAVAC_OPTIONS=\[aq]\@"C:\\white\ spaces\\argfile"\[aq]\f[R]
-.RE
-.RS
-.PP
-\f[CB]export\ JDK_JAVAC_OPTIONS=\[aq]"\@C:\\white\ spaces\\argfile"\[aq]\f[R]
-.RE
-.RS
-.PP
-\f[CB]export\ JDK_JAVAC_OPTIONS=\[aq]\@C:\\"white\ spaces"\\argfile\[aq]\f[R]
-.RE
-.SH OVERVIEW OF JAVAC OPTIONS
-.PP
-The compiler has sets of standard options, and cross\-compilation
-options that are supported on the current development environment.
-The compiler also has a set of nonstandard options that are specific to
-the current virtual machine and compiler implementations but are subject
-to change in the future.
-The nonstandard options begin with \f[CB]\-X\f[R] .
-The different sets of \f[CB]javac\f[R] options are described in the
-following sections:
-.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]Standard Options\f[R]
-.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]Cross\-Compilation Options for javac\f[R]
-.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]Extra Options\f[R]
-.SH STANDARD OPTIONS
+In the following lists of options, an argument of \f[I]path\f[R]
+represents a search path, composed of a list of file system locations
+separated by the platform path separator character, (semicolon
+\f[CB];\f[R] on Windows, or colon \f[CB]:\f[R] on other systems.) Depending
+on the option, the file system locations may be directories, JAR files
+or JMOD files.
+.SS Standard Options
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\@\f[R]\f[I]filename\f[R]
 Reads options and file names from a file.
@@ -170,13 +163,13 @@
 (except \f[CB]\-J\f[R] options).
 This lets you to create \f[CB]javac\f[R] commands of any length on any
 operating system.
-See \f[B]javac Command\-Line Argument Files\f[R].
+See \f[B]Command\-Line Argument Files\f[R].
 .RS
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-A\f[R]\f[I]key\f[R][\f[CB]=\f[R]\f[I]value\f[R]]
 Specifies options to pass to annotation processors.
-These options aren\[aq]t interpreted by \f[CB]javac\f[R] directly, but are
+These options are not interpreted by \f[CB]javac\f[R] directly, but are
 made available for use by individual processors.
 The \f[I]key\f[R] value should be one or more identifiers separated by a
 dot (\f[CB]\&.\f[R]).
@@ -194,11 +187,11 @@
 Overrides the location of the bootstrap class files.
 .RS
 .PP
-\f[B]Note:\f[R]
-.PP
-This can only be used when compiling for versions prior to JDK 9.
-As applicable, see the descriptions in\ \f[CB]\-\-release\f[R],
-\f[CB]\-source\f[R], or \f[CB]\-target\f[R]\ for details.
+\f[B]Note:\f[R] This can only be used when compiling for releases prior
+to JDK 9.
+As applicable, see the descriptions in \f[CB]\-\-release\f[R],
+\f[CB]\-source\f[R], or \f[CB]\-target\f[R] for details.
+For JDK 9 or later, see \f[CB]\-\-system\f[R].
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-\-class\-path\f[R] \f[I]path\f[R], \f[CB]\-classpath\f[R] \f[I]path\f[R], or \f[CB]\-cp\f[R] \f[I]path\f[R]
@@ -207,41 +200,48 @@
 environment variable.
 .RS
 .IP \[bu] 2
-If \f[CB]\-\-class\-path\f[R], \f[CB]\-classpath\f[R], or \f[CB]\-cp\f[R]
-aren\[aq]t specified, then the user class path is the current directory.
+If \f[CB]\-\-class\-path\f[R], \f[CB]\-classpath\f[R], or \f[CB]\-cp\f[R] are
+not specified, then the user class path is the value of the
+\f[CB]CLASSPATH\f[R] environment variable, if that is set, or else the
+current directory.
 .IP \[bu] 2
-If the \f[CB]\-sourcepath\f[R] option isn\[aq]t specified, then the user
-class path is also searched for source files.
+If not compiling code for modules, if the \f[CB]\-\-source\-path\f[R] or
+\-sourcepath` option is not specified, then the user class path is also
+searched for source files.
 .IP \[bu] 2
-If the \f[CB]\-processorpath\f[R] option isn\[aq]t specified, then the
-class path is also searched for annotation processors.
+If the \f[CB]\-processorpath\f[R] option is not specified, then the class
+path is also searched for annotation processors.
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-d\f[R] \f[I]directory\f[R]
-Sets the destination directory for class files.
+Sets the destination directory (or \f[I]class output directory\f[R]) for
+class files.
 If a class is part of a package, then \f[CB]javac\f[R] puts the class file
-in a subdirectory that reflects the package name and creates directories
-as needed.
-For example:
+in a subdirectory that reflects the module name (if appropriate) and
+package name.
+The directory, and any necessary subdirectories, will be created if they
+do not already exist.
 .RS
-.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]Oracle Solaris, Linux, and OS X:\f[R] If you specify
-\f[CB]\-d\ /home/myclasses\f[R] and the class is called
-\f[CB]com.mypackage.MyClass\f[R], then the class file is
-\f[CB]/home/myclasses/com/mypackage/MyClass.class\f[R].
-.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]Windows:\f[R] If you specify \f[CB]\-d\ C:\\myclasses\f[R] and the
-class is called \f[CB]com.mypackage.MyClass\f[R], then the class file is
-\f[CB]C:\\myclasses\\com\\mypackage\\MyClass.class\f[R].
 .PP
-If the \f[CB]\-d\f[R] option isn\[aq]t specified, then \f[CB]javac\f[R] puts
+If the \f[CB]\-d\f[R] option is not specified, then \f[CB]javac\f[R] puts
 each class file in the same directory as the source file from which it
 was generated.
 .PP
-\f[B]Note:\f[R]
+Except when compiling code for multiple modules, the contents of the
+class output directory will be organized in a package hierarchy.
+When compiling code for multiple modules, the contents of the output
+directory will be organized in a module hierarchy, with the contents of
+each module in a separate subdirectory, each organized as a package
+hierarchy.
 .PP
-The directory specified by the \f[CB]\-d\f[R] option isn\[aq]t
-automatically added to your user class path.
+\f[B]Note:\f[R] When compiling code for one or more modules, the class
+output directory will automatically be checked when searching for
+previously compiled classes.
+When not compiling for modules, for backwards compatibility, the
+directory is \f[I]not\f[R] automatically checked for previously compiled
+classes, and so it is recommended to specify the class output directory
+as one of the locations on the user class path, using the
+\f[CB]\-\-class\-path\f[R] option or one of its alternate forms.
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-deprecation\f[R]
@@ -265,7 +265,7 @@
 .B \f[CB]\-encoding\f[R] \f[I]encoding\f[R]
 Specifies character encoding used by source files, such as EUC\-JP and
 UTF\-8.
-If the \f[CB]\-encoding\f[R] option isn\[aq]t specified, then the platform
+If the \f[CB]\-encoding\f[R] option is not specified, then the platform
 default converter is used.
 .RS
 .RE
@@ -274,30 +274,29 @@
 Overrides the location of the endorsed standards path.
 .RS
 .PP
-\f[B]Note:\f[R]
-.PP
-This can only be used when compiling for versions prior to JDK 9.
-As applicable, see the descriptions in\ \f[CB]\-\-release\f[R],
-\f[CB]\-source\f[R], or \f[CB]\-target\f[R]\ for details.
+\f[B]Note:\f[R] This can only be used when compiling for releases prior
+to JDK 9.
+As applicable, see the descriptions in \f[CB]\-\-release\f[R],
+\f[CB]\-source\f[R], or \f[CB]\-target\f[R] for details.
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-extdirs\f[R] \f[I]directories\f[R]
 Overrides the location of the installed extensions.
-The \f[CB]directories\f[R] variable is a colon\-separated list of
-directories.
+\f[CB]directories\f[R] is a list of directories, separated by the platform
+path separator (\f[CB];\f[R] on Windows, and \f[CB]:\f[R] otherwise).
 Each JAR file in the specified directories is searched for class files.
 All JAR files found become part of the class path.
 .RS
 .PP
-If you are cross\-compiling, then this option specifies the directories
-that contain the extension classes.
-See \f[B]Cross\-Compilation Options for javac\f[R].
+If you are compiling for a release of the platform that supports the
+Extension Mechanism, then this option specifies the directories that
+contain the extension classes.
+See [Compiling for Other Releases of the Platform].
 .PP
-\f[B]Note:\f[R]
-.PP
-This can only be used when compiling for versions prior to JDK 9.
-As applicable, see the descriptions in\ \f[CB]\-\-release\f[R],
-\f[CB]\-source\f[R], or \f[CB]\-target\f[R]\ for details.
+\f[B]Note:\f[R] This can only be used when compiling for releases prior
+to JDK 9.
+As applicable, see the descriptions in \f[CB]\-\-release\f[R],
+\f[CB]\-source\f[R], or \f[CB]\-target\f[R] for details.
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-g\f[R]
@@ -329,22 +328,23 @@
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-g:none\f[R]
-Doesn\[aq]t generate debugging information.
+Does not generate debugging information.
 .RS
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-h\f[R] \f[I]directory\f[R]
-Specfies where to place generated native header files.
+Specifies where to place generated native header files.
 .RS
 .PP
 When you specify this option, a native header file is generated for each
 class that contains native methods or that has one or more constants
 annotated with the \f[B]\f[BC]java.lang.annotation.Native\f[B]\f[R]
-[https://docs.oracle.com/javase/10/docs/api/java/lang/annotation/Native.html]
 annotation.
 If the class is part of a package, then the compiler puts the native
-header file in a subdirectory that reflects the package name and creates
-directories as needed.
+header file in a subdirectory that reflects the module name (if
+appropriate) and package name.
+The directory, and any necessary subdirectories, will be created if they
+do not already exist.
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-\-help\f[R], \f[CB]\-help\f[R] or \f[CB]\-?\f[R]
@@ -353,7 +353,7 @@
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-\-help\-extra\f[R] or \f[CB]\-X\f[R]
-Prints the help for extra options.
+Prints a synopsis of the set of extra options.
 .RS
 .RE
 .TP
@@ -366,13 +366,13 @@
 .IP \[bu] 2
 \f[CB]\-implicit:none\f[R] \-\-\- Suppresses class file generation.
 .PP
-If this option isn\[aq]t specified, then the default automatically
+If this option is not specified, then the default automatically
 generates class files.
 In this case, the compiler issues a warning if any class files are
 generated when also doing annotation processing.
-The warning isn\[aq]t issued when the \f[CB]\-implicit\f[R] option is
+The warning is not issued when the \f[CB]\-implicit\f[R] option is
 explicitly set.
-See \f[B]Searching for Types\f[R].
+See \f[B]Searching for Module, Package and Type Declarations\f[R].
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-J\f[R]\f[I]option\f[R]
@@ -381,14 +381,13 @@
 For example, \f[CB]\-J\-Xms48m\f[R] sets the startup memory to 48 MB.
 .RS
 .PP
-\f[B]Note:\f[R]
-.PP
-The \f[CB]CLASSPATH\f[R] environment variable, \f[CB]\-classpath\f[R]
-option, \f[CB]\-bootclasspath\f[R] option, and \f[CB]\-extdirs\f[R] option
-don\[aq]t specify the classes used to run \f[CB]javac\f[R].
+\f[B]Note:\f[R] The \f[CB]CLASSPATH\f[R] environment variable,
+\f[CB]\-classpath\f[R] option, \f[CB]\-bootclasspath\f[R] option, and
+\f[CB]\-extdirs\f[R] option do not specify the classes used to run
+\f[CB]javac\f[R].
 Trying to customize the compiler implementation with these options and
-variables is risky and often doesn\[aq]t accomplish what you want.
-If you must customize the complier implementation, then use the
+variables is risky and often does not accomplish what you want.
+If you must customize the compiler implementation, then use the
 \f[CB]\-J\f[R] option to pass options through to the underlying Java
 launcher.
 .RE
@@ -398,8 +397,9 @@
 .RS
 .RE
 .TP
-.B \f[CB]\-\-module\f[R] \f[I]module\-name\f[R] or \f[CB]\-m\f[R] \f[I]module\-name\f[R]
-Compiles only the specified module and checks time stamps.
+.B \f[CB]\-\-module\f[R] \f[I]module\-name\f[R] (\f[CB],\f[R]\f[I]module\-name\f[R])* or \f[CB]\-m\f[R] \f[I]module\-name\f[R] (\f[CB],\f[R]\f[I]module\-name\f[R])*
+Compiles those source files in the named modules that are newer than the
+corresponding files in the output directory.
 .RS
 .RE
 .TP
@@ -409,7 +409,9 @@
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-\-module\-source\-path\f[R] \f[I]module\-source\-path\f[R]
-Specifies where to find input source files for multiple modules.
+Specifies where to find source files when compiling code in multiple
+modules.
+See [Compilation Modes] and \f[B]The Module Source Path Option\f[R].
 .RS
 .RE
 .TP
@@ -455,7 +457,7 @@
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-\-processor\-path\f[R] \f[I]path\f[R] or \f[CB]\-processorpath\f[R] \f[I]path\f[R]
 Specifies where to find annotation processors.
-If this option isn\[aq]t used, then the class path is searched for
+If this option is not used, then the class path is searched for
 processors.
 .RS
 .RE
@@ -464,63 +466,67 @@
 Checks that the API used is available in the specified profile.
 .RS
 .PP
-\f[B]Note:\f[R]
-.PP
-This can only be used when compiling for versions prior to JDK 9.
-As applicable, see the descriptions in\ \f[CB]\-\-release\f[R],
-\f[CB]\-source\f[R], or \f[CB]\-target\f[R]\ for details.
+\f[B]Note:\f[R] This can only be used when compiling for releases prior
+to JDK 9.
+As applicable, see the descriptions in \f[CB]\-\-release\f[R],
+\f[CB]\-source\f[R], or \f[CB]\-target\f[R] for details.
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-\-release\f[R] \f[I]release\f[R]
 Compiles source code according to the rules of the Java programming
-language for the specified Java SE release, generating class files
-suitable for that release.
-Additionally, compiles source code against the API of the specified Java
-SE release and the API supported by the corresponding JDK release.
-The supported values of \f[I]release\f[R] are the current Java SE release
-and a limited number of previous releases.
-The exact set of supported values is given in the command\-line help.
+language for the specified Java SE release, generating class files which
+target that release.
+Source code is compiled against the combined Java SE and JDK API for the
+specified release.
 .RS
 .PP
-The API of a Java SE release consists of the \f[CB]java.*\f[R],
-\f[CB]javax.*\f[R], and \f[CB]org.*\f[R] packages that are exported by Java
-SE modules in the release.
+The supported values of \f[I]release\f[R] are the current Java SE release
+and a limited number of previous releases, detailed in the command\-line
+help.
 .PP
-The API supported by a JDK release consists of the \f[CB]com.*\f[R] and
-\f[CB]jdk.*\f[R] packages that are exported by JDK modules in the release,
-plus the \f[CB]javax.*\f[R] packages that are exported by standard, but
-non\-Java SE, modules in the release.
+For the current release, the Java SE API consists of the
+\f[CB]java.*\f[R], \f[CB]javax.*\f[R], and \f[CB]org.*\f[R] packages that are
+exported by the Java SE modules in the release; the JDK API consists of
+the \f[CB]com.*\f[R] and \f[CB]jdk.*\f[R] packages that are exported by the
+JDK modules in the release, plus the \f[CB]javax.*\f[R] packages that are
+exported by standard, but non\-Java SE, modules in the release.
 .PP
-\f[B]Note:\f[R]
+For previous releases, the Java SE API and the JDK API are as defined in
+that release.
 .PP
-The \f[CB]\-\-add\-exports\f[R] option cannot be used to enlarge the set
-of packages exported by the Java SE and JDK API.
+\f[B]Note:\f[R] When using \f[CB]\-\-release\f[R], you cannot also use the
+\f[CB]\-\-source\f[R]/\f[CB]\-source\f[R] or
+\f[CB]\-\-target\f[R]/\f[CB]\-target\f[R] options.
+.PP
+\f[B]Note:\f[R] When using \f[CB]\-\-release\f[R] to specify a release that
+supports the Java Platform Module System, the \f[CB]\-\-add\-exports\f[R]
+option cannot be used to enlarge the set of packages exported by the
+Java SE, JDK, and standard modules in the specified release.
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-s\f[R] \f[I]directory\f[R]
 Specifies the directory used to place the generated source files.
 If a class is part of a package, then the compiler puts the source file
-in a subdirectory that reflects the package name and creates directories
-as needed.
-For example:
+in a subdirectory that reflects the module name (if appropriate) and
+package name.
+The directory, and any necessary subdirectories, will be created if they
+do not already exist.
 .RS
-.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]Oracle Solaris, Linux, and OS X:\f[R] If you specify
-\f[CB]\-s\ /home/mysrc\f[R] and the class is called
-\f[CB]com.mypackage.MyClass\f[R], then the source file is put in
-\f[CB]/home/mysrc/com/mypackage/MyClass.java\f[R].
-.IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]Windows:\f[R] If you specify \f[CB]\-s\ C:\\mysrc\f[R] and the class
-is called \f[CB]com.mypackage.MyClass\f[R], then the source file is put in
-\f[CB]C:\\mysrc\\com\\mypackage\\MyClass.java\f[R].
+.PP
+Except when compiling code for multiple modules, the contents of the
+source output directory will be organized in a package hierarchy.
+When compiling code for multiple modules, the contents of the source
+output directory will be organized in a module hierarchy, with the
+contents of each module in a separate subdirectory, each organized as a
+package hierarchy.
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-\-source\f[R] \f[I]release\f[R] or \f[CB]\-source\f[R] \f[I]release\f[R]
 Compiles source code according to the rules of the Java programming
 language for the specified Java SE release.
 The supported values of \f[I]release\f[R] are the current Java SE release
-and a limited number of previous releases.
-The exact set of supported values is given in the command\-line help.
+and a limited number of previous releases, detailed in the command\-line
+help.
 .RS
 .PP
 If the option is not specified, the default is to compile source code
@@ -529,21 +535,14 @@
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-\-source\-path\f[R] \f[I]path\f[R] or \f[CB]\-sourcepath\f[R] \f[I]path\f[R]
-Specifies where to find input source files.
-This is the source code path used to search for class or interface
-definitions.
-As with the user class path, source path entries are separated by colons
-(\f[CB]:\f[R]) on Oracle Solaris and semicolons (\f[CB];\f[R]) on Windows.
-They can be directories, JAR archives, or ZIP archives.
-If packages are used, then the local path name within the directory or
-archive must reflect the package name.
+Specifies where to find source files.
+Except when compiling multiple modules together, this is the source code
+path used to search for class or interface definitions.
 .RS
 .PP
-\f[B]Note:\f[R]
-.PP
-Classes found through the class path might be recompiled when their
-source files are also found.
-See \f[B]Searching for Types\f[R].
+\f[B]Note:\f[R] Classes found through the class path might be recompiled
+when their source files are also found.
+See \f[B]Searching for Module, Package and Type Declarations\f[R].
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-\-system\f[R] \f[I]jdk\f[R] | \f[CB]none\f[R]
@@ -555,15 +554,13 @@
 Generates \f[CB]class\f[R] files suitable for the specified Java SE
 release.
 The supported values of \f[I]release\f[R] are the current Java SE release
-and a limited number of previous releases.
-The exact set of supported values is given in the command\-line help.
+and a limited number of previous releases, detailed in the command\-line
+help.
 .RS
 .PP
-\f[B]Note:\f[R]
-.PP
-It is an error to specify a value for \f[I]release\f[R] that is lower
-than the the release for which the source code is being compiled.
-(See \f[CB]\-\-source\f[R]).
+\f[B]Note:\f[R] The target release must be equal to or higher than the
+source release.
+(See \f[CB]\-\-source\f[R].)
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-\-upgrade\-module\-path\f[R] \f[I]path\f[R]
@@ -587,23 +584,7 @@
 Terminates compilation when warnings occur.
 .RS
 .RE
-.SH CROSS\-COMPILATION OPTIONS FOR JAVAC
-.PP
-By default, for releases prior to JDK 9, classes were compiled against
-the bootstrap classes of the platform that shipped with
-the\f[CB]javac\f[R] command.
-But \f[CB]javac\f[R] also supports cross\-compiling, in which classes are
-compiled against bootstrap classes of a different Java platform
-implementation.
-It\[aq]s important to use the \f[CB]\-bootclasspath\f[R] and
-\f[CB]\-extdirs\f[R] options when cross\-compiling.
-.PP
-\f[B]Note:\f[R]
-.PP
-This can only be used when compiling for versions prior to JDK 9.
-As applicable, see the descriptions in\ \f[CB]\-\-release\f[R],
-\f[CB]\-source\f[R], or \f[CB]\-target\f[R]\ for details.
-.SH EXTRA OPTIONS
+.SS Extra Options
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-\-add\-exports\f[R] \f[I]module\f[R]\f[CB]/\f[R]\f[I]package\f[R]\f[CB]=\f[R]\f[I]other\-module\f[R](\f[CB],\f[R]\f[I]other\-module\f[R])*
 Specifies a package to be considered as exported from its defining
@@ -628,22 +609,20 @@
 Overrides the location of the endorsed standards path.
 .RS
 .PP
-\f[B]Note:\f[R]
-.PP
-This can only be used when compiling for versions prior to JDK 9.
-As applicable, see the descriptions in\ \f[CB]\-\-release\f[R],
-\f[CB]\-source\f[R], or \f[CB]\-target\f[R]\ for details.
+\f[B]Note:\f[R] This can only be used when compiling for releases prior
+to JDK 9.
+As applicable, see the descriptions in \f[CB]\-\-release\f[R],
+\f[CB]\-source\f[R], or \f[CB]\-target\f[R] for details.
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-Djava.ext.dirs=\f[R]\f[I]dirs\f[R]
 Overrides the location of installed extensions.
 .RS
 .PP
-\f[B]Note:\f[R]
-.PP
-This can only be used when compiling for versions prior to JDK 9.
-As applicable, see the descriptions in\ \f[CB]\-\-release\f[R],
-\f[CB]\-source\f[R], or \f[CB]\-target\f[R]\ for details.
+\f[B]Note:\f[R] This can only be used when compiling for releases prior
+to JDK 9.
+As applicable, see the descriptions in \f[CB]\-\-release\f[R],
+\f[CB]\-source\f[R], or \f[CB]\-target\f[R] for details.
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-\-doclint\-format\f[R] [\f[CB]html4\f[R]|\f[CB]html5\f[R]]
@@ -651,7 +630,7 @@
 .RS
 .RE
 .TP
-.B \f[CB]\-\-patch\-module\f[R] \f[I]module\f[R]\f[CB]=\f[R]\f[I]file\f[R](\f[CB]:\f[R]\f[I]file\f[R])*
+.B \f[CB]\-\-patch\-module\f[R] \f[I]module\f[R]\f[CB]=\f[R]\f[I]path\f[R]
 Overrides or augments a module with classes and resources in JAR files
 or directories.
 .RS
@@ -661,33 +640,30 @@
 Overrides the location of the bootstrap class files.
 .RS
 .PP
-\f[B]Note:\f[R]
-.PP
-This can only be used when compiling for versions prior to JDK 9.
-As applicable, see the descriptions in\ \f[CB]\-\-release\f[R],
-\f[CB]\-source\f[R], or \f[CB]\-target\f[R]\ for details.
+\f[B]Note:\f[R] This can only be used when compiling for releases prior
+to JDK 9.
+As applicable, see the descriptions in \f[CB]\-\-release\f[R],
+\f[CB]\-source\f[R], or \f[CB]\-target\f[R] for details.
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-Xbootclasspath/a:\f[R]\f[I]path\f[R]
 Adds a suffix to the bootstrap class path.
 .RS
 .PP
-\f[B]Note:\f[R]
-.PP
-This can only be used when compiling for versions prior to JDK 9.
-As applicable, see the descriptions in\ \f[CB]\-\-release\f[R],
-\f[CB]\-source\f[R], or \f[CB]\-target\f[R]\ for details.
+\f[B]Note:\f[R] This can only be used when compiling for releases prior
+to JDK 9.
+As applicable, see the descriptions in \f[CB]\-\-release\f[R],
+\f[CB]\-source\f[R], or \f[CB]\-target\f[R] for details.
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-Xbootclasspath/p:\f[R]\f[I]path\f[R]
 Adds a prefix to the bootstrap class path.
 .RS
 .PP
-\f[B]Note:\f[R]
-.PP
-This can only be used when compiling for versions prior to JDK 9.
-As applicable, see the descriptions in\ \f[CB]\-\-release\f[R],
-\f[CB]\-source\f[R], or \f[CB]\-target\f[R]\ for details.
+\f[B]Note:\f[R] This can only be used when compiling for releases prior
+to JDK 9.
+As applicable, see the descriptions in \f[CB]\-\-release\f[R],
+\f[CB]\-source\f[R], or \f[CB]\-target\f[R] for details.
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-Xdiags:\f[R][\f[CB]compact\f[R], \f[CB]verbose\f[R]]
@@ -745,7 +721,7 @@
 .RE
 .PP
 The following option enables all groups of checks for all access levels,
-except it won\[aq]t check for HTML errors for classes and members that
+except it will not check for HTML errors for classes and members that
 have the access level of package and higher (which includes package,
 protected and public):
 .RS
@@ -802,7 +778,7 @@
 \f[CB]fallthrough\f[R]: Warns about the falling through from one case of a
 switch statement to the next.
 .IP \[bu] 2
-\f[CB]finally\f[R]: Warns about \f[CB]finally\f[R] clauses that don\[aq]t
+\f[CB]finally\f[R]: Warns about \f[CB]finally\f[R] clauses that do not
 terminate normally.
 .IP \[bu] 2
 \f[CB]module\f[R]: Warns about the module system\-related issues.
@@ -833,7 +809,7 @@
 \f[CB]requires\-transitive\-automatic\f[R]: Warns about automatic modules
 in requires transitive.
 .IP \[bu] 2
-\f[CB]serial\f[R]: Warns about the serializable classes that don\[aq]t
+\f[CB]serial\f[R]: Warns about the serializable classes that do not
 provide a serial version ID.
 Also warns about access to non\-public members from a serializable
 element.
@@ -882,15 +858,13 @@
 .B \f[CB]legacy\f[R]
 Generates a \f[CB]package\-info.class\f[R] file only if
 \f[CB]package\-info.java\f[R] contains annotations.
-This option doesn\[aq]t generate a \f[CB]package\-info.class\f[R] file if
+This option does not generate a \f[CB]package\-info.class\f[R] file if
 \f[CB]package\-info.java\f[R] contains only comments.
 .RS
 .PP
-\f[B]Note:\f[R]
-.PP
-A \f[CB]package\-info.class\f[R] file might be generated but be empty if
-all the annotations in the \f[CB]package\-info.java\f[R] file have
-\f[CB]RetentionPolicy.SOURCE\f[R].
+\f[B]Note:\f[R] A \f[CB]package\-info.class\f[R] file might be generated
+but be empty if all the annotations in the \f[CB]package\-info.java\f[R]
+file have \f[CB]RetentionPolicy.SOURCE\f[R].
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]nonempty\f[R]
@@ -903,6 +877,11 @@
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-Xplugin:\f[R]\f[I]name\f[R] \f[I]args\f[R]
 Specifies the name and optional arguments for a plug\-in to be run.
+If \f[I]args\f[R] are provided, \f[I]name\f[R] and \f[I]args\f[R] should be
+quoted or otherwise escape the whitespace characters between the name
+and all the arguments.
+For details on the API for a plugin, see the API documentation for
+\f[B]jdk.compiler/com.sun.source.util.Plugin\f[R].
 .RS
 .RE
 .TP
@@ -910,7 +889,7 @@
 Specifies which file to read when both a source file and class file are
 found for an implicitly compiled class using one of the following
 options.
-See \f[B]Searching for Types\f[R].
+See \f[B]Searching for Module, Package and Type Declarations\f[R].
 .RS
 .IP \[bu] 2
 \f[CB]\-Xprefer:newer\f[R]: Reads the newer of the source or class files
@@ -925,7 +904,7 @@
 .B \f[CB]\-Xprint\f[R]
 Prints a textual representation of specified types for debugging
 purposes.
-This doesn\[aq]t perform annotation processing or compilation.
+This does not perform annotation processing or compilation.
 The format of the output could change.
 .RS
 .RE
@@ -947,10 +926,56 @@
 By default, compiler messages go to \f[CB]System.err\f[R].
 .RS
 .RE
-.SH JAVAC COMMAND\-LINE ARGUMENT FILES
+.SH ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
+.SS CLASSPATH
 .PP
-An argument file can include \f[CB]javac\f[R] options and source file
-names in any combination.
+If the \f[CB]\-\-class\-path\f[R] option or any of its alternate forms are
+not specified, the class path will default to the value of the
+\f[CB]CLASSPATH\f[R] environment variable if it is set.
+However, it is recommended that this environment variable should
+\f[I]not\f[R] be set, and that the \f[CB]\-\-class\-path\f[R] option should
+be used to provide an explicit value for the class path when one is
+required.
+.SS JDK_JAVAC_OPTIONS
+.PP
+The content of the \f[CB]JDK_JAVAC_OPTIONS\f[R] environment variable,
+separated by white\-spaces ( ) or white\-space characters (\f[CB]\\n\f[R],
+\f[CB]\\t\f[R], \f[CB]\\r\f[R], or \f[CB]\\f\f[R]) is prepended to the command
+line arguments passed to \f[CB]javac\f[R] as a list of arguments.
+.PP
+The encoding requirement for the environment variable is the same as the
+\f[CB]javac\f[R] command line on the system.
+\f[CB]JDK_JAVAC_OPTIONS\f[R] environment variable content is treated in
+the same manner as that specified in the command line.
+.PP
+Single quotes (\f[CB]\[aq]\f[R]) or double quotes (\f[CB]"\f[R]) can be used
+to enclose arguments that contain whitespace characters.
+All content between the open quote and the first matching close quote
+are preserved by simply removing the pair of quotes.
+In case a matching quote is not found, the launcher will abort with an
+error message.
+\f[CB]\@\f[R]\f[I]files\f[R] are supported as they are specified in the
+command line.
+However, as in \f[CB]\@\f[R]\f[I]files\f[R], use of a wildcard is not
+supported.
+.PP
+\f[B]Examples of quoting arguments containing white spaces:\f[R]
+.RS
+.PP
+\f[CB]export\ JDK_JAVAC_OPTIONS=\[aq]\@"C:\\white\ spaces\\argfile"\[aq]\f[R]
+.RE
+.RS
+.PP
+\f[CB]export\ JDK_JAVAC_OPTIONS=\[aq]"\@C:\\white\ spaces\\argfile"\[aq]\f[R]
+.RE
+.RS
+.PP
+\f[CB]export\ JDK_JAVAC_OPTIONS=\[aq]\@C:\\"white\ spaces"\\argfile\[aq]\f[R]
+.RE
+.SH COMMAND\-LINE ARGUMENT FILES
+.PP
+An argument file can include command\-line options and source file names
+in any combination.
 The arguments within a file can be separated by spaces or new line
 characters.
 If a file name contains embedded spaces, then put the whole file name in
@@ -958,19 +983,19 @@
 .PP
 File names within an argument file are relative to the current
 directory, not to the location of the argument file.
-Wildcards (*) aren\[aq]t allowed in these lists (such as for specifying
-\f[CB]*.java\f[R]).
-Use of the at sign (\f[CB]\@\f[R]) to recursively interpret files
-isn\[aq]t supported.
-The \f[CB]\-J\f[R] options aren\[aq]t supported because they\[aq]re passed
-to the launcher, which doesn\[aq]t support argument files.
+Wildcards (\f[CB]*\f[R]) are not allowed in these lists (such as for
+specifying \f[CB]*.java\f[R]).
+Use of the at sign (\f[CB]\@\f[R]) to recursively interpret files is not
+supported.
+The \f[CB]\-J\f[R] options are not supported because they\[aq]re passed to
+the launcher, which does not support argument files.
 .PP
 When executing the \f[CB]javac\f[R] command, pass in the path and name of
 each argument file with the at sign (\f[CB]\@\f[R]) leading character.
 When the \f[CB]javac\f[R] command encounters an argument beginning with
 the at sign (\f[CB]\@\f[R]), it expands the contents of that file into the
 argument list.
-.SH EXAMPLES OF USING JAVAC \@FILENAME
+.SS Examples of Using javac \@filename
 .TP
 .B Single Argument File
 You could use a single argument file named \f[CB]argfile\f[R] to hold all
@@ -993,7 +1018,7 @@
 .PP
 Create a file named \f[CB]options\f[R] that contains the following:
 .PP
-\f[B]Oracle Solaris, Linux, and OS X:\f[R]
+\f[B]Oracle Solaris, Linux, and macOS:\f[R]
 .IP
 .nf
 \f[CB]
@@ -1040,6 +1065,845 @@
 \f[CB]javac\ \@path1/options\ \@path2/classes\f[R]
 .RE
 .RE
+.SH ARRANGEMENT OF SOURCE CODE
+.PP
+In the Java language, classes and interfaces can be organized into
+packages, and packages can be organized into modules.
+\f[CB]javac\f[R] expects that the physical arrangement of source files in
+directories of the file system will mirror the organization of classes
+into packages, and packages into modules.
+.PP
+It is a widely adopted convention that module names and package names
+begin with a lower\-case letter, and that class names begin with an
+upper\-case letter.
+.SS Arrangement of Source Code for a Package
+.PP
+When classes and interfaces are organized into a package, the package is
+represented as a directory, and any subpackages are represented as
+subdirectories.
+.PP
+For example:
+.IP \[bu] 2
+The package \f[CB]p\f[R] is represented as a directory called \f[CB]p\f[R].
+.IP \[bu] 2
+The package \f[CB]p.q\f[R] \-\- that is, the subpackage \f[CB]q\f[R] of
+package \f[CB]p\f[R] \-\- is represented as the subdirectory \f[CB]q\f[R] of
+directory \f[CB]p\f[R].
+The directory tree representing package \f[CB]p.q\f[R] is therefore
+\f[CB]p\\q\f[R] on Windows, and \f[CB]p/q\f[R] on other systems.
+.IP \[bu] 2
+The package \f[CB]p.q.r\f[R] is represented as the directory tree
+\f[CB]p\\q\\r\f[R] (on Windows) or \f[CB]p/q/r\f[R] (on other systems).
+.PP
+Within a directory or subdirectory, \f[CB]\&.java\f[R] files represent
+classes and interfaces in the corresponding package or subpackage.
+.PP
+For example:
+.IP \[bu] 2
+The class \f[CB]X\f[R] declared in package \f[CB]p\f[R] is represented by
+the file \f[CB]X.java\f[R] in the \f[CB]p\f[R] directory.
+.IP \[bu] 2
+The class \f[CB]Y\f[R] declared in package \f[CB]p.q\f[R] is represented by
+the file \f[CB]Y.java\f[R] in the \f[CB]q\f[R] subdirectory of directory
+\f[CB]p\f[R].
+.IP \[bu] 2
+The class \f[CB]Z\f[R] declared in package \f[CB]p.q.r\f[R] is represented
+by the file \f[CB]Z.java\f[R] in the \f[CB]r\f[R] subdirectory of
+\f[CB]p\\q\f[R] (on Windows) or \f[CB]p/q\f[R] (on other systems).
+.PP
+In some situations, it is convenient to split the code into separate
+directories, each structured as described above, and the aggregate list
+of directories specified to \f[CB]javac\f[R].
+.SS Arrangement of Source Code for a Module
+.PP
+In the Java language, a module is a set of packages designed for reuse.
+In addition to \f[CB]\&.java\f[R] files for classes and interfaces, each
+module has a source file called \f[CB]module\-info.java\f[R] which:
+.IP "1." 3
+declares the module\[aq]s name;
+.IP "2." 3
+lists the packages exported by the module (to allow reuse by other
+modules);
+.IP "3." 3
+lists other modules required by the module (to reuse their exported
+packages).
+.PP
+When packages are organized into a module, the module is represented by
+one or more directories representing the packages in the module, one of
+which contains the \f[CB]module\-info.java\f[R] file.
+It may be convenient, but it is not required, to use a single directory,
+named after the module, to contain the \f[CB]module\-info.java\f[R] file
+alongside the directory tree which represents the packages in the module
+(i.e., the \f[I]package hierarchy\f[R] described above).
+The exact arrangement of source code for a module is typically dictated
+by the conventions adopted by a development environment (IDE) or build
+system.
+.PP
+For example:
+.IP \[bu] 2
+The module \f[CB]a.b.c\f[R] may be represented by the directory
+\f[CB]a.b.c\f[R], on all systems.
+.IP \[bu] 2
+The module\[aq]s declaration is represented by the file
+\f[CB]module\-info.java\f[R] in the \f[CB]a.b.c\f[R] directory.
+.IP \[bu] 2
+If the module contains package \f[CB]p.q.r\f[R], then the \f[CB]a.b.c\f[R]
+directory contains the directory tree \f[CB]p\\q\\r\f[R] (on Windows) or
+\f[CB]p/q/r\f[R] (on other systems).
+.PP
+The development environment may prescribe some directory hierarchy
+between the directory named for the module and the source files to be
+read by \f[CB]javac\f[R].
+.PP
+For example:
+.IP \[bu] 2
+The module \f[CB]a.b.c\f[R] may be represented by the directory
+\f[CB]a.b.c\f[R]
+.IP \[bu] 2
+The module\[aq]s declaration and the module\[aq]s packages may be in
+some subdirectory of \f[CB]a.b.c\f[R], such as \f[CB]src\\main\\java\f[R]
+(on Windows) or \f[CB]src/main/java\f[R] (on other systems).
+.SH CONFIGURING A COMPILATION
+.PP
+This section describes how to configure \f[CB]javac\f[R] to perform a
+basic compilation.
+.PP
+See \f[B]Configuring the Module System\f[R] for additional details for
+use when compiling for a release of the platform that supports modules.
+.SS Source Files
+.IP \[bu] 2
+Specify the source files to be compiled on the command line.
+.PP
+If there are no compilation errors, the corresponding class files will
+be placed in the \f[B]output directory\f[R].
+.PP
+Some systems may limit the amount you can put on a command line; to work
+around those limits, you can use \f[B]argument files\f[R].
+.PP
+When compiling code for modules, you can also specify source files
+indirectly, by using the \f[CB]\-\-module\f[R] or \f[CB]\-m\f[R] option; see
+\f[B]Standard Options\f[R].
+.SS Output Directory
+.IP \[bu] 2
+Use the \f[CB]\-d\f[R] option to specify an output directory in which to
+put the compiled class files.
+.PP
+This will normally be organized in a \f[B]package hierarchy\f[R], unless
+you are compiling source code from multiple modules, in which case it
+will be organized as a \f[B]module hierarchy\f[R].
+.PP
+When the compilation has been completed, if you are compiling one or
+more modules, you can place the output directory on the module path for
+the Java \f[B]launcher\f[R]; otherwise, you can place the place the
+output directory on the class path for the Java launcher.
+.SS Precompiled Code
+.PP
+The code to be compiled may refer to libraries beyond what is provided
+by the platform.
+If so, you must place these libraries on the class path or module path.
+If the library code is not in a module, place it on the class path; if
+it is in a module, place it on the module path.
+.IP \[bu] 2
+Use the \f[CB]\-\-class\-path\f[R] option to specify libraries to be
+placed on the class path.
+Locations on the class path should be organized in a \f[B]package
+hierarchy\f[R].
+You can also use alternate forms of the option: \f[CB]\-classpath\f[R] or
+\f[CB]\-cp\f[R].
+.IP \[bu] 2
+Use the \f[CB]\-\-module\-path\f[R] option to specify libraries to be
+placed on the module path.
+Locations on the module path should either be modules or directories of
+modules.
+You can also use an alternate form of the option: \f[CB]\-p\f[R].
+.RS 2
+.PP
+See \f[B]Configuring the Module System\f[R] for details on how to modify
+the default configuration of library modules.
+.RE
+.PP
+\f[B]Note\f[R]: the options for the class path and module path are not
+mutually exclusive, although it is not common to specify the class path
+when compiling code for one or more modules.
+.SS Additional Source Files
+.PP
+The code to be compiled may refer to types in additional source files
+that are not specified on the command line.
+If so, you must put those source files on either the source path or
+module path.
+You can only specify one of these options: if you are not compiling code
+for a module, or if you are only compiling code for a single module, use
+the source path; if you are compiling code for multiple modules, use the
+module source path.
+.IP \[bu] 2
+Use the \f[CB]\-\-source\-path\f[R] option to specify the locations of
+additional source files that may be read by javac.
+Locations on the source path should be organized in a \f[B]package
+hierarchy\f[R].
+You can also use an alternate form of the option: \f[CB]\-sourcepath\f[R].
+.IP \[bu] 2
+Use the \f[CB]\-\-module\-source\-path\f[R] option one or more times to
+specify the location of additional source files in different modules
+that may be read by javac, or when compiling source files in multiple
+modules.
+You can either specify the locations for each module
+\f[B]individually\f[R], or you can organize the source files so that you
+can specify the locations all \f[B]together\f[R].
+For more details, see \f[B]The Module Source Path Option\f[R].
+.PP
+If you want to be able to refer to types in additional source files but
+do not want them to be compiled, use the \f[CB]\-implicit\f[R] option.
+.PP
+\f[B]Note\f[R]: if you are compiling code for multiple modules, you must
+always specify a module source path, and all source files specified on
+the command line must be in one of the directories on the module source
+path, or in a subdirectory thereof.
+.SS Example of Compiling Multiple Source Files
+.PP
+This example compiles the \f[CB]Aloha.java\f[R], \f[CB]GutenTag.java\f[R],
+\f[CB]Hello.java\f[R], and \f[CB]Hi.java\f[R] source files in the
+\f[CB]greetings\f[R] package.
+.PP
+\f[B]Oracle Solaris, Linux, and macOS:\f[R]
+.IP
+.nf
+\f[CB]
+%\ javac\ greetings/*.java
+%\ ls\ greetings
+Aloha.class\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ GutenTag.class\ \ \ \ \ \ Hello.class\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ Hi.class
+Aloha.java\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ GutenTag.java\ \ \ \ \ \ \ Hello.java\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ Hi.java
+\f[R]
+.fi
+.PP
+\f[B]Windows:\f[R]
+.IP
+.nf
+\f[CB]
+C:\\>javac\ greetings\\*.java
+C:\\>dir\ greetings
+Aloha.class\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ GutenTag.class\ \ \ \ \ \ Hello.class\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ Hi.class
+Aloha.java\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ GutenTag.java\ \ \ \ \ \ \ Hello.java\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ Hi.java
+\f[R]
+.fi
+.SS Example of Specifying a User Class Path
+.PP
+After changing one of the source files in the previous example,
+recompile it:
+.PP
+\f[B]Oracle Solaris, Linux, and macOS:\f[R]
+.IP
+.nf
+\f[CB]
+pwd
+/examples
+javac\ greetings/Hi.java
+\f[R]
+.fi
+.PP
+\f[B]Windows:\f[R]
+.IP
+.nf
+\f[CB]
+C:\\>cd
+\\examples
+C:\\>javac\ greetings\\Hi.java
+\f[R]
+.fi
+.PP
+Because \f[CB]greetings.Hi\f[R] refers to other classes in the
+\f[CB]greetings\f[R] package, the compiler needs to find these other
+classes.
+The previous example works because the default user class path is the
+directory that contains the package directory.
+If you want to recompile this file without concern for which directory
+you are in, then add the examples directory to the user class path by
+setting \f[CB]CLASSPATH\f[R].
+This example uses the \f[CB]\-classpath\f[R] option.
+.PP
+\f[B]Oracle Solaris, Linux, and macOS:\f[R]
+.RS
+.PP
+\f[CB]javac\ \-classpath\ /examples\ /examples/greetings/Hi.java\f[R]
+.RE
+.PP
+\f[B]Windows:\f[R]
+.RS
+.PP
+\f[CB]C:\\>javac\ \-classpath\ \\examples\ \\examples\\greetings\\Hi.java\f[R]
+.RE
+.PP
+If you change \f[CB]greetings.Hi\f[R] to use a banner utility, then that
+utility also needs to be accessible through the user class path.
+.PP
+\f[B]Oracle Solaris, Linux, and macOS:\f[R]
+.IP
+.nf
+\f[CB]
+javac\ \-classpath\ /examples:/lib/Banners.jar\ \\
+\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ /examples/greetings/Hi.java
+\f[R]
+.fi
+.PP
+\f[B]Windows:\f[R]
+.IP
+.nf
+\f[CB]
+C:\\>javac\ \-classpath\ \\examples;\\lib\\Banners.jar\ ^
+\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \\examples\\greetings\\Hi.java
+\f[R]
+.fi
+.PP
+To execute a class in the \f[CB]greetings\f[R] package, the program needs
+access to the \f[CB]greetings\f[R] package, and to the classes that the
+\f[CB]greetings\f[R] classes use.
+.PP
+\f[B]Oracle Solaris, Linux, and macOS:\f[R]
+.RS
+.PP
+\f[CB]java\ \-classpath\ /examples:/lib/Banners.jar\ greetings.Hi\f[R]
+.RE
+.PP
+\f[B]Windows:\f[R]
+.RS
+.PP
+\f[CB]C:\\>java\ \-classpath\ \\examples;\\lib\\Banners.jar\ greetings.Hi\f[R]
+.RE
+.SH CONFIGURING THE MODULE SYSTEM
+.PP
+If you want to include additional modules in your compilation, use the
+\f[CB]\-\-add\-modules\f[R] option.
+This may be necessary when you are compiling code that is not in a
+module, or which is in an automatic module, and the code refers to API
+in the additional modules.
+.PP
+If you want to restrict the set of modules in your compilation, use the
+\f[CB]\-\-limit\-modules\f[R] option.
+This may be useful if you want to ensure that the code you are compiling
+is capable of running on a system with a limited set of modules
+installed.
+.PP
+If you want to break encapsulation and specify that additional packages
+should be considered as exported from a module, use the
+\f[CB]\-\-add\-exports\f[R] option.
+This may be useful when performing white\-box testing; relying on access
+to internal API in production code is strongly discouraged.
+.PP
+If you want to specify that additional packages should be considered as
+required by a module, use the \f[CB]\-\-add\-reads\f[R] option.
+This may be useful when performing white\-box testing; relying on access
+to internal API in production code is strongly discouraged.
+.PP
+You can patch additional content into any module using the
+\f[CB]\-\-patch\-module\f[R] option.
+See [Patching a Module] for more details.
+.SH SEARCHING FOR MODULE, PACKAGE AND TYPE DECLARATIONS
+.PP
+To compile a source file, the compiler often needs information about a
+module or type, but the declaration is not in the source files specified
+on the command line.
+.PP
+\f[CB]javac\f[R] needs type information for every class or interface used,
+extended, or implemented in the source file.
+This includes classes and interfaces not explicitly mentioned in the
+source file, but that provide information through inheritance.
+.PP
+For example, when you create a subclass of \f[CB]java.awt.Window\f[R], you
+are also using the ancestor classes of \f[CB]Window\f[R]:
+\f[CB]java.awt.Container\f[R], \f[CB]java.awt.Component\f[R], and
+\f[CB]java.lang.Object\f[R].
+.PP
+When compiling code for a module, the compiler also needs to have
+available the declaration of that module.
+.PP
+A successful search may produce a class file, a source file, or both.
+If both are found, then you can use the \f[CB]\-Xprefer\f[R] option to
+instruct the compiler which to use; see \f[B]Extra Options\f[R].
+.PP
+If a search finds and uses a source file, then by default \f[CB]javac\f[R]
+compiles that source file.
+This behavior can be altered with \f[CB]\-implicit\f[R]; see \f[B]Standard
+Options\f[R].
+.PP
+The compiler might not discover the need for some type information until
+after annotation processing completes.
+When the type information is found in a source file and no
+\f[CB]\-implicit\f[R] option is specified, the compiler gives a warning
+that the file is being compiled without being subject to annotation
+processing.
+To disable the warning, either specify the file on the command line (so
+that it will be subject to annotation processing) or use the
+\f[CB]\-implicit\f[R] option to specify whether or not class files should
+be generated for such source files.
+.PP
+The way that \f[CB]javac\f[R] locates the declarations of those types
+depends on whether the reference exists within code for a module or not.
+.SS Searching Package Oriented Paths
+.PP
+When searching for a source or class file on a path composed of package
+oriented locations, \f[CB]javac\f[R] will check each location on the path
+in turn for the possible presence of the file.
+The first occurrence of a particular file shadows (hides) any subsequent
+occurrences of like\-named files.
+This shadowing does not affect any search for any files with a different
+name.
+This can be convenient when searching for source files, which may be
+grouped in different locations, such as shared code, platform\-specific
+code and generated code.
+It can also be useful when injecting alternate versions of a class file
+into a package, to debugging or other instrumentation reasons.
+But, it can also be dangerous, such as when putting incompatible
+different versions of a library on the class path.
+.SS Searching Module Oriented Paths
+.PP
+Prior to scanning any module paths for any package or type declarations,
+\f[CB]javac\f[R] will lazily scan the following paths and locations to
+determine the modules that will be used in the compilation.
+.IP \[bu] 2
+The module source path (see the \f[CB]\-\-module\-source\-path\f[R]
+option)
+.IP \[bu] 2
+The path for upgradeable modules (see the
+\f[CB]\-\-upgrade\-module\-path\f[R] option)
+.IP \[bu] 2
+The system modules (see the \f[CB]\-\-system\f[R] option)
+.IP \[bu] 2
+The user module path ( see the \f[CB]\-\-module\-path\f[R] option)
+.PP
+For any module, the first occurrence of the module during the scan
+completely shadows (hides) any subsequent appearance of a like\-named
+module.
+While locating the modules, \f[CB]javac\f[R] is able to determine the
+packages exported by the module and to associate with each module a
+package oriented path for the contents of the module.
+For any previously compiled module, this path will typically be a single
+entry for either a directory or a file that provides an internal
+directory\-like hierarchy, such as a JAR file.
+Thus, when searching for a type that is in a package that is known to be
+exported by a module, \f[CB]javac\f[R] can locate the declaration directly
+and efficiently.
+.SS Searching for the Declaration of a Module
+.PP
+If the module has been previously compiled, the module declaration is
+located in a file named \f[CB]module\-info.class\f[R] in the root of the
+package hierarchy for the content of the module.
+.PP
+If the module is one of those currently being compiled, the module
+declaration will be either the file named \f[CB]module\-info.class\f[R] in
+the root of the package hierarchy for the module in the class output
+directory, or the file named \f[CB]module\-info.java\f[R] in one of the
+locations on the source path or one the module source path for the
+module.
+.SS Searching for the Declaration of a Type When the Reference is not in
+a Module
+.PP
+When searching for a type that is referenced in code that is not in a
+module, \f[CB]javac\f[R] will look in the following places:
+.IP \[bu] 2
+The platform classes (or the types in exported packages of the platform
+modules) (This is for compiled class files only.)
+.IP \[bu] 2
+Types in exported packages of any modules on the module path, if
+applicable.
+(This is for compiled class files only.)
+.IP \[bu] 2
+Types in packages on the class path and/or source path:
+.RS 2
+.IP \[bu] 2
+If both are specified, \f[CB]javac\f[R] looks for compiled class files on
+the class path and for source files on the source path.
+.IP \[bu] 2
+If the class path is specified, but not source path, \f[CB]javac\f[R]
+looks for both compiled class files and source files on the class path.
+.IP \[bu] 2
+If the class path is not specified, it defaults to the current
+directory.
+.RE
+.PP
+When looking for a type on the class path and/or source path, if both a
+compiled class file and a source file are found, the most recently
+modified file will be used by default.
+If the source file is newer, it will be compiled and will may override
+any previously compiled version of the file.
+You can use the \f[CB]\-Xprefer\f[R] option to override the default
+behavior.
+.SS Searching for the Declaration of a Type When the Reference is in a
+Module
+.PP
+When searching for a type that is referenced in code in a module,
+\f[CB]javac\f[R] will examine the declaration of the enclosing module to
+determine if the type is in a package that is exported from another
+module that is readable by the enclosing module.
+If so, \f[CB]javac\f[R] will simply and directly go to the definition of
+that module to find the definition of the required type.
+Unless the module is another of the modules being compiled,
+\f[CB]javac\f[R] will only look for compiled class files files.
+In other words, \f[CB]javac\f[R] will not look for source files in
+platform modules or modules on the module path.
+.PP
+If the type being referenced is not in some other readable module,
+\f[CB]javac\f[R] will examine the module being compiled to try and find
+the declaration of the type.
+\f[CB]javac\f[R] will look for the declaration of the type as follows:
+.IP \[bu] 2
+Source files specified on the command line or on the source path or
+module source path.
+.IP \[bu] 2
+Previously compiled files in the output directory.
+.SH DIRECTORY HIERARCHIES
+.PP
+\f[CB]javac\f[R] generally assumes that source files and compiled class
+files will be organized in a file system directory hierarchy or in a
+type of file that supports in an internal directory hierarchy, such as a
+JAR file.
+Three different kinds of hierarchy are supported: a \f[I]package
+hierarchy\f[R], a \f[I]module hierarchy\f[R], and a \f[I]module source
+hierarchy\f[R].
+.PP
+While \f[CB]javac\f[R] is fairly relaxed about the organization of source
+code, beyond the expectation that source will be organized in one or
+package hierarchies, and can generally accomodate organizations
+prescribed by development environments and build tools, Java tools in
+general, and \f[CB]javac\f[R] and the Java launcher in particular, are
+more stringent regarding the organization of compiled class files, and
+will be organized in package hierarchies or module hierarchies, as
+appropriate.
+.PP
+The location of these hierarchies are specified to \f[CB]javac\f[R] with
+command\-line options, whose names typically end in "path", like
+\f[CB]\-\-source\-path\f[R] or \f[CB]\-\-class\-path\f[R].
+Also as a general rule, path options whose name includes the word
+\f[CB]module\f[R], like \f[CB]\-\-module\-path\f[R], are used to specify
+module hierarchies, although some module\-related path options allow a
+package hierarchy to be specified on a per\-module basis.
+All other path options are used to specify package hierarchies.
+.SS Package Hierarchy
+.PP
+In a package hierarchy, directories and subdirectories are used to
+represent the component parts of the package name, with the source file
+or compiled class file for a type being stored as a file with an
+extension of \f[CB]\&.java\f[R] or \f[CB]\&.class\f[R] in the most nested
+directory.
+.PP
+For example, in a package hierarchy, the source file for a class
+\f[CB]com.example.MyClass\f[R] will be stored in the file
+\f[I]com/example/MyClass.java\f[R]
+.SS Module Hierarchy
+.PP
+In a module hierarchy, the first level of directories are named for the
+modules in the hierarchy; within each of those directories the contents
+of the module are organized in package hierarchies.
+.PP
+For example, in a module hierarchy, the compiled class file for a type
+called \f[CB]com.example.MyClass\f[R] in a module called
+\f[CB]my.library\f[R] will be stored in
+\f[I]my.library/com/example/MyClass.class\f[R].
+.PP
+The various output directories used by \f[CB]javac\f[R] (the class output
+directory, the source output directory, and native header output
+directory) will all be organized in a module hierarchy when multiple
+modules are being compiled.
+.SS Module Source Hierarchy
+.PP
+Although the source for each individual module should always be
+organized in a package hierarchy, it may be convenient to group those
+hierarchies into a module source hierarchy.
+This is similar to a module hierarchy, except that there may be
+intervening directories between the directory for the module and the
+directory that is the root of the package hierarchy for the source code
+of the module.
+.PP
+For example, in a module source hierarchy, the source file for a type
+called \f[CB]com.example.MyClass\f[R] in a module called
+\f[CB]my.library\f[R] may be stored in a file such as
+\f[I]my.library/src/main/java/com/example/MyClass.java\f[R].
+.SH THE MODULE SOURCE PATH OPTION
+.PP
+The \f[CB]\-\-module\-source\-path\f[R] option has two forms: a
+\f[I]module\-specific form\f[R], in which a package path is given for
+each module containing code to be compiled, and a
+\f[I]module\-pattern\f[R] form, in which the source path for each module
+is specified by a pattern.
+The module\-specific form is generally simpler to use when only a small
+number of modules are involved; the module\-pattern form may be more
+convenient when the number of modules is large and the modules are
+organized in a regular manner that can be described by a pattern.
+.PP
+Multiple instances of the \f[CB]\-\-module\-source\-path\f[R] option may
+be given, each one using either the module\-pattern form or the
+module\-specific form, subject to the following limitations:
+.IP \[bu] 2
+the module\-pattern form may be used at most once
+.IP \[bu] 2
+the module\-specific form may be used at most once for any given module
+.PP
+If the module\-specific form is used for any module, the associated
+search path overrides any path that might otherwise have been inferred
+from the module\-pattern form.
+.SS Module\-specific form
+.PP
+The module\-specific form allows an explicit search path to be given for
+any specific module.
+This form is:
+.IP \[bu] 2
+\f[CB]\-\-module\-source\-path\f[R]
+\f[I]module\-name\f[R]\f[CB]=\f[R]\f[I]file\-path\f[R]
+(\f[I]path\-separator\f[R] \f[I]file\-path\f[R])*
+.PP
+The path separator character is \f[CB];\f[R] on Windows, and \f[CB]:\f[R]
+otherwise.
+.PP
+\f[B]Note:\f[R] this is similar to the form used for the
+\f[CB]\-\-patch\-module\f[R] option.
+.SS Module\-pattern form
+.PP
+The module\-pattern form allows a concise specification of the module
+source path for any number of modules organized in regular manner.
+.IP \[bu] 2
+\f[CB]\-\-module\-source\-path\f[R] \f[I]pattern\f[R]
+.PP
+The pattern is defined by the following rules, which are applied in
+order:
+.IP \[bu] 2
+The argument is considered to be a series of segments separated by the
+path separator character (\f[CB];\f[R] on Windows, and \f[CB]:\f[R]
+otherwise).
+.IP \[bu] 2
+Each segment containing curly braces of the form
+.RS 2
+.IP
+.nf
+\f[CB]
+string1{alt1\ (\ ,alt2\ )*\ }\ string2
+\f[R]
+.fi
+.PP
+is considered to be replaced by a series of segments formed by
+"expanding" the braces:
+.IP
+.nf
+\f[CB]
+string1\ alt1\ string2
+string1\ alt2\ string2
+and\ so\ on...
+\f[R]
+.fi
+.PP
+The braces may be nested.
+.PP
+This rule is applied for all such usages of braces.
+.RE
+.IP \[bu] 2
+Each segment must have at most one asterisk (\f[CB]*\f[R]).
+If a segment does not contain an asterisk, it is considered to be as
+though the file separator character and an asterisk are appended.
+.RS 2
+.PP
+For any module \f[I]M\f[R], the source path for that module is formed
+from the series of segments obtained by substituting the module name
+\f[I]M\f[R] for the asterisk in each segment.
+.PP
+\f[B]Note\f[R]: in this context, the asterisk is just used as a special
+marker, to denote the position in the path of the module name.
+It should not be confused with the use of \f[CB]*\f[R] as a file name
+wildcard character, as found on most operating systems.
+.RE
+.SH PATCHING MODULES
+.PP
+javac allows any content, whether in source or compiled form, to be
+patched into any module using the \f[CB]\-\-patch\-module\f[R] option.
+You may want to do this to compile alternative implementations of a
+class to be patched at runtime into a JVM, or to inject additional
+classes into the module, such as when testing.
+.PP
+The form of the option is:
+.IP \[bu] 2
+\f[CB]\-\-patch\-module\f[R]
+\f[I]module\-name\f[R]\f[CB]=\f[R]\f[I]file\-path\f[R]
+(\f[I]path\-separator\f[R] \f[I]file\-path\f[R] )*
+.PP
+The path separator character is \f[CB];\f[R] on Windows, and \f[CB]:\f[R]
+otherwise.
+The paths given for the module must specify the root of a package
+hierarchy for the contents of the module
+.PP
+The option may be given at most once for any given module.
+Any content on the path will hide any like\-named content later in the
+path and in the patched module.
+.PP
+When patching source code into more than one module, the
+\f[CB]\-\-module\-source\-path\f[R] must also be used, so that the output
+directory is organized in a module hierarchy, and capable of holding the
+compiled class files for the modules being compiled.
+.SH ANNOTATION PROCESSING
+.PP
+The \f[CB]javac\f[R] command provides direct support for annotation
+processing.
+.PP
+The API for annotation processors is defined in the
+\f[CB]javax.annotation.processing\f[R] and \f[CB]javax.lang.model\f[R]
+packages and subpackages.
+.SS How Annotation Processing Works
+.PP
+Unless annotation processing is disabled with the \f[CB]\-proc:none\f[R]
+option, the compiler searches for any annotation processors that are
+available.
+The search path can be specified with the \f[CB]\-processorpath\f[R]
+option.
+If no path is specified, then the user class path is used.
+Processors are located by means of service provider\-configuration files
+named \f[CB]META\-INF/services/javax.annotation.processing\f[R].
+Processor on the search path.
+Such files should contain the names of any annotation processors to be
+used, listed one per line.
+Alternatively, processors can be specified explicitly, using the
+\f[CB]\-processor\f[R] option.
+.PP
+After scanning the source files and classes on the command line to
+determine what annotations are present, the compiler queries the
+processors to determine what annotations they process.
+When a match is found, the processor is called.
+A processor can claim the annotations it processes, in which case no
+further attempt is made to find any processors for those annotations.
+After all of the annotations are claimed, the compiler does not search
+for additional processors.
+.PP
+If any processors generate new source files, then another round of
+annotation processing occurs: Any newly generated source files are
+scanned, and the annotations processed as before.
+Any processors called on previous rounds are also called on all
+subsequent rounds.
+This continues until no new source files are generated.
+.PP
+After a round occurs where no new source files are generated, the
+annotation processors are called one last time, to give them a chance to
+complete any remaining work.
+Finally, unless the \f[CB]\-proc:only\f[R] option is used, the compiler
+compiles the original and all generated source files.
+.PP
+If you use an annotation processor that generates additional source
+files to be included in the compilation, you can specify a default
+module to be used for the newly generated files, for use when a module
+declaration is not also generated.
+In this case, use the \f[CB]\-\-default\-module\-for\-created\-files\f[R]
+option.
+.SS Compilation Environment and Runtime Environment.
+.PP
+The declarations in source files and previously compiled class files are
+analyzed by \f[CB]javac\f[R] in a \f[I]compilation environment\f[R] that is
+distinct from the \f[I]runtime environment\f[R] used to execute
+\f[CB]javac\f[R] itself.
+Although there is a deliberate similarity between many \f[CB]javac\f[R]
+options and like\-named options for the Java \f[B]launcher\f[R], such as
+\f[CB]\-\-class\-path\f[R], \f[CB]\-\-module\-path\f[R] and so on, it is
+important to understand that in general the \f[CB]javac\f[R] options just
+affect the environment in which the source files are compiled, and do
+not affect the operation of \f[CB]javac\f[R] itself.
+.PP
+The distinction between the compilation environment and runtime
+environment is significant when it comes to using annotation processors.
+Although annotations processors process elements (declarations) that
+exist in the compilation environment, the annotation processor itself is
+executed in the runtime environment.
+If an annotation processor has dependencies on libraries that are not in
+modules, the libraries can be placed, along with the annotation
+processor itself, on the processor path.
+(See the \f[CB]\-\-processor\-path\f[R] option.) If the annotation
+processor and its dependencies are in modules, you should use the
+processor module path instead.
+(See the \f[CB]\-\-processor\-module\-path\f[R] option.) When those are
+insufficient, it may be necessary to provide further configuration of
+the runtime environment.
+This can be done in two ways:
+.IP "1." 3
+If \f[CB]javac\f[R] is invoked from the command line, options can be
+passed to the underlying runtime by prefixing the option with
+\f[CB]\-J\f[R].
+(See the \f[CB]\-J\f[R] option.)
+.IP "2." 3
+You can start an instance of a Java Virtual Machine directly and use
+command line options and API to configure an environment in which
+\f[CB]javac\f[R] can be invoked via one of its \f[B]APIs\f[R].
+.SH COMPILING FOR EARLIER RELEASES OF THE PLATFORM
+.PP
+\f[CB]javac\f[R] can compile code that is to be used on other releases of
+the platform, using either the \f[CB]\-\-release\f[R] option, or the
+\f[CB]\-\-source\f[R]/\f[CB]\-source\f[R] and
+\f[CB]\-\-target\f[R]/\f[CB]\-target\f[R] options, together with additional
+options to specify the platform classes.
+.PP
+Depending on the desired platform release, there are some restrictions
+on some of the options that can be used.
+.IP \[bu] 2
+When compiling for JDK 8 and earlier releases, you cannot use any option
+that is intended for use with the module system.
+This includes all of the following options:
+.RS 2
+.IP \[bu] 2
+\f[CB]\-\-module\-source\-path\f[R], \f[CB]\-\-upgrade\-module\-path\f[R],
+\f[CB]\-\-system\f[R], \f[CB]\-\-module\-path\f[R],
+\f[CB]\-\-add\-modules\f[R], \f[CB]\-\-add\-exports\f[R],
+\f[CB]\-\-add\-opens\f[R], \f[CB]\-\-add\-reads\f[R],
+\f[CB]\-\-limit\-modules\f[R], \f[CB]\-\-patch\-module\f[R]
+.PP
+If you use the \f[CB]\-\-source\f[R]/\f[CB]\-source\f[R] or
+\f[CB]\-\-target\f[R]/\f[CB]\-target\f[R] options, you should also set the
+appropriate platform classes using the boot class path family of
+options.
+.RE
+.IP \[bu] 2
+When compiling for JDK 9 and later releases, you cannot use any option
+that is intended to configure the boot class path.
+This includes all of the following options:
+.RS 2
+.IP \[bu] 2
+\f[CB]\-Xbootclasspath/p:\f[R], \f[CB]\-Xbootclasspath\f[R],
+\f[CB]\-Xbootclasspath/a:\f[R], \f[CB]\-endorseddirs\f[R],
+\f[CB]\-Djava.endorsed.dirs\f[R], \f[CB]\-extdirs\f[R],
+\f[CB]\-Djava.ext.dirs\f[R], \f[CB]\-profile\f[R]
+.PP
+If you use the \f[CB]\-\-source\f[R]/\f[CB]\-source\f[R] or
+\f[CB]\-\-target\f[R]/\f[CB]\-target\f[R] options, you should also set the
+appropriate platform classes using the \f[CB]\-\-system\f[R] option to
+give the location of an appropriate installed release of JDK.
+.RE
+.PP
+When using the \f[CB]\-\-release\f[R] option, only the supported
+documented API for that release may be used; you cannot use any options
+to break encapsulation to access any internal classes.
+.SH APIS
+.PP
+The \f[CB]javac\f[R] compiler can be invoked using an API in three
+different ways:
+.TP
+.B The \f[B]Java Compiler API\f[R]
+This provides the most flexible way to invoke the compiler, including
+the ability to compile source files provided in memory buffers or other
+non\-standard file systems.
+.RS
+.RE
+.TP
+.B The \f[B]ToolProvider API\f[R]
+A \f[CB]ToolProvider\f[R] for \f[CB]javac\f[R] can be obtained by calling
+\f[CB]ToolProvider.findFirst("javac")\f[R].
+This returns an object with the equivalent functionality of the
+command\-line tool.
+.RS
+.PP
+\f[B]Note\f[R]: This API should not be confused with the like\-named API
+in the \f[B]\f[BC]javax.tools\f[B]\f[R] package.
+.RE
+.TP
+.B The \f[CB]javac\f[R] \f[B]Legacy API\f[R]
+This API is retained for backward compatibility only.
+All new code should use either the Java Compiler API or the ToolProvider
+API.
+.RS
+.RE
+.PP
+\f[B]Note:\f[R] All other classes and methods found in a package with
+names that start with \f[CB]com.sun.tools.javac\f[R] (subpackages of
+\f[CB]com.sun.tools.javac\f[R]) are strictly internal and subject to
+change at any time.
 .SH EXAMPLES OF USING \-XLINT KEYS
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]cast\f[R]
@@ -1074,8 +1938,8 @@
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]dep\-ann\f[R]
 Warns about items that are documented with the \f[CB]\@deprecated\f[R]
-Javadoc comment, but don\[aq]t have the \f[CB]\@Deprecated\f[R]
-annotation, for example:
+Javadoc comment, but do not have the \f[CB]\@Deprecated\f[R] annotation,
+for example:
 .RS
 .IP
 .nf
@@ -1117,10 +1981,11 @@
 Checks the switch blocks for fall\-through cases and provides a warning
 message for any that are found.
 Fall\-through cases are cases in a switch block, other than the last
-case in the block, whose code doesn\[aq]t include a break statement,
-allowing code execution to fall through from that case to the next case.
+case in the block, whose code does not include a \f[CB]break\f[R]
+statement, allowing code execution to fall through from that case to the
+next case.
 For example, the code following the case 1 label in this switch block
-doesn\[aq]t end with a break statement:
+does not end with a \f[CB]break\f[R] statement:
 .RS
 .IP
 .nf
@@ -1141,8 +2006,8 @@
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]finally\f[R]
-Warns about \f[CB]finally\f[R] clauses that can\[aq]t be completed
-normally, for example:
+Warns about \f[CB]finally\f[R] clauses that cannot be completed normally,
+for example:
 .RS
 .IP
 .nf
@@ -1172,7 +2037,7 @@
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]options\f[R]
 Warns about issues that related to the use of command\-line options.
-See \f[B]Cross\-Compilation Options for javac\f[R].
+See \f[B]Compiling for Earlier Releases of the Platform\f[R].
 .RS
 .RE
 .TP
@@ -1218,12 +2083,12 @@
 Warns about invalid path elements and nonexistent path directories on
 the command line (with regard to the class path, the source path, and
 other paths).
-Such warnings can\[aq]t be suppressed with the
-\f[CB]\@SuppressWarnings\f[R] annotation.
+Such warnings cannot be suppressed with the \f[CB]\@SuppressWarnings\f[R]
+annotation.
 For example:
 .RS
 .IP \[bu] 2
-\f[B]Oracle Solaris, Linux, and OS X:\f[R]
+\f[B]Oracle Solaris, Linux, and macOS:\f[R]
 \f[CB]javac\ \-Xlint:path\ \-classpath\ /nonexistentpath\ Example.java\f[R]
 .IP \[bu] 2
 \f[B]Windows:\f[R]
@@ -1233,8 +2098,8 @@
 .B \f[CB]processing\f[R]
 Warns about issues related to annotation processing.
 The compiler generates this warning when you have a class that has an
-annotation, and you use an annotation processor that can\[aq]t handle
-that type of exception.
+annotation, and you use an annotation processor that cannot handle that
+type of exception.
 For example, the following is a simple annotation processor:
 .RS
 .PP
@@ -1306,7 +2171,7 @@
 \f[CB]void\ countElements(List\ l)\ {\ ...\ }\f[R]
 .RE
 .PP
-The following example doesn\[aq]t generate a \f[CB]rawtypes\f[R] warning:
+The following example does not generate a \f[CB]rawtypes\f[R] warning:
 .RS
 .PP
 \f[CB]void\ countElements(List<?>\ l)\ {\ ...\ }\f[R]
@@ -1354,7 +2219,7 @@
 \f[R]
 .fi
 .PP
-If a serializable class doesn\[aq]t explicitly declare a field named
+If a serializable class does not explicitly declare a field named
 \f[CB]serialVersionUID\f[R], then the serialization runtime environment
 calculates a default \f[CB]serialVersionUID\f[R] value for that class
 based on various aspects of the class, as described in the Java Object
@@ -1372,8 +2237,7 @@
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]static\f[R]
-Warns about issues relating to the use of statics variables, for
-example:
+Warns about issues relating to the use of static variables, for example:
 .RS
 .IP
 .nf
@@ -1409,8 +2273,7 @@
 Warns about issues relating to the use of \f[CB]try\f[R] blocks, including
 try\-with\-resources statements.
 For example, a warning is generated for the following statement because
-the resource \f[CB]ac\f[R] declared in the \f[CB]try\f[R] block isn\[aq]t
-used:
+the resource \f[CB]ac\f[R] declared in the \f[CB]try\f[R] block is not used:
 .RS
 .IP
 .nf
@@ -1440,10 +2303,9 @@
 \f[CB]List<String>\f[R].
 When the \f[CB]List\f[R] referenced by \f[CB]l\f[R] is assigned to
 \f[CB]ls\f[R], the compiler generates an unchecked warning.
-At compile time, the compiler and JVM can\[aq]t determine whether
+At compile time, the compiler and JVM cannot determine whether
 \f[CB]l\f[R] refers to a \f[CB]List<String>\f[R] type.
-In this case, \f[CB]l\f[R] doesn\[aq]t refer to a \f[CB]List<String>\f[R]
-type.
+In this case, \f[CB]l\f[R] does not refer to a \f[CB]List<String>\f[R] type.
 As a result, heap pollution occurs.
 .PP
 A heap pollution situation occurs when the \f[CB]List\f[R] object
@@ -1452,7 +2314,7 @@
 type, \f[CB]List<String>\f[R].
 However, the compiler still allows this assignment.
 It must allow this assignment to preserve backward compatibility with
-releases of Java SE that don\[aq]t support generics.
+releases of Java SE that do not support generics.
 Because of type erasure, \f[CB]List<Number>\f[R] and \f[CB]List<String>\f[R]
 both become \f[CB]List\f[R].
 Consequently, the compiler allows the assignment of the object
@@ -1477,7 +2339,7 @@
 \f[R]
 .fi
 .PP
-A non\-reifiable type is a type whose type information isn\[aq]t fully
+A non\-reifiable type is a type whose type information is not fully
 available at runtime.
 .PP
 The compiler generates the following warning for the definition of the
@@ -1491,8 +2353,8 @@
 .PP
 When the compiler encounters a varargs method, it translates the
 \f[CB]varargs\f[R] formal parameter into an array.
-However, the Java programming language doesn\[aq]t permit the creation
-of arrays of parameterized types.
+However, the Java programming language does not permit the creation of
+arrays of parameterized types.
 In the method \f[CB]ArrayBuilder.addToList\f[R], the compiler translates
 the \f[CB]varargs\f[R] formal parameter \f[CB]T...\f[R] elements to the
 formal parameter \f[CB]T[]\f[R] elements, an array.
@@ -1500,274 +2362,3 @@
 \f[CB]varargs\f[R] formal parameter to \f[CB]Object[]\f[R] elements.
 Consequently, there\[aq]s a possibility of heap pollution.
 .RE
-.SH EXAMPLE OF COMPILING BY PROVIDING COMMAND\-LINE ARGUMENTS
-.PP
-To compile as though providing command\-line arguments, use the
-following syntax:
-.RS
-.PP
-\f[CB]JavaCompiler\ javac\ =\ ToolProvider.getSystemJavaCompiler();\f[R]
-.RE
-.PP
-The example writes diagnostics to the standard output stream and returns
-the exit code that \f[CB]javac\f[R] command would give when called from
-the command line.
-.PP
-You can use other methods in the \f[CB]javax.tools.JavaCompiler\f[R]
-interface to handle diagnostics, control where files are read from and
-written to, and more.
-.SH OLD INTERFACE
-.PP
-\f[B]Note:\f[R]
-.PP
-This API is retained for backward compatibility only.
-All new code should use the Java Compiler API.
-.PP
-The \f[CB]com.sun.tools.javac.Main\f[R] class provides two static methods
-to call the compiler from a program:
-.IP
-.nf
-\f[CB]
-public\ static\ int\ compile(String[]\ args);
-public\ static\ int\ compile(String[]\ args,\ PrintWriter\ out);
-\f[R]
-.fi
-.PP
-The \f[CB]args\f[R] parameter represents any of the command\-line
-arguments that would typically be passed to the compiler.
-.PP
-The \f[CB]out\f[R] parameter indicates where the compiler diagnostic
-output is directed.
-.PP
-The \f[CB]return\f[R] value is equivalent to the \f[CB]exit\f[R] value from
-\f[CB]javac\f[R].
-.PP
-\f[B]Note:\f[R]
-.PP
-All other classes and methods found in a package with names that start
-with \f[CB]com.sun.tools.javac\f[R] (subpackages of
-\f[CB]com.sun.tools.javac\f[R]) are strictly internal and subject to
-change at any time.
-.SH EXAMPLE OF COMPILING MULTIPLE SOURCE FILES
-.PP
-This example compiles the \f[CB]Aloha.java\f[R], \f[CB]GutenTag.java\f[R],
-\f[CB]Hello.java\f[R], and \f[CB]Hi.java\f[R] source files in the
-\f[CB]greetings\f[R] package.
-.PP
-\f[B]Oracle Solaris, Linux, and OS X:\f[R]
-.IP
-.nf
-\f[CB]
-%\ javac\ greetings/*.java
-%\ ls\ greetings
-Aloha.class\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ GutenTag.class\ \ \ \ \ \ Hello.class\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ Hi.class
-Aloha.java\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ GutenTag.java\ \ \ \ \ \ \ Hello.java\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ Hi.java
-\f[R]
-.fi
-.PP
-\f[B]Windows:\f[R]
-.IP
-.nf
-\f[CB]
-C:\\>javac\ greetings\\*.java
-C:\\>dir\ greetings
-Aloha.class\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ GutenTag.class\ \ \ \ \ \ Hello.class\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ Hi.class
-Aloha.java\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ GutenTag.java\ \ \ \ \ \ \ Hello.java\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ Hi.java
-\f[R]
-.fi
-.SH EXAMPLE OF SPECIFYING A USER CLASS PATH
-.PP
-After changing one of the source files in the previous example,
-recompile it:
-.PP
-\f[B]Oracle Solaris, Linux, and OS X:\f[R]
-.IP
-.nf
-\f[CB]
-pwd
-/examples
-javac\ greetings/Hi.java
-\f[R]
-.fi
-.PP
-\f[B]Windows:\f[R]
-.IP
-.nf
-\f[CB]
-C:\\>cd
-\\examples
-C:\\>javac\ greetings\\Hi.java
-\f[R]
-.fi
-.PP
-Because \f[CB]greetings.Hi\f[R] refers to other classes in the
-\f[CB]greetings\f[R] package, the compiler needs to find these other
-classes.
-The previous example works because the default user class path is the
-directory that contains the package directory.
-If you want to recompile this file without concern for which directory
-you are in, then add the examples directory to the user class path by
-setting \f[CB]CLASSPATH\f[R].
-This example uses the \f[CB]\-classpath\f[R] option.
-.PP
-\f[B]Oracle Solaris, Linux, and OS X:\f[R]
-.RS
-.PP
-\f[CB]javac\ \-classpath\ /examples\ /examples/greetings/Hi.java\f[R]
-.RE
-.PP
-\f[B]Windows:\f[R]
-.RS
-.PP
-\f[CB]C:\\>javac\ \-classpath\ \\examples\ \\examples\\greetings\\Hi.java\f[R]
-.RE
-.PP
-If you change \f[CB]greetings.Hi\f[R] to use a banner utility, then that
-utility also needs to be accessible through the user class path.
-.PP
-\f[B]Oracle Solaris, Linux, and OS X:\f[R]
-.IP
-.nf
-\f[CB]
-javac\ \-classpath\ /examples:/lib/Banners.jar\ \\
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ /examples/greetings/Hi.java
-\f[R]
-.fi
-.PP
-\f[B]Windows:\f[R]
-.IP
-.nf
-\f[CB]
-C:\\>javac\ \-classpath\ \\examples;\\lib\\Banners.jar\ ^
-\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \\examples\\greetings\\Hi.java
-\f[R]
-.fi
-.PP
-To execute a class in the \f[CB]greetings\f[R] package, the program needs
-access to the \f[CB]greetings\f[R] package, and to the classes that the
-\f[CB]greetings\f[R] classes use.
-.PP
-\f[B]Oracle Solaris, Linux, and OS X:\f[R]
-.RS
-.PP
-\f[CB]java\ \-classpath\ /examples:/lib/Banners.jar\ greetings.Hi\f[R]
-.RE
-.PP
-\f[B]Windows:\f[R]
-.RS
-.PP
-\f[CB]C:\\>java\ \-classpath\ \\examples;\\lib\\Banners.jar\ greetings.Hi\f[R]
-.RE
-.PP
-The \f[CB]\-source\ 1.7\f[R] option specifies that release 1.7 (or 7) of
-the Java programming language must be used to compile OldCode.java.
-The \f[CB]\-target\ 1.7\f[R] option ensures that the generated class files
-are compatible with JVM 1.7.
-.SH ANNOTATION PROCESSING
-.PP
-The \f[CB]javac\f[R] command provides direct support for annotation
-processing, superseding the need for the separate annotation processing
-command, \f[CB]apt\f[R].
-.PP
-The API for annotation processors is defined in the
-\f[CB]javax.annotation.processing\f[R] and \f[CB]javax.lang.model\f[R]
-packages and subpackages.
-.SS How Annotation Processing Works
-.PP
-Unless annotation processing is disabled with the \f[CB]\-proc:none\f[R]
-option, the compiler searches for any annotation processors that are
-available.
-The search path can be specified with the \f[CB]\-processorpath\f[R]
-option.
-If no path is specified, then the user class path is used.
-Processors are located by means of service provider\-configuration files
-named \f[CB]META\-INF/services/javax.annotation.processing\f[R].
-Processor on the search path.
-Such files should contain the names of any annotation processors to be
-used, listed one per line.
-Alternatively, processors can be specified explicitly, using the
-\f[CB]\-processor\f[R] option.
-.PP
-After scanning the source files and classes on the command line to
-determine what annotations are present, the compiler queries the
-processors to determine what annotations they process.
-When a match is found, the processor is called.
-A processor can claim the annotations it processes, in which case no
-further attempt is made to find any processors for those annotations.
-After all of the annotations are claimed, the compiler does not search
-for additional processors.
-.PP
-If any processors generate new source files, then another round of
-annotation processing occurs: Any newly generated source files are
-scanned, and the annotations processed as before.
-Any processors called on previous rounds are also called on all
-subsequent rounds.
-This continues until no new source files are generated.
-.PP
-After a round occurs where no new source files are generated, the
-annotation processors are called one last time, to give them a chance to
-complete any remaining work.
-Finally, unless the \f[CB]\-proc:only\f[R] option is used, the compiler
-compiles the original and all generated source files.
-.SH SEARCHING FOR TYPES
-.PP
-To compile a source file, the compiler often needs information about a
-type, but the type definition is not in the source files specified on
-the command line.
-.PP
-The compiler needs type information for every class or interface used,
-extended, or implemented in the source file.
-This includes classes and interfaces not explicitly mentioned in the
-source file, but that provide information through inheritance.
-.PP
-For example, when you create a subclass of \f[CB]java.awt.Window\f[R], you
-are also using the ancestor classes of \f[CB]Window\f[R]:
-\f[CB]java.awt.Container\f[R], \f[CB]java.awt.Component\f[R], and
-\f[CB]java.lang.Object\f[R].
-.PP
-When the compiler needs type information, it searches for a source file
-or class file that defines the type.
-The compiler searches for class files first in the bootstrap and
-extension classes, then in the user class path (which by default is the
-current directory).
-The user class path is defined by setting the \f[CB]CLASSPATH\f[R]
-environment variable or by using the \f[CB]\-classpath\f[R] option.
-.PP
-If you set the \f[CB]\-sourcepath\f[R] option, then the compiler searches
-the indicated path for source files.
-Otherwise, the compiler searches the user class path for both class
-files and source files.
-.PP
-You can specify different bootstrap or extension classes with the
-\f[CB]\-bootclasspath\f[R] and the \f[CB]\-extdirs\f[R] options.
-See \f[B]Cross\-Compilation Options for javac\f[R].
-.PP
-A successful type search may produce a class file, a source file, or
-both.
-If both are found, then you can use the \f[CB]\-Xprefer\f[R] option to
-instruct the compiler which to use.
-If \f[CB]newer\f[R] is specified, then the compiler uses the newer of the
-two files.
-If \f[CB]source\f[R] is specified, the compiler uses the source file.
-The default is \f[CB]newer\f[R].
-.PP
-If a type search finds a source file for a required type, either by
-itself, or as a result of the setting for the \f[CB]\-Xprefer\f[R] option,
-then the compiler reads the source file to get the information it needs.
-By default the compiler also compiles the source file.
-You can use the \f[CB]\-implicit\f[R] option to specify the behavior.
-If \f[CB]none\f[R] is specified, then no class files are generated for the
-source file.
-If \f[CB]class\f[R] is specified, then class files are generated for the
-source file.
-.PP
-The compiler might not discover the need for some type information until
-after annotation processing completes.
-When the type information is found in a source file and no
-\f[CB]\-implicit\f[R] option is specified, the compiler gives a warning
-that the file is being compiled without being subject to annotation
-processing.
-To disable the warning, either specify the file on the command line (so
-that it will be subject to annotation processing) or use the
-\f[CB]\-implicit\f[R] option to specify whether or not class files should
-be generated for such source files.
--- a/src/jdk.javadoc/share/man/javadoc.1	Thu Jul 11 17:11:54 2019 +0200
+++ b/src/jdk.javadoc/share/man/javadoc.1	Thu Jul 11 12:13:52 2019 -0700
@@ -447,13 +447,13 @@
 See \f[I]Extra Options\f[R] in \f[B]javac\f[R] for the detailed
 descriptions of using these options:
 .IP \[bu] 2
-\f[CB]\-add\-exports\f[R]
+\f[CB]\-\-add\-exports\f[R]
 .IP \[bu] 2
 \f[CB]\-\-add\-reads\f[R]
 .IP \[bu] 2
 \f[CB]\-\-patch\-module\f[R]
 .IP \[bu] 2
-\f[CB]\-\-Xmaxerrs\f[R]
+\f[CB]\-Xmaxerrs\f[R]
 .IP \[bu] 2
 \f[CB]\-Xmaxwarns\f[R]
 .PP
--- a/src/jdk.jdeps/share/man/javap.1	Thu Jul 11 17:11:54 2019 +0200
+++ b/src/jdk.jdeps/share/man/javap.1	Thu Jul 11 12:13:52 2019 -0700
@@ -131,8 +131,8 @@
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-sysinfo\f[R]
-Shows system information (path, size, date, MD5 hash) of the class being
-processed.
+Shows system information (path, size, date, SHA\-256 hash) of the class
+being processed.
 .RS
 .RE
 .TP
@@ -169,6 +169,11 @@
 .RS
 .RE
 .TP
+.B \f[CB]\-\-multi\-release\f[R] \f[I]version\f[R]
+Specifies the version to select in multi\-release JAR files.
+.RS
+.RE
+.TP
 .B \f[CB]\-J\f[R]\f[I]option\f[R]
 Passes the specified option to the JVM.
 For example:
--- a/src/jdk.jdeps/share/man/jdeps.1	Thu Jul 11 17:11:54 2019 +0200
+++ b/src/jdk.jdeps/share/man/jdeps.1	Thu Jul 11 12:13:52 2019 -0700
@@ -63,6 +63,11 @@
 \f[CB]\-dotoutput\f[R] option).
 .SH POSSIBLE OPTIONS
 .TP
+.B \f[CB]\-?\f[R] or \f[CB]\-h\f[R] or \f[CB]\-\-help\f[R]
+Prints the help message.
+.RS
+.RE
+.TP
 .B \f[CB]\-dotoutput\f[R] \f[I]dir\f[R] or \f[CB]\-\-dot\-output\f[R] \f[I]dir\f[R]
 Specifies the destination directory for DOT file output.
 If this option is specified, then the \f[CB]jdeps\f[R]command generates
@@ -296,7 +301,7 @@
 .RS
 .RE
 .TP
-.B \f[CB]\-R\f[R] or \f[CB]\-recursive\f[R]
+.B \f[CB]\-R\f[R] or \f[CB]\-\-recursive\f[R]
 Recursively traverses all run\-time dependences.
 The \f[CB]\-R\f[R] option implies \f[CB]\-filter:none\f[R].
 If \f[CB]\-p\f[R], \f[CB]\-e\f[R], or \f[CB]\-f\f[R] options are specified,
@@ -309,7 +314,7 @@
 .RS
 .RE
 .TP
-.B \f[CB]\-I\f[R] or \f[CB]\-inverse\f[R]
+.B \f[CB]\-I\f[R] or \f[CB]\-\-inverse\f[R]
 Analyzes the dependences per other given options and then finds all
 artifacts that directly and indirectly depend on the matching nodes.
 This is equivalent to the inverse of the compile\-time view analysis and
--- a/src/jdk.jlink/share/man/jlink.1	Thu Jul 11 17:11:54 2019 +0200
+++ b/src/jdk.jlink/share/man/jlink.1	Thu Jul 11 12:13:52 2019 -0700
@@ -379,9 +379,7 @@
 The following command is similar to the one that creates a runtime image
 named \f[CB]greetingsapp\f[R], except that it will link the modules
 resolved from root modules with service binding; see the
-\f[B]\f[BC]Configuration.resolveAndBind\f[B]\f[R]
-[https://docs.oracle.com/javase/10/docs/api/java/lang/module/Configuration.html#resolveAndBind\-java.lang.module.ModuleFinder\-java.util.List\-java.lang.module.ModuleFinder\-java.util.Collection\-]
-method.
+\f[B]\f[BC]Configuration.resolveAndBind\f[B]\f[R] method.
 .IP
 .nf
 \f[CB]
--- a/src/jdk.jlink/share/man/jmod.1	Thu Jul 11 17:11:54 2019 +0200
+++ b/src/jdk.jlink/share/man/jmod.1	Thu Jul 11 12:13:52 2019 -0700
@@ -148,13 +148,10 @@
 .IP \[bu] 2
 \f[CB]regex:\f[R]\f[I]regex\-pattern\f[R]
 .PP
-See the \f[B]\f[BC]FileSystem.getPathMatcher\f[B]\f[R]
-[https://docs.oracle.com/javase/10/docs/api/java/nio/file/FileSystem.html#getPathMatcher\-java.lang.String\-]
-method for the syntax of \f[I]glob\-pattern\f[R].
-See the \f[B]\f[BC]Pattern\f[B]\f[R]
-[https://docs.oracle.com/javase/10/docs/api/java/util/regex/Pattern.html]
-class for the syntax of \f[I]regex\-pattern\f[R], which represents a
-regular expression.
+See the \f[B]\f[BC]FileSystem.getPathMatcher\f[B]\f[R] method for the
+syntax of \f[I]glob\-pattern\f[R].
+See the \f[B]\f[BC]Pattern\f[B]\f[R] class for the syntax of
+\f[I]regex\-pattern\f[R], which represents a regular expression.
 .RE
 .TP
 .B \f[CB]\-\-hash\-modules\f[R] \f[I]regex\-pattern\f[R]
--- a/src/jdk.rmic/share/man/rmic.1	Thu Jul 11 17:11:54 2019 +0200
+++ b/src/jdk.rmic/share/man/rmic.1	Thu Jul 11 12:13:52 2019 -0700
@@ -46,12 +46,12 @@
 .RE
 .SH DESCRIPTION
 .PP
-\f[B]Deprecation Note:\f[R] The \f[CB]rmic\f[R] tool has been deprecated and
-is subject to removal in a future release. Support for static
-generation of Java Remote Method Protocol (JRMP) stubs and skeletons
-has been deprecated. Applications should use dynamically generated
-JRMP stubs, eliminating the need to use the \f[CB]rmic\f[R] tool for
-JRMP-based applications.
+\f[B]Deprecation Note:\f[R] The rmic tool has been deprecated and is
+subject to removal in a future release.
+Support for static generation of Java Remote Method Protocol (JRMP)
+stubs and skeletons has been deprecated.
+Applications should use dynamically generated JRMP stubs, eliminating
+the need to use the rmic tool for JRMP\-based applications.
 .PP
 The \f[CB]rmic\f[R] compiler generates stub and skeleton class files using
 the JRMP.