changeset 21743:3d979da7bdf0

8029043: Update nroff files for JDK 8 Reviewed-by: weijun, alanb, ksrini, naoto
author rgallard
date Mon, 25 Nov 2013 20:19:02 -0800
parents 8cd632761233
children bacdc687ebbd
files jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/appletviewer.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/extcheck.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/idlj.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/jar.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/jarsigner.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/java.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/javac.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/javadoc.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/javah.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/javap.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/jcmd.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/jconsole.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/jdb.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/jdeps.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/jhat.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/jinfo.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/jjs.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/jmap.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/jps.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/jrunscript.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/jsadebugd.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/jstack.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/jstat.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/jstatd.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/keytool.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/native2ascii.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/orbd.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/pack200.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/policytool.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/rmic.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/rmid.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/rmiregistry.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/schemagen.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/serialver.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/servertool.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/tnameserv.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/unpack200.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/wsgen.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/wsimport.1 jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/xjc.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/appletviewer.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/extcheck.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/idlj.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/jar.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/jarsigner.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/java.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/javac.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/javadoc.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/javah.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/javap.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/jcmd.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/jconsole.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/jdb.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/jdeps.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/jhat.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/jinfo.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/jjs.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/jmap.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/jps.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/jrunscript.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/jsadebugd.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/jstack.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/jstat.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/jstatd.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/keytool.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/native2ascii.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/orbd.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/pack200.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/policytool.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/rmic.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/rmid.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/rmiregistry.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/schemagen.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/serialver.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/servertool.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/tnameserv.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/unpack200.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/wsgen.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/wsimport.1 jdk/src/linux/doc/man/xjc.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/appletviewer.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/extcheck.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/idlj.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/jar.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/jarsigner.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/java.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/javac.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/javadoc.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/javah.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/javap.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/jcmd.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/jconsole.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/jdb.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/jdeps.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/jhat.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/jinfo.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/jjs.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/jmap.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/jps.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/jrunscript.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/jsadebugd.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/jstack.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/jstat.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/jstatd.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/keytool.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/native2ascii.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/orbd.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/pack200.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/policytool.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/rmic.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/rmid.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/rmiregistry.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/schemagen.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/serialver.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/servertool.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/tnameserv.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/unpack200.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/wsgen.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/wsimport.1 jdk/src/solaris/doc/sun/man/man1/xjc.1
diffstat 120 files changed, 48507 insertions(+), 67054 deletions(-) [+]
line wrap: on
line diff
--- a/jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/appletviewer.1	Thu Nov 21 09:23:03 2013 -0800
+++ b/jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/appletviewer.1	Mon Nov 25 20:19:02 2013 -0800
@@ -1,66 +1,90 @@
-." Copyright (c) 1995, 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
-." DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
-."
-." This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
-." under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
-." published by the Free Software Foundation.
-."
-." This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
-." ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
-." FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
-." version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
-." accompanied this code).
-."
-." You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
-." 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
-." Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
-."
-." Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
-." or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
-." questions.
-."
-.TH appletviewer 1 "10 May 2011"
+'\" t
+.\"  Copyright (c) 1995, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+.\"
+.\" DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+.\"
+.\" This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+.\" under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+.\" published by the Free Software Foundation.
+.\"
+.\" This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+.\" ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+.\" FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License
+.\" version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+.\" accompanied this code).
+.\"
+.\" You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+.\" 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+.\" Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+.\"
+.\" Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
+.\" or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
+.\" questions.
+.\"
+.\"     Arch: generic
+.\"     Software: JDK 8
+.\"     Date: 21 November 2013
+.\"     SectDesc: Basic Tools
+.\"     Title: appletviewer.1
+.\"
+.if n .pl 99999
+.TH appletviewer 1 "21 November 2013" "JDK 8" "Basic Tools"
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * Define some portability stuff
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+.\" http://bugs.debian.org/507673
+.\" http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/groff/2009-02/msg00013.html
+.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+.ie \n(.g .ds Aq \(aq
+.el       .ds Aq '
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * set default formatting
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" disable hyphenation
+.nh
+.\" disable justification (adjust text to left margin only)
+.ad l
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * MAIN CONTENT STARTS HERE *
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
 
-.LP
-.SH "Name"
-appletviewer \- The Java Applet Viewer.
-.LP
-.LP
-The \f3appletviewer\fP command allows you to run applets outside of a web browser.
-.LP
-.SH "SYNOPSIS"
-.LP
-.LP
-\f4appletviewer\fP \f2[\fP \f2options\fP \f2] \fP\f2urls\fP ...
-.LP
-.SH "DESCRIPTION"
-.LP
-.LP
-The \f3appletviewer\fP command connects to the documents or resources designated by \f2urls\fP and displays each applet referenced by the documents in its own window. Note: if the documents referred to by \f2urls\fP do not reference any applets with the \f2OBJECT\fP, \f2EMBED\fP, or \f2APPLET\fP tag, then \f3appletviewer\fP does nothing. For details on the HTML tags that \f3appletviewer\fP supports, see
-.na
-\f2AppletViewer Tags\fP @
-.fi
-http://download.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/technotes/tools/appletviewertags.html.
-.LP
-.LP
-\f3Note:\fP The \f3appletviewer\fP requires encoded URLs according to the escaping mechanism defined in RFC2396. Only encoded URLs are supported. However, file names must be unencoded, as specified in RFC2396.
-.LP
-.SH "OPTIONS"
-.LP
-.RS 3
-.TP 3
-\-debug
-Starts the applet viewer in the Java debugger, jdb(1), thus allowing you to debug the applets in the document.
-.TP 3
-\-encoding \  \ encoding name
-Specify the input HTML file encoding name.
-.TP 3
-\-Jjavaoption
-Passes through the string \f2javaoption\fP as a single argument to the Java interpreter which runs the appletviewer. The argument should not contain spaces. Multiple argument words must all begin with the prefix \f3\-J\fP, which is stripped. This is useful for adjusting the compiler's execution environment or memory usage.
-.RE
+.SH NAME    
+appletviewer \- Runs applets outside of a web browser\&.
+.SH SYNOPSIS    
+.sp     
+.nf     
 
-.LP
-.LP
-
-.LP
-
+\fBappletviewer\fR [\fIoptions\fR] \fIurl\fR\&.\&.\&.
+.fi     
+.sp     
+.TP     
+\fIoptions\fR
+The command-line options separated by spaces\&. See Options\&.
+.TP     
+\fIurl\fR
+The location of the documents or resources to be displayed\&. You can specify multiple URLs separated by spaces\&.
+.SH DESCRIPTION    
+The \f3appletviewer\fR command connects to the documents or resources designated by \fIurls\fR and displays each applet referenced by the documents in its own window\&. If the documents referred to by urls do not reference any applets with the \f3OBJECT\fR, \f3EMBED\fR, or \f3APPLET\fR tag, then the \f3appletviewer\fR command does nothing\&. For details about the HTML tags that the \f3appletviewer\fR command supports, see AppletViewer Tags at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/tools/appletviewertags\&.html
+.PP
+The \f3appletviewer\fR command requires encoded URLs according to the escaping mechanism defined in RFC2396\&. Only encoded URLs are supported\&. However, file names must be unencoded, as specified in RFC2396\&.
+.PP
+\fINote:\fR The \f3appletviewer\fR command is intended for development purposes only\&. For more information, see About Sample/Test Applications and Code at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/samples/aboutCodeSamples\&.html
+.SH OPTIONS    
+.TP
+-debug
+.br
+Starts the Applet Viewer in the Java debugger with the \f3jdb\fR command to debug the applets in the document\&.
+.TP
+-encoding \fIencoding-name\fR
+.br
+Specifies the input HTML file encoding name\&.
+.TP
+-J\fIjavaoption\fR
+.br
+Passes the string \f3javaoption\fR as a single argument to the Java interpreter, which runs the Applet Viewer\&. The argument should not contain spaces\&. Multiple argument words must all begin with the prefix \f3-J\fR\&. This is useful for adjusting the compiler\&'s execution environment or memory usage\&.
+.PP
+.RE
+.br
+'pl 8.5i
+'bp
--- a/jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/extcheck.1	Thu Nov 21 09:23:03 2013 -0800
+++ b/jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/extcheck.1	Mon Nov 25 20:19:02 2013 -0800
@@ -1,73 +1,91 @@
-." Copyright (c) 1998, 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
-." DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
-."
-." This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
-." under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
-." published by the Free Software Foundation.
-."
-." This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
-." ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
-." FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
-." version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
-." accompanied this code).
-."
-." You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
-." 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
-." Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
-."
-." Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
-." or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
-." questions.
-."
-.TH extcheck 1 "10 May 2011"
+'\" t
+.\"  Copyright (c) 1998, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+.\"
+.\" DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+.\"
+.\" This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+.\" under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+.\" published by the Free Software Foundation.
+.\"
+.\" This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+.\" ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+.\" FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License
+.\" version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+.\" accompanied this code).
+.\"
+.\" You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+.\" 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+.\" Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+.\"
+.\" Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
+.\" or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
+.\" questions.
+.\"
+.\"     Arch: generic
+.\"     Software: JDK 8
+.\"     Date: 21 November 2013
+.\"     SectDesc: Basic Tools
+.\"     Title: extcheck.1
+.\"
+.if n .pl 99999
+.TH extcheck 1 "21 November 2013" "JDK 8" "Basic Tools"
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * Define some portability stuff
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+.\" http://bugs.debian.org/507673
+.\" http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/groff/2009-02/msg00013.html
+.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+.ie \n(.g .ds Aq \(aq
+.el       .ds Aq '
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * set default formatting
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" disable hyphenation
+.nh
+.\" disable justification (adjust text to left margin only)
+.ad l
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * MAIN CONTENT STARTS HERE *
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
 
-.LP
-.SH "Name"
-extcheck \- A utility to detect jar conflicts
-.LP
-.LP
-\f3extcheck\fP detects version conflicts between a target jar file and currently installed extension jar files.
-.LP
-.SH "SYNOPSIS"
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-extcheck [ \-verbose ] targetfile.jar
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
+.SH NAME    
+extcheck \- Detects version conflicts between a target Java Archive (JAR) file and currently installed extension JAR files\&.
+.SH SYNOPSIS    
+.sp     
+.nf     
 
-.LP
-.SH "DESCRIPTION"
-.LP
-.LP
-The \f3extcheck\fP utility checks a specified Jar file for title and version conflicts with any extensions installed in the Java(TM) SDK. Before installing an extension, you can use this utility to see if the same or a more recent version of the extension is already installed.
-.LP
-.LP
-The \f3extcheck\fP utility compares the \f2Specification\-title\fP and \f2Specification\-version\fP headers in the manifest of the \f2targetfile.jar\fP file against the corresponding headers in all Jar files currently installed in the extension directory. (The extension directory is \f2jre/lib/ext\fP by default.) The \f3extcheck\fP utility compares version numbers in the same way as the method \f2java.lang.Package.isCompatibleWith\fP.
-.LP
-.LP
-If no conflict is detected, the return code is \f20\fP.
-.LP
-.LP
-If the manifest of any jar file in the extensions directory has the same \f2Specification\-title\fP and the same or a newer \f2Specification\-version\fP number, a non\-zero error code is returned. A non\-zero error code is also returned if \f2targetfile.jar\fP does not have the \f2Specification\-title\fP or \f2Specification\-version\fP attributes in its manifest.
-.LP
-.SH "OPTIONS"
-.LP
-.RS 3
-.TP 3
-\-verbose
-Lists Jar files in the extension directory as they are checked. Additionally, manifest attributes of the target jar file and any conflicting jar files are also reported.
-.TP 3
-\-Joption
-Pass \f2option\fP to the Java virtual machine, where \f2option\fP is one of the options described on the reference page for the java(1). For example, \f3\-J\-Xms48m\fP sets the startup memory to 48 megabytes.
-.RE
-
-.LP
-.SH "SEE ALSO"
-.LP
-.LP
+\fBextcheck\fR [\fIoptions\fR] \fItargetfile\&.jar\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+.TP     
+\fIoptions\fR
+The command-line options\&. See Options\&.
+.TP     
+\fItargetfile\&.jar\fR
+The target JAR file against which the currently installed extension JAR files are compared to detect version conflicts\&.
+.SH DESCRIPTION    
+The \f3extcheck\fR command checks a specified JAR file for title and version conflicts with any extensions installed in the Java SE SDK\&. Before installing an extension, you can use this utility to see whether the same or a more recent version of the extension is already installed\&.
+.PP
+The \f3extcheck\fR command compares the Specification-title and Specification-version headers in the manifest of the \f3targetfile\&.jar\fR file against the corresponding headers in all JAR files currently installed in the extension directory\&. By default, the extension directory is \f3jre/lib/ext\fR on Oracle Solaris and \f3\ejre\elib\eext\fR on Windows\&. The \f3extcheck\fR command compares version numbers in the same way as the \f3java\&.lang\&.Package\&.isCompatibleWith\fR method\&.
+.PP
+If no conflict is detected, then the return code is 0\&.
+.PP
+If the manifest of any JAR file in the extensions directory has the same \f3Specification-title\fR and the same or a newer \f3Specification-version\fR number, then a non-zero error code is returned\&. A non-zero error code is also returned when \f3targetfile\&.jar\fR does not have the \f3Specification-title\fR or \f3Specification-version\fR attributes in its manifest file\&.
+.SH OPTIONS    
+.TP
+-verbose
+.br
+Lists JAR files in the extension directory as they are checked\&. Additionally, manifest attributes of the target JAR file and any conflicting JAR files are also reported\&.
+.TP
+-J\fIoption\fR
+.br
+Passes \fIoption\fR to the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), where option is one of the options described on the reference page for the Java launcher\&. For example, \f3-J-Xms48m\fR sets the startup memory to 48 MB\&. See java(1)\&.
+.SH SEE\ ALSO    
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
 jar(1)
-.LP
-
+.RE
+.br
+'pl 8.5i
+'bp
--- a/jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/idlj.1	Thu Nov 21 09:23:03 2013 -0800
+++ b/jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/idlj.1	Mon Nov 25 20:19:02 2013 -0800
@@ -1,739 +1,568 @@
-." Copyright (c) 2001, 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
-." DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
-."
-." This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
-." under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
-." published by the Free Software Foundation.
-."
-." This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
-." ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
-." FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
-." version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
-." accompanied this code).
-."
-." You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
-." 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
-." Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
-."
-." Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
-." or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
-." questions.
-."
-.TH idlj 1 "10 May 2011"
+'\" t
+.\"  Copyright (c) 2001, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+.\"
+.\" DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+.\"
+.\" This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+.\" under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+.\" published by the Free Software Foundation.
+.\"
+.\" This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+.\" ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+.\" FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License
+.\" version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+.\" accompanied this code).
+.\"
+.\" You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+.\" 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+.\" Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+.\"
+.\" Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
+.\" or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
+.\" questions.
+.\"
+.\"     Arch: generic
+.\"     Software: JDK 8
+.\"     Date: 21 November 2013
+.\"     SectDesc: Java IDL and RMI-IIOP Tools
+.\"     Title: idlj.1
+.\"
+.if n .pl 99999
+.TH idlj 1 "21 November 2013" "JDK 8" "Java IDL and RMI-IIOP Tools"
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * Define some portability stuff
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+.\" http://bugs.debian.org/507673
+.\" http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/groff/2009-02/msg00013.html
+.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+.ie \n(.g .ds Aq \(aq
+.el       .ds Aq '
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * set default formatting
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" disable hyphenation
+.nh
+.\" disable justification (adjust text to left margin only)
+.ad l
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * MAIN CONTENT STARTS HERE *
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
 
-.LP
-.SH "Name"
-idlj \- The IDL\-to\-Java Compiler
-.LP
-\f3idlj\fP generates Java bindings from a given IDL file.
-.SH "Synopsis"
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-idlj [ \fP\f3options\fP\f3 ] \fP\f4idl\-file\fP\f3
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
+.SH NAME    
+idlj \- Generates Java bindings for a specified Interface Definition Language (IDL) file\&.
+.SH SYNOPSIS    
+.sp     
+.nf     
 
-.LP
-.LP
-where \f2idl\-file\fP is the name of a file containing Interface Definition Language (IDL) definitions. \f2Options\fP may appear in any order, but must precede the \f2idl\-file\fP.
-.LP
-.SH "Description"
-.LP
-.LP
-The IDL\-to\-Java Compiler generates the Java bindings for a given IDL file.\  For binding details, see the
-.na
-\f2OMG IDL to Java Language Language Mapping Specification\fP @
-.fi
-http://download.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/technotes/guides/idl/mapping/jidlMapping.html. Some previous releases of the IDL\-to\-Java compiler were named \f2idltojava\fP.
-.LP
-.SS
-Emitting Client and Server Bindings
-.LP
-.LP
-To generate Java bindings for an IDL file named My.idl:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-idlj My.idl
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
+\fBidlj\fR [ \fIoptions\fR ] \fIidlfile\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+.TP     
+\fIoptions\fR
+The command-line options\&. See Options\&. Options can appear in any order, but must precede the \f3idlfile\fR\&.
+.TP     
+\fIidlfile\fR
+The name of a file that contains Interface Definition Language (IDL) definitions\&.
+.SH DESCRIPTION    
+The IDL-to-Java Compiler generates the Java bindings for a specified IDL file\&. For binding details, see Java IDL: IDL to Java Language Mapping at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/idl/mapping/jidlMapping\&.html
+.PP
+Some earlier releases of the IDL-to-Java compiler were named \f3idltojava\fR\&.
+.SS EMIT\ CLIENT\ AND\ SERVER\ BINDINGS    
+The following \f3idlj\fR command generates an IDL file named \f3My\&.idl\fR with client-side bindings\&.
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3idlj My\&.idl\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+The previous syntax is equivalent to the following:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3idlj \-fclient My\&.idl\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+The next example generates the server-side bindings, and includes the client-side bindings plus the skeleton, all of which are POA (Inheritance Model)\&.
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3idlg \-fserver My\&.idl\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+If you want to generate both client and server-side bindings, then use one of the following (equivalent) commands:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3idlj \-fclient \-fserver My\&.idl\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3idlj \-fall My\&.idl\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+There are two possible server-side models: the Portal Servant Inheritance Model and the Tie Model\&. See Tie Delegation Model\&.
+.PP
+\f3Portable Servant Inheritance Model\fR\&. The default server-side model is the Portable Servant Inheritance Model\&. Given an interface \f3My\fR defined in \f3My\&.idl\fR, the file \f3MyPOA\&.java\fR is generated\&. You must provide the implementation for the \f3My\fR interface, and the \f3My\fR interface must inherit from the \f3MyPOA\fR class\&. \f3MyPOA\&.java\fR is a stream-based skeleton that extends the \f3org\&.omg\&.PortableServer\&.Servant\fR class at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/api/org/omg/PortableServer/Servant\&.html The \f3My\fR interface implements the \f3callHandler\fR interface and the operations interface associated with the IDL interface the skeleton implements\&.The \f3PortableServer\fR module for the Portable Object Adapter (POA) defines the native \f3Servant\fR type\&. See Portable Object Adapter (POA) at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/idl/POA\&.html In the Java programming language, the \f3Servant\fR type is mapped to the Java \f3org\&.omg\&.PortableServer\&.Servant\fR class\&. It serves as the base class for all POA servant implementations and provides a number of methods that can be called by the application programmer, and methods that are called by the POA and that can be overridden by the user to control aspects of servant behavior\&.Another option for the Inheritance Model is to use the \f3-oldImplBase\fR flag to generate server-side bindings that are compatible with releases of the Java programming language before Java SE 1\&.4\&. The -\f3oldImplBase\fR flag is nonstandard, and these APIs are deprecated\&. You would use this flag only for compatibility with existing servers written in Java SE 1\&.3\&. In that case, you would need to modify an existing make file to add the \f3-oldImplBase\fR flag to the \f3idlj\fR compiler\&. Otherwise POA-based server-side mappings are generated\&. To generate server-side bindings that are backward compatible, do the following:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3idlj \-fclient \-fserver \-oldImplBase My\&.idl\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3idlj \-fall \-oldImplBase My\&.idl\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+Given an interface \f3My\fR defined in \f3My\&.idl\fR, the file \f3_MyImplBase\&.java\fR is generated\&. You must provide the implementation for the \f3My\fR interface, and the \f3My\fR interface must inherit from the \f3_MyImplBase\fR class\&.
+.PP
+\f3Tie Delegation Model\fR\&. The other server-side model is called the Tie Model\&. This is a delegation model\&. Because it is not possible to generate ties and skeletons at the same time, they must be generated separately\&. The following commands generate the bindings for the Tie Model:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3idlj \-fall My\&.idl\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3idlj \-fallTIE My\&.idl\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+For the \f3My\fR interface, the second command generates \f3MyPOATie\&.java\fR\&. The constructor to the \f3MyPOATie\fR class takes a delegate\&. In this example, using the default POA model, the constructor also needs a POA\&. You must provide the implementation for the delegate, but it does not have to inherit from any other class, only the interface \f3MyOperations\fR\&. To use it with the ORB, you must wrap your implementation within the \f3MyPOATie\fR class, for example:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3ORB orb = ORB\&.init(args, System\&.getProperties());\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3// Get reference to rootpoa & activate the POAManager\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3POA rootpoa = (POA)orb\&.resolve_initial_references("RootPOA");\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3rootpoa\&.the_POAManager()\&.activate();\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3// create servant and register it with the ORB\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3MyServant myDelegate = new MyServant();\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3myDelegate\&.setORB(orb); \fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3// create a tie, with servant being the delegate\&.\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3MyPOATie tie = new MyPOATie(myDelegate, rootpoa);\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3// obtain the objectRef for the tie\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3My ref = tie\&._this(orb);\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+You might want to use the Tie model instead of the typical Inheritance model when your implementation must inherit from some other implementation\&. Java allows any number of interface inheritance, but there is only one slot for class inheritance\&. If you use the inheritance model, then that slot is used up\&. With the Tie Model, that slot is freed up for your own use\&. The drawback is that it introduces a level of indirection: one extra method call occurs when a method is called\&.
+.PP
+For server-side generation, Tie model bindings that are compatible with versions of the IDL to Java language mapping in versions earlier than Java SE 1\&.4\&.
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3idlj \-oldImplBase \-fall My\&.idl\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3idlj \-oldImplBase \-fallTIE My\&.idl\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+For the \f3My\fR interface, the this generates \f3My_Tie\&.java\fR\&. The constructor to the \f3My_Tie\fR class takes an \f3impl\fR object\&. You must provide the implementation for \f3impl\fR, but it does not have to inherit from any other class, only the interface \f3HelloOperations\fR\&. But to use it with the ORB, you must wrap your implementation within \f3My_Tie\fR, for example:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3ORB orb = ORB\&.init(args, System\&.getProperties());\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3// create servant and register it with the ORB\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3MyServant myDelegate = new MyServant();\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3myDelegate\&.setORB(orb); \fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3// create a tie, with servant being the delegate\&.\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3MyPOATie tie = new MyPOATie(myDelegate);\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3// obtain the objectRef for the tie\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3My ref = tie\&._this(orb);\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+.SS SPECIFY\ ALTERNATE\ LOCATIONS\ FOR\ EMITTED\ FILES    
+If you want to direct the emitted files to a directory other than the current directory, then call the compiler this way: \f3i\fR\f3dlj -td /altdir My\&.idl\fR\&.
+.PP
+For the \f3My\fR interface, the bindings are emitted to \f3/altdir/My\&.java\fR, etc\&., instead of \f3\&./My\&.java\fR\&.
+.SS SPECIFY\ ALTERNATE\ LOCATIONS\ FOR\ INCLUDE\ FILES    
+If the \f3My\&.idl\fR file includes another \f3idl\fR file, \f3MyOther\&.idl\fR, then the compiler assumes that the \f3MyOther\&.idl\fR file resides in the local directory\&. If it resides in \f3/includes\fR, for example, then you call the compiler with the following command:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3idlj \-i /includes My\&.idl\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+If \f3My\&.idl\fR also included \f3Another\&.idl\fR that resided in \f3/moreIncludes\fR, for example, then you call the compiler with the following command:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3idlj \-i /includes \-i /moreIncludes My\&.idl\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+Because this form of \f3include\fR can become long, another way to indicate to the compiler where to search for included files is provided\&. This technique is similar to the idea of an environment variable\&. Create a file named idl\&.config in a directory that is listed in your \f3CLASSPATH\fR variable\&. Inside of \f3idl\&.config\fR, provide a line with the following form:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3includes=/includes;/moreIncludes\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+The compiler will find this file and read in the includes list\&. Note that in this example the separator character between the two directories is a semicolon (;)\&. This separator character is platform dependent\&. On the Windows platform, use a semicolon, on the Unix platform, use a colon, and so on\&.
+.SS EMIT\ BINDINGS\ FOR\ INCLUDE\ FILES    
+By default, only those interfaces, structures, and so on, that are defined in the \f3idl\fR file on the command line have Java bindings generated for them\&. The types defined in included files are not generated\&. For example, assume the following two \f3idl\fR files:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3My\&.idl file:\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3#include <MyOther\&.idl>\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3interface My\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3{\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3};\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3MyOther\&.idl file:\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3interface MyOther\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3{\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3};\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+There is a caveat to the default rule\&. Any \f3#include\fR statements that appear at the global scope are treated as described\&. These \f3#include\fR statements can be thought of as import statements\&. The \f3#include\fR statements that appear within an enclosed scope are treated as true \f3#include\fR statements, which means that the code within the included file is treated as though it appeared in the original file and, therefore, Java bindings are emitted for it\&. Here is an example:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3My\&.idl file:\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3#include <MyOther\&.idl>\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3interface My\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3{\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3  #include <Embedded\&.idl>\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3};\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3MyOther\&.idl file:\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3interface MyOther\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3{\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3};\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3Embedded\&.idl\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3enum E {one, two, three};\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+Run\f3idlj My\&.idl\fRto generate the following list of Java files\&. Notice that \f3MyOther\&.java\fR is not generated because it is defined in an import-like \f3#include\fR\&. But \f3E\&.java\fR was generated because it was defined in a true \f3#include\fR\&. Notice that because the \f3Embedded\&.idl\fR file is included within the scope of the interface \f3My\fR, it appears within the scope of \f3My\fR (in \f3MyPackage\fR)\&. If the \f3-emitAll\fR flag had been used, then all types in all included files would have been emitted\&.
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\&./MyHolder\&.java\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\&./MyHelper\&.java\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\&./_MyStub\&.java\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\&./MyPackage\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\&./MyPackage/EHolder\&.java\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\&./MyPackage/EHelper\&.java\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\&./MyPackage/E\&.java\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\&./My\&.java\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+.SS INSERT\ PACKAGE\ PREFIXES    
+Suppose that you work for a company named ABC that has constructed the following IDL file:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3Widgets\&.idl file:\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3module Widgets\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3{\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3  interface W1 {\&.\&.\&.};\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3  interface W2 {\&.\&.\&.};\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3};\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+If you run this file through the IDL-to-Java compiler, then the Java bindings for W1 and W2 are placed within the \f3Widgets\fR package\&. There is an industry convention that states that a company\&'s packages should reside within a package named \f3com\&.<company name>\fR\&. To follow this convention, the package name should be \f3com\&.abc\&.Widgets\fR\&. To place this package prefix onto the Widgets module, execute the following:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3idlj \-pkgPrefix Widgets com\&.abc Widgets\&.idl\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+If you have an IDL file that includes Widgets\&.idl, then the \f3-pkgPrefix\fR flag must appear in that command also\&. If it does not, then your IDL file will be looking for a \f3Widgets\fR package rather than a \f3com\&.abc\&.Widgets\fR package\&.
+.PP
+If you have a number of these packages that require prefixes, then it might be easier to place them into the idl\&.config file described previously\&. Each package prefix line should be of the form: \f3PkgPrefix\&.<type>=<prefix>\fR\&. The line for the previous example would be \f3PkgPrefix\&.Widgets=com\&.abc\fR\&. This option does not affect the Repository ID\&.
+.SS DEFINE\ SYMBOLS\ BEFORE\ COMPILATION    
+You might need to define a symbol for compilation that is not defined within the IDL file, perhaps to include debugging code in the bindings\&. The command \f3idlj -d MYDEF My\&.idl\fRis equivalent to putting the line \f3#define MYDEF\fR inside My\&.idl\&.
+.SS PRESERVE\ PREEXISTING\ BINDINGS    
+If the Java binding files already exist, then the \f3-keep\fR flag keeps the compiler from overwriting them\&. The default is to generate all files without considering that they already exist\&. If you have customized those files (which you should not do unless you are very comfortable with their contents), then the \f3-keep\fR option is very useful\&. The command \f3idlj -keep My\&.idl\fR emits all client-side bindings that do not already exist\&.
+.SS VIEW\ COMPILATION\ PROGRESS    
+The IDL-to-Java compiler generates status messages as it progresses through its phases of execution\&. Use the \f3-v\fR option to activate the verbose mode: \f3idlj -v My\&.idl\fR\&.
+.PP
+By default the compiler does not operate in verbose mode
+.SS DISPLAY\ VERSION\ INFORMATION    
+To display the build version of the IDL-to-Java compiler, specify the \f3-version\fR option on the command-line: \f3idlj -version\fR\&.
+.PP
+Version information also appears within the bindings generated by the compiler\&. Any additional options appearing on the command-line are ignored\&.
+.SH OPTIONS    
+.TP
+-d \fIsymbol\fR
+.br
+This is equivalent to the following line in an IDL file:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3#define \fIsymbol\fR\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
 
-.LP
-.LP
-This generates the client\-side bindings and is equivalent to:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-idlj \fP\f3\-fclient\fP My.idl
-.fl
-.fi
+.TP
+-demitAll
+.br
+Emit all types, including those found in \f3#include\fR files\&.
+.TP
+-fside
+.br
+Defines what bindings to emit\&. The \f3side\fR parameter can be \f3client\fR, \f3server\fR, \f3serverTIE\fR, \f3all\fR, or \f3allTIE\fR\&. The \f3-fserverTIE\fR and \f3-fallTIE\fR options cause delegate model skeletons to be emitted\&. Defaults to \f3-fclient\fR when the flag is not specified\&.
+.TP
+-i \fIinclude-path\fR
+.br
+By default, the current directory is scanned for included files\&. This option adds another directory\&.
+.TP
+-i \fIkeep\fR
+.br
+If a file to be generated already exists, then do not overwrite it\&. By default it is overwritten\&.
+.TP
+-noWarn
+.br
+Suppress warning messages\&.
+.TP
+-oldImplBase
+.br
+Generates skeletons compatible with pre-1\&.4 JDK ORBs\&. By default, the POA Inheritance Model server-side bindings are generated\&. This option provides backward-compatibility with earlier releases of the Java programming language by generating server-side bindings that are \f3ImplBase\fR Inheritance Model classes\&.
+.TP
+-pkgPrefix \fItype\fR\fIprefix\fR
+.br
+Wherever \f3type\fR is encountered at file scope, prefix the generated Java package name with \f3prefix\fR for all files generated for that type\&. The type is the simple name of either a top-level module, or an IDL type defined outside of any module\&.
+.TP
+-pkgTranslate \fItype\fR\fIpackage\fR
+.br
+Whenever the module name type is encountered in an identifier, replace it in the identifier with package for all files in the generated Java package\&. Note that \f3pkgPrefix\fR changes are made first\&. The type value is the simple name of either a top-level module, or an IDL type defined outside of any module and must match the full package name exactly\&.
 
-.LP
-.LP
-The client\-side bindings do not include the server\-side skeleton. If you want to generate the server\-side bindings for the interfaces:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-idlj \fP\f3\-fserver\fP My.idl
-.fl
-.fi
+If more than one translation matches an identifier, then the longest match is chosen as shown in the following example:
 
-.LP
-.LP
-Server\-side bindings include the client\-side bindings plus the skeleton, all of which are \f2POA\fP (that is, Inheritance Model) classes. If you want to generate both client and server\-side bindings, use one of the following (equivalent) commands:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-idlj \fP\f3\-fclient \-fserver\fP My.idl
-.fl
-idlj \f3\-fall\fP My.idl
-.fl
-.fi
+\fICommand\fR:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3pkgTranslate type pkg \-pkgTranslate type2\&.baz pkg2\&.fizz\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
 
-.LP
-.LP
-There are two possible server\-side models: the Inheritance Model and the Tie Delegation Model.
-.LP
-.LP
-The default server\-side model is the \f2Portable Servant Inheritance Model\fP. Given an interface \f2My\fP defined in \f2My.idl\fP, the file \f2MyPOA.java\fP is generated. You must provide the implementation for \f2My\fP and it must inherit from \f2MyPOA\fP.
-.LP
-.LP
-\f2MyPOA.java\fP is a stream\-based skeleton that extends
-.na
-\f2org.omg.PortableServer.Servant\fP @
-.fi
-http://download.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/api/org/omg/PortableServer/Servant.html and implements the \f2InvokeHandler\fP interface and the operations interface associated with the IDL interface the skeleton implements.
-.LP
-.LP
-The \f2PortableServer\fP module for the
-.na
-\f2Portable Object Adapter (POA)\fP @
-.fi
-http://download.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/technotes/guides/idl/POA.html defines the native \f2Servant\fP type. In the Java programming language, the \f2Servant\fP type is mapped to the Java \f2org.omg.PortableServer.Servant\fP class. It serves as the base class for all POA servant implementations and provides a number of methods that may be invoked by the application programmer, as well as methods which are invoked by the POA itself and may be overridden by the user to control aspects of servant behavior.
-.LP
-.LP
-Another option for the Inheritance Model is to use the \f2\-oldImplBase\fP flag in order to generate server\-side bindings that are compatible with versions of the Java programming language prior to J2SE 1.4. Note that using the \f2\-oldImplBase\fP flag is non\-standard: these APIs are being deprecated. You would use this flag ONLY for compatibility with existing servers written in J2SE 1.3. In that case, you would need to modify an existing MAKEFILE to add the \f2\-oldImplBase\fP flag to the \f2idlj\fP compiler, otherwise POA\-based server\-side mappings will be generated. To generate server\-side bindings that are backwards compatible:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-idlj \fP\f3\-fclient \-fserver\fP \f3\-oldImplBase\fP My.idl
-.fl
-idlj \f3\-fall\fP \f3\-oldImplBase\fP My.idl
-.fl
-.fi
 
-.LP
-.LP
-Given an interface \f2My\fP defined in \f2My.idl\fP, the file \f2_MyImplBase.java\fP is generated. You must provide the implementation for \f2My\fP and it must inherit from \f2_MyImplBase\fP.
-.LP
-.LP
-The other server\-side model is called the Tie Model. This is a delegation model. Because it is not possible to generate ties and skeletons at the same time, they must be generated separately. The following commands generate the bindings for the Tie Model:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-idlj \fP\f3\-fall\fP My.idl
-.fl
-idlj \f3\-fallTIE\fP My.idl
-.fl
-.fi
+\fIResulting Translation\fR:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3type => pkg\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3type\&.ext => pkg\&.ext\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3type\&.baz => pkg2\&.fizz\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3type2\&.baz\&.pkg => pkg2\&.fizz\&.pkg\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
 
-.LP
-.LP
-For the interface \f2My\fP, the second command generates \f2MyPOATie.java\fP. The constructor to \f2MyPOATie\fP takes a \f2delegate\fP. In this example, using the default POA model, the constructor also needs a \f2poa\fP. You must provide the implementation for \f2delegate\fP, but it does not have to inherit from any other class, only the interface \f2MyOperations\fP. But to use it with the ORB, you must wrap your implementation within \f2MyPOATie\fP. For instance:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-    ORB orb = ORB.init(args, System.getProperties());
-.fl
 
-.fl
-    // Get reference to rootpoa & activate the POAManager
-.fl
-    POA rootpoa = (POA)orb.resolve_initial_references("RootPOA");
-.fl
-    rootpoa.the_POAManager().activate();
-.fl
-
-.fl
-    // create servant and register it with the ORB
-.fl
-    MyServant myDelegate = new MyServant();
-.fl
-    myDelegate.setORB(orb);
-.fl
-
-.fl
-    // create a tie, with servant being the delegate.
-.fl
-    MyPOATie tie = new MyPOATie(myDelegate, rootpoa);
-.fl
-
-.fl
-    // obtain the objectRef for the tie
-.fl
-    My ref = tie._this(orb);
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.LP
-You might want to use the Tie model instead of the typical Inheritance model if your implementation must inherit from some other implementation. Java allows any number of interface inheritance, but there is only one slot for class inheritance. If you use the inheritance model, that slot is used up . By using the Tie Model, that slot is freed up for your own use. The drawback is that it introduces a level of indirection: one extra method call occurs when invoking a method.
-.LP
-.LP
-To generate server\-side, Tie model bindings that are compatible with versions of the IDL to Java language mapping in versions prior to J2SE 1.4.
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-idlj \fP\f3\-oldImplBase\fP \f3\-fall\fP My.idl
-.fl
-idlj \f3\-oldImplBase\fP \f3\-fallTIE\fP My.idl
-.fl
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.LP
-For the interface \f2My\fP, this will generate \f2My_Tie.java\fP. The constructor to \f2My_Tie\fP takes a \f2impl\fP. You must provide the implementation for \f2impl\fP, but it does not have to inherit from any other class, only the interface \f2HelloOperations\fP. But to use it with the ORB, you must wrap your implementation within \f2My_Tie\fP. For instance:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-    ORB orb = ORB.init(args, System.getProperties());
-.fl
-
-.fl
-    // create servant and register it with the ORB
-.fl
-    MyServant myDelegate = new MyServant();
-.fl
-    myDelegate.setORB(orb);
-.fl
-
-.fl
-    // create a tie, with servant being the delegate.
-.fl
-    MyPOATie tie = new MyPOATie(myDelegate);
-.fl
-
-.fl
-    // obtain the objectRef for the tie
-.fl
-    My ref = tie._this(orb);
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.SS
-Specifying Alternate Locations for Emitted Files
-.LP
-.LP
-If you want to direct the emitted files to a directory other than the current directory, invoke the compiler as:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-idlj \fP\f3\-td /altdir\fP My.idl
-.fl
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.LP
-For the interface \f2My\fP, the bindings will be emitted to \f2/altdir/My.java\fP, etc., instead of \f2./My.java\fP.
-.LP
-.SS
-Specifying Alternate Locations for Include Files
-.LP
-.LP
-If \f2My.idl\fP included another idl file, \f2MyOther.idl\fP, the compiler assumes that \f2MyOther.idl\fP resides in the local directory. If it resides in \f2/includes\fP, for example, then you would invoke the compiler with the following command:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-idlj \fP\f3\-i /includes\fP My.idl
-.fl
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.LP
-If \f2My.idl\fP also included \f2Another.idl\fP that resided in \f2/moreIncludes\fP, for example, then you would invoke the compiler with the following command:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-idlj \fP\f3\-i /includes \-i /moreIncludes\fP My.idl
-.fl
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.LP
-Since this form of include can become irritatingly long, another means of indicating to the compiler where to search for included files is provided. This technique is similar to the idea of an environment variable. Create a file named \f2idl.config\fP in a directory that is listed in your CLASSPATH. Inside of \f2idl.config\fP, provide a line with the following form:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-includes=/includes;/moreIncludes
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.LP
-The compiler will find this file and read in the includes list. Note that in this example the separator character between the two directories is a semicolon (;). This separator character is platform dependent. On the Windows platform, use a semicolon, on the Unix platform, use a colon, etc. For more information on \f2includes\fP, see the
-.na
-\f2Setting the Classpath\fP @
-.fi
-http://download.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/technotes/tools/index.html#general.
-.LP
-.SS
-Emitting Bindings for Include Files
-.LP
-.LP
-By default, only those interfaces, structs, etc, that are defined in the idl file on the command line have Java bindings generated for them. The types defined in included files are not generated. For example, assume the following two idl files:
-.LP
-
-.LP
-.LP
-\f4My.idl\fP
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-#include <MyOther.idl>
-.fl
-interface My
-.fl
-{
-.fl
-};
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-
-.LP
-
-.LP
-.LP
-\f4MyOther.idl\fP
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-interface MyOther
-.fl
-{
-.fl
-};
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-
-.LP
-
-.LP
-.LP
-The following command will only generate the java bindings for \f2My\fP:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-idlj My.idl
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.LP
-To generate all of the types in \f2My.idl\fP and all of the types in the files that \f2My.idl\fP includes (in this example, \f2MyOther.idl\fP), use the following command:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-idlj \fP\f3\-emitAll\fP My.idl
-.fl
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.LP
-There is a caveat to the default rule. \f2#include\fP statements which appear at global scope are treated as described. These \f2#include\fP statements can be thought of as import statements. \f2#include\fP statements which appear within some enclosing scope are treated as true \f2#include\fP statements, meaning that the code within the included file is treated as if it appeared in the original file and, therefore, Java bindings are emitted for it. Here is an example:
-.LP
-
-.LP
-.LP
-\f4My.idl\fP
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-#include <MyOther.idl>
-.fl
-interface My
-.fl
-{
-.fl
-  #include <Embedded.idl>
-.fl
-};
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-
-.LP
-
-.LP
-.LP
-\f4MyOther.idl\fP
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-interface MyOther
-.fl
-{
-.fl
-};
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-
-.LP
-
-.LP
-.LP
-\f4Embedded.idl\fP
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-enum E {one, two, three};
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-
-.LP
-
-.LP
-.LP
-Running the following command:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-idlj My.idl
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.LP
-will generate the following list of Java files:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-./MyHolder.java
-.fl
-./MyHelper.java
-.fl
-./_MyStub.java
-.fl
-./MyPackage
-.fl
-./MyPackage/EHolder.java
-.fl
-./MyPackage/EHelper.java
-.fl
-./MyPackage/E.java
-.fl
-./My.java
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.LP
-Notice that \f2MyOther.java\fP was not generated because it is defined in an import\-like \f2#include\fP. But \f2E.java\fP \f2was\fP generated because it was defined in a true \f2#include\fP. Also notice that since \f2Embedded.idl\fP was included within the scope of the interface \f2My\fP, it appears within the scope of \f2My\fP (that is,in \f2MyPackage\fP).
-.LP
-.LP
-If the \f2\-emitAll\fP flag had been used in the previous example, then all types in all included files would be emitted.
-.LP
-.SS
-Inserting Package Prefixes
-.LP
-.LP
-Suppose that you work for a company named ABC that has constructed the following IDL file:
-.LP
-
-.LP
-.LP
-\f4Widgets.idl\fP
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-module Widgets
-.fl
-{
-.fl
-  interface W1 {...};
-.fl
-  interface W2 {...};
-.fl
-};
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-
-.LP
-
-.LP
-.LP
-Running this file through the IDL\-to\-Java compiler will place the Java bindings for \f2W1\fP and \f2W2\fP within the package \f2Widgets\fP. But there is an industry convention that states that a company's packages should reside within a package named \f2com.<company name>\fP. The \f2Widgets\fP package is not good enough. To follow convention, it should be \f2com.abc.Widgets\fP. To place this package prefix onto the \f2Widgets\fP module, execute the following:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-idlj \fP\f3\-pkgPrefix Widgets com.abc\fP Widgets.idl
-.fl
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.LP
-If you have an IDL file which includes \f2Widgets.idl\fP, the \f2\-pkgPrefix\fP flag must appear in that command also. If it does not, then your IDL file will be looking for a \f2Widgets\fP package rather than a \f2com.abc.Widgets\fP package.
-.LP
-.LP
-If you have a number of these packages that require prefixes, it might be easier to place them into the \f2idl.config\fP file described above. Each package prefix line should be of the form:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-PkgPrefix.<type>=<prefix>
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-
-.LP
-So the line for the above example would be:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-PkgPrefix.Widgets=com.abc
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.LP
-The use of this option does not affect the Repository ID.
-.LP
-.SS
-Defining Symbols Before Compilation
-.LP
-.LP
-You may need to define a symbol for compilation that is not defined within the IDL file, perhaps to include debugging code in the bindings. The command
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-idlj \fP\f3\-d\fP MYDEF My.idl
-.fl
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.LP
-is the equivalent of putting the line \f2#define MYDEF\fP inside \f2My.idl\fP.
-.LP
-.SS
-Preserving Pre\-Existing Bindings
-.LP
-.LP
-If the Java binding files already exist, the \f2\-keep\fP flag will keep the compiler from overwriting them. The default is to generate all files without considering if they already exist. If you've customized those files (which you should not do unless you are very comfortable with their contents), then the \f2\-keep\fP option is very useful. The command
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-idlj \fP\f3\-keep\fP My.idl
-.fl
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.LP
-emits all client\-side bindings that do not already exist.
-.LP
-.SS
-Viewing Progress of Compilation
-.LP
-.LP
-The IDL\-to\-Java compiler will generate status messages as it progresses through its phases of execution. Use the \f2\-v\fP option to activate this "verbose" mode:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-idlj \fP\f3\-v\fP My.idl
-.fl
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.LP
-By default the compiler does not operate in verbose mode.
-.LP
-.SS
-Displaying Version Information
-.LP
-.LP
-To display the build version of the IDL\-to\-Java compiler, specify the \f2\-version\fP option on the command\-line:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-idlj \-version
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.LP
-Version information also appears within the bindings generated by the compiler. Any additional options appearing on the command\-line are ignored.
-.LP
-.SH "Options"
-.LP
-.RS 3
-.TP 3
-\-d symbol
-This is equivalent to the following line in an IDL file:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-#define \fP\f4symbol\fP\f3
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-.TP 3
-\-emitAll
-Emit all types, including those found in \f2#include\fP files.
-.TP 3
-\-fside
-Defines what bindings to emit. \f2side\fP is one of \f2client\fP, \f2server\fP, \f2serverTIE\fP, \f2all\fP, or \f2allTIE\fP. The \f2\-fserverTIE\fP and \f2\-fallTIE\fP options cause delegate model skeletons to be emitted. Assumes \f2\-fclient\fP if the flag is not specified.
-.TP 3
-\-i include\-path
-By default, the current directory is scanned for included files. This option adds another directory.
-.TP 3
-\-keep
-If a file to be generated already exists, do not overwrite it. By default it is overwritten.
-.TP 3
-\-noWarn
-Suppresses warning messages.
-.TP 3
-\-oldImplBase
-Generates skeletons compatible with pre\-1.4 JDK ORBs. By default, the POA Inheritance Model server\-side bindings are generated. This option provides backward\-compatibility with older versions of the Java programming language by generating server\-side bindings that are \f2ImplBase\fP Inheritance Model classes.
-.TP 3
-\-pkgPrefix type prefix
-Wherever \f2type\fP is encountered at file scope, prefix the generated Java package name with \f2prefix\fP for all files generated for that type. The \f2type\fP is the simple name of either a top\-level module, or an IDL type defined outside of any module.
-.TP 3
-\-pkgTranslate type package
-Whenever the module name \f2type\fP is encountered in an identifier, replace it in the identifier with \f2package\fP for all files in the generated Java package. Note that \f2pkgPrefix\fP changes are made first. \f2type\fP is the simple name of either a top\-level module, or an IDL type defined outside of any module, and must match the full package name exactly.
+The following package names \f3org\fR, \f3org\fR\&.o\f3mg\fR, or any subpackages of \f3org\&.omg\fR cannot be translated\&. Any attempt to translate these packages results in uncompilable code, and the use of these packages as the first argument after \f3-pkgTranslate\fR is treated as an error\&.
+.TP
+-skeletonName \fIxxx%yyy\fR
 .br
+Use \f3xxx%yyy\fR as the pattern for naming the skeleton\&. The defaults are: \f3%POA\fR for the \f3POA\fR base class (\f3-fserver\fR or \f3-fall\fR), and \f3_%ImplBase\fR for the \f3oldImplBase\fR class (-\f3oldImplBase\fR) and (\f3-fserver\fR or \f3-fall\fR))\&.
+.TP
+-td \fIdir\fR
 .br
-If more than one translation matches an identifier, the longest match is chosen. For example, if the arguments include:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-  \-pkgTranslate foo bar \-pkgTranslate foo.baz buzz.fizz
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-The following translations would occur:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-foo          => bar
-.fl
-foo.boo      => bar.boo
-.fl
-foo.baz      => buzz.fizz
-.fl
-foo.baz.bar  => buzz.fizz.bar
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-The following package names cannot be translated:
-.RS 3
-.TP 2
-o
-\f2org\fP
-.TP 2
-o
-\f2org.omg\fP or any subpackages of \f2org.omg\fP
-.RE
-Any attempt to translate these packages will result in uncompilable code, and the use of these packages as the first argument after \f2\-pkgTranslate\fP will be treated as an error.
-.TP 3
-\-skeletonName xxx%yyy
-Use \f2xxx%yyy\fP as the pattern for naming the skeleton. The defaults are:
-.RS 3
-.TP 2
-o
-%POA for the \f2POA\fP base class (\f2\-fserver\fP or \f2\-fall\fP)
-.TP 2
-o
-_%ImplBase for the \f2oldImplBase\fP class (\f2\-oldImplBase\fP and (\f2\-fserver\fP or \f2\-fall\fP))
-.RE
-.TP 3
-\-td dir
-Use \f2dir\fP for the output directory instead of the current directory.
-.TP 3
-\-tieName xxx%yyy
-Name the tie according to the pattern. The defaults are:
-.RS 3
-.TP 2
-o
-%POATie for the \f2POA\fP tie base class (\f2\-fserverTie\fP or \f2\-fallTie\fP)
-.TP 2
-o
-%_Tie for the \f2oldImplBase\fP tie class (\f2\-oldImplBase\fP and (\f2\-fserverTie\fP or \f2\-fallTie\fP))
-.RE
-.TP 3
-\-nowarn, \-verbose
-Verbose mode.
-.TP 3
-\-version
-Display version information and terminate.
-.RE
-
-.LP
-.LP
-See the Description section for more option information.
-.LP
-.SH "Restrictions:"
-.LP
-.RS 3
-.TP 2
-o
-Escaped identifiers in the global scope may not have the same spelling as IDL primitive types, \f2Object\fP, or \f2ValueBase\fP. This is because the symbol table is pre\-loaded with these identifiers; allowing them to be redefined would overwrite their original definitions. (Possible permanent restriction).
-.TP 2
-o
-The \f2fixed\fP IDL type is not supported.
-.RE
-
-.LP
-.SH "Known Problems:"
-.LP
-.RS 3
-.TP 2
-o
-No import generated for global identifiers. If you invoke on an unexported local impl, you do get an exception, but it seems to be due to a \f2NullPointerException\fP in the \f2ServerDelegate\fP DSI code.
-.RE
-
-.LP
-
+Use \fIdir\fR for the output directory instead of the current directory\&.
+.TP
+-tieName \fIxxx%yyy\fR
+.br
+Use \f3xxx%yyy\fR according to the pattern\&. The defaults are: \f3%POA\fR for the \f3POA\fR base class (\f3-fserverTie or -fallTie\fR), and \f3_%Tie\fR for the \f3oldImplBase\fR tie class (-\f3oldImplBase\fR) and (\f3-fserverTie\fR or \f3-fallTie\fR))
+.TP
+-nowarn, -verbose
+.br
+Displays release information and terminates\&.
+.TP
+-version
+.br
+Displays release information and terminates\&.
+.SH RESTRICTIONS    
+Escaped identifiers in the global scope cannot have the same spelling as IDL primitive types, \f3Object\fR, or \f3ValueBase\fR\&. This is because the symbol table is preloaded with these identifiers\&. Allowing them to be redefined would overwrite their original definitions\&. Possible permanent restriction\&.
+.PP
+The \f3fixed\fR IDL type is not supported\&.
+.SH KNOWN\ PROBLEMS    
+No import is generated for global identifiers\&. If you call an unexported local \f3impl\fR object, then you do get an exception, but it seems to be due to a \f3NullPointerException\fR in the \f3ServerDelegate\fR DSI code\&.
+.RE
+.br
+'pl 8.5i
+'bp
--- a/jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/jar.1	Thu Nov 21 09:23:03 2013 -0800
+++ b/jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/jar.1	Mon Nov 25 20:19:02 2013 -0800
@@ -1,579 +1,485 @@
-." Copyright (c) 1997, 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
-." DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
-."
-." This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
-." under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
-." published by the Free Software Foundation.
-."
-." This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
-." ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
-." FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
-." version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
-." accompanied this code).
-."
-." You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
-." 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
-." Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
-."
-." Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
-." or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
-." questions.
-."
-.TH jar 1 "10 May 2011"
+'\" t
+.\"  Copyright (c) 1997, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+.\"
+.\" DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+.\"
+.\" This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+.\" under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+.\" published by the Free Software Foundation.
+.\"
+.\" This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+.\" ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+.\" FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License
+.\" version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+.\" accompanied this code).
+.\"
+.\" You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+.\" 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+.\" Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+.\"
+.\" Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
+.\" or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
+.\" questions.
+.\"
+.\"     Arch: generic
+.\"     Software: JDK 8
+.\"     Date: 21 November 2013
+.\"     SectDesc: Basic Tools
+.\"     Title: jar.1
+.\"
+.if n .pl 99999
+.TH jar 1 "21 November 2013" "JDK 8" "Basic Tools"
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * Define some portability stuff
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+.\" http://bugs.debian.org/507673
+.\" http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/groff/2009-02/msg00013.html
+.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+.ie \n(.g .ds Aq \(aq
+.el       .ds Aq '
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * set default formatting
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" disable hyphenation
+.nh
+.\" disable justification (adjust text to left margin only)
+.ad l
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * MAIN CONTENT STARTS HERE *
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
 
-.LP
-.SH "Name"
-jar\-The Java Archive Tool
-.LP
-\f3jar\fP combines multiple files into a single JAR archive file.
-.SH "SYNOPSIS"
-.LP
-.RS 3
-.TP 3
-Create jar file
-\f4jar c\fP\f2[v0Mmfe] [\fP\f2manifest\fP\f2] [\fP\f2jarfile\fP\f2] [\fP\f2entrypoint\fP\f2] [\-C\fP \f2dir\fP\f2]\fP \f2inputfiles\fP \f2[\-J\fP\f2option\fP\f2]\fP
-.TP 3
-Update jar file
-\f4jar u\fP\f2[v0Mmfe] [\fP\f2manifest\fP\f2] [\fP\f2jarfile\fP\f2] [\fP\f2entrypoint\fP\f2] [\-C\fP \f2dir\fP\f2]\fP \f2inputfiles\fP \f2[\-J\fP\f2option\fP\f2]\fP
-.TP 3
-Extract jar file
-\f4jar x\fP\f2[vf] [\fP\f2jarfile\fP\f2] [\fP\f2inputfiles\fP\f2] [\-J\fP\f2option\fP\f2]\fP
-.TP 3
-List table of contents of jar file
-\f4jar t\fP\f2[vf] [\fP\f2jarfile\fP\f2] [\fP\f2inputfiles\fP\f2] [\-J\fP\f2option\fP\f2]\fP
-.TP 3
-Add index to jar file
-\f4jar i\fP \f2jarfile\fP \f2[\-J\fP\f2option\fP\f2]\fP
-.RE
+.SH NAME    
+jar \- Manipulates Java Archive (JAR) files\&.
+.SH SYNOPSIS    
+Create JAR file
+.sp     
+.nf     
 
-.LP
-.LP
-where:
-.LP
-.RS 3
-.TP 3
-cuxtiv0Mmfe
-Options that control the \f2jar\fP command.
-.TP 3
-jarfile
-Jar file to be created (\f2c\fP), updated (\f2u\fP), extracted (\f2x\fP), or have its table of contents viewed (\f2t\fP). The \f2\-f\fP option and filename \f2jarfile\fP are a pair \-\- if either is present, they must both appear. Note that omitting \f2f\fP and \f2jarfile\fP accepts a "jar file" from standard input (for x and t) or sends the "jar file" to standard output (for c and u).
-.TP 3
-inputfiles
-Files or directories, separated by spaces, to be combined into \f2jarfile\fP (for c and u), or to be extracted (for x) or listed (for t) from \f2jarfile\fP. All directories are processed recursively. The files are compressed unless option \f20\fP (zero) is used.
-.TP 3
-manifest
-Pre\-existing manifest file whose \f2name\fP\f2:\fP \f2value\fP pairs are to be included in MANIFEST.MF in the jar file. The \f2\-m\fP option and filename \f2manifest\fP are a pair \-\- if either is present, they must both appear. The letters \f3m\fP, \f3f\fP and \f3e\fP must appear in the same order that \f2manifest\fP, \f2jarfile\fP, \f2entrypoint\fP appear.
-.TP 3
-entrypoint
-The name of the class that set as the application entry point for stand\-alone applications bundled into executable jar file. The \f2\-e\fP option and entrypoint are a pair \-\- if either is present, they must both appear. The letters \f3m\fP, \f3f\fP and \f3e\fP must appear in the same order that \f2manifest\fP, \f2jarfile\fP, \f2entrypoint\fP appear.
-.TP 3
-\-C\ dir
-Temporarily changes directories to \f2dir\fP while processing the following \f2inputfiles\fP argument. Multiple \f2\-C\ \fP\f2dir\fP \f2inputfiles\fP sets are allowed.
-.TP 3
-\-Joption
-Option to be passed into the Java runtime environment. (There must be no space between \f2\-J\fP and \f2option\fP).
-.RE
+\fBjar c\fR[\fBefmMnv0\fR] [\fIentrypoint\fR] [\fIjarfile\fR] [\fImanifest\fR] [\fB\-C\fR \fIdir\fR] \fIfile\fR \&.\&.\&. [\-J\fIoption\fR \&.\&.\&.] [@\fIarg\-file\fR \&.\&.\&.]
+.fi     
+.sp     
 
-.LP
-.SH "DESCRIPTION"
-.LP
-The \f3jar\fP tool combines multiple files into a single JAR archive file. \f3jar\fP is a general\-purpose archiving and compression tool, based on ZIP and the
-.na
-\f2ZLIB\fP @
-.fi
-http://www.gzip.org/zlib/ compression format. However, \f3jar\fP was designed mainly package java applets or applications into a single archive. When the components of an applet or application (files, images and sounds) are combined into a single archive, they can be downloaded by a java agent (like a browser) in a single HTTP transaction, rather than requiring a new connection for each piece. This dramatically improves download times. \f3jar\fP also compresses files and so further improves download time. In addition, it allows individual entries in a file to be signed by the applet author so that their origin can be authenticated. The syntax for the jar tool is almost identical to the syntax for the \f2tar\fP command. A \f3jar\fP archive can be used as a class path entry, whether or not it is compressed.
-.LP
-Typical usage to combine files into a jar file is:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-% jar cf myFile.jar *.class
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
+Update JAR file
+.sp     
+.nf     
 
-.LP
-In this example, all the class files in the current directory are placed into the file named \f2myFile.jar\fP. The jar tool automatically generates a manifest file entry named \f2META\-INF/MANIFEST.MF\fP. It is always the first entry in the jar file. The manifest file declares meta\-information about the archive, and stores that data as \f2name\ :\ value\fP pairs. Refer to the
-.na
-\f2JAR file specification\fP @
-.fi
-http://download.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/technotes/guides/jar/jar.html#JAR%20Manifest for details explaining how the jar tool stores meta\-information in the manifest file.
-.LP
-If a jar file should include \f2name\ :\ value\fP pairs contained in an existing manifest file, specify that file using the \f2\-m\fP option:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-% jar cmf myManifestFile myFile.jar *.class
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
+\fBjar u\fR[\fBefmMnv0\fR] [\fIentrypoint\fR] [\fIjarfile\fR] [\fImanifest\fR] [\fB\-C\fR \fIdir\fR] \fIfile\fR \&.\&.\&. [\-J\fIoption\fR \&.\&.\&.] [@\fIarg\-file\fR \&.\&.\&.]
+.fi     
+.sp     
 
-.LP
-An existing manifest file must end with a new line character.\  \f3jar\fP does not parse the last line of a manifest file if it does not end with a new line character.
+Extract JAR file
+.sp     
+.nf     
+
+\fBjar\fR \fBx\fR[\fBvf\fR] [\fIjarfile\fR] \fIfile\fR \&.\&.\&. [\-J\fIoption\fR \&.\&.\&.] [@\fIarg\-file\fR \&.\&.\&.]
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+List Contents of JAR file
+.sp     
+.nf     
+
+\fBjar\fR \fBt\fR[\fBvf\fR] [\fIjarfile\fR] \fIfile\fR \&.\&.\&. [\-J\fIoption\fR \&.\&.\&.] [@\fIarg\-file\fR \&.\&.\&.]
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+Add Index to JAR file
+.sp     
+.nf     
+
+\fBjar\fR \fBi\fR \fIjarfile\fR [\-J\fIoption\fR \&.\&.\&.] [@\fIarg\-file\fR \&.\&.\&.]
+.fi     
+.sp     
+.SH DESCRIPTION    
+The \f3jar\fR command is a general-purpose archiving and compression tool, based on ZIP and the ZLIB compression format\&. However, the \f3jar\fR command was designed mainly to package Java applets or applications into a single archive\&. When the components of an applet or application (files, images and sounds) are combined into a single archive, they can be downloaded by a Java agent (such as a browser) in a single HTTP transaction, rather than requiring a new connection for each piece\&. This dramatically improves download times\&. The \f3jar\fR command also compresses files, which further improves download time\&. The \f3jar\fR command also allows individual entries in a file to be signed by the applet author so that their origin can be authenticated\&. A JAR file can be used as a class path entry, whether or not it is compressed\&.
+.PP
+The syntax for the \f3jar\fR command resembles the syntax for the \f3tar\fR command\&. It has several operation modes, defined by one of the mandatory \fIoperation arguments\fR\&. Other arguments are either \fIoptions\fR that modify the behavior of the operation, or \fIoperands\fR required to perform the operation\&.
+.SH OPERATION\ ARGUMENTS    
+When using the \f3jar\fR command, you have to select an operation to be performed by specifying one of the following operation arguments\&. You can mix them up with other one-letter options on the command line, but usually the operation argument is the first argument specified\&.
+.TP     
+c
+Create a new JAR archive\&.
+.TP     
+i
+Generate index information for a JAR archive\&.
+.TP     
+t
+List the contents of a JAR archive\&.
+.TP     
+u
+Update a JAR archive\&.
+.TP     
+x
+Extract files from a JAR archive\&.
+.SH OPTIONS    
+Use the following options to customize how the JAR file is created, updated, extracted, or viewed:
+.TP     
+e
+Sets the class specified by the \fIentrypoint\fR operand to be the entry point\f3\fR for a standalone Java application bundled into an executable JAR file\&. The use of this option creates or overrides the \f3Main-Class\fR attribute value in the manifest file\&. The \f3e\fR option can be used when creating (\f3c\fR) or updating (\f3u\fR) the JAR file\&.
+
+For example, the following command creates the \f3Main\&.jar\fR archive with the \f3Main\&.class\fR file where the \f3Main-Clas\fRs attribute value in the manifest is set to \f3Main\fR:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3jar cfe Main\&.jar Main Main\&.class\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+The Java Runtime Environment (JRE) can directly call this application by running the following command:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3java \-jar Main\&.jar\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+If the entry point class name is in a package, then it could use either the dot (\&.) or slash (/) as the delimiter\&. For example, if \f3Main\&.class\fR is in a package called \f3mydir\fR, then the entry point can be specified in one of the following ways:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3jar \-cfe Main\&.jar mydir/Main mydir/Main\&.class\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3jar \-cfe Main\&.jar mydir\&.Main mydir/Main\&.class\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+Note
+
+Specifying both \f3m\fR and \f3e\fR options together when a particular manifest also contains the \f3Main-Class\fR attribute results in an ambiguous \f3Main-Class\fR specification\&. The ambiguity leads to an error and the \f3jar\fR command creation or update operation is terminated\&.
+.TP     
+f
+Sets the file specified by the \fI\fR\fIjarfile\fR operand to be the name of the JAR file that is created (\f3c\fR), updated (\f3u\fR), extracted (\f3x\fR) from, or viewed (\f3t\fR)\&. Omitting the \f3f\fR option and the \fIjarfile\fR operand instructs the \f3jar\fR command to accept the JAR file name from \f3stdin\fR (for \f3x\fR and \f3t\fR) or send the JAR \f3\fRfile to \f3stdout\fR (for \f3c\fR and \f3u\fR)\&.
+.TP     
+m
+Includes names and values of attributes from the file specified by the \f3manifest\fR operand in the manifest file of the \f3jar\fR command (located in the archive at \f3META-INF/MANIFEST\&.MF\fR)\&. The \f3jar\fR command adds the attribute\(cqs name and value to the JAR file unless an entry already exists with the same name, in which case the \f3jar\fR command updates the value of the attribute\&. The \f3m\fR option can be used when creating (\f3c\fR) or updating (\f3u\fR) the JAR file\&.
+
+You can add special-purpose name-value attribute pairs to the manifest that are not contained in the default manifest file\&. For example, you can add attributes that specify vendor information, release information, package sealing, or to make JAR-bundled applications executable\&. For examples of using the \f3m\fR option, see Packaging Programs at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/tutorial/deployment/jar/index\&.html
+.TP     
+M
+Does not create a manifest file entry (for \f3c\fR and \f3u\fR), or delete a manifest file entry when one exists (for \f3u\fR)\&. The \f3M\fR option can be used when creating (\f3c\fR) or updating (\f3u\fR) the JAR file\&.
+.TP     
+n
+When creating (\f3c\fR) a JAR file, this option normalizes the archive so that the content is not affected by the packing and unpacking operations of the pack200(1) command\&. Without this normalization, the signature of a signed JAR can become invalid\&.
+.TP     
+v
+Generates verbose output to standard output\&. See Examples\&.
+.TP     
+0
+(Zero) Creates (\f3c\fR) or updates (\f3u\fR) the JAR file without using ZIP compression\&.
+.TP
+-C \fIdir\fR
 .br
+When creating (\f3c\fR) or updating (\f3u\fR) a JAR file, this option temporarily changes the directory while processing files specified by the \fIfile\fR operands\&. Its operation is intended to be similar to the \f3-C\fR option of the UNIX \f3tar\fR utility\&.For example, the following command changes to the \f3classes\fR directory and adds the \f3Bar\&.class\fR file from that directory to \f3my\&.jar\fR:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3jar uf my\&.jar \-C classes Bar\&.class\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
 
-.LP
-.br
 
-.LP
-\f3Note:\ \fP A jar command that specifies \f2cfm\fP on the command line instead of \f2cmf\fP (the order of the m and \-f options are reversed), the \f3jar\fP command line must specify the name of the jar archive first, followed by the name of the manifest file:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-% jar cfm myFile.jar myManifestFile *.class
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
+The following command changes to the \f3classes\fR directory and adds to \f3my\&.jar\fR all files within the classes directory (without creating a \f3classes\fR directory in the JAR file), then changes back to the original directory before changing to the \f3bin\fR directory to add \f3Xyz\&.class\fR to \f3my\&.jar\fR\&.
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3jar uf my\&.jar \-C classes \&. \-C bin Xyz\&.class\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
 
-.LP
-The manifest is in a text format inspired by RFC822 ASCII format, so it is easy to view and process manifest\-file contents.
-.LP
-To extract the files from a jar file, use \f2x\fP:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-% jar xf myFile.jar
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
 
-.LP
-.LP
-To extract individual files from a jar file, supply their filenames:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-% jar xf myFile.jar foo bar
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
+If \f3classes\fR contained files \f3bar1\fR and \f3bar2\fR, then the JAR file will contain the following after running the previous command:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3% \fIjar tf my\&.jar\fR\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3META\-INF/\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3META\-INF/MANIFEST\&.MF\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3bar1\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3bar2\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3Xyz\&.class\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
 
-.LP
-.LP
-Beginning with version 1.3 of the JDK, the \f2jar\fP utility supports
-.na
-\f2JarIndex\fP @
-.fi
-http://download.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/technotes/guides/jar/jar.html#JAR_Index, which allows application class loaders to load classes more efficiently from jar files. If an application or applet is bundled into multiple jar files,\  only the necessary jar files will be downloaded and opened to load classes. This performance optimization is enabled by running \f2jar\fP with the \f2\-i\fPoption. It will generate package location information for the specified main jar file and all the jar files it depends on, which need to be specified in the \f2Class\-Path\fP attribute of the main jar file's manifest.
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-% jar i main.jar
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
+.TP     
+\fI\fR-J\fIoption\fR
+Sets the specified JVM option to be used when the JRE runs the JAR file\&. JVM options are described on the reference page for the java(1) command\&. For example, \f3-J-Xms48m\fR sets the startup memory to 48 MB\&.
+.SH OPERANDS    
+The following operands are recognized by the \f3jar\fR command\&.
+.TP     
+\fIfile\fR
+When creating (\f3c\fR) or updating (\f3u\fR) a JAR file, the \fIfile\fR operand defines the path and name of the file or directory that should be added to the archive\&. When extracting (\f3x\fR) or listing the contents (\f3t\fR) of a JAR file, the \fIfile\fR operand defines the path and name of the file to be extrated or listed\&. At least one valid file or directory must be specified\&. Separate multiple \fIfile\fR operands with spaces\&. If the \fIentrypoint\fR, \fIjarfile\fR, or \fImanifest\fR operands are used, the \fIfile\fR operands must be specified after them\&.
+.TP     
+\fIentrypoint\fR
+When creating (\f3c\fR) or updating (\f3u\fR) a JAR file, the \fIentrypoint\fR operand defines the name of the class that should be the entry point\f3\fR for a standalone Java application bundled into an executable JAR file\&. The \fIentrypoint\fR operand must be specified if the \f3e\fR option is present\&.
+.TP     
+\fIjarfile\fR
+Defines the name of the file to be created (\f3c\fR), updated (\f3u\fR), extracted (\f3x\fR), or viewed (\f3t\fR)\&. The \fIjarfile\fR operand must be specified if the \f3f\fR option is present\&. Omitting the \f3f\fR option and the \fIjarfile\fR operand instructs the \f3jar\fR command to accept the JAR file name from \f3stdin\fR (for \f3x\fR and \f3t\fR) or send the JAR \f3\fRfile to \f3stdout\fR (for \f3c\fR and \f3u\fR)\&.
 
-.LP
-.LP
-In this example, an \f2INDEX.LIST\fP file is inserted into the \f2META\-INF\fP directory of \f2main.jar\fP.
-.br
-.br
-The application class loader uses the information stored in this file for efficient class loading.\  For details about how location information is stored in the index file, refer to the \f2JarIndex\fP specification.
-.br
-.br
-To copy directories, first compress files in \f2dir1\fP to \f2stdout\fP, then extract from \f2stdin\fP to \f2dir2\fP (omitting the \f2\-f\fP option from both \f2jar\fP commands):
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-% (cd dir1; jar c .) | (cd dir2; jar x)
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
+When indexing (\f3i\fR) a JAR file, specify the \fIjarfile\fR operand without the \f3f\fR option\&.
+.TP     
+\fImanifest\fR
+When creating (\f3c\fR) or updating (\f3u\fR) a JAR file, the \fImanifest\fR operand defines the preexisting manifest files with names and values of attributes to be included in \f3MANIFEST\&.MF\fR in the JAR file\&. The \fImanifest\fR operand must be specified if the \f3f\fR option is present\&.
+.TP     
+\fI@arg-file\fR
+To shorten or simplify the \f3jar\fR command, you can specify arguments in a separate text file and pass it to the \f3jar\fR command with the at sign (@) as a prefix\&. When the \f3jar\fR command encounters an argument beginning with the at sign, it expands the contents of that file into the argument list\&.
 
-.LP
-.LP
-To review command samples which use \f2jar\fP to opeate on jar files and jar file manifests, see Examples, below. Also refer to the jar trail of the
-.na
-\f2Java Tutorial\fP @
-.fi
-http://download.oracle.com/javase/tutorial/deployment/jar.
-.LP
-.SH "OPTIONS"
-.LP
-.RS 3
-.TP 3
-c
-Creates a new archive file named \f2jarfile\fP (if \f2f\fP is specified) or to standard output (if \f2f\fP and \f2jarfile\fP are omitted). Add to it the files and directories specified by \f2inputfiles\fP.
-.TP 3
-u
-Updates an existing file \f2jarfile\fP (when \f2f\fP is specified) by adding to it files and directories specified by \f2inputfiles\fP. For example:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-jar uf foo.jar foo.class
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-would add the file \f2foo.class\fP to the existing jar file \f2foo.jar\fP. The \f2\-u\fP option can also update the manifest entry, as given by this example:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-jar umf manifest foo.jar
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-updates the \f2foo.jar\fP manifest with the \f2name : value\fP pairs in \f2manifest\fP.
-.TP 3
-x
-Extracts files and directories from \f2jarfile\fP (if \f2f\fP is specified) or standard input (if \f2f\fP and \f2jarfile\fP are omitted). If \f2inputfiles\fP is specified, only those specified files and directories are extracted. Otherwise, all files and directories are extracted. The time and date of the extracted files are those given in the archive.
-.TP 3
-t
-Lists the table of contents from \f2jarfile\fP (if \f2f\fP is specified) or standard input (if \f2f\fP and \f2jarfile\fP are omitted). If \f2inputfiles\fP is specified, only those specified files and directories are listed. Otherwise, all files and directories are listed.
-.TP 3
-i
-Generate index information for the specified \f2jarfile\fP and its dependent jar files. For example:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-jar i foo.jar
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-.LP
-would generate an \f2INDEX.LIST\fP file in \f2foo.jar\fP which contains location information for each package in \f2foo.jar\fP and all the jar files specified in the \f2Class\-Path\fP attribute of \f2foo.jar\fP. See the index example.
-.TP 3
-f
-Specifies the file \f2jarfile\fP to be created (\f2c\fP), updated (\f2u\fP), extracted (\f2x\fP), indexed (\f2i\fP), or viewed (\f2t\fP). The \f2\-f\fP option and filename \f2jarfile\fP are a pair \-\- if present, they must both appear. Omitting \f2f\fP and \f2jarfile\fP accepts a jar file name from \f2stdin\fP(for x and t) or sends jar file to \f2stdout\fP (for c and u).
-.TP 3
-v
-Generates verbose output to standard output. Examples shown below.
-.TP 3
-0
-(zero) Store without using ZIP compression.
-.TP 3
-M
-Do not create a manifest file entry (for c and u), or delete a manifest file entry if one exists (for u).
-.TP 3
-m
-Includes \f2name : value\fP attribute pairs from the specified manifest file \f2manifest\fP in the file at \f2META\-INF/MANIFEST.MF\fP. \f2jar\fP adds a \f2name\ :\ value\fP pair unless an entry already exists with the same name, in which case \f2jar\fP updates its value.
-.br
-.br
-On the command line, the letters \f3m\fP and \f3f\fP must appear in the same order that \f2manifest\fP and \f2jarfile\fP appear. Example use:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-jar cmf myManifestFile myFile.jar *.class
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-You can add special\-purpose \f2name\ :\ value\fP attribute pairs to the manifest that aren't contained in the default manifest. For example, you can add attributes specifying vendor information, version information, package sealing, or to make JAR\-bundled applications executable. See the
-.na
-\f2JAR Files\fP @
-.fi
-http://download.oracle.com/javase/tutorial/deployment/jar/ trail in the Java Tutorial  for examples of using the \f4\-m\fP option.
-.TP 3
-e
-Sets \f2entrypoint\fP as the application entry point for stand\-alone applications bundled into executable jar file. The use of this option creates or overrides the \f2Main\-Class\fP attribute value in the manifest file. This option can be used during creation of jar file or while updating the jar file. This option specifies the application entry point without editing or creating the manifest file.
-.br
-.br
-.br
-For example, this command creates \f2Main.jar\fP where the \f2Main\-Class\fP attribute value in the manifest is set to \f2Main\fP:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-jar cfe Main.jar Main Main.class
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-The java runtime can directly invoke this application by running the following command:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-java \-jar Main.jar
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-If the entrypoint class name is in a package it may use either a dot (".") or slash ("/") character as the delimiter. For example, if \f2Main.class\fP is in a package called \f2foo\fP the entry point can be specified in the following ways:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-jar \-cfe Main.jar foo/Main foo/Main.class
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-or
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-jar \-cfe Main.jar foo.Main foo/Main.class
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-\f3Note:\ \fP specifying both \f2\-m\fP and \f2\-e\fP options together when the given manifest also contains the \f2Main\-Class\fP attribute results in an ambigous \f2Main.class\fP specification, leading to an error and the jar creation or update operation is aborted.
-.TP 3
-\-C\ dir
-Temporarily changes directories (\f2cd\fP\ \f2dir\fP) during execution of the \f2jar\fP command while processing the following \f2inputfiles\fP argument. Its operation is intended to be similar to the \f2\-C\fP option of the UNIX \f2tar\fP utility.
-.br
-.br
-For example, this command changes to the \f2classes\fP directory and adds the \f2bar.class\fP from that directory to \f2foo.jar\fP:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-jar uf foo.jar \-C classes bar.class
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-This command changes to the \f2classes\fP directory and adds to \f2foo.jar\fP all files within the \f2classes\fP directory (without creating a classes directory in the jar file), then changes back to the original directory before changing to the \f2bin\fP directory to add \f2xyz.class\fP to \f2foo.jar\fP.
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-jar uf foo.jar \-C classes . \-C bin xyz.class
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-If \f2classes\fP holds files \f2bar1\fP and \f2bar2\fP, then here's what the jar file will contain using \f2jar tf foo.jar\fP:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-META\-INF/
-.fl
-META\-INF/MANIFEST.MF
-.fl
-bar1
-.fl
-bar2
-.fl
-xyz.class
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-.LP
-.TP 3
-\-Joption
-Pass \f2option\fP to the Java runtime environment, where \f2option\fP is one of the options described on the reference page for the java application launcher. For example, \f4\-J\-Xmx48M\fP sets the maximum memory to 48 megabytes. It is a common convention for \f2\-J\fP to pass options to the underlying runtime environment.
-.RE
+An argument file can include options and arguments of the \f3jar\fR command (except the \f3-J\fR options, because they are passed to the launcher, which does not support argument files)\&. The arguments within a file can be separated by spaces or newline characters\&. File names within an argument file are relative to the current directory from which you run the \f3jar\fR command, not relative to the location of the argument file\&. Wild cards, such as the asterisk (*), that might otherwise be expanded by the operating system shell, are not expanded\&.
 
-.LP
-.SH "COMMAND LINE ARGUMENT FILES"
-.LP
-To shorten or simplify the jar command line, you can specify one or more files that themselves contain arguments to the \f2jar\fP command (except \f2\-J\fP options). This enables you to create jar commands of any length, overcoming command line limits imposed by the operating system.
-.LP
-An argument file can include options and filenames. The arguments within a file can be space\-separated or newline\-separated. Filenames within an argument file are relative to the current directory, not relative to the location of the argument file. Wildcards (*) that might otherwise be expanded by the operating system shell are not expanded. Use of the \f2@\fP character to recursively interpret files is not supported. The \f2\-J\fP options are not supported because they are passed to the launcher, which does not support argument files.
-.LP
-.LP
-When executing \f2jar\fP, pass in the path and name of each argument file with the \f2@\fP leading character. When \f2jar\fP encounters an argument beginning with the character \f2@\fP, it expands the contents of that file into the argument list.
-.br
-.br
-The example below, \f2classes.list\fP holds the names of files output by a \f2find\fP command:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-% find \fP\f3.\fP \-name '*.class' \-print > classes.list
-.fl
-.fi
+The following example, shows how to create a \f3classes\&.list\fR file with names of files from the current directory output by the \f3find\fR command:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3find \&. \-name \&'*\&.class\&' \-print > classes\&.list\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
 
-.LP
-.LP
-You can then execute the \f2jar\fP command on \f2Classes.list\fP by passing it to \f2jar\fP using argfile syntax:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-% jar cf my.jar @classes.list
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
 
-.LP
-An argument file can specify a path, but any filenames inside the argument file that have relative paths are relative to the current working directory, not to the path passed in. Here is an example:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-% jar @path1/classes.list
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
+You can then execute the \f3jar\fR command and pass the \f3classes\&.list\fR file to it using the \fI@arg-file\fR syntax:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3jar cf my\&.jar @classes\&.list\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
 
-.LP
-.LP
 
-.LP
-.SH "EXAMPLES"
-.LP
-To add all the files in a particular directory to an archive (overwriting contents if the archive already exists). Enumerating verbosely (with the \f2\-v\fP option) will tell you more information about the files in the archive, such as their size and last modified date.
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-% ls
-.fl
-1.au          Animator.class    monkey.jpg
-.fl
-2.au          Wave.class        spacemusic.au
-.fl
-3.au          at_work.gif
-.fl
+An argument file can be specified with a path, but any file names inside the argument file that have relative paths are relative to the current working directory of the \f3jar\fR command, not to the path passed in, for example:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3jar @dir/classes\&.list\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
 
-.fl
-% jar cvf bundle.jar *
-.fl
-added manifest
-.fl
-adding: 1.au(in = 2324) (out= 67)(deflated 97%)
-.fl
-adding: 2.au(in = 6970) (out= 90)(deflated 98%)
-.fl
-adding: 3.au(in = 11616) (out= 108)(deflated 99%)
-.fl
-adding: Animator.class(in = 2266) (out= 66)(deflated 97%)
-.fl
-adding: Wave.class(in = 3778) (out= 81)(deflated 97%)
-.fl
-adding: at_work.gif(in = 6621) (out= 89)(deflated 98%)
-.fl
-adding: monkey.jpg(in = 7667) (out= 91)(deflated 98%)
-.fl
-adding: spacemusic.au(in = 3079) (out= 73)(deflated 97%)
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-
-.LP
-If you already have separate subdirectories for images, audio files and classes, you can combine them into a single jar file:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-% ls \-F
-.fl
-audio/ classes/ images/
-.fl
-
-.fl
-% jar cvf bundle.jar audio classes images
-.fl
-added manifest
-.fl
-adding: audio/(in = 0) (out= 0)(stored 0%)
-.fl
-adding: audio/1.au(in = 2324) (out= 67)(deflated 97%)
-.fl
-adding: audio/2.au(in = 6970) (out= 90)(deflated 98%)
-.fl
-adding: audio/3.au(in = 11616) (out= 108)(deflated 99%)
-.fl
-adding: audio/spacemusic.au(in = 3079) (out= 73)(deflated 97%)
-.fl
-adding: classes/(in = 0) (out= 0)(stored 0%)
-.fl
-adding: classes/Animator.class(in = 2266) (out= 66)(deflated 97%)
-.fl
-adding: classes/Wave.class(in = 3778) (out= 81)(deflated 97%)
-.fl
-adding: images/(in = 0) (out= 0)(stored 0%)
-.fl
-adding: images/monkey.jpg(in = 7667) (out= 91)(deflated 98%)
-.fl
-adding: images/at_work.gif(in = 6621) (out= 89)(deflated 98%)
-.fl
-
-.fl
-% ls \-F
-.fl
-audio/ bundle.jar classes/ images/
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-
-.LP
-To see the entry names in the jarfile, use the \f2t\fP option:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-% jar tf bundle.jar
-.fl
-META\-INF/
-.fl
-META\-INF/MANIFEST.MF
-.fl
-audio/1.au
-.fl
-audio/2.au
-.fl
-audio/3.au
-.fl
-audio/spacemusic.au
-.fl
-classes/Animator.class
-.fl
-classes/Wave.class
-.fl
-images/monkey.jpg
-.fl
-images/at_work.gif
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.LP
-To add an index file to the jar file for speeding up class loading, use the \f2i\fP option.
-.br
-.br
-Example:
-.br
-
-.LP
-If you split the inter\-dependent classes for a stock trade application into three jar files: \f2main.jar\fP, \f2buy.jar\fP, and \f2sell.jar\fP.
-.br
-
-.LP
-.br
-
-.LP
-If you specify the \f2Class\-path\fP attribute in the \f2main.jar\fP manifest as:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-Class\-Path: buy.jar sell.jar
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-
-.LP
-then you can use the \f2\-i\fP option to speed up the class loading time for your application:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-% jar i main.jar
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-
-.LP
-An \f2INDEX.LIST\fP file is inserted to the \f2META\-INF\fP directory. This enables the application class loader to download the specified jar files when it is searching for classes or resources.
-.SH "SEE ALSO"
-.LP
-.LP
-.na
-\f2The Jar Overview\fP @
-.fi
-http://download.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/technotes/guides/jar/jarGuide.html
-.LP
-.LP
-.na
-\f2The Jar File Specification\fP @
-.fi
-http://download.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/technotes/guides/jar/jar.html
-.LP
-.LP
-.na
-\f2The JarIndex Spec\fP @
-.fi
-http://download.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/technotes/guides/jar/jar.html#JAR_Index
-.LP
-.LP
-.na
-\f2Jar Tutorial\fP @
-.fi
-http://download.oracle.com/javase/tutorial/deployment/jar/index.html
-.LP
-.LP
-pack200(1)
-.LP
-
+.SH NOTES    
+The \f3e\fR, \f3f\fR, and \f3m\fR options must appear in the same order on the command line as the \fIentrypoint\fR, \fIjarfile\fR, and \fImanifest\fR operands, for example:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3jar cmef myManifestFile MyMainClass myFile\&.jar *\&.class\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+.SH EXAMPLES    
+\f3Example 1 Adding All Files From the Current Directory With Verbose Output\fR
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3% ls\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f31\&.au          Animator\&.class    monkey\&.jpg\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f32\&.au          Wave\&.class        spacemusic\&.au\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f33\&.au          at_work\&.gif\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3% jar cvf bundle\&.jar *\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3added manifest\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3adding: 1\&.au(in = 2324) (out= 67)(deflated 97%)\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3adding: 2\&.au(in = 6970) (out= 90)(deflated 98%)\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3adding: 3\&.au(in = 11616) (out= 108)(deflated 99%)\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3adding: Animator\&.class(in = 2266) (out= 66)(deflated 97%)\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3adding: Wave\&.class(in = 3778) (out= 81)(deflated 97%)\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3adding: at_work\&.gif(in = 6621) (out= 89)(deflated 98%)\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3adding: monkey\&.jpg(in = 7667) (out= 91)(deflated 98%)\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3adding: spacemusic\&.au(in = 3079) (out= 73)(deflated 97%)\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+\f3Example 2 Adding Files From Subdirectories\fR
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3% ls \-F\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3audio/ classes/ images/\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3% jar cvf bundle\&.jar audio classes images\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3added manifest\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3adding: audio/(in = 0) (out= 0)(stored 0%)\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3adding: audio/1\&.au(in = 2324) (out= 67)(deflated 97%)\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3adding: audio/2\&.au(in = 6970) (out= 90)(deflated 98%)\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3adding: audio/3\&.au(in = 11616) (out= 108)(deflated 99%)\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3adding: audio/spacemusic\&.au(in = 3079) (out= 73)(deflated 97%)\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3adding: classes/(in = 0) (out= 0)(stored 0%)\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3adding: classes/Animator\&.class(in = 2266) (out= 66)(deflated 97%)\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3adding: classes/Wave\&.class(in = 3778) (out= 81)(deflated 97%)\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3adding: images/(in = 0) (out= 0)(stored 0%)\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3adding: images/monkey\&.jpg(in = 7667) (out= 91)(deflated 98%)\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3adding: images/at_work\&.gif(in = 6621) (out= 89)(deflated 98%)\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3% ls \-F\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3audio/ bundle\&.jar classes/ images/\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+\f3Example 3 Listing the Contents of JAR\fR
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3% jar tf bundle\&.jar\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3META\-INF/\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3META\-INF/MANIFEST\&.MF\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3audio/1\&.au\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3audio/2\&.au\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3audio/3\&.au\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3audio/spacemusic\&.au\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3classes/Animator\&.class\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3classes/Wave\&.class\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3images/monkey\&.jpg\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3images/at_work\&.gif\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+\f3Example 4 Adding an Index\fR
+.PP
+Use the \f3i\fR option when you split the interdependent classes for a stock trade application into three JAR files: \f3main\&.jar\fR, \f3buy\&.jar\fR, and \f3sell\&.jar\fR\&. If you specify the \f3Class-Path\fR attribute in the \f3main\&.jar\fR manifest, then you can use the \f3i\fR option to speed up the class loading time for your application:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3Class\-Path: buy\&.jar sell\&.jar\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3jar i main\&.jar\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+An \f3INDEX\&.LIST\fR file is inserted to the \f3META-INF\fR directory\&. This enables the application class loader to download the specified JAR files when it is searching for classes or resources\&.
+.PP
+The application class loader uses the information stored in this file for efficient class loading\&. To copy directories, first compress files in \f3dir1\fR to \f3stdout\fR, then pipeline and extract from \f3stdin\fR to \f3dir2\fR (omitting the \f3-f\fR option from both \f3jar\fR commands):
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3(cd dir1; jar c \&.) | (cd dir2; jar x)\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+.SH SEE\ ALSO    
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+pack200(1)\&.
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+The JAR section of The Java Tutorials at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/tutorial/deployment/jar/index\&.html
+.RE
+.br
+'pl 8.5i
+'bp
--- a/jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/jarsigner.1	Thu Nov 21 09:23:03 2013 -0800
+++ b/jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/jarsigner.1	Mon Nov 25 20:19:02 2013 -0800
@@ -1,1567 +1,985 @@
-." Copyright (c) 1998, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
-." DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
-."
-." This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
-." under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
-." published by the Free Software Foundation.
-."
-." This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
-." ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
-." FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
-." version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
-." accompanied this code).
-."
-." You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
-." 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
-." Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
-."
-." Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
-." or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
-." questions.
-."
-.TH jarsigner 1 "10 May 2011"
+'\" t
+.\"  Copyright (c) 1998, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+.\"
+.\" DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+.\"
+.\" This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+.\" under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+.\" published by the Free Software Foundation.
+.\"
+.\" This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+.\" ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+.\" FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License
+.\" version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+.\" accompanied this code).
+.\"
+.\" You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+.\" 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+.\" Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+.\"
+.\" Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
+.\" or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
+.\" questions.
+.\"
+.\"     Arch: generic
+.\"     Software: JDK 8
+.\"     Date: 21 November 2013
+.\"     SectDesc: Security Tools
+.\"     Title: jarsigner.1
+.\"
+.if n .pl 99999
+.TH jarsigner 1 "21 November 2013" "JDK 8" "Security Tools"
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * Define some portability stuff
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+.\" http://bugs.debian.org/507673
+.\" http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/groff/2009-02/msg00013.html
+.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+.ie \n(.g .ds Aq \(aq
+.el       .ds Aq '
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * set default formatting
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" disable hyphenation
+.nh
+.\" disable justification (adjust text to left margin only)
+.ad l
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * MAIN CONTENT STARTS HERE *
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
 
-.LP
-.SH "Name"
-jarsigner \- JAR Signing and Verification Tool
-.LP
-.LP
-Generates signatures for Java ARchive (JAR) files, and verifies the signatures of signed JAR files.
-.LP
-.SH "SYNOPSIS"
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-\fP\f3jarsigner\fP [ options ] jar\-file alias
-.fl
-\f3jarsigner\fP \-verify [ options ] jar\-file [alias...]
-.fl
-.fi
+.SH NAME    
+jarsigner \- Signs and verifies Java Archive (JAR) files\&.
+.SH SYNOPSIS    
+.sp     
+.nf     
 
-.LP
-.LP
-The jarsigner \-verify command can take zero or more keystore alias names after the jar filename. When specified, jarsigner will check that the certificate used to verify each signed entry in the jar file matches one of the keystore aliases. The aliases are defined in the keystore specified by \-keystore, or the default keystore.
-.LP
-.SH "DESCRIPTION"
-.LP
-.LP
-The \f3jarsigner\fP tool is used for two purposes:
-.LP
-.RS 3
-.TP 3
-1.
-to sign Java ARchive (JAR) files, and
-.TP 3
-2.
-to verify the signatures and integrity of signed JAR files.
-.RE
+\fBjarsigner\fR [ \fIoptions\fR ] \fIjar\-file\fR \fIalias\fR
+.fi     
+.nf     
 
-.LP
-.LP
-The JAR feature enables the packaging of class files, images, sounds, and other digital data in a single file for faster and easier distribution. A tool named jar(1) enables developers to produce JAR files. (Technically, any zip file can also be considered a JAR file, although when created by \f3jar\fP or processed by \f3jarsigner\fP, JAR files also contain a META\-INF/MANIFEST.MF file.)
-.LP
-.LP
-A \f2digital signature\fP is a string of bits that is computed from some data (the data being "signed") and the private key of an entity (a person, company, etc.). Like a handwritten signature, a digital signature has many useful characteristics:
-.LP
-.RS 3
-.TP 2
-o
-Its authenticity can be verified, via a computation that uses the public key corresponding to the private key used to generate the signature.
-.TP 2
-o
-It cannot be forged, assuming the private key is kept secret.
-.TP 2
-o
-It is a function of the data signed and thus can't be claimed to be the signature for other data as well.
-.TP 2
-o
-The signed data cannot be changed; if it is, the signature will no longer verify as being authentic.
-.RE
+\fBjarsigner\fR \fB\-verify\fR [ \fIoptions\fR ] \fIjar\-file\fR [\fIalias \&.\&.\&.\fR]
+.fi     
+.sp     
+.TP     
+\fIoptions\fR
+The command-line options\&. See Options\&.
+.TP
+-verify
+.br
+The \f3-verify\fR option can take zero or more keystore alias names after the JAR file name\&. When the \f3-verify\fR option is specified, the \f3jarsigner\fR command checks that the certificate used to verify each signed entry in the JAR file matches one of the keystore aliases\&. The aliases are defined in the keystore specified by \f3-keystore\fR or the default keystore\&.
 
-.LP
-.LP
-In order for an entity's signature to be generated for a file, the entity must first have a public/private key pair associated with it, and also one or more certificates authenticating its public key. A \f2certificate\fP is a digitally signed statement from one entity, saying that the public key of some other entity has a particular value.
-.LP
-.LP
-\f3jarsigner\fP uses key and certificate information from a \f2keystore\fP to generate digital signatures for JAR files. A keystore is a database of private keys and their associated X.509 certificate chains authenticating the corresponding public keys. The keytool(1) utility is used to create and administer keystores.
-.LP
-.LP
-\f3jarsigner\fP uses an entity's private key to generate a signature. The signed JAR file contains, among other things, a copy of the certificate from the keystore for the public key corresponding to the private key used to sign the file. \f3jarsigner\fP can verify the digital signature of the signed JAR file using the certificate inside it (in its signature block file).
-.LP
-.LP
-\f3jarsigner\fP can generate signatures that include a timestamp, thus enabling systems/deployer (including Java Plug\-in) to check whether the JAR file was signed while the signing certificate was still valid. In addition, APIs will allow applications to obtain the timestamp information.
-.LP
-.LP
-At this time, \f3jarsigner\fP can only sign JAR files created by the SDK jar(1) tool or zip files. (JAR files are the same as zip files, except they also have a META\-INF/MANIFEST.MF file. Such a file will automatically be created when \f3jarsigner\fP signs a zip file.)
-.LP
-.LP
-The default \f3jarsigner\fP behavior is to \f2sign\fP a JAR (or zip) file. Use the \f2\-verify\fP option to instead have it \f2verify\fP a signed JAR file.
-.LP
-.SS
-Keystore Aliases
-.LP
-.LP
-All keystore entities are accessed via unique \f2aliases\fP.
-.LP
-.LP
-When using \f3jarsigner\fP to sign a JAR file, you must specify the alias for the keystore entry containing the private key needed to generate the signature. For example, the following will sign the JAR file named "MyJARFile.jar", using the private key associated with the alias "duke" in the keystore named "mystore" in the "working" directory. Since no output file is specified, it overwrites MyJARFile.jar with the signed JAR file.
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-    jarsigner \-keystore /working/mystore \-storepass \fP\f4<keystore password>\fP\f3
-.fl
-      \-keypass \fP\f4<private key password>\fP\f3 MyJARFile.jar duke
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
+If you also specified the \f3-strict\fR option, and the \f3jarsigner\fR command detected severe warnings, the message, "jar verified, with signer errors" is displayed\&.
+.TP     
+\fIjar-file\fR
+The JAR file to be signed\&.
 
-.LP
-.LP
-Keystores are protected with a password, so the store password must be specified. You will be prompted for it if you don't specify it on the command line. Similarly, private keys are protected in a keystore with a password, so the private key's password must be specified, and you will be prompted for it if you don't specify it on the command line and it isn't the same as the store password.
-.LP
-.SS
-Keystore Location
-.LP
-.LP
-\f3jarsigner\fP has a \f2\-keystore\fP option for specifying the URL of the keystore to be used. The keystore is by default stored in a file named \f2.keystore\fP in the user's home directory, as determined by the \f2user.home\fP system property. On Solaris systems \f2user.home\fP defaults to the user's home directory.
-.LP
-.LP
-Note that the input stream from the \f2\-keystore\fP option is passed to the \f2KeyStore.load\fP method. If \f2NONE\fP is specified as the URL, then a null stream is passed to the \f2KeyStore.load\fP method. \f2NONE\fP should be specified if the \f2KeyStore\fP is not file\-based, for example, if it resides on a hardware token device.
-.LP
-.SS
-Keystore Implementation
-.LP
-.LP
-The \f2KeyStore\fP class provided in the \f2java.security\fP package supplies well\-defined interfaces to access and modify the information in a keystore. It is possible for there to be multiple different concrete implementations, where each implementation is that for a particular \f2type\fP of keystore.
-.LP
-.LP
-Currently, there are two command\-line tools that make use of keystore implementations (\f3keytool\fP and \f3jarsigner\fP), and also a GUI\-based tool named \f3Policy Tool\fP. Since \f2KeyStore\fP is publicly available, Java 2 SDK users can write additional security applications that use it.
-.LP
-.LP
-There is a built\-in default implementation, provided by Sun Microsystems. It implements the keystore as a file, utilizing a proprietary keystore type (format) named "JKS". It protects each private key with its individual password, and also protects the integrity of the entire keystore with a (possibly different) password.
-.LP
-.LP
-Keystore implementations are provider\-based. More specifically, the application interfaces supplied by \f2KeyStore\fP are implemented in terms of a "Service Provider Interface" (SPI). That is, there is a corresponding abstract \f2KeystoreSpi\fP class, also in the \f2java.security\fP package, which defines the Service Provider Interface methods that "providers" must implement. (The term "provider" refers to a package or a set of packages that supply a concrete implementation of a subset of services that can be accessed by the Java Security API.) Thus, to provide a keystore implementation, clients must implement a provider and supply a KeystoreSpi subclass implementation, as described in
-.na
-\f2How to Implement a Provider for the Java Cryptography Architecture\fP @
-.fi
-http://download.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/technotes/guides/security/crypto/HowToImplAProvider.html.
-.LP
-.LP
-Applications can choose different \f2types\fP of keystore implementations from different providers, using the "getInstance" factory method supplied in the \f2KeyStore\fP class. A keystore type defines the storage and data format of the keystore information, and the algorithms used to protect private keys in the keystore and the integrity of the keystore itself. Keystore implementations of different types are not compatible.
-.LP
-.LP
-\f3keytool\fP works on any file\-based keystore implementation. (It treats the keystore location that is passed to it at the command line as a filename and converts it to a FileInputStream, from which it loads the keystore information.) The \f3jarsigner\fP and \f3policytool\fP tools, on the other hand, can read a keystore from any location that can be specified using a URL.
-.LP
-.LP
-For \f3jarsigner\fP and \f3keytool\fP, you can specify a keystore type at the command line, via the \f2\-storetype\fP option. For \f3Policy Tool\fP, you can specify a keystore type via the "Change Keystore" command in the Edit menu.
-.LP
-.LP
-If you don't explicitly specify a keystore type, the tools choose a keystore implementation based simply on the value of the \f2keystore.type\fP property specified in the security properties file. The security properties file is called \f2java.security\fP, and it resides in the SDK security properties directory, \f2java.home\fP/lib/security, where \f2java.home\fP is the runtime environment's directory (the \f2jre\fP directory in the SDK or the top\-level directory of the Java 2 Runtime Environment).
-.LP
-.LP
-Each tool gets the \f2keystore.type\fP value and then examines all the currently\-installed providers until it finds one that implements keystores of that type. It then uses the keystore implementation from that provider.
-.LP
-.LP
-The \f2KeyStore\fP class defines a static method named \f2getDefaultType\fP that lets applications and applets retrieve the value of the \f2keystore.type\fP property. The following line of code creates an instance of the default keystore type (as specified in the \f2keystore.type\fP property):
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-    KeyStore keyStore = KeyStore.getInstance(KeyStore.getDefaultType());
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
+If you also specified the \f3-strict\fR option, and the \f3jarsigner\fR command detected severe warnings, the message, "jar signed, with signer errors" is displayed\&.
+.TP     
+\fIalias\fR
+The aliases are defined in the keystore specified by \f3-keystore\fR or the default keystore\&.
+.SH DESCRIPTION    
+The \f3jarsigner\fR tool has two purposes:
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+To sign Java Archive (JAR) files\&.
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+To verify the signatures and integrity of signed JAR files\&.
+.PP
+The JAR feature enables the packaging of class files, images, sounds, and other digital data in a single file for faster and easier distribution\&. A tool named \f3jar\fR enables developers to produce JAR files\&. (Technically, any zip file can also be considered a JAR file, although when created by the \f3jar\fR command or processed by the \f3jarsigner\fR command, JAR files also contain a \f3META-INF/MANIFEST\&.MF\fR file\&.)
+.PP
+A digital signature is a string of bits that is computed from some data (the data being signed) and the private key of an entity (a person, company, and so on)\&. Similar to a handwritten signature, a digital signature has many useful characteristics:
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+Its authenticity can be verified by a computation that uses the public key corresponding to the private key used to generate the signature\&.
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+It cannot be forged, assuming the private key is kept secret\&.
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+It is a function of the data signed and thus cannot be claimed to be the signature for other data as well\&.
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+The signed data cannot be changed\&. If the data is changed, then the signature cannot be verified as authentic\&.
+.PP
+To generate an entity\&'s signature for a file, the entity must first have a public/private key pair associated with it and one or more certificates that authenticate its public key\&. A certificate is a digitally signed statement from one entity that says that the public key of another entity has a particular value\&.
+.PP
+The \f3jarsigner\fR command uses key and certificate information from a keystore to generate digital signatures for JAR files\&. A keystore is a database of private keys and their associated X\&.509 certificate chains that authenticate the corresponding public keys\&. The \f3keytool\fR command is used to create and administer keystores\&.
+.PP
+The \f3jarsigner\fR command uses an entity\&'s private key to generate a signature\&. The signed JAR file contains, among other things, a copy of the certificate from the keystore for the public key corresponding to the private key used to sign the file\&. The \f3jarsigner\fR command can verify the digital signature of the signed JAR file using the certificate inside it (in its signature block file)\&.
+.PP
+The \f3jarsigner\fR command can generate signatures that include a time stamp that lets a systems or deployer (including Java Plug-in) to check whether the JAR file was signed while the signing certificate was still valid\&. In addition, APIs allow applications to obtain the timestamp information\&.
+.PP
+At this time, the \f3jarsigner\fR command can only sign JAR files created by the \f3jar\fR command or zip files\&. JAR files are the same as zip files, except they also have a \f3META-INF/MANIFEST\&.MF\fR file\&. A \f3META-INF/MANIFEST\&.MF\fR file is created when the \f3jarsigner\fR command signs a zip file\&.
+.PP
+The default \f3jarsigner\fR command behavior is to sign a JAR or zip file\&. Use the \f3-verify\fR option to verify a signed JAR file\&.
+.PP
+The \f3jarsigner\fR command also attempts to validate the signer\&'s certificate after signing or verifying\&. If there is a validation error or any other problem, the command generates warning messages\&. If you specify the \f3-strict\fR option, then the command treats severe warnings as errors\&. See Errors and Warnings\&.
+.SS KEYSTORE\ ALIASES    
+All keystore entities are accessed with unique aliases\&.
+.PP
+When you use the \f3jarsigner\fR command to sign a JAR file, you must specify the alias for the keystore entry that contains the private key needed to generate the signature\&. For example, the following command signs the JAR file named \f3MyJARFile\&.jar\fR with the private key associated with the alias \f3duke\fR in the keystore named \f3mystore\fR in the \f3working\fR directory\&. Because no output file is specified, it overwrites \f3MyJARFile\&.jar\fR with the signed JAR file\&.
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3jarsigner \-keystore /working/mystore \-storepass <keystore password>\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3      \-keypass <private key password> MyJARFile\&.jar duke\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+Keystores are protected with a password, so the store password must be specified\&. You are prompted for it when you do not specify it on the command line\&. Similarly, private keys are protected in a keystore with a password, so the private key\&'s password must be specified, and you are prompted for the password when you do not specify it on the command line and it is not the same as the store password\&.
+.SS KEYSTORE\ LOCATION    
+The \f3jarsigner\fR command has a \f3-keystore\fR option for specifying the URL of the keystore to be used\&. The keystore is by default stored in a file named \f3\&.keystore\fR in the user\&'s home directory, as determined by the \f3user\&.home\fR system property\&.
+.PP
+On Oracle Solaris systems, \f3user\&.home\fR defaults to the user\&'s home directory\&.
+.PP
+The input stream from the \f3-keystore\fR option is passed to the \f3KeyStore\&.load\fR method\&. If \f3NONE\fR is specified as the URL, then a null stream is passed to the \f3KeyStore\&.load\fR method\&. \f3NONE\fR should be specified when the \f3KeyStore\fR class is not file based, for example, when it resides on a hardware token device\&.
+.SS KEYSTORE\ IMPLEMENTATION    
+The \f3KeyStore\fR class provided in the \f3java\&.security\fR package supplies a number of well-defined interfaces to access and modify the information in a keystore\&. You can have multiple different concrete implementations, where each implementation is for a particular type of keystore\&.
+.PP
+Currently, there are two command-line tools that use keystore implementations (\f3keytool\fR and \f3jarsigner\fR), and a GUI-based tool named Policy Tool\&. Because the \f3KeyStore\fR class is publicly available, JDK users can write additional security applications that use it\&.
+.PP
+There is a built-in default implementation provided by Oracle that implements the keystore as a file, that uses a proprietary keystore type (format) named JKS\&. The built-in implementation protects each private key with its individual password and protects the integrity of the entire keystore with a (possibly different) password\&.
+.PP
+Keystore implementations are provider-based, which means the application interfaces supplied by the \f3KeyStore\fR class are implemented in terms of a Service Provider Interface (SPI)\&. There is a corresponding abstract \f3KeystoreSpi\fR class, also in the \f3java\&.security package\fR, that defines the Service Provider Interface methods that providers must implement\&. The term provider refers to a package or a set of packages that supply a concrete implementation of a subset of services that can be accessed by the Java Security API\&. To provide a keystore implementation, clients must implement a provider and supply a \f3KeystoreSpi\fR subclass implementation, as described in How to Implement a Provider in the Java Cryptography Architecture at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/security/crypto/HowToImplAProvider\&.html
+.PP
+Applications can choose different types of keystore implementations from different providers, with the \f3getInstance\fR factory method in the \f3KeyStore\fR class\&. A keystore type defines the storage and data format of the keystore information and the algorithms used to protect private keys in the keystore and the integrity of the keystore itself\&. Keystore implementations of different types are not compatible\&.
+.PP
+The \f3jarsigner\fR and \f3policytool\fR commands can read file-based keystores from any location that can be specified using a URL\&. In addition, these commands can read non-file-based keystores such as those provided by MSCAPI on Windows and PKCS11 on all platforms\&.
+.PP
+For the \f3jarsigner\fR and \f3keytool\fR commands, you can specify a keystore type at the command line with the \f3-storetype\fR option\&. For Policy Tool, you can specify a keystore type with the \fIEdit\fR command in the \fIKeyStore\fR menu\&.
+.PP
+If you do not explicitly specify a keystore type, then the tools choose a keystore implementation based on the value of the \f3keystore\&.type\fR property specified in the security properties file\&. The security properties file is called \f3java\&.security\fR, and it resides in the JDK security properties directory, \f3java\&.home/lib/security\fR, where \f3java\&.home\fR is the runtime environment\&'s directory\&. The \f3jre\fR directory in the JDK or the top-level directory of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE)\&.
+.PP
+Each tool gets the \f3keystore\&.type\fR value and then examines all the installed providers until it finds one that implements keystores of that type\&. It then uses the keystore implementation from that provider\&.
+.PP
+The \f3KeyStore\fR class defines a static method named \f3getDefaultType\fR that lets applications and applets retrieve the value of the \f3keystore\&.type\fR property\&. The following line of code creates an instance of the default keystore type as specified in the \f3keystore\&.type property\fR:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3KeyStore keyStore = KeyStore\&.getInstance(KeyStore\&.getDefaultType());\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+The default keystore type is \f3jks\fR (the proprietary type of the keystore implementation provided by Oracle)\&. This is specified by the following line in the security properties file:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3keystore\&.type=jks\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+Case does not matter in keystore type designations\&. For example, \f3JKS\fR is the same as \f3jks\fR\&.
+.PP
+To have the tools use a keystore implementation other than the default, change that line to specify a different keystore type\&. For example, if you have a provider package that supplies a keystore implementation for a keystore type called \f3pkcs12\fR, then change the line to the following:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3keystore\&.type=pkcs12\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+\fINote:\fR If you use the PKCS 11 provider package, then see "KeyTool" and "JarSigner" in Java PKCS #11 Reference Guide at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/security/p11guide\&.html
+.SS SUPPORTED\ ALGORITHMS    
+By default, the \f3jarsigner\fR command signs a JAR file using one of the following algorithms:
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) with the SHA1 digest algorithm
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+RSA algorithm with the SHA256 digest algorithm
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+Elliptic Curve (EC) cryptography algorithm with the SHA256 with Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA)\&.
+.PP
+If the signer\&'s public and private keys are DSA keys, then \f3jarsigner\fR signs the JAR file with the \f3SHA1withDSA\fR algorithm\&. If the signer\&'s keys are RSA keys, then \f3jarsigner\fR attempts to sign the JAR file with the \f3SHA256withRSA\fR algorithm\&. If the signer\&'s keys are EC keys, then \f3jarsigner\fR signs the JAR file with the \f3SHA256withECDSA\fR algorithm\&.
+.PP
+These default signature algorithms can be overridden using the \f3-sigalg\fR option\&.
+.SS THE\ SIGNED\ JAR\ FILE    
+When the \f3jarsigner\fR command is used to sign a JAR file, the output signed JAR file is exactly the same as the input JAR file, except that it has two additional files placed in the META-INF directory:
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+A signature file with an \f3\&.SF\fR extension
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+A signature block file with a \f3\&.DSA\fR, \f3\&.RSA\fR, or \f3\&.EC\fR extension
+.PP
+The base file names for these two files come from the value of the \f3-sigFile\fR option\&. For example, when the option is \f3-sigFile MKSIGN\fR, the files are named \f3MKSIGN\&.SF\fR and \f3MKSIGN\&.DSA\fR
+.PP
+If no \f3-sigfile\fR option appears on the command line, then the base file name for the \f3\&.SF\fR and \f3\&.DSA\fR files is the first 8 characters of the alias name specified on the command line, all converted to uppercase\&. If the alias name has fewer than 8 characters, then the full alias name is used\&. If the alias name contains any characters that are not allowed in a signature file name, then each such character is converted to an underscore (_) character in forming the file name\&. Valid characters include letters, digits, underscores, and hyphens\&.
+.PP
+Signature File
 
-.LP
-.LP
-The default keystore type is "jks" (the proprietary type of the keystore implementation provided by Sun). This is specified by the following line in the security properties file:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-    keystore.type=jks
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
+A signature file (\f3\&.SF\fR file) looks similar to the manifest file that is always included in a JAR file when the \f3jarsigner\fR command is used to sign the file\&. For each source file included in the JAR file, the \f3\&.SF\fR file has three lines, such as in the manifest file, that list the following:
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+File name
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+Name of the digest algorithm (SHA)
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+SHA digest value
+.PP
+In the manifest file, the SHA digest value for each source file is the digest (hash) of the binary data in the source file\&. In the \f3\&.SF\fR file, the digest value for a specified source file is the hash of the three lines in the manifest file for the source file\&.
+.PP
+The signature file, by default, includes a header with a hash of the whole manifest file\&. The header also contains a hash of the manifest header\&. The presence of the header enables verification optimization\&. See JAR File Verification\&.
+.PP
+Signature Block File
 
-.LP
-.LP
-Note: Case doesn't matter in keystore type designations. For example, "JKS" would be considered the same as "jks".
-.LP
-.LP
-To have the tools utilize a keystore implementation other than the default, change that line to specify a different keystore type. For example, if you have a provider package that supplies a keystore implementation for a keystore type called "pkcs12", change the line to
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-    keystore.type=pkcs12
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
+The \f3\&.SF\fR file is signed and the signature is placed in the signature block file\&. This file also contains, encoded inside it, the certificate or certificate chain from the keystore that authenticates the public key corresponding to the private key used for signing\&. The file has the extension \f3\&.DSA\fR, \f3\&.RSA\fR, or \f3\&.EC\fR, depending on the digest algorithm used\&.
+.SS SIGNATURE\ TIME\ STAMP    
+The \f3jarsigner\fR command can generate and store a signature time stamp when signing a JAR file\&. In addition, \f3jarsigner\fR supports alternative signing mechanisms\&. This behavior is optional and is controlled by the user at the time of signing through these options\&. See Options\&.
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-tsa \fIurl\fR\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\-tsacert \fIalias\fR\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\-altsigner \fIclass\fR\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\-altsignerpath \fIclasspathlist\fR\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\-tsapolicyid \fIpolicyid\fR\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+.SS JAR\ FILE\ VERIFICATION    
+A successful JAR file verification occurs when the signatures are valid, and none of the files that were in the JAR file when the signatures were generated have changed since then\&. JAR file verification involves the following steps:
+.TP 0.4i    
+1\&.
+Verify the signature of the \f3\&.SF\fR file\&.
 
-.LP
-.LP
-Note that if you us the PKCS#11 provider package, you should refer to the
-.na
-\f2KeyTool and JarSigner\fP @
-.fi
-http://download.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/technotes/guides/security/p11guide.html#KeyToolJarSigner section of the Java PKCS#11 Reference Guide for details.
-.LP
-.SS
-Supported Algorithms
-.LP
-.LP
-By default, \f3jarsigner\fP signs a JAR file using one of the following:
-.LP
-.RS 3
-.TP 2
-o
-DSA (Digital Signature Algorithm) with the SHA1 digest algorithm
-.TP 2
-o
-RSA algorithm with the SHA256 digest algorithm.
-.TP 2
-o
-EC (Elliptic Curve) cryptography algorithm with the SHA256 with ECDSA (Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm).
-.RE
+The verification ensures that the signature stored in each signature block (\f3\&.DSA\fR) file was generated using the private key corresponding to the public key whose certificate (or certificate chain) also appears in the \f3\&.DSA\fR file\&. It also ensures that the signature is a valid signature of the corresponding signature (\f3\&.SF\fR) file, and thus the \f3\&.SF\fR file was not tampered with\&.
+.TP 0.4i    
+2\&.
+Verify the digest listed in each entry in the \f3\&.SF\fR file with each corresponding section in the manifest\&.
 
-.LP
-.LP
-That is, if the signer's public and private keys are DSA keys, \f3jarsigner\fP will sign the JAR file using the "SHA1withDSA" algorithm. If the signer's keys are RSA keys, \f3jarsigner\fP will attempt to sign the JAR file using the "SHA256withRSA" algorithm. If the signer's keys are EC keys, \f3jarsigner\fP will sign the JAR file using the "SHA256withECDSA" algorithm.
-.LP
-.LP
-These default signature algorithms can be overridden using the \f2\-sigalg\fP option.
-.LP
-.SS
-The Signed JAR File
-.LP
-.LP
-When \f3jarsigner\fP is used to sign a JAR file, the output signed JAR file is exactly the same as the input JAR file, except that it has two additional files placed in the META\-INF directory:
-.LP
-.RS 3
-.TP 2
-o
-a signature file, with a .SF extension, and
-.TP 2
-o
-a signature block file, with a .DSA, .RSA, or .EC extension.
-.RE
+The \f3\&.SF\fR file by default includes a header that contains a hash of the entire manifest file\&. When the header is present, the verification can check to see whether or not the hash in the header matches the hash of the manifest file\&. If there is a match, then verification proceeds to the next step\&.
 
-.LP
-.LP
-The base file names for these two files come from the value of the \f2\-sigFile\fP option. For example, if the option appears as
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-\-sigFile MKSIGN
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
+If there is no match, then a less optimized verification is required to ensure that the hash in each source file information section in the \f3\&.SF\fR file equals the hash of its corresponding section in the manifest file\&. See Signature File\&.
 
-.LP
-.LP
-The files are named "MKSIGN.SF" and "MKSIGN.DSA".
-.LP
-.LP
-If no \f2\-sigfile\fP option appears on the command line, the base file name for the .SF and .DSA files will be the first 8 characters of the alias name specified on the command line, all converted to upper case. If the alias name has fewer than 8 characters, the full alias name is used. If the alias name contains any characters that are not allowed in a signature file name, each such character is converted to an underscore ("_") character in forming the file name. Legal characters include letters, digits, underscores, and hyphens.
-.LP
-\f3The Signature (.SF) File\fP
-.LP
-.LP
-A signature file (the .SF file) looks similar to the manifest file that is always included in a JAR file when \f3jarsigner\fP is used to sign the file. That is, for each source file included in the JAR file, the .SF file has three lines, just as in the manifest file, listing the following:
-.LP
-.RS 3
-.TP 2
-o
-the file name,
-.TP 2
-o
-the name of the digest algorithm used (SHA), and
-.TP 2
-o
-a SHA digest value.
-.RE
+One reason the hash of the manifest file that is stored in the \f3\&.SF\fR file header might not equal the hash of the current manifest file is that one or more files were added to the JAR file (with the \f3jar\fR tool) after the signature and \f3\&.SF\fR file were generated\&. When the \f3jar\fR tool is used to add files, the manifest file is changed by adding sections to it for the new files, but the \f3\&.SF\fR file is not changed\&. A verification is still considered successful when none of the files that were in the JAR file when the signature was generated have been changed since then\&. This happens when the hashes in the non-header sections of the \f3\&.SF\fR file equal the hashes of the corresponding sections in the manifest file\&.
+.TP 0.4i    
+3\&.
+Read each file in the JAR file that has an entry in the \f3\&.SF\fR file\&. While reading, compute the file\&'s digest and compare the result with the digest for this file in the manifest section\&. The digests should be the same or verification fails\&.
 
-.LP
-.LP
-In the manifest file, the SHA digest value for each source file is the digest (hash) of the binary data in the source file. In the .SF file, on the other hand, the digest value for a given source file is the hash of the three lines in the manifest file for the source file.
-.LP
-.LP
-The signature file also, by default, includes a header containing a hash of the whole manifest file. The presence of the header enables verification optimization, as described in JAR File Verification.
-.LP
-\f3The Signature Block File\fP
-.LP
-The .SF file is signed and the signature is placed in the signature block file. This file also contains, encoded inside it, the certificate or certificate chain from the keystore which authenticates the public key corresponding to the private key used for signing. The file has the extension .DSA, .RSA, or .EC depending on the digest algorithm used.
-.SS
-Signature Timestamp
-.LP
-.LP
-\f2jarsigner\fP tool can generate and store a signature timestamp when signing a JAR file. In addition, \f2jarsigner\fP supports alternative signing mechanisms. This behavior is optional and is controlled by the user at the time of signing through these options:
-.LP
-.RS 3
-.TP 2
-o
-\f2\-tsa url\fP
-.TP 2
-o
-\f2\-tsacert alias\fP
-.TP 2
-o
-\f2\-altsigner class\fP
-.TP 2
-o
-\f2\-altsignerpath classpathlist\fP
-.RE
+If any serious verification failures occur during the verification process, then the process is stopped and a security exception is thrown\&. The \f3jarsigner\fR command catches and displays the exception\&.
+.PP
+\fINote:\fR You should read any addition warnings (or errors if you specified the \f3-strict\fR option), as well as the content of the certificate (by specifying the \f3-verbose\fR and \f3-certs\fR options) to determine if the signature can be trusted\&.
+.SS MULTIPLE\ SIGNATURES\ FOR\ A\ JAR\ FILE    
+A JAR file can be signed by multiple people by running the \f3jarsigner\fR command on the file multiple times and specifying the alias for a different person each time, as follows:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3jarsigner myBundle\&.jar susan\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3jarsigner myBundle\&.jar kevin\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+When a JAR file is signed multiple times, there are multiple \f3\&.SF\fR and \f3\&.DSA\fR files in the resulting JAR file, one pair for each signature\&. In the previous example, the output JAR file includes files with the following names:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3SUSAN\&.SF\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3SUSAN\&.DSA\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3KEVIN\&.SF\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3KEVIN\&.DSA\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+\fINote:\fR It is also possible for a JAR file to have mixed signatures, some generated by the JDK 1\&.1 by the \f3javakey\fR command and others by \f3jarsigner\fR\&. The \f3jarsigner\fR command can be used to sign JAR files that are already signed with the \f3javakey\fR command\&.
+.SH OPTIONS    
+The following sections describe the various \f3jarsigner\fR options\&. Be aware of the following standards:
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+All option names are preceded by a minus sign (-)\&.
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+The options can be provided in any order\&.
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+Items that are in italics or underlined (option values) represent the actual values that must be supplied\&.
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+The \f3-storepass\fR, \f3-keypass\fR, \f3-sigfile\fR, \f3-sigalg\fR, \f3-digestalg\fR, \f3-signedjar\fR, and TSA-related options are only relevant when signing a JAR file; they are not relevant when verifying a signed JAR file\&. The \f3-keystore\fR option is relevant for signing and verifying a JAR file\&. In addition, aliases are specified when signing and verifying a JAR file\&.
+.TP
+-keystore \fIurl\fR
+.br
+Specifies the URL that tells the keystore location\&. This defaults to the file \f3\&.keystore\fR in the user\&'s home directory, as determined by the \f3user\&.home\fR system property\&.
 
-.LP
-.LP
-Each of these options is detailed in the Options section below.
-.LP
-.SS
-JAR File Verification
-.LP
-.LP
-A successful JAR file verification occurs if the signature(s) are valid, and none of the files that were in the JAR file when the signatures were generated have been changed since then. JAR file verification involves the following steps:
-.LP
-.RS 3
-.TP 3
-1.
-Verify the signature of the .SF file itself.
+A keystore is required when signing\&. You must explicitly specify a keystore when the default keystore does not exist or if you want to use one other than the default\&.
+
+A keystore is not required when verifying, but if one is specified or the default exists and the \f3-verbose\fR option was also specified, then additional information is output regarding whether or not any of the certificates used to verify the JAR file are contained in that keystore\&.
+
+The \f3-keystore\fR argument can be a file name and path specification rather than a URL, in which case it is treated the same as a file: URL, for example, the following are equivalent:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-keystore \fIfilePathAndName\fR\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\-keystore file:\fIfilePathAndName\fR\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+If the Sun PKCS #11 provider was configured in the \f3java\&.security\fR security properties file (located in the JRE\&'s \f3$JAVA_HOME/lib/security directory\fR), then the \f3keytool\fR and \f3jarsigner\fR tools can operate on the PKCS #11 token by specifying these options:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-keystore NONE\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\-storetype PKCS11\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+For example, the following command lists the contents of the configured PKCS#11 token:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3keytool \-keystore NONE \-storetype PKCS11 \-list\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-storetype \fIstoretype\fR
 .br
+Specifies the type of keystore to be instantiated\&. The default keystore type is the one that is specified as the value of the \f3keystore\&.type\fR property in the security properties file, which is returned by the static \f3getDefaultType\fR method in \f3java\&.security\&.KeyStore\fR\&.
+
+The PIN for a PCKS #11 token can also be specified with the \f3-storepass\fR option\&. If none is specified, then the \f3keytool\fR and \f3jarsigner\fR commands prompt for the token PIN\&. If the token has a protected authentication path (such as a dedicated PIN-pad or a biometric reader), then the \f3-protected\fR option must be specified and no password options can be specified\&.
+.TP
+-storepass[:env | :file] \fIargument\fR
 .br
-That is, the verification ensures that the signature stored in each signature block (.DSA) file was in fact generated using the private key corresponding to the public key whose certificate (or certificate chain) also appears in the .DSA file. It also ensures that the signature is a valid signature of the corresponding signature (.SF) file, and thus the .SF file has not been tampered with.
-.TP 3
-2.
-Verify the digest listed in each entry in the .SF file with each corresponding section in the manifest.
+Specifies the password that is required to access the keystore\&. This is only needed when signing (not verifying) a JAR file\&. In that case, if a \f3-storepass\fR option is not provided at the command line, then the user is prompted for the password\&.
+
+If the modifier \f3env\fR or \f3file\fR is not specified, then the password has the value \fIargument\fR\&. Otherwise, the password is retrieved as follows:
+.RS     
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+\f3env\fR: Retrieve the password from the environment variable named \f3argument\fR\&.
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+\f3file\fR: Retrieve the password from the file named \f3argument\fR\&.
+.RE     
+
+
+\fINote:\fR The password should not be specified on the command line or in a script unless it is for testing purposes, or you are on a secure system\&.
+.TP
+-keypass [:env | :file] \fIargument\fR
 .br
+Specifies the password used to protect the private key of the keystore entry addressed by the alias specified on the command line\&. The password is required when using \f3jarsigner\fR to sign a JAR file\&. If no password is provided on the command line, and the required password is different from the store password, then the user is prompted for it\&.
+
+If the modifier \f3env\fR or \f3file\fR is not specified, then the password has the value \f3argument\fR\&. Otherwise, the password is retrieved as follows:
+.RS     
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+\f3env\fR: Retrieve the password from the environment variable named \f3argument\fR\&.
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+\f3file\fR: Retrieve the password from the file named \f3argument\fR\&.
+.RE     
+
+
+\fINote:\fR The password should not be specified on the command line or in a script unless it is for testing purposes, or you are on a secure system\&.
+.TP
+-sigfile \fIfile\fR
 .br
-The .SF file by default includes a header containing a hash of the entire manifest file. When the header is present, then the verification can check to see whether or not the hash in the header indeed matches the hash of the manifest file. If that is the case, verification proceeds to the next step.
+Specifies the base file name to be used for the generated \f3\&.SF\fR and \f3\&.DSA\fR files\&. For example, if file is \f3DUKESIGN\fR, then the generated \f3\&.SF\fR and \f3\&.DSA\fR files are named \f3DUKESIGN\&.SF\fR and \f3DUKESIGN\&.DSA\fR, and placed in the \f3META-INF\fR directory of the signed JAR file\&.
+
+The characters in the file must come from the set \f3a-zA-Z0-9_-\fR\&. Only letters, numbers, underscore, and hyphen characters are allowed\&. All lowercase characters are converted to uppercase for the \f3\&.SF\fR and \f3\&.DSA\fR file names\&.
+
+If no \f3-sigfile\fR option appears on the command line, then the base file name for the \f3\&.SF\fR and \f3\&.DSA\fR files is the first 8 characters of the alias name specified on the command line, all converted to upper case\&. If the alias name has fewer than 8 characters, then the full alias name is used\&. If the alias name contains any characters that are not valid in a signature file name, then each such character is converted to an underscore (_) character to form the file name\&.
+.TP
+-sigalg \fIalgorithm\fR
 .br
+Specifies the name of the signature algorithm to use to sign the JAR file\&.
+
+For a list of standard signature algorithm names, see "Appendix A: Standard Names" in the Java Cryptography Architecture (JCA) Reference Guide at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/security/crypto/CryptoSpec\&.html#AppA
+
+This algorithm must be compatible with the private key used to sign the JAR file\&. If this option is not specified, then \f3SHA1withDSA\fR, \f3SHA256withRSA\fR, or \f3SHA256withECDSA\fR are used depending on the type of private key\&. There must either be a statically installed provider supplying an implementation of the specified algorithm or the user must specify one with the \f3-providerClass\fR option; otherwise, the command will not succeed\&.
+.TP
+-digestalg \fIalgorithm\fR
 .br
-If that is not the case, a less optimized verification is required to ensure that the hash in each source file information section in the .SF file equals the hash of its corresponding section in the manifest file (see The Signature (.SF) File).
+Specifies the name of the message digest algorithm to use when digesting the entries of a JAR file\&.
+
+For a list of standard message digest algorithm names, see "Appendix A: Standard Names" in the Java Cryptography Architecture (JCA) Reference Guide at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/security/crypto/CryptoSpec\&.html#AppA
+
+If this option is not specified, then \f3SHA256\fR is used\&. There must either be a statically installed provider supplying an implementation of the specified algorithm or the user must specify one with the \f3-providerClass\fR option; otherwise, the command will not succeed\&.
+.TP
+-certs
 .br
+If the \f3-certs\fR option appears on the command line with the \f3-verify\fR and \f3-verbose\fR options, then the output includes certificate information for each signer of the JAR file\&. This information includes the name of the type of certificate (stored in the \f3\&.DSA\fR file) that certifies the signer\&'s public key, and if the certificate is an X\&.509 certificate (an instance of the \f3java\&.security\&.cert\&.X509Certificate\fR), then the distinguished name of the signer\&.
+
+The keystore is also examined\&. If no keystore value is specified on the command line, then the default keystore file (if any) is checked\&. If the public key certificate for a signer matches an entry in the keystore, then the alias name for the keystore entry for that signer is displayed in parentheses\&. If the signer comes from a JDK 1\&.1 identity database instead of from a keystore, then the alias name displays in brackets instead of parentheses\&.
+.TP
+-certchain \fIfile\fR
 .br
-One reason the hash of the manifest file that is stored in the .SF file header may not equal the hash of the current manifest file would be because one or more files were added to the JAR file (using the \f2jar\fP tool) after the signature (and thus the .SF file) was generated. When the \f2jar\fP tool is used to add files, the manifest file is changed (sections are added to it for the new files), but the .SF file is not. A verification is still considered successful if none of the files that were in the JAR file when the signature was generated have been changed since then, which is the case if the hashes in the non\-header sections of the .SF file equal the hashes of the corresponding sections in the manifest file.
-.TP 3
-3.
-Read each file in the JAR file that has an entry in the .SF file. While reading, compute the file's digest, and then compare the result with the digest for this file in the manifest section. The digests should be the same, or verification fails.
-.RE
+Specifies the certificate chain to be used when the certificate chain associated with the private key of the keystore entry that is addressed by the alias specified on the command line is not complete\&. This can happen when the keystore is located on a hardware token where there is not enough capacity to hold a complete certificate chain\&. The file can be a sequence of concatenated X\&.509 certificates, or a single PKCS#7 formatted data block, either in binary encoding format or in printable encoding format (also known as Base64 encoding) as defined by the Internet RFC 1421 standard\&. See Internet RFC 1421 Certificate Encoding Standard and http://tools\&.ietf\&.org/html/rfc1421\&.
+.TP
+-verbose
+.br
+When the \f3-verbose\fR option appears on the command line, it indicates verbose mode, which causes \f3jarsigner\fR to output extra information about the progress of the JAR signing or verification\&.
+.TP
+-internalsf
+.br
+In the past, the \f3\&.DSA\fR (signature block) file generated when a JAR file was signed included a complete encoded copy of the \f3\&.SF\fR file (signature file) also generated\&. This behavior has been changed\&. To reduce the overall size of the output JAR file, the \f3\&.DSA\fR file by default does not contain a copy of the \f3\&.SF\fR file anymore\&. If \f3-internalsf\fR appears on the command line, then the old behavior is utilized\&. This option is useful for testing\&. In practice, do not use the \f3-internalsf\fR option because it incurs higher overhead\&.
+.TP
+-sectionsonly
+.br
+If the \f3-sectionsonly\fR option appears on the command line, then the \f3\&.SF\fR file (signature file) generated when a JAR file is signed does not include a header that contains a hash of the whole manifest file\&. It contains only the information and hashes related to each individual source file included in the JAR file\&. See Signature File\&.
 
-.LP
-.LP
-If any serious verification failures occur during the verification process, the process is stopped and a security exception is thrown. It is caught and displayed by \f3jarsigner\fP.
-.LP
-.SS
-Multiple Signatures for a JAR File
-.LP
-.LP
-A JAR file can be signed by multiple people simply by running the \f3jarsigner\fP tool on the file multiple times, specifying the alias for a different person each time, as in:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-  jarsigner myBundle.jar susan
-.fl
-  jarsigner myBundle.jar kevin
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
+By default, this header is added, as an optimization\&. When the header is present, whenever the JAR file is verified, the verification can first check to see whether the hash in the header matches the hash of the whole manifest file\&. When there is a match, verification proceeds to the next step\&. When there is no match, it is necessary to do a less optimized verification that the hash in each source file information section in the \f3\&.SF\fR file equals the hash of its corresponding section in the manifest file\&. See JAR File Verification\&.
 
-.LP
-.LP
-When a JAR file is signed multiple times, there are multiple .SF and .DSA files in the resulting JAR file, one pair for each signature. Thus, in the example above, the output JAR file includes files with the following names:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-  SUSAN.SF
-.fl
-  SUSAN.DSA
-.fl
-  KEVIN.SF
-.fl
-  KEVIN.DSA
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
+The \f3-sectionsonly\fR option is primarily used for testing\&. It should not be used other than for testing because using it incurs higher overhead\&.
+.TP
+-protected
+.br
+Values can be either \f3true\fR or \f3false\fR\&. Specify \f3true\fR when a password must be specified through a protected authentication path such as a dedicated PIN reader\&.
+.TP
+-providerClass \fIprovider-class-name\fR
+.br
+Used to specify the name of cryptographic service provider\&'s master class file when the service provider is not listed in the \f3java\&.security\fR security properties file\&.
 
-.LP
-.LP
-Note: It is also possible for a JAR file to have mixed signatures, some generated by the JDK 1.1 \f3javakey\fP tool and others by \f3jarsigner\fP. That is, \f3jarsigner\fP can be used to sign JAR files already previously signed using \f3javakey\fP.
-.LP
-.SH "OPTIONS"
-.LP
-.LP
-The various \f3jarsigner\fP options are listed and described below. Note:
-.LP
-.RS 3
-.TP 2
-o
-All option names are preceded by a minus sign (\-).
-.TP 2
-o
-The options may be provided in any order.
-.TP 2
-o
-Items in italics (option values) represent the actual values that must be supplied.
-.TP 2
-o
-The \f2\-keystore\fP, \f2\-storepass\fP, \f2\-keypass\fP, \f2\-sigfile\fP, \f2\-sigalg\fP, \f2\-digestalg\fP, and \f2\-signedjar\fP options are only relevant when signing a JAR file, not when verifying a signed JAR file. Similarly, an alias is only specified on the command line when signing a JAR file.
-.RE
+Used with the \f3-providerArg ConfigFilePath\fR option, the \f3keytool\fR and \f3jarsigner\fR tools install the provider dynamically and use \fIConfigFilePath\fR for the path to the token configuration file\&. The following example shows a command to list a \f3PKCS #11\fR keystore when the Oracle PKCS #11 provider was not configured in the security properties file\&.
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3jarsigner \-keystore NONE \-storetype PKCS11 \e\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3          \-providerClass sun\&.security\&.pkcs11\&.SunPKCS11 \e\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3          \-providerArg /mydir1/mydir2/token\&.config \e\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3          \-list\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
 
-.LP
-.RS 3
-.TP 3
-\-keystore url
-Specifies the URL that tells the keystore location. This defaults to the file \f2.keystore\fP in the user's home directory, as determined by the "user.home" system property.
+.TP
+-providerName \fIproviderName\fR
 .br
+If more than one provider was configured in the \f3java\&.security\fR security properties file, then you can use the \f3-providerName\fR option to target a specific provider instance\&. The argument to this option is the name of the provider\&.
+
+For the Oracle PKCS #11 provider, \fIproviderName\fR is of the form \f3SunPKCS11-\fR\fITokenName\fR, where \fITokenName\fR is the name suffix that the provider instance has been configured with, as detailed in the configuration attributes table\&. For example, the following command lists the contents of the \f3PKCS #11\fR keystore provider instance with name suffix \f3SmartCard\fR:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3jarsigner \-keystore NONE \-storetype PKCS11 \e\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3        \-providerName SunPKCS11\-SmartCard \e\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3        \-list\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-J\fIjavaoption\fR
 .br
-A keystore is required when signing, so you must explicitly specify one if the default keystore does not exist (or you want to use one other than the default).
+Passes through the specified \fIjavaoption\fR string directly to the Java interpreter\&. The \f3jarsigner\fR command is a wrapper around the interpreter\&. This option should not contain any spaces\&. It is useful for adjusting the execution environment or memory usage\&. For a list of possible interpreter options, type \f3java -h\fR or \f3java -X\fR at the command line\&.
+.TP
+-tsa \fIurl\fR
 .br
+If \f3-tsa http://example\&.tsa\&.url\fR appears on the command line when signing a JAR file then a time stamp is generated for the signature\&. The URL, \f3http://example\&.tsa\&.url\fR, identifies the location of the Time Stamping Authority (TSA) and overrides any URL found with the \f3-tsacert\fR option\&. The \f3-tsa\fR option does not require the TSA public key certificate to be present in the keystore\&.
+
+To generate the time stamp, \f3jarsigner\fR communicates with the TSA with the Time-Stamp Protocol (TSP) defined in RFC 3161\&. When successful, the time stamp token returned by the TSA is stored with the signature in the signature block file\&.
+.TP
+-tsacert \fIalias\fR
 .br
-A keystore is \f2not\fP required when verifying, but if one is specified, or the default exists, and the \f2\-verbose\fP option was also specified, additional information is output regarding whether or not any of the certificates used to verify the JAR file are contained in that keystore.
+When \f3-tsacert alias\fR appears on the command line when signing a JAR file, a time stamp is generated for the signature\&. The alias identifies the TSA public key certificate in the keystore that is in effect\&. The entry\&'s certificate is examined for a Subject Information Access extension that contains a URL identifying the location of the TSA\&.
+
+The TSA public key certificate must be present in the keystore when using the \f3-tsacert\fR option\&.
+.TP
+-tsapolicyid \fIpolicyid\fR
 .br
+Specifies the object identifier (OID) that identifies the policy ID to be sent to the TSA server\&. If this option is not specified, no policy ID is sent and the TSA server will choose a default policy ID\&.
+
+Object identifiers are defined by X\&.696, which is an ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) standard\&. These identifiers are typically period-separated sets of non-negative digits like \f31\&.2\&.3\&.4\fR, for example\&.
+.TP
+-altsigner \fIclass\fR
 .br
-Note: the \f2\-keystore\fP argument can actually be a file name (and path) specification rather than a URL, in which case it will be treated the same as a "file:" URL. That is,
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-  \-keystore \fP\f4filePathAndName\fP\f3
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-is treated as equivalent to
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-  \-keystore file:\fP\f4filePathAndName\fP\f3
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-If the Sun PKCS#11 provider has been configured in the \f2java.security\fP security properties file (located in the JRE's \f2$JAVA_HOME/lib/security\fP directory), then keytool and jarsigner can operate on the PKCS#11 token by specifying these options:
-.RS 3
-.TP 2
-o
-\f2\-keystore NONE\fP
-.TP 2
-o
-\f2\-storetype PKCS11\fP
-.RE
-For example, this command lists the contents of the configured PKCS#11 token:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-   jarsigner \-keystore NONE \-storetype PKCS11 \-list
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-.TP 3
-\-storetype storetype
-Specifies the type of keystore to be instantiated. The default keystore type is the one that is specified as the value of the "keystore.type" property in the security properties file, which is returned by the static \f2getDefaultType\fP method in \f2java.security.KeyStore\fP.
+This option specifies an alternative signing mechanism\&. The fully qualified class name identifies a class file that extends the \f3com\&.sun\&.jarsigner\&.ContentSigner\fR abstract class\&. The path to this class file is defined by the \f3-altsignerpath\fR option\&. If the \f3-altsigner\fR option is used, then the \f3jarsigner\fR command uses the signing mechanism provided by the specified class\&. Otherwise, the \f3jarsigner\fR command uses its default signing mechanism\&.
+
+For example, to use the signing mechanism provided by a class named \f3com\&.sun\&.sun\&.jarsigner\&.AuthSigner\fR, use the jarsigner option \f3-altsigner com\&.sun\&.jarsigner\&.AuthSigner\fR\&.
+.TP
+-altsignerpath \fIclasspathlist\fR
 .br
+Specifies the path to the class file and any JAR file it depends on\&. The class file name is specified with the \f3-altsigner\fR option\&. If the class file is in a JAR file, then this option specifies the path to that JAR file\&.
+
+An absolute path or a path relative to the current directory can be specified\&. If \fIclasspathlist\fR contains multiple paths or JAR files, then they should be separated with a colon (:) on Oracle Solaris and a semicolon (;) on Windows\&. This option is not necessary when the class is already in the search path\&.
+
+The following example shows how to specify the path to a JAR file that contains the class file\&. The JAR file name is included\&.
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-altsignerpath /home/user/lib/authsigner\&.jar\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+The following example shows how to specify the path to the JAR file that contains the class file\&. The JAR file name is omitted\&.
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-altsignerpath /home/user/classes/com/sun/tools/jarsigner/\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-strict
 .br
-The PIN for a PCKS#11 token can also be specified using the \f2\-storepass\fP option. If none has been specified, keytool and jarsigner will prompt for the token PIN. If the token has a protected authentication path (such as a dedicated PIN\-pad or a biometric reader), then the \f2\-protected\fP option must be specified and no password options can be specified.
-.TP 3
-\-storepass[:env | :file] argument
-Specifies the password which is required to access the keystore. This is only needed when signing (not verifying) a JAR file. In that case, if a \f2\-storepass\fP option is not provided at the command line, the user is prompted for the password.
+During the signing or verifying process, the command may issue warning messages\&. If you specify this option, the exit code of the tool reflects the severe warning messages that this command found\&. See Errors and Warnings\&.
+.TP
+-verbose \fIsuboptions\fR
 .br
-.br
-If the modifier \f2env\fP or \f2file\fP is not specified, then the password has the value \f2argument\fP. Otherwise, the password is retrieved as follows:
-.RS 3
-.TP 2
-o
-\f2env\fP: Retrieve the password from the environment variable named \f2argument\fP
-.TP 2
-o
-\f2file\fP: Retrieve the password from the file named \f2argument\fP
-.RE
-Note: The password shouldn't be specified on the command line or in a script unless it is for testing purposes, or you are on a secure system.
-.TP 3
-\-keypass[:env | :file] argument
-Specifies the password used to protect the private key of the keystore entry addressed by the alias specified on the command line. The password is required when using \f3jarsigner\fP to sign a JAR file. If no password is provided on the command line, and the required password is different from the store password, the user is prompted for it.
-.br
-.br
-If the modifier \f2env\fP or \f2file\fP is not specified, then the password has the value \f2argument\fP. Otherwise, the password is retrieved as follows:
-.RS 3
-.TP 2
-o
-\f2env\fP: Retrieve the password from the environment variable named \f2argument\fP
-.TP 2
-o
-\f2file\fP: Retrieve the password from the file named \f2argument\fP
-.RE
-Note: The password shouldn't be specified on the command line or in a script unless it is for testing purposes, or you are on a secure system.
-.TP 3
-\-sigfile file
-Specifies the base file name to be used for the generated .SF and .DSA files. For example, if \f2file\fP is "DUKESIGN", the generated .SF and .DSA files will be named "DUKESIGN.SF" and "DUKESIGN.DSA", and will be placed in the "META\-INF" directory of the signed JAR file.
-.br
-.br
-The characters in \f2file\fP must come from the set "a\-zA\-Z0\-9_\-". That is, only letters, numbers, underscore, and hyphen characters are allowed. Note: All lowercase characters will be converted to uppercase for the .SF and .DSA file names.
-.br
-.br
-If no \f2\-sigfile\fP option appears on the command line, the base file name for the .SF and .DSA files will be the first 8 characters of the alias name specified on the command line, all converted to upper case. If the alias name has fewer than 8 characters, the full alias name is used. If the alias name contains any characters that are not legal in a signature file name, each such character is converted to an underscore ("_") character in forming the file name.
-.TP 3
-\-sigalg algorithm
-Specifies the name of the signature algorithm to use to sign the JAR file.
-.br
-.br
-See
-.na
-\f2Appendix A\fP @
-.fi
-http://download.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/technotes/guides/security/crypto/CryptoSpec.html#AppA of the Java Cryptography Architecture for a list of standard signature algorithm names. This algorithm must be compatible with the private key used to sign the JAR file. If this option is not specified, SHA1withDSA, SHA256withRSA, or SHA256withECDSA will be used depending on the type of private key. There must either be a statically installed provider supplying an implementation of the specified algorithm or the user must specify one with the \f2\-providerClass\fP option, otherwise the command will not succeed.
-.TP 3
-\-digestalg algorithm
-Specifies the name of the message digest algorithm to use when digesting the entries of a jar file.
-.br
-.br
-See
-.na
-\f2Appendix A\fP @
-.fi
-http://download.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/technotes/guides/security/crypto/CryptoSpec.html#AppA of the Java Cryptography Architecture for a list of standard message digest algorithm names. If this option is not specified, SHA256 will be used. There must either be a statically installed provider supplying an implementation of the specified algorithm or the user must specify one with the \f2\-providerClass\fP option, otherwise the command will not succeed.
-.TP 3
-\-signedjar file
-Specifies the name to be used for the signed JAR file.
-.br
-.br
-If no name is specified on the command line, the name used is the same as the input JAR file name (the name of the JAR file to be signed); in other words, that file is overwritten with the signed JAR file.
-.TP 3
-\-verify
-If this appears on the command line, the specified JAR file will be verified, not signed. If the verification is successful, "jar verified" will be displayed. If you try to verify an unsigned JAR file, or a JAR file signed with an unsupported algorithm (e.g., RSA when you don't have an RSA provider installed), the following is displayed: "jar is unsigned. (signatures missing or not parsable)"
-.br
-.br
-It is possible to verify JAR files signed using either \f3jarsigner\fP or the JDK 1.1 \f3javakey\fP tool, or both.
-.br
-.br
-For further information on verification, see JAR File Verification.
-.TP 3
-\-certs
-If this appears on the command line, along with the \f2\-verify\fP and \f2\-verbose\fP options, the output includes certificate information for each signer of the JAR file. This information includes
-.RS 3
-.TP 2
-o
-the name of the type of certificate (stored in the .DSA file) that certifies the signer's public key
-.TP 2
-o
-if the certificate is an X.509 certificate (more specifically, an instance of \f2java.security.cert.X509Certificate\fP): the distinguished name of the signer
-.RE
-The keystore is also examined. If no keystore value is specified on the command line, the default keystore file (if any) will be checked. If the public key certificate for a signer matches an entry in the keystore, then the following information will also be displayed:
-.RS 3
-.TP 2
-o
-in parentheses, the alias name for the keystore entry for that signer. If the signer actually comes from a JDK 1.1 identity database instead of from a keystore, the alias name will appear in brackets instead of parentheses.
-.RE
-.TP 3
-\-certchain file
-Specifies the certificate chain to be used, if the certificate chain associated with the private key of the keystore entry, addressed by the alias specified on the command line, is not complete. This may happen if the keystore is located on a hardware token where there is not enough capacity to hold a complete certificate chain. The file can be a sequence of X.509 certificates concatenated together, or a single PKCS#7 formatted data block, either in binary encoding format or in printable encoding format (also known as BASE64 encoding) as defined by the Internet RFC 1421 standard.
-.TP 3
-\-verbose
-If this appears on the command line, it indicates "verbose" mode, which causes \f3jarsigner\fP to output extra information as to the progress of the JAR signing or verification.
-.TP 3
-\-internalsf
-In the past, the .DSA (signature block) file generated when a JAR file was signed used to include a complete encoded copy of the .SF file (signature file) also generated. This behavior has been changed. To reduce the overall size of the output JAR file, the .DSA file by default doesn't contain a copy of the .SF file anymore. But if \f2\-internalsf\fP appears on the command line, the old behavior is utilized. \f3This option is mainly useful for testing; in practice, it should not be used, since doing so eliminates a useful optimization.\fP
-.TP 3
-\-sectionsonly
-If this appears on the command line, the .SF file (signature file) generated when a JAR file is signed does \f2not\fP include a header containing a hash of the whole manifest file. It just contains information and hashes related to each individual source file included in the JAR file, as described in The Signature (.SF) File .
-.br
-.br
-By default, this header is added, as an optimization. When the header is present, then whenever the JAR file is verified, the verification can first check to see whether or not the hash in the header indeed matches the hash of the whole manifest file. If so, verification proceeds to the next step. If not, it is necessary to do a less optimized verification that the hash in each source file information section in the .SF file equals the hash of its corresponding section in the manifest file.
-.br
-.br
-For further information, see JAR File Verification.
-.br
-.br
-\f3This option is mainly useful for testing; in practice, it should not be used, since doing so eliminates a useful optimization.\fP
-.TP 3
-\-protected
-Either \f2true\fP or \f2false\fP. This value should be specified as \f2true\fP if a password must be given via a protected authentication path such as a dedicated PIN reader.
-.TP 3
-\-providerClass provider\-class\-name
-Used to specify the name of cryptographic service provider's master class file when the service provider is not listed in the security properties file, \f2java.security\fP.
-.br
-.br
-Used in conjunction with the \f2\-providerArg\fP \f2ConfigFilePath\fP option, keytool and jarsigner will install the provider dynamically (where \f2ConfigFilePath\fP is the path to the token configuration file). Here's an example of a command to list a PKCS#11 keystore when the Sun PKCS#11 provider has not been configured in the security properties file.
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-jarsigner \-keystore NONE \-storetype PKCS11 \\
-.fl
-          \-providerClass sun.security.pkcs11.SunPKCS11 \\
-.fl
-          \-providerArg /foo/bar/token.config \\
-.fl
-          \-list
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-.TP 3
-\-providerName providerName
-If more than one provider has been configured in the \f2java.security\fP security properties file, you can use the \f2\-providerName\fP option to target a specific provider instance. The argument to this option is the name of the provider.
-.br
-.br
-For the Sun PKCS#11 provider, \f2providerName\fP is of the form \f2SunPKCS11\-\fP\f2TokenName\fP, where \f2TokenName\fP is the name suffix that the provider instance has been configured with, as detailed in the
-.na
-\f2configuration attributes table\fP @
-.fi
-http://download.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/technotes/guides/security/p11guide.html#ATTRS. For example, the following command lists the contents of the PKCS#11 keystore provider instance with name suffix \f2SmartCard\fP:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-jarsigner \-keystore NONE \-storetype PKCS11 \\
-.fl
-        \-providerName SunPKCS11\-SmartCard \\
-.fl
-        \-list
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-.TP 3
-\-Jjavaoption
-Passes through the specified \f2javaoption\fP string directly to the Java interpreter. (\f3jarsigner\fP is actually a "wrapper" around the interpreter.) This option should not contain any spaces. It is useful for adjusting the execution environment or memory usage. For a list of possible interpreter options, type \f2java \-h\fP or \f2java \-X\fP at the command line.
-.TP 3
-\-tsa url
-If \f2"\-tsa http://example.tsa.url"\fP appears on the command line when signing a JAR file then a timestamp is generated for the signature. The URL, \f2http://example.tsa.url\fP, identifies the location of the Time Stamping Authority (TSA). It overrides any URL found via the \f2\-tsacert\fP option. The \f2\-tsa\fP option does not require the TSA's public key certificate to be present in the keystore.
-.br
-.br
-To generate the timestamp, \f2jarsigner\fP communicates with the TSA using the Time\-Stamp Protocol (TSP) defined in
-.na
-\f2RFC 3161\fP @
-.fi
-http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3161.txt. If successful, the timestamp token returned by the TSA is stored along with the signature in the signature block file.
-.TP 3
-\-tsacert alias
-If \f2"\-tsacert alias"\fP appears on the command line when signing a JAR file then a timestamp is generated for the signature. The \f2alias\fP identifies the TSA's public key certificate in the keystore that is currently in effect. The entry's certificate is examined for a Subject Information Access extension that contains a URL identifying the location of the TSA.
-.br
-.br
-The TSA's public key certificate must be present in the keystore when using \f2\-tsacert\fP.
-.TP 3
-\-altsigner class
-Specifies that an alternative signing mechanism be used. The fully\-qualified class name identifies a class file that extends the \f2com.sun.jarsigner.ContentSigner abstract class\fP. The path to this class file is defined by the \f2\-altsignerpath\fP option. If the \f2\-altsigner\fP option is used, \f2jarsigner\fP uses the signing mechanism provided by the specified class. Otherwise, \f2jarsigner\fP uses its default signing mechanism.
-.br
-.br
-For example, to use the signing mechanism provided by a class named \f2com.sun.sun.jarsigner.AuthSigner\fP, use the \f2jarsigner\fP option \f2"\-altsigner com.sun.jarsigner.AuthSigner"\fP
-.TP 3
-\-altsignerpath classpathlist
-Specifies the path to the class file (the class file name is specified with the \f2\-altsigner\fP option described above) and any JAR files it depends on. If the class file is in a JAR file, then this specifies the path to that JAR file, as shown in the example below.
-.br
-.br
-An absolute path or a path relative to the current directory may be specified. If \f2classpathlist\fP contains multiple paths or JAR files, they should be separated with a colon (\f2:\fP) on Solaris and a semi\-colon (\f2;\fP) on Windows. This option is not necessary if the class is already in the search path.
-.br
-.br
-Example of specifying the path to a jar file that contains the class file:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-\-altsignerpath /home/user/lib/authsigner.jar
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-Note that the JAR file name is included.
-.br
-.br
-Example of specifying the path to the jar file that contains the class file:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-\-altsignerpath /home/user/classes/com/sun/tools/jarsigner/
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-Note that the JAR file name is omitted.
-.TP 3
-\-strict
-During the signing or verifying process, some warning messages may be shown. If this option appears on the command line, the exit code of the tool will reflect the warning messages that are found. Read the "WARNINGS" section for details.
-.TP 3
-\-verbose:sub\-options
-For the verifying process, the \f2\-verbose\fP option takes sub\-options to determine how much information will be shown. If \f2\-certs\fP is also specified, the default mode (or sub\-option all) displays each entry as it is being processed and following that, the certificate information for each signer of the JAR file. If \f2\-certs\fP and the \f2\-verbose:grouped\fP sub\-option are specified, entries with the same signer info are grouped and displayed together along with their certificate information. If \f2\-certs\fP and the \f2\-verbose:summary\fP sub\-option are specified, then entries with the same signer info are grouped and displayed together along with their certificate information but details about each entry are summarized and displayed as "one entry (and more)". See the examples section for more information.
-.RE
+For the verifying process, the \f3-verbose\fR option takes suboptions to determine how much information is shown\&. If the \f3-certs\fR option is also specified, then the default mode (or suboption \f3all\fR) displays each entry as it is being processed, and after that, the certificate information for each signer of the JAR file\&. If the \f3-certs\fR and the \f3-verbose:grouped\fR suboptions are specified, then entries with the same signer info are grouped and displayed together with their certificate information\&. If \f3-certs\fR and the \f3-verbose:summary\fR suboptions are specified, then entries with the same signer information are grouped and displayed together with their certificate information\&. Details about each entry are summarized and displayed as \fIone entry (and more)\fR\&. See Examples\&.
+.SH ERRORS\ AND\ WARNINGS    
+During the signing or verifying process, the \f3jarsigner\fR command may issue various errors or warnings\&.
+.PP
+If there is a failure, the \f3jarsigner\fR command exits with code 1\&. If there is no failure, but there are one or more severe warnings, the \f3jarsigner\fR command exits with code 0 when the \f3-strict\fR option is \fInot\fR specified, or exits with the OR-value of the warning codes when the \f3-strict\fR is specified\&. If there is only informational warnings or no warning at all, the command always exits with code 0\&.
+.PP
+For example, if a certificate used to sign an entry is expired and has a KeyUsage extension that does not allow it to sign a file, the \f3jarsigner\fR command exits with code 12 (=4+8) when the \f3-strict\fR option is specified\&.
+.PP
+\fINote:\fR Exit codes are reused because only the values from 0 to 255 are legal on Unix-based operating systems\&.
+.PP
+The following sections describes the names, codes, and descriptions of the errors and warnings that the \f3jarsigner\fR command can issue\&.
+.SS FAILURE    
+Reasons why the \f3jarsigner\fR command fails include (but are not limited to) a command line parsing error, the inability to find a keypair to sign the JAR file, or the verification of a signed JAR fails\&.
+.TP     
+failure
+Code 1\&. The signing or verifying fails\&.
+.SS SEVERE\ WARNINGS    
+\fINote:\fR Severe warnings are reported as errors if you specify the \f3-strict\fR option\&.
+.PP
+Reasons why the \f3jarsigner\fR command issues a severe warning include the certificate used to sign the JAR file has an error or the signed JAR file has other problems\&.
+.TP     
+hasExpiredCert
+Code 4\&. This jar contains entries whose signer certificate has expired\&.
+.TP     
+notYetValidCert
+Code 4\&. This jar contains entries whose signer certificate is not yet valid\&.
+.TP     
+chainNotValidated
+Code 4\&. This jar contains entries whose certificate chain cannot be correctly validated\&.
+.TP     
+badKeyUsage
+Code 8\&. This jar contains entries whose signer certificate\&'s KeyUsage extension doesn\&'t allow code signing\&.
+.TP     
+badExtendedKeyUsage
+Code 8\&. This jar contains entries whose signer certificate\&'s ExtendedKeyUsage extension doesn\&'t allow code signing\&.
+.TP     
+badNetscapeCertType
+Code 8\&. This jar contains entries whose signer certificate\&'s NetscapeCertType extension doesn\&'t allow code signing\&.
+.TP     
+hasUnsignedEntry
+Code 16\&. This jar contains unsigned entries which have not been integrity-checked\&.
+.TP     
+notSignedByAlias
+Code 32\&. This jar contains signed entries which are not signed by the specified alias(es)\&.
+.TP     
+aliasNotInStore
+Code 32\&. This jar contains signed entries that are not signed by alias in this keystore\&.
+.SS INFORMATIONAL\ WARNINGS    
+Informational warnings include those that are not errors but regarded as bad practice\&. They do not have a code\&.
+.TP     
+hasExpiringCert
+This jar contains entries whose signer certificate will expire within six months\&.
+.TP     
+noTimestamp
+This jar contains signatures that does not include a timestamp\&. Without a timestamp, users may not be able to validate this JAR file after the signer certificate\&'s expiration date (\f3YYYY-MM-DD\fR) or after any future revocation date\&.
+.SH EXAMPLES    
+.SS SIGN\ A\ JAR\ FILE    
+Use the following command to sign bundle\&.jar with the private key of a user whose keystore alias is \f3jane\fR in a keystore named \f3mystore\fR in the \f3working\fR directory and name the signed JAR file \f3sbundle\&.jar\fR:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3jarsigner \-keystore /working/mystore\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3    \-storepass <keystore password>\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3    \-keypass <private key password>\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3    \-signedjar sbundle\&.jar bundle\&.jar jane\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+There is no \f3-sigfile\fR specified in the previous command so the generated \f3\&.SF\fR and \f3\&.DSA\fR files to be placed in the signed JAR file have default names based on the alias name\&. They are named \f3JANE\&.SF\fR and \f3JANE\&.DSA\fR\&.
+.PP
+If you want to be prompted for the store password and the private key password, then you could shorten the previous command to the following:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3jarsigner \-keystore /working/mystore\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3    \-signedjar sbundle\&.jar bundle\&.jar jane\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+If the keystore is the default keystore (\&.keystore in your home directory), then you do not need to specify a keystore, as follows:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3jarsigner \-signedjar sbundle\&.jar bundle\&.jar jane\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+If you want the signed JAR file to overwrite the input JAR file (bundle\&.jar), then you do not need to specify a \f3-signedjar\fR option, as follows:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3jarsigner bundle\&.jar jane\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+.SS VERIFY\ A\ SIGNED\ JAR\ FILE    
+To verify a signed JAR file to ensure that the signature is valid and the JAR file was not been tampered with, use a command such as the following:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3jarsigner \-verify sbundle\&.jar\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+When the verification is successful, \f3jar verified\fR is displayed\&. Otherwise, an error message is displayed\&. You can get more information when you use the \f3-verbose\fR option\&. A sample use of \f3jarsigner\fR with the\f3-verbose\fR option follows:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3jarsigner \-verify \-verbose sbundle\&.jar\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3           198 Fri Sep 26 16:14:06 PDT 1997 META\-INF/MANIFEST\&.MF\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3           199 Fri Sep 26 16:22:10 PDT 1997 META\-INF/JANE\&.SF\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3          1013 Fri Sep 26 16:22:10 PDT 1997 META\-INF/JANE\&.DSA\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3    smk   2752 Fri Sep 26 16:12:30 PDT 1997 AclEx\&.class\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3    smk    849 Fri Sep 26 16:12:46 PDT 1997 test\&.class\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3      s = signature was verified\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3      m = entry is listed in manifest\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3      k = at least one certificate was found in keystore\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3    jar verified\&.\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+.SS VERIFICATION\ WITH\ CERTIFICATE\ INFORMATION    
+If you specify the \f3-certs\fR option with the \f3-verify\fR and \f3-verbose\fR options, then the output includes certificate information for each signer of the JAR file\&. The information includes the certificate type, the signer distinguished name information (when it is an X\&.509 certificate), and in parentheses, the keystore alias for the signer when the public key certificate in the JAR file matches the one in a keystore entry, for example:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3jarsigner \-keystore /working/mystore \-verify \-verbose \-certs myTest\&.jar\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3           198 Fri Sep 26 16:14:06 PDT 1997 META\-INF/MANIFEST\&.MF\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3           199 Fri Sep 26 16:22:10 PDT 1997 META\-INF/JANE\&.SF\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3          1013 Fri Sep 26 16:22:10 PDT 1997 META\-INF/JANE\&.DSA\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3           208 Fri Sep 26 16:23:30 PDT 1997 META\-INF/JAVATEST\&.SF\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3          1087 Fri Sep 26 16:23:30 PDT 1997 META\-INF/JAVATEST\&.DSA\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3    smk   2752 Fri Sep 26 16:12:30 PDT 1997 Tst\&.class\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3      X\&.509, CN=Test Group, OU=Java Software, O=Oracle, L=CUP, S=CA, C=US (javatest)\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3      X\&.509, CN=Jane Smith, OU=Java Software, O=Oracle, L=cup, S=ca, C=us (jane)\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3      s = signature was verified\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3      m = entry is listed in manifest\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3      k = at least one certificate was found in keystore\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3    jar verified\&.\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+If the certificate for a signer is not an X\&.509 certificate, then there is no distinguished name information\&. In that case, just the certificate type and the alias are shown\&. For example, if the certificate is a PGP certificate, and the alias is \f3bob\fR, then you would get: \f3PGP, (bob)\fR\&.
+.SS VERIFICATION\ THAT\ INCLUDES\ IDENTITY\ DATABASE\ SIGNERS    
+If a JAR file was signed with the JDK 1\&.1 \f3javakey\fR tool, and the signer is an alias in an identity database, then the verification output includes an \f3i\fR\&. If the JAR file was signed by both an alias in an identity database and an alias in a keystore, then both \f3k\fR and \f3i\fR appear\&.
+.PP
+When the \f3-certs\fR option is used, any identity database aliases are shown in brackets rather than the parentheses used for keystore aliases, for example:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3    jarsigner \-keystore /working/mystore \-verify \-verbose \-certs writeFile\&.jar\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3           198 Fri Sep 26 16:14:06 PDT 1997 META\-INF/MANIFEST\&.MF\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3           199 Fri Sep 26 16:22:10 PDT 1997 META\-INF/JANE\&.SF\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3          1013 Fri Sep 26 16:22:10 PDT 1997 META\-INF/JANE\&.DSA\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3           199 Fri Sep 27 12:22:30 PDT 1997 META\-INF/DUKE\&.SF\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3          1013 Fri Sep 27 12:22:30 PDT 1997 META\-INF/DUKE\&.DSA\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3   smki   2752 Fri Sep 26 16:12:30 PDT 1997 writeFile\&.html\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3      X\&.509, CN=Jane Smith, OU=Java Software, O=Oracle, L=cup, S=ca, C=us (jane)\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3      X\&.509, CN=Duke, OU=Java Software, O=Oracle, L=cup, S=ca, C=us [duke]\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3      s = signature was verified\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3      m = entry is listed in manifest\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3      k = at least one certificate was found in keystore\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3      i = at least one certificate was found in identity scope\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3    jar verified\&.\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fR
+.fi     
+.sp     
+\fINote:\fR The alias \f3duke\fR is in brackets to denote that it is an identity database alias, and not a keystore alias\&.
+.SH JDK\ 1\&.1\ COMPATIBILITY    
+The \f3keytool\fR and \f3jarsigner\fR tools replace the \f3javakey\fR tool in JDK 1\&.1\&. These new tools provide more features than \f3javakey\fR, including the ability to protect the keystore and private keys with passwords, and the ability to verify signatures in addition to generating them\&.
+.PP
+The new keystore architecture replaces the identity database that \f3javakey\fR created and managed\&. There is no backward compatibility between the keystore format and the database format used by \f3javakey\fR in JDK 1\&.1\&. However, be aware of the following:
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+It is possible to import the information from an identity database into a keystore through the \f3keytool -identitydb\fR command\&.
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+The \f3jarsigner\fR command can sign JAR files that were signed with the \f3javakey\fR command\&.
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+The \f3jarsigner\fR command can verify JAR files signed with \f3javakey\fR\&. The \f3jarsigner\fR command recognizes and can work with signer aliases that are from a JDK 1\&.1 identity database rather than a JDK keystore\&.
+.SS UNSIGNED\ JARS    
+Unsigned JARs have the default privileges that are granted to all code\&.
+.SS SIGNED\ JARS    
+Signed JARs have the privilege configurations based on their JDK 1\&.1\&.\fIn\fR identity and policy file status as described\&. Only trusted identities can be imported into the JDK keystore\&.
+.PP
+Default Privileges Granted to All Code
 
-.LP
-.SH "EXAMPLES"
-.LP
-.SS
-Signing a JAR File
-.LP
-.LP
-Suppose you have a JAR file named "bundle.jar" and you'd like to sign it using the private key of the user whose keystore alias is "jane" in the keystore named "mystore" in the "working" directory. You can use the following to sign the JAR file and name the signed JAR file "sbundle.jar":
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-    jarsigner \-keystore /working/mystore \-storepass \fP\f4<keystore password>\fP\f3
-.fl
-      \-keypass \fP\f4<private key password>\fP\f3 \-signedjar sbundle.jar bundle.jar jane
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
+Identity in 1\&.1 database: \fINo\fR
+.br     
+Trusted identity imported into Java keystore from 1\&.1\&. database: \fINo\fR
+.br     
+Policy file grants privileges to identity/alias: \fINo\fR
+.PP
 
-.LP
-.LP
-Note that there is no \f2\-sigfile\fP specified in the command above, so the generated .SF and .DSA files to be placed in the signed JAR file will have default names based on the alias name. That is, they will be named \f2JANE.SF\fP and \f2JANE.DSA\fP.
-.LP
-.LP
-If you want to be prompted for the store password and the private key password, you could shorten the above command to
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-    jarsigner \-keystore /working/mystore
-.fl
-      \-signedjar sbundle.jar bundle.jar jane
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
+.PP
+Identity in 1\&.1 database: \fINo\fR
+.br     
+Trusted identity imported into Java keystore from 1\&.1\&. database: \fIYes\fR
+.br     
+Policy file grants privileges to identity/alias: \fINo\fR
+.PP
 
-.LP
-.LP
-If the keystore to be used is the default keystore (the one named ".keystore" in your home directory), you don't need to specify a keystore, as in:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-    jarsigner \-signedjar sbundle.jar bundle.jar jane
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
+.PP
+Identity in 1\&.1 database: Yes/Untrusted
+.br     
+Trusted identity imported into Java keystore from 1\&.1\&. database: \fINo\fR
+.br     
+Policy file grants privileges to identity/alias: \fINo\fR
+.br     
+See 3 in Notes Regarding Privileges of Signed JARs\&.
+.PP
 
-.LP
-.LP
-Finally, if you want the signed JAR file to simply overwrite the input JAR file (\f2bundle.jar\fP), you don't need to specify a \f2\-signedjar\fP option:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-    jarsigner bundle.jar jane
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
+.PP
+Identity in 1\&.1 database: Yes/Untrusted
+.br     
+Trusted identity imported into Java keystore from 1\&.1\&. database: \fINo\fR
+.br     
+Policy file grants privileges to identity/alias: \fIYes\fR
+.br     
+See 1 and 3 in Notes Regarding Privileges of Signed JARs\&.
+.PP
+Default Privileges and Policy File Privileges Granted
 
-.LP
-.SS
-Verifying a Signed JAR File
-.LP
-.LP
-To verify a signed JAR file, that is, to verify that the signature is valid and the JAR file has not been tampered with, use a command such as the following:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-    jarsigner \-verify sbundle.jar
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
+Identity in 1\&.1 database: \fINo\fR
+.br     
+Trusted identity imported into Java keystore from 1\&.1\&. database: \fIYes\fR
+.br     
+Policy file grants privileges to identity/alias: \fIYes\fR
+.PP
 
-.LP
-.LP
-If the verification is successful,
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-    jar verified.
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
+.PP
+Identity in 1\&.1 database: \fIYes/Trusted\fR
+.br     
+Trusted identity imported into Java keystore from 1\&.1\&. database: \fIYes\fR
+.br     
+Policy file grants privileges to identity/alias: \fIYes\fR
+.br     
+See 2 in Notes Regarding Privileges of Signed JARs\&.
+.PP
+All Privileges Granted
 
-.LP
-.LP
-is displayed. Otherwise, an error message appears.
-.LP
-.LP
-You can get more information if you use the \f2\-verbose\fP option. A sample use of \f3jarsigner\fP with the \f2\-verbose\fP option is shown below, along with sample output:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-    jarsigner \-verify \-verbose sbundle.jar
-.fl
+Identity in 1\&.1 database: \fIYes/Trusted\fR
+.br     
+Trusted identity imported into Java keystore from 1\&.1\&. database: \fINo\fR
+.br     
+Policy file grants privileges to identity/alias: \fINo\fR
+.PP
 
-.fl
-           198 Fri Sep 26 16:14:06 PDT 1997 META\-INF/MANIFEST.MF
-.fl
-           199 Fri Sep 26 16:22:10 PDT 1997 META\-INF/JANE.SF
-.fl
-          1013 Fri Sep 26 16:22:10 PDT 1997 META\-INF/JANE.DSA
-.fl
-    smk   2752 Fri Sep 26 16:12:30 PDT 1997 AclEx.class
-.fl
-    smk    849 Fri Sep 26 16:12:46 PDT 1997 test.class
-.fl
-
-.fl
-      s = signature was verified
-.fl
-      m = entry is listed in manifest
-.fl
-      k = at least one certificate was found in keystore
-.fl
-
-.fl
-    jar verified.
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.SS
-Verification with Certificate Information
-.LP
-.LP
-If you specify the \f2\-certs\fP option when verifying, along with the \f2\-verify\fP and \f2\-verbose\fP options, the output includes certificate information for each signer of the JAR file, including the certificate type, the signer distinguished name information (if and only if it's an X.509 certificate), and, in parentheses, the keystore alias for the signer if the public key certificate in the JAR file matches that in a keystore entry. For example,
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-    jarsigner \-keystore /working/mystore \-verify \-verbose \-certs myTest.jar
-.fl
-
-.fl
-           198 Fri Sep 26 16:14:06 PDT 1997 META\-INF/MANIFEST.MF
-.fl
-           199 Fri Sep 26 16:22:10 PDT 1997 META\-INF/JANE.SF
-.fl
-          1013 Fri Sep 26 16:22:10 PDT 1997 META\-INF/JANE.DSA
-.fl
-           208 Fri Sep 26 16:23:30 PDT 1997 META\-INF/JAVATEST.SF
-.fl
-          1087 Fri Sep 26 16:23:30 PDT 1997 META\-INF/JAVATEST.DSA
-.fl
-    smk   2752 Fri Sep 26 16:12:30 PDT 1997 Tst.class
-.fl
-
-.fl
-      X.509, CN=Test Group, OU=Java Software, O=Sun Microsystems, L=CUP, S=CA, C=US (javatest)
-.fl
-      X.509, CN=Jane Smith, OU=Java Software, O=Sun, L=cup, S=ca, C=us (jane)
-.fl
-
-.fl
-      s = signature was verified
-.fl
-      m = entry is listed in manifest
-.fl
-      k = at least one certificate was found in keystore
-.fl
-
-.fl
-    jar verified.
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.LP
-If the certificate for a signer is not an X.509 certificate, there is no distinguished name information. In that case, just the certificate type and the alias are shown. For example, if the certificate is a PGP certificate, and the alias is "bob", you'd get
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-      PGP, (bob)
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.SS
-Verification of a JAR File that Includes Identity Database Signers
-.LP
-.LP
-If a JAR file has been signed using the JDK 1.1 \f3javakey\fP tool, and thus the signer is an alias in an identity database, the verification output includes an "i" symbol. If the JAR file has been signed by both an alias in an identity database and an alias in a keystore, both "k" and "i" appear.
-.LP
-.LP
-When the \f2\-certs\fP option is used, any identity database aliases are shown in square brackets rather than the parentheses used for keystore aliases. For example:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-    jarsigner \-keystore /working/mystore \-verify \-verbose \-certs writeFile.jar
-.fl
-
-.fl
-           198 Fri Sep 26 16:14:06 PDT 1997 META\-INF/MANIFEST.MF
-.fl
-           199 Fri Sep 26 16:22:10 PDT 1997 META\-INF/JANE.SF
-.fl
-          1013 Fri Sep 26 16:22:10 PDT 1997 META\-INF/JANE.DSA
-.fl
-           199 Fri Sep 27 12:22:30 PDT 1997 META\-INF/DUKE.SF
-.fl
-          1013 Fri Sep 27 12:22:30 PDT 1997 META\-INF/DUKE.DSA
-.fl
-   smki   2752 Fri Sep 26 16:12:30 PDT 1997 writeFile.html
-.fl
-
-.fl
-      X.509, CN=Jane Smith, OU=Java Software, O=Sun, L=cup, S=ca, C=us (jane)
-.fl
-      X.509, CN=Duke, OU=Java Software, O=Sun, L=cup, S=ca, C=us [duke]
-.fl
-
-.fl
-      s = signature was verified
-.fl
-      m = entry is listed in manifest
-.fl
-      k = at least one certificate was found in keystore
-.fl
-      i = at least one certificate was found in identity scope
-.fl
-
-.fl
-    jar verified.
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.LP
-Note that the alias "duke" is in brackets to denote that it is an identity database alias, not a keystore alias.
-.LP
-.SH "WARNINGS"
-.LP
-During the signing/verifying process, jarsigner may display various warnings. These warning codes are defined as follows:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-         hasExpiringCert         2
-.fl
-             This jar contains entries whose signer certificate will expire within six months
-.fl
-
-.fl
-         hasExpiredCert          4
-.fl
-             This jar contains entries whose signer certificate has expired.
-.fl
-
-.fl
-         notYetValidCert         4
-.fl
-             This jar contains entries whose signer certificate is not yet valid.
-.fl
-
-.fl
-         chainNotValidated       4
-.fl
-             This jar contains entries whose certificate chain cannot be correctly validated.
-.fl
-
-.fl
-         badKeyUsage             8
-.fl
-             This jar contains entries whose signer certificate's KeyUsage extension doesn't allow code signing.
-.fl
-
-.fl
-         badExtendedKeyUsage     8
-.fl
-             This jar contains entries whose signer certificate's ExtendedKeyUsage extension
-.fl
-             doesn't allow code signing.
-.fl
-
-.fl
-         badNetscapeCertType     8
-.fl
-             This jar contains entries whose signer certificate's NetscapeCertType extension
-.fl
-             doesn't allow code signing.
-.fl
-
-.fl
-         hasUnsignedEntry        16
-.fl
-             This jar contains unsigned entries which have not been integrity\-checked.
-.fl
-
-.fl
-         notSignedByAlias        32
-.fl
-             This jar contains signed entries which are not signed by the specified alias(es)
-.fl
-
-.fl
-         aliasNotInStore         32
-.fl
-             This jar contains signed entries that are not signed by alias in this keystore
-.fl
-
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.LP
-When the \f2\-strict\fP option is provided, an OR\-value of warnings detected will be returned as the exit code of the tool. For example, if a certificate used to sign an entry is expired and has a keyUsage extension that does not allow it to sign a file, an exit code 12 (=4+8) will be returned.
-.LP
-.LP
-\f3Note\fP: Exit codes are reused because only 0\-255 is legal for Unix. In any case, if the signing/verifying process fails, the following exit code will be returned:
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-failure                 1
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-
-.LP
-.SS
-Compatibility with JDK 1.1
-.LP
-.LP
-The \f3keytool\fP and \f3jarsigner\fP tools completely replace the \f3javakey\fP tool provided in JDK 1.1. These new tools provide more features than \f3javakey\fP, including the ability to protect the keystore and private keys with passwords, and the ability to verify signatures in addition to generating them.
-.LP
-.LP
-The new keystore architecture replaces the identity database that \f3javakey\fP created and managed. There is no backwards compatibility between the keystore format and the database format used by \f3javakey\fP in 1.1. However,
-.LP
-.RS 3
-.TP 2
-o
-It is possible to import the information from an identity database into a keystore, via the \f3keytool\fP \f2\-identitydb\fP command.
-.TP 2
-o
-\f3jarsigner\fP can sign JAR files also previously signed using \f3javakey\fP.
-.TP 2
-o
-\f3jarsigner\fP can verify JAR files signed using \f3javakey\fP. Thus, it recognizes and can work with signer aliases that are from a JDK 1.1 identity database rather than a Java 2 SDK keystore.
-.RE
-
-.LP
-.LP
-The following table explains how JAR files that were signed in JDK 1.1.x are treated in the Java 2 platform.
-.LP
-.LP
-.if \n+(b.=1 .nr d. \n(.c-\n(c.-1
-.de 35
-.ps \n(.s
-.vs \n(.vu
-.in \n(.iu
-.if \n(.u .fi
-.if \n(.j .ad
-.if \n(.j=0 .na
-..
-.nf
-.nr #~ 0
-.if n .nr #~ 0.6n
-.ds #d .d
-.if \(ts\n(.z\(ts\(ts .ds #d nl
-.fc
-.nr 33 \n(.s
-.rm 80 81 82 83 84
-.nr 34 \n(.lu
-.eo
-.am 82
-.br
-.di a+
-.35
-.ft \n(.f
-.ll \n(34u*1u/6u
-.if \n(.l<\n(82 .ll \n(82u
-.in 0
-\f3Trusted Identity imported into Java 2 Platform keystore from 1.1 database (4)\fP
-.br
-.di
-.nr a| \n(dn
-.nr a- \n(dl
-..
-.ec \
-.eo
-.am 83
-.br
-.di b+
-.35
-.ft \n(.f
-.ll \n(34u*1u/6u
-.if \n(.l<\n(83 .ll \n(83u
-.in 0
-\f3Policy File grants privileges to Identity/Alias\fP
-.br
-.di
-.nr b| \n(dn
-.nr b- \n(dl
-..
-.ec \
-.eo
-.am 84
-.br
-.di c+
-.35
-.ft \n(.f
-.ll \n(34u*1u/6u
-.if \n(.l<\n(84 .ll \n(84u
-.in 0
-Default privileges granted to all code.
-.br
-.di
-.nr c| \n(dn
-.nr c- \n(dl
-..
-.ec \
-.eo
-.am 84
-.br
-.di d+
-.35
-.ft \n(.f
-.ll \n(34u*1u/6u
-.if \n(.l<\n(84 .ll \n(84u
-.in 0
-Default privileges granted to all code.
-.br
-.di
-.nr d| \n(dn
-.nr d- \n(dl
-..
-.ec \
-.eo
-.am 84
-.br
-.di e+
-.35
-.ft \n(.f
-.ll \n(34u*1u/6u
-.if \n(.l<\n(84 .ll \n(84u
-.in 0
-Default privileges granted to all code.
-.br
-.di
-.nr e| \n(dn
-.nr e- \n(dl
-..
-.ec \
-.eo
-.am 84
-.br
-.di f+
-.35
-.ft \n(.f
-.ll \n(34u*1u/6u
-.if \n(.l<\n(84 .ll \n(84u
-.in 0
-Default privileges granted to all code. (3)
-.br
-.di
-.nr f| \n(dn
-.nr f- \n(dl
-..
-.ec \
-.eo
-.am 84
-.br
-.di g+
-.35
-.ft \n(.f
-.ll \n(34u*1u/6u
-.if \n(.l<\n(84 .ll \n(84u
-.in 0
-Default privileges granted to all code. (1,3)
-.br
-.di
-.nr g| \n(dn
-.nr g- \n(dl
-..
-.ec \
-.eo
-.am 84
-.br
-.di h+
-.35
-.ft \n(.f
-.ll \n(34u*1u/6u
-.if \n(.l<\n(84 .ll \n(84u
-.in 0
-Default privileges granted to all code plus privileges granted in policy file.
-.br
-.di
-.nr h| \n(dn
-.nr h- \n(dl
-..
-.ec \
-.eo
-.am 84
-.br
-.di i+
-.35
-.ft \n(.f
-.ll \n(34u*1u/6u
-.if \n(.l<\n(84 .ll \n(84u
-.in 0
-Default privileges granted to all code plus privileges granted in policy file. (2)
-.br
-.di
-.nr i| \n(dn
-.nr i- \n(dl
-..
-.ec \
-.35
-.nf
-.ll \n(34u
-.nr 80 0
-.nr 38 \w\f3JAR File Type\fP
-.if \n(80<\n(38 .nr 80 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wSigned JAR
-.if \n(80<\n(38 .nr 80 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wUnsigned JAR
-.if \n(80<\n(38 .nr 80 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wSigned JAR
-.if \n(80<\n(38 .nr 80 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wSigned JAR
-.if \n(80<\n(38 .nr 80 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wSigned JAR
-.if \n(80<\n(38 .nr 80 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wSigned JAR
-.if \n(80<\n(38 .nr 80 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wSigned JAR
-.if \n(80<\n(38 .nr 80 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wSigned JAR
-.if \n(80<\n(38 .nr 80 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wSigned JAR
-.if \n(80<\n(38 .nr 80 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wSigned JAR
-.if \n(80<\n(38 .nr 80 \n(38
-.80
-.rm 80
-.nr 81 0
-.nr 38 \w\f3Identity in 1.1 database\fP
-.if \n(81<\n(38 .nr 81 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wNO
-.if \n(81<\n(38 .nr 81 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wNO
-.if \n(81<\n(38 .nr 81 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wNO
-.if \n(81<\n(38 .nr 81 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wYES/Untrusted
-.if \n(81<\n(38 .nr 81 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wYES/Untrusted
-.if \n(81<\n(38 .nr 81 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wNO
-.if \n(81<\n(38 .nr 81 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wYES/Trusted
-.if \n(81<\n(38 .nr 81 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wYES/Trusted
-.if \n(81<\n(38 .nr 81 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wYES/Trusted
-.if \n(81<\n(38 .nr 81 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wYES/Trusted
-.if \n(81<\n(38 .nr 81 \n(38
-.81
-.rm 81
-.nr 82 0
-.nr 38 \wNO
-.if \n(82<\n(38 .nr 82 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wNO
-.if \n(82<\n(38 .nr 82 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wYES
-.if \n(82<\n(38 .nr 82 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wNO
-.if \n(82<\n(38 .nr 82 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wNO
-.if \n(82<\n(38 .nr 82 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wYES
-.if \n(82<\n(38 .nr 82 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wYES
-.if \n(82<\n(38 .nr 82 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wNO
-.if \n(82<\n(38 .nr 82 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wYES
-.if \n(82<\n(38 .nr 82 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wNO
-.if \n(82<\n(38 .nr 82 \n(38
-.82
-.rm 82
-.nr 38 \n(a-
-.if \n(82<\n(38 .nr 82 \n(38
-.nr 83 0
-.nr 38 \wNO
-.if \n(83<\n(38 .nr 83 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wNO
-.if \n(83<\n(38 .nr 83 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wNO
-.if \n(83<\n(38 .nr 83 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wNO
-.if \n(83<\n(38 .nr 83 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wYES
-.if \n(83<\n(38 .nr 83 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wYES
-.if \n(83<\n(38 .nr 83 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wYES
-.if \n(83<\n(38 .nr 83 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wNO
-.if \n(83<\n(38 .nr 83 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wNO
-.if \n(83<\n(38 .nr 83 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wYES
-.if \n(83<\n(38 .nr 83 \n(38
-.83
-.rm 83
-.nr 38 \n(b-
-.if \n(83<\n(38 .nr 83 \n(38
-.nr 84 0
-.nr 38 \w\f3Privileges Granted\fP
-.if \n(84<\n(38 .nr 84 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wAll privileges
-.if \n(84<\n(38 .nr 84 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wAll privileges (1)
-.if \n(84<\n(38 .nr 84 \n(38
-.nr 38 \wAll privileges (1)
-.if \n(84<\n(38 .nr 84 \n(38
-.84
-.rm 84
-.nr 38 \n(c-
-.if \n(84<\n(38 .nr 84 \n(38
-.nr 38 \n(d-
-.if \n(84<\n(38 .nr 84 \n(38
-.nr 38 \n(e-
-.if \n(84<\n(38 .nr 84 \n(38
-.nr 38 \n(f-
-.if \n(84<\n(38 .nr 84 \n(38
-.nr 38 \n(g-
-.if \n(84<\n(38 .nr 84 \n(38
-.nr 38 \n(h-
-.if \n(84<\n(38 .nr 84 \n(38
-.nr 38 \n(i-
-.if \n(84<\n(38 .nr 84 \n(38
-.35
-.nf
-.ll \n(34u
-.nr 38 1n
-.nr 79 0
-.nr 40 \n(79+(0*\n(38)
-.nr 80 +\n(40
-.nr 41 \n(80+(3*\n(38)
-.nr 81 +\n(41
-.nr 42 \n(81+(3*\n(38)
-.nr 82 +\n(42
-.nr 43 \n(82+(3*\n(38)
-.nr 83 +\n(43
-.nr 44 \n(83+(3*\n(38)
-.nr 84 +\n(44
-.nr TW \n(84
-.if t .if \n(TW>\n(.li .tm Table at line 1082 file Input is too wide - \n(TW units
-.fc  
-.nr #T 0-1
-.nr #a 0-1
-.eo
-.de T#
-.ds #d .d
-.if \(ts\n(.z\(ts\(ts .ds #d nl
-.mk ##
-.nr ## -1v
-.ls 1
-.ls
-..
-.ec
-.ne \n(a|u+\n(.Vu
-.ne \n(b|u+\n(.Vu
-.if (\n(a|+\n(#^-1v)>\n(#- .nr #- +(\n(a|+\n(#^-\n(#--1v)
-.if (\n(b|+\n(#^-1v)>\n(#- .nr #- +(\n(b|+\n(#^-\n(#--1v)
-.ta \n(80u \n(81u \n(82u \n(83u \n(84u
-.nr 31 \n(.f
-.nr 35 1m
-\&\h'|\n(40u'\f3JAR File Type\fP\h'|\n(41u'\f3Identity in 1.1 database\fP\h'|\n(42u'\h'|\n(43u'\h'|\n(44u'\f3Privileges Granted\fP
-.mk ##
-.nr 31 \n(##
-.sp |\n(##u-1v
-.nr 37 \n(42u
-.in +\n(37u
-.a+
-.in -\n(37u
-.mk 32
-.if \n(32>\n(31 .nr 31 \n(32
-.sp |\n(##u-1v
-.nr 37 \n(43u
-.in +\n(37u
-.b+
-.in -\n(37u
-.mk 32
-.if \n(32>\n(31 .nr 31 \n(32
-.sp |\n(31u
-.ne \n(c|u+\n(.Vu
-.if (\n(c|+\n(#^-1v)>\n(#- .nr #- +(\n(c|+\n(#^-\n(#--1v)
-.ta \n(80u \n(81u \n(82u \n(83u \n(84u
-.nr 31 \n(.f
-.nr 35 1m
-\&\h'|\n(40u'Signed JAR\h'|\n(41u'NO\h'|\n(42u'NO\h'|\n(43u'NO\h'|\n(44u'
-.mk ##
-.nr 31 \n(##
-.sp |\n(##u-1v
-.nr 37 \n(44u
-.in +\n(37u
-.c+
-.in -\n(37u
-.mk 32
-.if \n(32>\n(31 .nr 31 \n(32
-.sp |\n(31u
-.ne \n(d|u+\n(.Vu
-.if (\n(d|+\n(#^-1v)>\n(#- .nr #- +(\n(d|+\n(#^-\n(#--1v)
-.ta \n(80u \n(81u \n(82u \n(83u \n(84u
-.nr 31 \n(.f
-.nr 35 1m
-\&\h'|\n(40u'Unsigned JAR\h'|\n(41u'NO\h'|\n(42u'NO\h'|\n(43u'NO\h'|\n(44u'
-.mk ##
-.nr 31 \n(##
-.sp |\n(##u-1v
-.nr 37 \n(44u
-.in +\n(37u
-.d+
-.in -\n(37u
-.mk 32
-.if \n(32>\n(31 .nr 31 \n(32
-.sp |\n(31u
-.ne \n(e|u+\n(.Vu
-.if (\n(e|+\n(#^-1v)>\n(#- .nr #- +(\n(e|+\n(#^-\n(#--1v)
-.ta \n(80u \n(81u \n(82u \n(83u \n(84u
-.nr 31 \n(.f
-.nr 35 1m
-\&\h'|\n(40u'Signed JAR\h'|\n(41u'NO\h'|\n(42u'YES\h'|\n(43u'NO\h'|\n(44u'
-.mk ##
-.nr 31 \n(##
-.sp |\n(##u-1v
-.nr 37 \n(44u
-.in +\n(37u
-.e+
-.in -\n(37u
-.mk 32
-.if \n(32>\n(31 .nr 31 \n(32
-.sp |\n(31u
-.ne \n(f|u+\n(.Vu
-.if (\n(f|+\n(#^-1v)>\n(#- .nr #- +(\n(f|+\n(#^-\n(#--1v)
-.ta \n(80u \n(81u \n(82u \n(83u \n(84u
-.nr 31 \n(.f
-.nr 35 1m
-\&\h'|\n(40u'Signed JAR\h'|\n(41u'YES/Untrusted\h'|\n(42u'NO\h'|\n(43u'NO\h'|\n(44u'
-.mk ##
-.nr 31 \n(##
-.sp |\n(##u-1v
-.nr 37 \n(44u
-.in +\n(37u
-.f+
-.in -\n(37u
-.mk 32
-.if \n(32>\n(31 .nr 31 \n(32
-.sp |\n(31u
-.ne \n(g|u+\n(.Vu
-.if (\n(g|+\n(#^-1v)>\n(#- .nr #- +(\n(g|+\n(#^-\n(#--1v)
-.ta \n(80u \n(81u \n(82u \n(83u \n(84u
-.nr 31 \n(.f
-.nr 35 1m
-\&\h'|\n(40u'Signed JAR\h'|\n(41u'YES/Untrusted\h'|\n(42u'NO\h'|\n(43u'YES\h'|\n(44u'
-.mk ##
-.nr 31 \n(##
-.sp |\n(##u-1v
-.nr 37 \n(44u
-.in +\n(37u
-.g+
-.in -\n(37u
-.mk 32
-.if \n(32>\n(31 .nr 31 \n(32
-.sp |\n(31u
-.ne \n(h|u+\n(.Vu
-.if (\n(h|+\n(#^-1v)>\n(#- .nr #- +(\n(h|+\n(#^-\n(#--1v)
-.ta \n(80u \n(81u \n(82u \n(83u \n(84u
-.nr 31 \n(.f
-.nr 35 1m
-\&\h'|\n(40u'Signed JAR\h'|\n(41u'NO\h'|\n(42u'YES\h'|\n(43u'YES\h'|\n(44u'
-.mk ##
-.nr 31 \n(##
-.sp |\n(##u-1v
-.nr 37 \n(44u
-.in +\n(37u
-.h+
-.in -\n(37u
-.mk 32
-.if \n(32>\n(31 .nr 31 \n(32
-.sp |\n(31u
-.ne \n(i|u+\n(.Vu
-.if (\n(i|+\n(#^-1v)>\n(#- .nr #- +(\n(i|+\n(#^-\n(#--1v)
-.ta \n(80u \n(81u \n(82u \n(83u \n(84u
-.nr 31 \n(.f
-.nr 35 1m
-\&\h'|\n(40u'Signed JAR\h'|\n(41u'YES/Trusted\h'|\n(42u'YES\h'|\n(43u'YES\h'|\n(44u'
-.mk ##
-.nr 31 \n(##
-.sp |\n(##u-1v
-.nr 37 \n(44u
-.in +\n(37u
-.i+
-.in -\n(37u
-.mk 32
-.if \n(32>\n(31 .nr 31 \n(32
-.sp |\n(31u
-.ta \n(80u \n(81u \n(82u \n(83u \n(84u
-.nr 31 \n(.f
-.nr 35 1m
-\&\h'|\n(40u'Signed JAR\h'|\n(41u'YES/Trusted\h'|\n(42u'NO\h'|\n(43u'NO\h'|\n(44u'All privileges
-.ta \n(80u \n(81u \n(82u \n(83u \n(84u
-.nr 31 \n(.f
-.nr 35 1m
-\&\h'|\n(40u'Signed JAR\h'|\n(41u'YES/Trusted\h'|\n(42u'YES\h'|\n(43u'NO\h'|\n(44u'All privileges (1)
-.ta \n(80u \n(81u \n(82u \n(83u \n(84u
-.nr 31 \n(.f
-.nr 35 1m
-\&\h'|\n(40u'Signed JAR\h'|\n(41u'YES/Trusted\h'|\n(42u'NO\h'|\n(43u'YES\h'|\n(44u'All privileges (1)
-.fc
-.nr T. 1
-.T# 1
-.35
-.rm a+
-.rm b+
-.rm c+
-.rm d+
-.rm e+
-.rm f+
-.rm g+
-.rm h+
-.rm i+
-.if \n-(b.=0 .nr c. \n(.c-\n(d.-42
-
-.LP
-.LP
-Notes:
-.LP
-.RS 3
-.TP 3
-1.
-If an identity/alias is mentioned in the policy file, it must be imported into the keystore for the policy file to have any effect on privileges granted.
-.TP 3
-2.
-The policy file/keystore combination has precedence over a trusted identity in the identity database.
-.TP 3
-3.
-Untrusted identities are ignored in the Java 2 platform.
-.TP 3
-4.
-Only trusted identities can be imported into Java 2 SDK keystores.
-.RE
-
-.LP
-.SH "SEE ALSO"
-.LP
-.RS 3
-.TP 2
-o
-jar(1) tool documentation
-.TP 2
-o
-keytool(1) tool documentation
-.TP 2
-o
-the
-.na
-\f4Security\fP @
-.fi
-http://download.oracle.com/javase/tutorial/security/index.html trail of the
-.na
-\f4Java Tutorial\fP @
-.fi
-http://download.oracle.com/javase/tutorial/index.html for examples of the use of the \f3jarsigner\fP tool
-.RE
-
-.LP
-
+.PP
+Identity in 1\&.1 database: \fIYes/Trusted\fR
+.br     
+Trusted identity imported into Java keystore from 1\&.1\&. database: \fIYes\fR
+.br     
+Policy file grants privileges to identity/alias: \fINo\fR
+.br     
+See 1 in Notes Regarding Privileges of Signed JARs\&.
+.PP
+Identity in 1\&.1 database: \fIYes/Trusted\fR
+.br     
+Trusted identity imported into Java keystore from 1\&.1\&. database: \fINo\fR
+.br     
+Policy file grants privileges to identity/alias: \fIYes\fR
+.br     
+See 1 in Notes Regarding Privileges of Signed JARs\&.
+.PP
+Notes Regarding Privileges of Signed JARs
+.TP 0.4i    
+1\&.
+If an identity or alias is mentioned in the policy file, then it must be imported into the keystore for the policy file to have any effect on privileges granted\&.
+.TP 0.4i    
+2\&.
+The policy file/keystore combination has precedence over a trusted identity in the identity database\&.
+.TP 0.4i    
+3\&.
+Untrusted identities are ignored in the Java platform\&.
+.SH SEE\ ALSO    
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+jar(1)
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+keytool(1)
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+Trail: Security Features in Java SE at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/tutorial/security/index\&.html
+.RE
+.br
+'pl 8.5i
+'bp
--- a/jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/java.1	Thu Nov 21 09:23:03 2013 -0800
+++ b/jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/java.1	Mon Nov 25 20:19:02 2013 -0800
@@ -1,517 +1,1991 @@
-." Copyright (c) 1994, 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
-." DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
-."
-." This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
-." under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
-." published by the Free Software Foundation.
-."
-." This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
-." ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
-." FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
-." version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
-." accompanied this code).
-."
-." You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
-." 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
-." Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
-."
-." Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
-." or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
-." questions.
-."
-.TH java 1 "10 May 2011"
+'\" t
+.\"  Copyright (c) 1994, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+.\"
+.\" DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+.\"
+.\" This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+.\" under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+.\" published by the Free Software Foundation.
+.\"
+.\" This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+.\" ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+.\" FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License
+.\" version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+.\" accompanied this code).
+.\"
+.\" You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+.\" 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+.\" Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+.\"
+.\" Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
+.\" or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
+.\" questions.
+.\"
+.\"     Arch: generic
+.\"     Software: JDK 8
+.\"     Date: 21 November 2013
+.\"     SectDesc: Basic Tools
+.\"     Title: java.1
+.\"
+.if n .pl 99999
+.TH java 1 "21 November 2013" "JDK 8" "Basic Tools"
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * Define some portability stuff
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+.\" http://bugs.debian.org/507673
+.\" http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/groff/2009-02/msg00013.html
+.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+.ie \n(.g .ds Aq \(aq
+.el       .ds Aq '
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * set default formatting
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" disable hyphenation
+.nh
+.\" disable justification (adjust text to left margin only)
+.ad l
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * MAIN CONTENT STARTS HERE *
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
 
-.LP
-.SH "Name"
-java \- the Java application launcher
-.LP
-.SH "SYNOPSIS"
-.LP
+.SH NAME    
+java \- Launches a Java application\&.
+.SH SYNOPSIS    
+.sp     
+.nf     
+
+\fBjava\fR [\fIoptions\fR] \fIclassname\fR [\fIargs\fR]
+.fi     
+.nf     
+
+\fBjava\fR [\fIoptions\fR] \fB\-jar\fR \fIfilename\fR [\fIargs\fR]
+.fi     
+.sp     
+.TP     
+\fIoptions\fR
+Command-line options separated by spaces\&. See Options\&.
+.TP     
+\fIclassname\fR
+The name of the class to be launched\&.
+.TP     
+\fIfilename\fR
+The name of the Java Archive (JAR) file to be called\&. Used only with the \f3-jar\fR option\&.
+.TP     
+\fIargs\fR
+The arguments passed to the \f3main()\fR method separated by spaces\&.
+.SH DESCRIPTION    
+The \f3java\fR command starts a Java application\&. It does this by starting the Java Runtime Environment (JRE), loading the specified class, and calling that class\&'s \f3main()\fR method\&. The method must be declared \fIpublic\fR and \fIstatic\fR, it must not return any value, and it must accept a \f3String\fR array as a parameter\&. The method declaration has the following form:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3public static void main(String[] args)\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+The \f3java\fR command can be used to launch a JavaFX application by loading a class that either has a \f3main()\fR method or that extends \f3javafx\&.application\&.Application\fR\&. In the latter case, the launcher constructs an instance of the \f3Application\fR class, calls its \f3init()\fR method, and then calls the \f3start(javafx\&.stage\&.Stage)\fR method\&.
+.PP
+By default, the first argument that is not an option of the \f3java\fR command is the fully qualified name of the class to be called\&. If the \f3-jar\fR option is specified, its argument is the name of the JAR file containing class and resource files for the application\&. The startup class must be indicated by the \f3Main-Class\fR manifest header in its source code\&.
+.PP
+The JRE searches for the startup class (and other classes used by the application) in three sets of locations: the bootstrap class path, the installed extensions, and the user\(cqs class path\&.
+.PP
+Arguments after the class file name or the JAR file name are passed to the \f3main()\fR method\&.
+.SH OPTIONS    
+The \f3java\fR command supports a wide range of options that can be divided into the following categories:
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+Standard Options
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+Non-Standard Options
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+Advanced Runtime Options
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+Advanced JIT Compiler Options
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+Advanced Serviceability Options
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+Advanced Garbage Collection Options
+.PP
+Standard options are guaranteed to be supported by all implementations of the Java Virtual Machine (JVM)\&. They are used for common actions, such as checking the version of the JRE, setting the class path, enabling verbose output, and so on\&.
+.PP
+Non-standard options are general purpose options that are specific to the Java HotSpot Virtual Machine, so they are not guaranteed to be supported by all JVM implementations, and are subject to change\&. These options start with \f3-X\fR\&.
+.PP
+Advanced options are not recommended for casual use\&. These are developer options used for tuning specific areas of the Java HotSpot Virtual Machine operation that often have specific system requirements and may require privileged access to system configuration parameters\&. They are also not guaranteed to be supported by all JVM implementations, and are subject to change\&. Advanced options start with \f3-XX\fR\&.
+.PP
+To keep track of the options that were deprecated or removed in the latest release, there is a section named Deprecated and Removed Options at the end of the document\&.
+.PP
+Boolean options are used to either enable a feature that is disabled by default or disable a feature that is enabled by default\&. Such options do not require a parameter\&. Boolean \f3-XX\fR options are enabled using the plus sign (\f3-XX:+\fR\fIOptionName\fR) and disabled using the minus sign (\f3-XX:-\fR\fIOptionName\fR)\&.
+.PP
+For options that require an argument, the argument may be separated from the option name by a space, a colon (:), or an equal sign (=), or the argument may directly follow the option (the exact syntax differs for each option)\&. If you are expected to specify the size in bytes, you can use no suffix, or use the suffix \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR for kilobytes (KB), \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR for megabytes (MB), \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR for gigabytes (GB)\&. For example, to set the size to 8 GB, you can specify either \f38g\fR, \f38192m\fR, \f38388608k\fR, or \f38589934592\fR as the argument\&. If you are expected to specify the percentage, use a number from 0 to 1 (for example, specify \f30\&.25\fR for 25%)\&.
+.SS STANDARD\ OPTIONS    
+These are the most commonly used options that are supported by all implementations of the JVM\&.
+.TP
+-agentlib:\fIlibname\fR[=\fIoptions\fR]
+.br
+Loads the specified native agent library\&. After the library name, a comma-separated list of options specific to the library can be used\&.
+
+If the option \f3-agentlib:foo\fR is specified, then the JVM attempts to load the library named \f3libfoo\&.so\fR in the location specified by the \f3LD_LIBRARY_PATH\fR system variable (on OS X this variable is \f3DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH\fR)\&.
+
+The following example shows how to load the heap profiling tool (HPROF) library and get sample CPU information every 20 ms, with a stack depth of 3:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-agentlib:hprof=cpu=samples,interval=20,depth=3\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+The following example shows how to load the Java Debug Wire Protocol (JDWP) library and listen for the socket connection on port 8000, suspending the JVM before the main class loads:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-agentlib:jdwp=transport=dt_socket,server=y,address=8000\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+For more information about the native agent libraries, refer to the following:
+.RS     
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+The \f3java\&.lang\&.instrument\fR package description at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/api/java/lang/instrument/package-summary\&.html
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+Agent Command Line Options in the JVM Tools Interface guide at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/platform/jvmti/jvmti\&.html#starting
+.RE     
+
+.TP
+-agentpath:\fIpathname\fR[=\fIoptions\fR]
+.br
+Loads the native agent library specified by the absolute path name\&. This option is equivalent to \f3-agentlib\fR but uses the full path and file name of the library\&.
+.TP
+-client
+.br
+Selects the Java HotSpot Client VM\&. The 64-bit version of the Java SE Development Kit (JDK) currently ignores this option and instead uses the Server JVM\&.
+
+For default JVM selection, see Server-Class Machine Detection at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/vm/server-class\&.html
+.TP
+-D\fIproperty\fR=\fIvalue\fR
+.br
+Sets a system property value\&. The \fIproperty\fR variable is a string with no spaces that represents the name of the property\&. The \fIvalue\fR variable is a string that represents the value of the property\&. If \fIvalue\fR is a string with spaces, then enclose it in quotation marks (for example \f3-Dfoo="foo bar"\fR)\&.
+.TP
+-d32
+.br
+Runs the application in a 32-bit environment\&. If a 32-bit environment is not installed or is not supported, then an error will be reported\&. By default, the application is run in a 32-bit environment unless a 64-bit system is used\&.
+.TP
+-d64
+.br
+Runs the application in a 64-bit environment\&. If a 64-bit environment is not installed or is not supported, then an error will be reported\&. By default, the application is run in a 32-bit environment unless a 64-bit system is used\&.
+
+Currently only the Java HotSpot Server VM supports 64-bit operation, and the \f3-server\fR option is implicit with the use of \f3-d64\fR\&. The \f3-client\fR option is ignored with the use of \f3-d64\fR\&. This is subject to change in a future release\&.
+.TP
 .nf
-\f3
-.fl
-    \fP\f3java\fP [ options ] class [ argument ... ]
-.fl
-    \f3java\fP [ options ] \f3\-jar\fP file.jar [ argument ... ]
-.fl
+-disableassertions[:[\fIpackagename\fR]\&.\&.\&.|:\fIclassname\fR], -da[:[\fIpackagename\fR]\&.\&.\&.|:\fIclassname\fR]
+.br
 .fi
+Disables assertions\&. By default, assertions are disabled in all packages and classes\&.
 
-.LP
-.RS 3
-.TP 3
-options
-Command\-line options.
-.TP 3
-class
-Name of the class to be invoked.
-.TP 3
-file.jar
-Name of the jar file to be invoked. Used only with \f2\-jar\fP.
-.TP 3
-argument
-Argument passed to the \f3main\fP function.
+With no arguments, \f3-disableassertions\fR (\f3-da\fR) disables assertions in all packages and classes\&. With the \fIpackagename\fR argument ending in \f3\&.\&.\&.\fR, the switch disables assertions in the specified package and any subpackages\&. If the argument is simply \f3\&.\&.\&.\fR, then the switch disables assertions in the unnamed package in the current working directory\&. With the \fIclassname\fR argument\f3\fR, the switch disables assertions in the specified class\&.
+
+The \f3-disableassertions\fR (\f3-da\fR) option applies to all class loaders and to system classes (which do not have a class loader)\&. There is one exception to this rule: if the option is provided with no arguments, then it does not apply to system classes\&. This makes it easy to disable assertions in all classes except for system classes\&. The \f3-disablesystemassertions\fR option enables you to disable assertions in all system classes\&.
+
+To explicitly enable assertions in specific packages or classes, use the \f3-enableassertions\fR (\f3-ea\fR) option\&. Both options can be used at the same time\&. For example, to run the \f3MyClass\fR application with assertions enabled in package \f3com\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\fR (and any subpackages) but disabled in class \f3com\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\&.Brickbat\fR, use the following command:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3java \-ea:com\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\&.\&.\&. \-da:com\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\&.Brickbat MyClass\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-disablesystemassertions, -dsa
+.br
+Disables assertions in all system classes\&.
+.TP
+.nf
+-enableassertions[:[\fIpackagename\fR]\&.\&.\&.|:\fIclassname\fR], -ea[:[\fIpackagename\fR]\&.\&.\&.|:\fIclassname\fR]
+.br
+.fi
+Enables assertions\&. By default, assertions are disabled in all packages and classes\&.
+
+With no arguments, \f3-enableassertions\fR (\f3-ea\fR) enables assertions in all packages and classes\&. With the \fIpackagename\fR argument ending in \f3\&.\&.\&.\fR, the switch enables assertions in the specified package and any subpackages\&. If the argument is simply \f3\&.\&.\&.\fR, then the switch enables assertions in the unnamed package in the current working directory\&. With the \fIclassname\fR argument\f3\fR, the switch enables assertions in the specified class\&.
+
+The \f3-enableassertions\fR (\f3-ea\fR) option applies to all class loaders and to system classes (which do not have a class loader)\&. There is one exception to this rule: if the option is provided with no arguments, then it does not apply to system classes\&. This makes it easy to enable assertions in all classes except for system classes\&. The \f3-enablesystemassertions\fR option provides a separate switch to enable assertions in all system classes\&.
+
+To explicitly disable assertions in specific packages or classes, use the \f3-disableassertions\fR (\f3-da\fR) option\&. If a single command contains multiple instances of these switches, then they are processed in order before loading any classes\&. For example, to run the \f3MyClass\fR application with assertions enabled only in package \f3com\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\fR (and any subpackages) but disabled in class \f3com\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\&.Brickbat\fR, use the following command:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3java \-ea:com\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\&.\&.\&. \-da:com\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\&.Brickbat MyClass\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-enablesystemassertions, -esa
+.br
+Enables assertions in all system classes\&.
+.TP
+-help, -?
+.br
+Displays usage information for the \f3java\fR command without actually running the JVM\&.
+.TP
+-jar \fIfilename\fR
+.br
+Executes a program encapsulated in a JAR file\&. The \fIfilename\fR argument is the name of a JAR file with a manifest that contains a line in the form \f3Main-Class:\fR\fIclassname\fR that defines the class with the \f3public static void main(String[] args)\fR method that serves as your application\&'s starting point\&.
+
+When you use the \f3-jar\fR option, the specified JAR file is the source of all user classes, and other class path settings are ignored\&.
+
+For more information about JAR files, see the following resources:
+.RS     
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+jar(1)
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+The Java Archive (JAR) Files guide at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/jar/index\&.html
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+Lesson: Packaging Programs in JAR Files at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/tutorial/deployment/jar/index\&.html
+.RE     
+
+.TP
+-javaagent:\fIjarpath\fR[=\fIoptions\fR]
+.br
+Loads the specified Java programming language agent\&. For more information about instrumenting Java applications, see the \f3java\&.lang\&.instrument\fR package description in the Java API documentation at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/api/java/lang/instrument/package-summary\&.html
+.TP
+-jre-restrict-search
+.br
+Includes user-private JREs in the version search\&.
+.TP
+-no-jre-restrict-search
+.br
+Excludes user-private JREs from the version search\&.
+.TP
+-server
+.br
+Selects the Java HotSpot Server VM\&. The 64-bit version of the JDK supports only the Server VM, so in that case the option is implicit\&.
+
+For default JVM selection, see Server-Class Machine Detection at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/vm/server-class\&.html
+.TP
+-showversion
+.br
+Displays version information and continues execution of the application\&. This option is equivalent to the \f3-version\fR option except that the latter instructs the JVM to exit after displaying version information\&.
+.TP
+-splash:\fIimgname\fR
+.br
+Shows the splash screen with the image specified by \fIimgname\fR\&. For example, to show the \f3splash\&.gif\fR file from the \f3images\fR directory when starting your application, use the following option:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-splash:images/splash\&.gif\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-verbose:class
+.br
+Displays information about each loaded class\&.
+.TP
+-verbose:gc
+.br
+Displays information about each garbage collection (GC) event\&.
+.TP
+-verbose:jni
+.br
+Displays information about the use of native methods and other Java Native Interface (JNI) activity\&.
+.TP
+-version
+.br
+Displays version information and then exits\&. This option is equivalent to the \f3-showversion\fR option except that the latter does not instruct the JVM to exit after displaying version information\&.
+.TP
+-version:\fIrelease\fR
+.br
+Specifies the release version to be used for running the application\&. If the version of the \f3java\fR command called does not meet this specification and an appropriate implementation is found on the system, then the appropriate implementation will be used\&.
+
+The \fIrelease\fR argument specifies either the exact version string, or a list of version strings and ranges separated by spaces\&. A \fIversion string\fR is the developer designation of the version number in the following form: \f31\&.\fR\fIx\fR\f3\&.0_\fR\fIu\fR (where \fIx\fR is the major version number, and \fIu\fR is the update version number)\&. A \fIversion range\fR is made up of a version string followed by a plus sign (\f3+\fR) to designate this version or later, or a part of a version string followed by an asterisk (\f3*\fR) to designate any version string with a matching prefix\&. Version strings and ranges can be combined using a space for a logical \fIOR\fR combination, or an ampersand (\f3&\fR) for a logical \fIAND\fR combination of two version strings/ranges\&. For example, if running the class or JAR file requires either JRE 6u13 (1\&.6\&.0_13), or any JRE 6 starting from 6u10 (1\&.6\&.0_10), specify the following:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-version:"1\&.6\&.0_13 1\&.6* & 1\&.6\&.0_10+"\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+Quotation marks are necessary only if there are spaces in the \fIrelease\fR parameter\&.
+
+For JAR files, the preference is to specify version requirements in the JAR file manifest rather than on the command line\&.
+.SS NON-STANDARD\ OPTIONS    
+These options are general purpose options that are specific to the Java HotSpot Virtual Machine\&.
+.TP
+-X
+.br
+Displays help for all available \f3-X\fR options\&.
+.TP
+-Xbatch
+.br
+Disables background compilation\&. By default, the JVM compiles the method as a background task, running the method in interpreter mode until the background compilation is finished\&. The \f3-Xbatch\fR flag disables background compilation so that compilation of all methods proceeds as a foreground task until completed\&.
+
+This option is equivalent to \f3-XX:-BackgroundCompilation\fR\&.
+.TP
+-Xbootclasspath:\fIpath\fR
+.br
+Specifies a list of directories, JAR files, and ZIP archives separated by colons (:) to search for boot class files\&. These are used in place of the boot class files included in the JDK\&.
+
+\fI\fRDo not deploy applications that use this option to override a class in \f3rt\&.jar\fR, because this violates the JRE binary code license\&.
+.TP
+-Xbootclasspath/a:\fIpath\fR
+.br
+Specifies a list of directories, JAR files, and ZIP archives separated by colons (:) to append to the end of the default bootstrap class path\&.
+
+Do not deploy applications that use this option to override a class in \f3rt\&.jar\fR, because this violates the JRE binary code license\&.
+.TP
+-Xbootclasspath/p:\fIpath\fR
+.br
+Specifies a list of directories, JAR files, and ZIP archives separated by colons (:) to prepend to the front of the default bootstrap class path\&.
+
+Do not deploy applications that use this option to override a class in \f3rt\&.jar\fR, because this violates the JRE binary code license\&.
+.TP
+-Xboundthreads
+.br
+Binds user-level threads to kernel threads\&.
+.TP
+-Xcheck:jni
+.br
+Performs additional checks for Java Native Interface (JNI) functions\&. Specifically, it validates the parameters passed to the JNI function and the runtime environment data before processing the JNI request\&. Any invalid data encountered indicates a problem in the native code, and the JVM will terminate with an irrecoverable error in such cases\&. Expect a performance degradation when this option is used\&.
+.TP
+-Xcomp
+.br
+Disables interpretation of Java code and compile methods on first invocation\&. By default, the JIT compiler performs 10,000 interpreted method invocations to gather information for efficient compilation\&. To increase compilation performance at the expense of efficiency, use the \f3-Xcomp\fR flag to disable interpreted method invocations\&.
+
+You can also change the number of interpreted method invocations before compilation using the \f3-XX:CompileThreshold\fR option\&.
+.TP
+-Xdebug
+.br
+Does nothing\&. Provided for backward compatibility\&.
+.TP
+-Xdiag
+.br
+Shows additional diagnostic messages\&.
+.TP
+-Xfuture
+.br
+Enables strict class-file format checks that enforce close conformance to the class-file format specification\&. Developers are encouraged to use this flag when developing new code because the stricter checks will become the default in future releases\&.
+.TP
+-Xincgc
+.br
+Enables incremental GC\&.
+.TP
+-Xint
+.br
+Runs the application in interpreted-only mode\&. Compilation to native code is disabled, and all bytecode is executed by the interpreter\&. The performance benefits offered by the just in time (JIT) compiler are not present in this mode\&.
+.TP
+-Xinternalversion
+.br
+Displays more detailed JVM version information than the \f3-version\fR option, and then exits\&.
+.TP
+-Xloggc:\fIfilename\fR
+.br
+Sets the file to which verbose GC events information should be redirected for logging\&. The information written to this file is similar to the output of \f3-verbose:gc\fR with the time elapsed since the first GC event preceding each logged event\&. The \f3-Xloggc\fR option overrides \f3-verbose:gc\fR if both are given with the same \f3java\fR command\&.
+
+Example:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-Xloggc:garbage\-collection\&.log\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-Xmaxjitcodesize=\fIsize\fR
+.br
+Specifies the maximum code cache size (in bytes) for JIT-compiled code\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. By default, the value is set to 48 MB:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-Xmaxjitcodesize=48m\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+This option is equivalent to \f3-XX:ReservedCodeCacheSize\fR\&.
+.TP
+-Xmixed
+.br
+Executes all bytecode by the interpreter except for hot methods, which are compiled to native code\&.
+.TP
+-Xmn\fIsize\fR
+.br
+Sets the initial and maximum size (in bytes) of the heap for the young generation (nursery)\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&.
+
+The young generation region of the heap is used for new objects\&. GC is performed in this region more often than in other regions\&. If the size for the young generation is too small, then a lot of minor garbage collections will be performed\&. If the size is too large, then only full garbage collections will be performed, which can take a long time to complete\&. Oracle recommends that you keep the size for the young generation between a half and a quarter of the overall heap size\&.
+
+The following examples show how to set the initial and maximum size of young generation to 256 MB using various units:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-Xmn256m\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\-Xmn262144k\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\-Xmn268435456\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+Instead of the \f3-Xmn\fR option to set both the initial and maximum size of the heap for the young generation, you can use \f3-XX:NewSize\fR to set the initial size and \f3-XX:MaxNewSize\fR to set the maximum size\&.
+.TP
+-Xms\fIsize\fR
+.br
+Sets the initial size (in bytes) of the heap\&. This value must be a multiple of 1024 and greater than 1 MB\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&.
+
+The following examples show how to set the size of allocated memory to 6 MB using various units:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-Xms6291456\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\-Xms6144k\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\-Xms6m\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+If you do not set this option, then the initial size will be set as the sum of the sizes allocated for the old generation and the young generation\&. The initial size of the heap for the young generation can be set using the \f3-Xmn\fR option or the \f3-XX:NewSize\fR option\&.
+.TP
+-Xmx\fIsize\fR
+.br
+Specifies the maximum size (in bytes) of the memory allocation pool in bytes\&. This value must be a multiple of 1024 and greater than 2 MB\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. The default value is chosen at runtime based on system configuration\&. For server deployments, \f3-Xms\fR and \f3-Xmx\fR are often set to the same value\&. For more information, see Garbage Collector Ergonomics at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/vm/gc-ergonomics\&.html
+
+The following examples show how to set the maximum allowed size of allocated memory to 80 MB using various units:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-Xmx83886080\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\-Xmx81920k\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\-Xmx80m\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+The \f3-Xmx\fR option is equivalent to \f3-XX:MaxHeapSize\fR\&.
+.TP
+-Xnoclassgc
+.br
+Disables garbage collection (GC) of classes\&. This can save some GC time, which shortens interruptions during the application run\&.
+
+When you specify \f3-Xnoclassgc\fR at startup, the class objects in the application will be left untouched during GC and will always be considered live\&. This can result in more memory being permanently occupied which, if not used carefully, will throw an out of memory exception\&.
+.TP
+-Xprof
+.br
+Profiles the running program and sends profiling data to standard output\&. This option is provided as a utility that is useful in program development and is not intended to be used in production systems\&.
+.TP
+-Xrs
+.br
+Reduces the use of operating system signals by the JVM\&.
+
+Shutdown hooks enable orderly shutdown of a Java application by running user cleanup code (such as closing database connections) at shutdown, even if the JVM terminates abruptly\&.
+
+The JVM catches signals to implement shutdown hooks for unexpected termination\&. The JVM uses \f3SIGHUP\fR, \f3SIGINT\fR, and \f3SIGTERM\fR to initiate the running of shutdown hooks\&.
+
+The JVM uses a similar mechanism to implement the feature of dumping thread stacks for debugging purposes\&. The JVM uses \f3SIGQUIT\fR to perform thread dumps\&.
+
+Applications embedding the JVM frequently need to trap signals such as \f3SIGINT\fR or \f3SIGTERM\fR, which can lead to interference with the JVM signal handlers\&. The \f3-Xrs\fR option is available to address this issue\&. When \f3-Xrs\fR is used, the signal masks for \f3SIGINT\fR, \f3SIGTERM\fR, \f3SIGHUP\fR, and \f3SIGQUIT\fR are not changed by the JVM, and signal handlers for these signals are not installed\&.
+
+There are two consequences of specifying \f3-Xrs\fR:
+.RS     
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+\f3SIGQUIT\fR thread dumps are not available\&.
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+User code is responsible for causing shutdown hooks to run, for example, by calling \f3System\&.exit()\fR when the JVM is to be terminated\&.
+.RE     
+
+.TP
+-Xshare:\fImode\fR
+.br
+Sets the class data sharing mode\&. Possible \fImode\fR arguments for this option include the following:
+.RS     
+.TP     
+auto
+Use shared class data if possible\&. This is the default value for Java HotSpot 32-Bit Client VM\&.
+.TP     
+on
+Require the use of class data sharing\&. Print an error message and exit if class data sharing cannot be used\&.
+.TP     
+off
+Do not use shared class data\&. This is the default value for Java HotSpot 32-Bit Server VM, Java HotSpot 64-Bit Client VM, and Java HotSpot 64-Bit Server VM\&.
+.TP     
+dump
+Manually generate the class data sharing archive\&.
+.RE     
+
+.TP
+-XshowSettings:\fIcategory\fR
+.br
+Shows settings and continues\&. Possible \fIcategory\fR arguments for this option include the following:
+.RS     
+.TP     
+all
+Shows all categories of settings\&. This is the default value\&.
+.TP     
+locale
+Shows settings related to locale\&.
+.TP     
+properties
+Shows settings related to system properties\&.
+.TP     
+vm
+Shows the settings of the JVM\&.
+.RE     
+
+.TP
+-Xss\fIsize\fR
+.br
+Sets the thread stack size (in bytes)\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate KB, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate MB, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate GB\&. The default value depends on the platform:
+.RS     
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+Linux/ARM (32-bit): 320 KB
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+Linux/i386 (32-bit): 320 KB
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+Linux/x64 (64-bit): 1024 KB
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+OS X (64-bit): 1024 KB
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+Oracle Solaris/i386 (32-bit): 320 KB
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+Oracle Solaris/x64 (64-bit): 1024 KB
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+Windows: depends on virtual memory
 .RE
+.RS
+The following examples set the thread stack size to 1024 KB in different units:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-Xss1m\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\-Xss1024k\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\-Xss1048576\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
 
-.LP
-.SH "DESCRIPTION"
-.LP
-.LP
-The \f3java\fP tool launches a Java application. It does this by starting a Java runtime environment, loading a specified class, and invoking that class's \f3main\fP method.
-.LP
-.LP
-The method must be declared public and static, it must not return any value, and it must accept a \f2String\fP array as a parameter. The method declaration must look like the following:
-.LP
+
+This option is equivalent to \f3-XX:ThreadStackSize\fR\&.
+
+.RE
+.TP
+-Xusealtsigs
+.br
+Use alternative signals instead of \f3SIGUSR1\fR and \f3SIGUSR2\fR for JVM internal signals\&. This option is equivalent to \f3-XX:+UseAltSigs\fR\&.
+.TP
+-Xverify:\fImode\fR
+.br
+Sets the mode of the bytecode verifier\&. Bytecode verification helps to troubleshoot some problems, but it also adds overhead to the running application\&. Possible \fImode\fR arguments for this option include the following:
+.RS     
+.TP     
+none
+Do not verify the bytecode\&. This reduces startup time and also reduces the protection provided by Java\&.
+.TP     
+remote
+Verify only those classes that are loaded remotely over the network\&. This is the default behavior if you do not specify the \f3-Xverify\fR option\&.
+.TP     
+all
+Verify all classes\&.
+.RE     
+
+.SS ADVANCED\ RUNTIME\ OPTIONS    
+These options control the runtime behavior of the Java HotSpot VM\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+DisableAttachMechanism
+.br
+Enables the option that disables the mechanism that lets tools attach to the JVM\&. By default, this option is disabled, meaning that the attach mechanism is enabled and you can use tools such as \f3jcmd\fR, \f3jstack\fR, \f3jmap\fR, and \f3jinfo\fR\&.
+.TP
+-XX:ErrorFile=\fIfilename\fR
+.br
+Specifies the path and file name to which error data is written when an irrecoverable error occurs\&. By default, this file is created in the current working directory and named \f3hs_err_pid\fR\fIpid\fR\f3\&.log\fR where \fIpid\fR is the identifier of the process that caused the error\&. The following example shows how to set the default log file (note that the identifier of the process is specified as \f3%p\fR):
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:ErrorFile=\&./hs_err_pid%p\&.log\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+The following example shows how to set the error log to \f3/var/log/java/java_error\&.log\fR:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:ErrorFile=/var/log/java/java_error\&.log\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+If the file cannot be created in the specified directory (due to insufficient space, permission problem, or another issue), then the file is created in the temporary directory for the operating system\&. The temporary directory is \f3/tmp\fR\&.
+.TP
+-XX:LargePageSizeInBytes=\fIsize\fR
+.br
+Sets the maximum size (in bytes) for large pages used for Java heap\&. The \fIsize\fR argument must be a power of 2 (2, 4, 8, 16, \&.\&.\&.)\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. By default, the size is set to 0, meaning that the JVM chooses the size for large pages automatically\&.
+
+The following example illustrates how to set the large page size to 4 megabytes (MB):
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:LargePageSizeInBytes=4m\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:MaxDirectMemorySize=\fIsize\fR
+.br
+Sets the maximum total size (in bytes) of the New I/O (the \f3java\&.nio\fR package) direct-buffer allocations\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. By default, the size is set to 0, meaning that the JVM chooses the size for NIO direct-buffer allocations automatically\&.
+
+The following examples illustrate how to set the NIO size to 1024 KB in different units:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:MaxDirectMemorySize=1m\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:MaxDirectMemorySize=1024k\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:MaxDirectMemorySize=1048576\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:NativeMemoryTracking=\fImode\fR
+.br
+Specifies the mode for tracking JVM native memory usage\&. Possible \fImode\fR arguments for this option include the following:
+.RS     
+.TP     
+off
+Do not track JVM native memory usage\&. This is the default behavior if you do not specify the \f3-XX:NativeMemoryTracking\fR option\&.
+.TP     
+summary
+Only track memory usage by JVM subsystems, such as Java heap, class, code, and thread\&.
+.TP     
+detail
+In addition to tracking memory usage by JVM subsystems, track memory usage by individual \f3CallSite\fR, individual virtual memory region and its committed regions\&.
+.RE     
+
+.TP
+-XX:OnError=\fIstring\fR
+.br
+Sets a custom command or a series of semicolon-separated commands to run when an irrecoverable error occurs\&. If the string contains spaces, then it must be enclosed in quotation marks\&.
+
+\fI\fRThe following example shows how the \f3-XX:OnError\fR option can be used to run the \f3gcore\fR command to create the core image, and the debugger is started to attach to the process in case of an irrecoverable error (the \f3%p\fR designates the current process):
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:OnError="gcore %p;dbx \- %p"\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:OnOutOfMemoryError=\fIstring\fR
+.br
+Sets a custom command or a series of semicolon-separated commands to run when an \f3OutOfMemoryError\fR exception is first thrown\&. If the string contains spaces, then it must be enclosed in quotation marks\&. For an example of a command string, see the description of the \f3-XX:OnError\fR option\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+PrintCommandLineFlags
+.br
+Enables printing of ergonomically selected JVM flags that appeared on the command line\&. It can be useful to know the ergonomic values set by the JVM, such as the heap space size and the selected garbage collector\&. By default, this option is disabled and flags are not printed\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+PrintNMTStatistics
+.br
+Enables printing of collected native memory tracking data at JVM exit when native memory tracking is enabled (see \f3-XX:NativeMemoryTracking\fR)\&. By default, this option is disabled and native memory tracking data is not printed\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+ShowMessageBoxOnError
+.br
+Enables displaying of a dialog box when the JVM experiences an irrecoverable error\&. This prevents the JVM from exiting and keeps the process active so that you can attach a debugger to it to investigate the cause of the error\&. By default, this option is disabled\&.
+.TP
+-XX:ThreadStackSize=\fIsize\fR
+.br
+Sets the thread stack size (in bytes)\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. The default value depends on the platform:
+.RS     
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+Linux/ARM (32-bit): 320 KB
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+Linux/i386 (32-bit): 320 KB
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+Linux/x64 (64-bit): 1024 KB
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+OS X (64-bit): 1024 KB
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+Oracle Solaris/i386 (32-bit): 320 KB
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+Oracle Solaris/x64 (64-bit): 1024 KB
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+Windows: depends on virtual memory
+.RE
+.RS
+The following examples show how to set the thread stack size to 1024 KB in different units:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:ThreadStackSize=1m\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:ThreadStackSize=1024k\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:ThreadStackSize=1048576\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+This option is equivalent to \f3-Xss\fR\&.
+
+.RE
+.TP
+-XX:+TraceClassLoading
+.br
+Enables tracing of classes as they are loaded\&. By default, this option is disabled and classes are not traced\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+TraceClassLoadingPreorder
+.br
+Enables tracing of all loaded classes in the order in which they are referenced\&. By default, this option is disabled and classes are not traced\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+TraceClassResolution
+.br
+Enables tracing of constant pool resolutions\&. By default, this option is disabled and constant pool resolutions are not traced\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+TraceClassUnloading
+.br
+Enables tracing of classes as they are unloaded\&. By default, this option is disabled and classes are not traced\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+TraceLoaderConstraints
+.br
+Enables tracing of the loader constraints recording\&. By default, this option is disabled and loader constraints recoding is not traced\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+UseAltSigs
+.br
+Enables the use of alternative signals instead of \f3SIGUSR1\fR and \f3SIGUSR2\fR for JVM internal signals\&. By default, this option is disabled and alternative signals are not used\&. This option is equivalent to \f3-Xusealtsigs\fR\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+UseBiasedLocking
+.br
+Enables the use of biased locking\&. Some applications with significant amounts of uncontended synchronization may attain significant speedups with this flag enabled, whereas applications with certain patterns of locking may see slowdowns\&. For more information about the biased locking technique, see the example in Java Tuning White Paper at http://www\&.oracle\&.com/technetwork/java/tuning-139912\&.html#section4\&.2\&.5
+
+By default, this option is disabled and biased locking is not used\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+UseCompressedOops
+.br
+Enables the use of compressed pointers\&. When this option is enabled, object references are represented as 32-bit offsets instead of 64-bit pointers, which typically increases performance when running the application with Java heap sizes less than 32 GB\&. This option works only for 64-bit JVMs\&.
+
+By default, this option is disabled and compressed pointers are not used\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+UseLargePages
+.br
+Enables the use of large page memory\&. This option is enabled by default\&. To disable the use of large page memory, specify \f3-XX:-UseLargePages\fR\&.
+
+For more information, see Java Support for Large Memory Pages at http://www\&.oracle\&.com/technetwork/java/javase/tech/largememory-jsp-137182\&.html
+.TP
+-XX:+UseMembar
+.br
+Enables issuing of membars on thread state transitions\&. This option is disabled by default on all platforms except Power PC and ARM servers, where it is enabled\&. To disable issuing of membars on thread state transitions for Power PC and ARM, specify \f3-XX:-UseMembar\fR\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+UsePerfData
+.br
+Enables the \f3perfdata\fR feature\&. This option is enabled by default to allow JVM monitoring and performance testing\&. Disabling it suppresses the creation of the \f3hsperfdata_userid\fR directories\&. To disable the \f3perfdata\fR feature, specify \f3-XX:-UsePerfData\fR\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+AllowUserSignalHandlers
+.br
+Enables installation of signal handlers by the application\&. By default, this option is disabled and the application is not allowed to install signal handlers\&.
+.SS ADVANCED\ JIT\ COMPILER\ OPTIONS    
+These options control the dynamic just-in-time (JIT) compilation performed by the Java HotSpot VM\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+AggressiveOpts
+.br
+Enables the use of aggressive performance optimization features, which are expected to become default in upcoming releases\&. By default, this option is disabled and experimental performance features are not used\&.
+.TP
+-XX:AllocateInstancePrefetchLines=\fIlines\fR
+.br
+Sets the number of lines to prefetch ahead of the instance allocation pointer\&. By default, the number of lines to prefetch is set to 1:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:AllocateInstancePrefetchLines=1\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:AllocatePrefetchInstr=\fIinstruction\fR
+.br
+Sets the prefetch instruction to prefetch ahead of the allocation pointer\&. Possible values are from 0 to 3\&. The actual instructions behind the values depend on the platform\&. By default, the prefetch instruction is set to 0:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:AllocatePrefetchInstr=0\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:AllocatePrefetchStepSize=\fIsize\fR
+.br
+Sets the step size (in bytes) for sequential prefetch instructions\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. By default, the step size is set to 16 bytes:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:AllocatePrefetchStepSize=16\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:+BackgroundCompilation
+.br
+Enables background compilation\&. This option is enabled by default\&. To disable background compilation, specify \f3-XX:-BackgroundCompilation\fR (this is equivalent to specifying \f3-Xbatch\fR)\&.
+.TP
+-XX:CICompilerCount=\fIthreads\fR
+.br
+Sets the number of compiler threads to use for compilation\&. By default, the number of threads is set to 2 for the server JVM, to 1 for the client JVM, and it scales to the number of cores if tiered compilation is used\&. The following example shows how to set the number of threads to 2:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:CICompilerCount=2\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:CodeCacheMinimumFreeSpace=\fIsize\fR
+.br
+Sets the minimum free space (in bytes) required for compilation\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. When less than the minimum free space remains, compiling stops\&. By default, this option is set to 500 KB\&. The following example shows how to set the minimum free space to 1024 MB:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:CodeCacheMinimumFreeSpace=1024m\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
 .nf
-\f3
-.fl
-public static void main(String args[])
-.fl
-\fP
+-XX:CompileCommand=\fIcommand\fR,\fIclass\fR\&.\fImethod\fR[,\fIoption\fR]
+.br
 .fi
+Attaches a line to the \f3\&.hotspot_compiler\fR file with the command for the specific method of the class\&. For example, to exclude the \f3indexOf()\fR method of the \f3String\fR class from being compiled, use the following:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:CompileCommand=exclude,java/lang/String\&.indexOf\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
 
-.LP
-.LP
-By default, the first non\-option argument is the name of the class to be invoked. A fully\-qualified class name should be used. If the \f3\-jar\fP option is specified, the first non\-option argument is the name of a \f3JAR\fP archive containing class and resource files for the application, with the startup class indicated by the \f3Main\-Class\fP manifest header.
-.LP
-.LP
-The Java runtime searches for the startup class, and other classes used, in three sets of locations: the bootstrap class path, the installed extensions, and the user class path.
-.LP
-.LP
-Non\-option arguments after the class name or JAR file name are passed to the \f3main\fP function.
-.LP
-.SH "OPTIONS"
-.LP
-.LP
-The launcher has a set of standard options that are supported on the current runtime environment and will be supported in future releases. In addition, the current implementations of the virtual machines support a set of non\-standard options that are subject to change in future releases.
-.LP
-.SH "Standard Options"
-.LP
-.RS 3
-.TP 3
-\-client
-Select the Java HotSpot Client VM. A 64\-bit capable jdk currently ignores this option and instead uses the Java Hotspot Server VM.
+
+Note that you must specify the full class name, including all packages and subpackages separated by a slash (\f3/\fR)\&.
+
+To add several commands, either specify this option multiple times, or separate each argument with the newline separator (\f3\en\fR)\&. To better understand the syntax of the JVM compiler commands, refer to the description of the \f3-XX:CompileCommandFile\fR option, which enables you to specify the file from which to read compiler commands\&. Notice how the syntax of the command file differs rom the syntax of the argument for the \f3-XX:CompileCommand\fR option\&. The commas and periods in the argument are aliases for spaces in the command file, making it easier to pass compiler commands through a shell\&. To pass arguments to \f3-XX:CompileCommand\fR with the same syntax as that used in the command file, you can enclose the argument in quotation marks:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:CompileCommand="exclude java/lang/String indexOf"\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+For easier cut and paste operations, it is also possible to use the method name format produced by the \f3-XX:+PrintCompilation\fR and \f3-XX:+LogCompilation\fR options:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:CompileCommand="exclude java\&.lang\&.String::indexOf"\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+The following commands are available:
+.RS     
+.TP     
+break
+Set a breakpoint when debugging the JVM to stop at the beginning of compilation of the specified method\&.
+.TP     
+compileonly
+Exclude all methods from compilation except for the specified method\&.
+.TP     
+dontinline
+Prevent inlining of the specified method\&.
+.TP     
+exclude
+Exclude the specified method from compilation\&.
+.TP     
+help
+Print a help message for the \f3-XX:CompileCommand\fR option\&.
+.TP     
+inline
+Attempt to inline the specified method\&.
+.TP     
+log
+Exclude compilation logging (with the \f3-XX:+LogCompilation\fR option) for all methods except for the specified method\&. By default, logging is performed for all compiled methods\&.
+.TP     
+print
+Print generated assembler code after compilation of the specified method\&.
+.TP     
+quiet
+Do not print the compile commands\&. By default, the commands that you specify with the -\f3XX:CompileCommand\fR option are printed; for example, if you exclude from compilation the \f3indexOf()\fR method of the \f3String\fR class, then the following will be printed to standard output:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3CompilerOracle: exclude java/lang/String\&.indexOf\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+You can suppress this by specifying the \f3-XX:CompileCommand=quiet\fR option before other \f3-XX:CompileCommand\fR options\&.
+.RE     
+
+
+.RS
+The optional last argument (\fIoption\fR) can be used to pass a JIT compilation option to the specified method\&. The compilation option is set at the end, after the method name\&. For example, to enable the \f3BlockLayoutByFrequency\fR option for the \f3append()\fR method of the \f3StringBuffer\fR class, use the following:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:CompileCommand=option,java/lang/StringBuffer\&.append,BlockLayoutByFrequency\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+.RE
+.TP
+-XX:CompileCommandFile=\fIfilename\fR
 .br
+Sets the file from which compiler commands are read\&. By default, the \f3\&.hotspot_compiler\fR file is used to store commands performed by the JVM compiler\&.
+
+Each line in the command file represents a command, a class name, and a method name for which the command is used (all three parts are separated by spaces)\&. For example, this line prints assembly code for the \f3toString()\fR method of the \f3String\fR class:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3print java/lang/String toString\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+To add commands to the beginning of the \f3\&.hotspot_compiler\fR file, use the \f3-XX:CompileCommand\fR option\&. Note how the syntax of the command file is different from the syntax of the argument for the \f3-XX:CompileCommand\fR option\&. The commas and periods in the argument are aliases for spaces in the command file, making it easier to pass compiler commands through a shell\&. Although it is possible to pass arguments to \f3-XX:CompileCommand\fR with the same syntax as that used in the command file, you would have to enclose the string argument in quotation marks\&.
+.TP
+-XX:CompileOnly=\fImethods\fR
 .br
-For default VM selection, see
-.na
-\f2Server\-Class Machine Detection\fP @
-.fi
-http://download.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/technotes/guides/vm/server\-class.html
-.TP 3
-\-server
-Select the Java HotSpot Server VM. On a 64\-bit capable jdk only the Java Hotspot Server VM is supported so the \-server option is implicit.
+Sets the list of methods (separated by commas) to which compilation should be restricted\&. Only the specified methods will be compiled\&. Specify each method with the full class name (including the packages and subpackages)\&. For example, to compile only the \f3length()\fR method of the \f3String\fR class and the \f3size()\fR method of the \f3List\fR class, use the following:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:CompileOnly=java/lang/String\&.length,java/util/List\&.size\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:CompileThreshold=\fIinvocations\fR
 .br
+Sets the number of interpreted method invocations before compilation\&. By default, in the server JVM, the JIT compiler performs 10,000 interpreted method invocations to gather information for efficient compilation\&. For the client JVM, the default setting is 1,500 invocations\&. The following example shows how to set the number of interpreted method invocations to 5,000:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:CompileThreshold=5000\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+You can completely disable interpretation of Java methods before compilation by specifying the \f3-Xcomp\fR option\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+DoEscapeAnalysis
 .br
-For default VM selection, see
-.na
-\f2Server\-Class Machine Detection\fP @
-.fi
-http://download.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/technotes/guides/vm/server\-class.html
-.TP 3
-\-agentlib:libname[=options]
-Load native agent library \f2libname\fP, e.g.
+Enables the use of escape analysis\&. This option is enabled by default\&. To disable the use of escape analysis, specify \f3-XX:-DoEscapeAnalysis\fR\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+FailOverToOldVerifier
 .br
+Enables automatic failover to the old verifier when the new type checker fails\&. By default, this option is disabled and it is ignored (that is, treated as disabled) for classes with a recent bytecode version\&. You can enable it for classes with older versions of the bytecode\&.
+.TP
+-XX:InitialCodeCacheSize=\fIsize\fR
 .br
-\-agentlib:hprof
+Sets the initial code cache size (in bytes)\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. The default value is set to 500 KB\&. The following example shows how to set the initial code cache size to 32 KB:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:InitialCodeCacheSize=32k\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:+Inline
 .br
+Enables method inlining\&. This option is enabled by default to increase performance\&. To disable method inlining, specify \f3-XX:-Inline\fR\&.
+.TP
+-XX:InlineSmallCode=\fIsize\fR
 .br
-\-agentlib:jdwp=help
+Sets the maximum code size (in bytes) for compiled methods that should be inlined\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. Only compiled methods with the size smaller than the specified size will be inlined\&. By default, the maximum code size is set to 1000 bytes:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:InlineSmallCode=1000\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:+LogCompilation
 .br
+Enables logging of compilation activity to a file named \f3hotspot\&.log\fR in the current working directory\&. You can specify a different log file path and name using the \f3-XX:LogFile\fR option\&.
+
+By default, this option is disabled and compilation activity is not logged\&. The \f3-XX:+LogCompilation\fR option has to be used together with the \f3-XX:UnlockDiagnosticVMOptions\fR option that unlocks diagnostic JVM options\&.
+
+You can enable verbose diagnostic output with a message printed to the console every time a method is compiled by using the \f3-XX:+PrintCompilation\fR option\&.
+.TP
+-XX:MaxInlineSize=\fIsize\fR
 .br
-\-agentlib:hprof=help
+Sets the maximum bytecode size (in bytes) of a method to be inlined\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. By default, the maximum bytecode size is set to 35 bytes:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:MaxInlineSize=35\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:MaxNodeLimit=\fInodes\fR
 .br
+Sets the maximum number of nodes to be used during single method compilation\&. By default, the maximum number of nodes is set to 65,000:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:MaxNodeLimit=65000\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:MaxTrivialSize=\fIsize\fR
 .br
-For more information, see
-.na
-\f2JVMTI Agent Command Line Options\fP @
-.fi
-http://download.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/platform/jvmti/jvmti.html#starting.
-.TP 3
-\-agentpath:pathname[=options]
-Load a native agent library by full pathname. For more information, see
-.na
-\f2JVMTI Agent Command Line Options\fP @
-.fi
-http://download.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/platform/jvmti/jvmti.html#starting.
-.TP 3
-\-classpath classpath
-.TP 3
-\-cp classpath
-Specify a list of directories, JAR archives, and ZIP archives to search for class files. Class path entries are separated by colons (\f3:\fP). Specifying \f3\-classpath\fP or \f3\-cp\fP overrides any setting of the \f3CLASSPATH\fP environment variable.
+Sets the maximum bytecode size (in bytes) of a trivial method to be inlined\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. By default, the maximum bytecode size of a trivial method is set to 6 bytes:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:MaxTrivialSize=6\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:+OptimizeStringConcat
 .br
+Enables the optimization of \f3String\fR concatenation operations\&. This option is enabled by default\&. To disable the optimization of \f3String\fR concatenation operations, specify \f3-XX:-OptimizeStringConcat\fR\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+PrintAssembly
 .br
-If \f3\-classpath\fP and \f3\-cp\fP are not used and \f3CLASSPATH\fP is not set, the user class path consists of the current directory (\f4.\fP).
+Enables printing of assembly code for bytecoded and native methods by using the external \f3disassembler\&.so\fR library\&. This enables you to see the generated code, which may help you to diagnose performance issues\&.
+
+By default, this option is disabled and assembly code is not printed\&. The \f3-XX:+PrintAssembly\fR option has to be used together with the \f3-XX:UnlockDiagnosticVMOptions\fR option that unlocks diagnostic JVM options\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+PrintCompilation
 .br
+Enables verbose diagnostic output from the JVM by printing a message to the console every time a method is compiled\&. This enables you to see which methods actually get compiled\&. By default, this option is disabled and diagnostic output is not printed\&.
+
+You can also log compilation activity to a file by using the \f3-XX:+LogCompilation\fR option\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+PrintInlining
 .br
-As a special convenience, a class path element containing a basename of \f2*\fP is considered equivalent to specifying a list of all the files in the directory with the extension \f2.jar\fP or \f2.JAR\fP (a java program cannot tell the difference between the two invocations).
+Enables printing of inlining decisions\&. This enables you to see which methods are getting inlined\&.
+
+By default, this option is disabled and inlining information is not printed\&. The \f3-XX:+PrintInlining\fR option has to be used together with the \f3-XX:+UnlockDiagnosticVMOptions\fR option that unlocks diagnostic JVM options\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+RelaxAccessControlCheck
 .br
+Decreases the amount of access control checks in the verifier\&. By default, this option is disabled, and it is ignored (that is, treated as disabled) for classes with a recent bytecode version\&. You can enable it for classes with older versions of the bytecode\&.
+.TP
+-XX:ReservedCodeCacheSize=\fIsize\fR
 .br
-For example, if directory \f2foo\fP contains \f2a.jar\fP and \f2b.JAR\fP, then the class path element \f2foo/*\fP is expanded to a \f2A.jar:b.JAR\fP, except that the order of jar files is unspecified. All jar files in the specified directory, even hidden ones, are included in the list. A classpath entry consisting simply of \f2*\fP expands to a list of all the jar files in the current directory. The \f2CLASSPATH\fP environment variable, where defined, will be similarly expanded. Any classpath wildcard expansion occurs before the Java virtual machine is started \-\- no Java program will ever see unexpanded wildcards except by querying the environment. For example; by invoking \f2System.getenv("CLASSPATH")\fP.
+Sets the maximum code cache size (in bytes) for JIT-compiled code\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. This option is equivalent to \f3-Xmaxjitcodesize\fR\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+TieredCompilation
 .br
+Enables the use of tiered compilation\&. By default, this option is disabled and tiered compilation is not used\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+UseCodeCacheFlushing
 .br
-For more information on class paths, see
-.na
-\f2Setting the Class Path\fP @
-.fi
-http://download.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/technotes/tools/index.html#classpath.
-.TP 3
-\-Dproperty=value
-Set a system property value.
-.TP 3
-\-d32
-.TP 3
-\-d64
-Request that the program to be run in a 32\-bit or 64\-bit environment, respectively. If the requested environment is not installed or is not supported, an error is reported.
+Enables flushing of the code cache before shutting down the compiler\&. This option is enabled by default\&. To disable flushing of the code cache before shutting down the compiler, specify \f3-XX:-UseCodeCacheFlushing\fR\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+UseCondCardMark
 .br
+Enables checking of whether the card is already marked before updating the card table\&. This option is disabled by default and should only be used on machines with multiple sockets, where it will increase performance of Java applications that rely heavily on concurrent operations\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+UseSuperWord
 .br
-Currently only the Java HotSpot Server VM supports 64\-bit operation, and the "\-server" option is implicit with the use of \-d64. And the "\-client" option is ignored with the use of \-d64. This is subject to change in a future release.
+Enables the transformation of scalar operations into superword operations\&. This option is enabled by default\&. To disable the transformation of scalar operations into superword operations, specify \f3-XX:-UseSuperWord\fR\&.
+.SS ADVANCED\ SERVICEABILITY\ OPTIONS    
+These options provide the ability to gather system information and perform extensive debugging\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+ExtendedDTraceProbes
 .br
+Enables additional \f3dtrace\fR tool probes that impact the performance\&. By default, this option is disabled and \f3dtrace\fR performs only standard probes\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+HeapDumpOnOutOfMemory
 .br
-If neither \f3\-d32\fP nor \f3\-d64\fP is specified, the default is to run in a 32\-bit environment, except for 64\-bit only systems. This is subject to change in a future release.
-.TP 3
-\-enableassertions[:<package name>"..." | :<class name> ]
-.TP 3
-\-ea[:<package name>"..." | :<class name> ]
-Enable assertions. Assertions are disabled by default.
+Enables the dumping of the Java heap to a file in the current directory by using the heap profiler (HPROF) when a \f3java\&.lang\&.OutOfMemoryError\fR exception is thrown\&. You can explicitly set the heap dump file path and name using the \f3-XX:HeapDumpPath\fR option\&. By default, this option is disabled and the heap is not dumped when an \f3OutOfMemoryError\fR exception is thrown\&.
+.TP
+-XX:HeapDumpPath=\fIpath\fR
 .br
+Sets the path and file name for writing the heap dump provided by the heap profiler (HPROF) when the \f3-XX:+HeapDumpOnOutOfMemoryError\fR option is set\&. By default, the file is created in the current working directory, and it is named \f3java_pid\fR\fIpid\fR\f3\&.hprof\fR where \fIpid\fR is the identifier of the process that caused the error\&. The following example shows how to set the default file explicitly (\f3%p\fR represents the current process identificator):
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:HeapDumpPath=\&./java_pid%p\&.hprof\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+\fI\fRThe following example shows how to set the heap dump file to \f3/var/log/java/java_heapdump\&.hprof\fR:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:HeapDumpPath=/var/log/java/java_heapdump\&.hprof\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:LogFile=\fIpath\fR
 .br
-With no arguments, \f3enableassertions\fP or \f3\-ea\fP enables assertions. With one argument ending in \f2"..."\fP, the switch enables assertions in the specified package and any subpackages. If the argument is simply \f2"..."\fP, the switch enables assertions in the unnamed package in the current working directory. With one argument not ending in \f2"..."\fP, the switch enables assertions in the specified class.
+Sets the path and file name where log data is written\&. By default, the file is created in the current working directory, and it is named \f3hotspot\&.log\fR\&.
+
+\fI\fRThe following example shows how to set the log file to \f3/var/log/java/hotspot\&.log\fR:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:LogFile=/var/log/java/hotspot\&.log\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:+PrintClassHistogram
 .br
+\fI\fREnables printing of a class instance histogram after a \f3Control+C\fR event (\f3SIGTERM\fR)\&. By default, this option is disabled\&.
+
+Setting this option is equivalent to running the \f3jmap -histo\fR command, or the \f3jcmd\fR\fIpid\fR\f3GC\&.class_histogram\fR command, where \fIpid\fR is the current Java process identifier\&.
+.TP     
+-XX:+PrintConcurrentLocks
+
+
+Enables printing of j\f3ava\&.util\&.concurrent\fR locks after a \f3Control+C\fR event (\f3SIGTERM\fR)\&. By default, this option is disabled\&.
+
+Setting this option is equivalent to running the \f3jstack -l\fR command or the \f3jcmd\fR\fIpid\fR\f3Thread\&.print -l\fR command, where \fIpid\fR is the current Java process identifier\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+UnlockDiagnosticVMOptions
 .br
-If a single command line contains multiple instances of these switches, they are processed in order before loading any classes. So, for example, to run a program with assertions enabled only in package \f2com.wombat.fruitbat\fP (and any subpackages), the following command could be used:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-java \-ea:com.wombat.fruitbat... <Main Class>
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-The \f3\-enableassertions\fP and \f3\-ea\fP switches apply to \f2all\fP class loaders and to system classes (which do not have a class loader). There is one exception to this rule: in their no\-argument form, the switches do \f2not\fP apply to system. This makes it easy to turn on asserts in all classes except for system classes. A separate switch is provided to enable asserts in all system classes; see \f3\-enablesystemassertions\fP below.
-.TP 3
-\-disableassertions[:<package name>"..." | :<class name> ]
-.TP 3
-\-da[:<package name>"..." | :<class name> ]
-Disable assertions. This is the default.
+Unlocks the options intended for diagnosing the JVM\&. By default, this option is disabled and diagnostic options are not available\&.
+.SS ADVANCED\ GARBAGE\ COLLECTION\ OPTIONS    
+These options control how garbage collection (GC) is performed by the Java HotSpot VM\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+AggressiveHeap
 .br
+Enables Java heap optimization\&. This sets various parameters to be optimal for long-running jobs with intensive memory allocation, based on the configuration of the computer (RAM and CPU)\&. By default, the option is disabled and the heap is not optimized\&.
+.TP
+-XX:AllocatePrefetchDistance=\fIsize\fR
 .br
-With no arguments, \f3disableassertions\fP or \f3\-da\fP disables assertions. With one argument ending in \f2"..."\fP, the switch disables assertions in the specified package and any subpackages. If the argument is simply \f2"..."\fP, the switch disables assertions in the unnamed package in the current working directory. With one argument not ending in \f2"..."\fP, the switch disables assertions in the specified class.
+Sets the size (in bytes) of the prefetch distance for object allocation\&. Memory about to be written with the value of new objects is prefetched up to this distance starting from the address of the last allocated object\&. Each Java thread has its own allocation point\&.
+
+Negative values denote that prefetch distance is chosen based on the platform\&. Positive values are bytes to prefetch\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. The default value is set to -1\&.
+
+The following example shows how to set the prefetch distance to 1024 bytes:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:AllocatePrefetchDistance=1024\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:AllocatePrefetchLines=\fIlines\fR
 .br
+Sets the number of cache lines to load after the last object allocation by using the prefetch instructions generated in compiled code\&. The default value is 1 if the last allocated object was an instance, and 3 if it was an array\&.
+
+The following example shows how to set the number of loaded cache lines to 5:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:AllocatePrefetchLines=5\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:AllocatePrefetchStyle=\fIstyle\fR
 .br
-To run a program with assertions enabled in package \f2com.wombat.fruitbat\fP but disabled in class \f2com.wombat.fruitbat.Brickbat\fP, the following command could be used:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-java \-ea:com.wombat.fruitbat... \-da:com.wombat.fruitbat.Brickbat \fP\f4<Main Class>\fP\f3
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-The \f3\-disableassertions\fP and \f3\-da\fP switches apply to \f2all\fP class loaders and to system classes (which do not have a class loader). There is one exception to this rule: in their no\-argument form, the switches do \f2not\fP apply to system. This makes it easy to turn on asserts in all classes except for system classes. A separate switch is provided to enable asserts in all system classes; see \f3\-disablesystemassertions\fP below.
-.TP 3
-\-enablesystemassertions
-.TP 3
-\-esa
-Enable asserts in all system classes (sets the \f2default assertion status\fP for system classes to \f2true\fP).
-.TP 3
-\-disablesystemassertions
-.TP 3
-\-dsa
-Disables asserts in all system classes.
-.TP 3
-\-jar
-Execute a program encapsulated in a JAR file. The first argument is the name of a JAR file instead of a startup class name. In order for this option to work, the manifest of the JAR file must contain a line of the form \f3Main\-Class: \fP\f4classname\fP. Here, \f2classname\fP identifies the class having the \f2public\ static\ void\ main(String[]\ args)\fP method that serves as your application's starting point. See the jar(1) and the Jar trail of the
-.na
-\f2Java Tutorial\fP @
-.fi
-http://download.oracle.com/javase/tutorial/deployment/jar for information about working with Jar files and Jar\-file manifests.
+Sets the generated code style for prefetch instructions\&. The \fIstyle\fR argument is an integer from 0 to 3:
+.RS     
+.TP     
+0
+Do not generate prefetch instructions\&.
+.TP     
+1
+Execute prefetch instructions after each allocation\&. This is the default parameter\&.
+.TP     
+2
+Use the thread-local allocation block (TLAB) watermark pointer to determine when prefetch instructions are executed\&.
+.TP     
+3
+Use BIS instruction on SPARC for allocation prefetch\&.
+.RE     
+
+.TP
+-XX:+AlwaysPreTouch
 .br
+Enables touching of every page on the Java heap during JVM initialization\&. This gets all pages into the memory before entering the \f3main()\fR method\&. The option can be used in testing to simulate a long-running system with all virtual memory mapped to physical memory\&. By default, this option is disabled and all pages are committed as JVM heap space fills\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+CMSClassUnloadingEnabled
 .br
-When you use this option, the JAR file is the source of all user classes, and other user class path settings are ignored.
+Enables class unloading when using the concurrent mark-sweep (CMS) garbage collector\&. This option is enabled by default\&. To disable class unloading for the CMS garbage collector, specify \f3-XX:-CMSClassUnloadingEnabled\fR\&.
+.TP
+-XX:CMSExpAvgFactor=\fIpercent\fR
 .br
+Sets the percentage of time (0 to 100) used to weight the current sample when computing exponential averages for the concurrent collection statistics\&. By default, the exponential averages factor is set to 25%\&. The following example shows how to set the factor to 15%:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:CMSExpAvgFactor=15\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:CMSIncrementalDutyCycle=\fIpercent\fR
 .br
-Note that JAR files that can be run with the "java \-jar" option can have their execute permissions set so they can be run without using "java \-jar". Refer to
-.na
-\f2Java Archive (JAR) Files\fP @
-.fi
-http://download.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/technotes/guides/jar/index.html.
-.TP 3
-\-javaagent:jarpath[=options]
-Load a Java programming language agent, see
-.na
-\f2java.lang.instrument\fP @
-.fi
-http://download.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/api/java/lang/instrument/package\-summary.html.
-.TP 3
-\-jre\-restrict\-search
-Include user\-private JREs in the version search.
-.TP 3
-\-no\-jre\-restrict\-search
-Exclude user\-private JREs in the version search.
-.TP 3
-\-verbose
-.TP 3
-\-verbose:class
-Display information about each class loaded.
-.TP 3
-\-verbose:gc
-Report on each garbage collection event.
-.TP 3
-\-verbose:jni
-Report information about use of native methods and other Java Native Interface activity.
-.TP 3
-\-version
-Display version information and exit.
-.TP 3
-\-version:release
-Specifies that the version specified by \f2release\fP is required by the class or jar file specified on the command line. If the version of the java command invoked does not meet this specification and an appropriate implementation is found on the system, the appropriate implementation will be used.
+Sets the percentage of time (0 to 100) between minor collections that the concurrent collector is allowed to run\&. When \f3-XX:+CMSIncrementalPacing\fR is enabled, the duty cycle is set automatically, and this option sets only the initial value\&.
+
+By default, the duty cycle is set to 10%\&. The following example shows how to set the duty cycle to 20%:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:CMSIncrementalDutyCycle=20\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:CMSIncrementalDutyCycleMin=\fIpercent\fR
 .br
+Sets the percentage of time (0 to 100) between minor collections that is the lower bound for the duty cycle when \f3-XX:+CMSIncrementalPacing\fR is enabled\&. By default, the lower bound for the duty cycle is set to 0%\&. The following example shows how to set the lower bound to 10%:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:CMSIncrementalDutyCycleMin=10\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:+CMSIncrementalMode
 .br
-\f2release\fP not only can specify an exact version, but can also specify a list of versions called a version string. A version string is an ordered list of version ranges separated by spaces. A version range is either a version\-id, a version\-id followed by a star (*), a version\-id followed by a plus sign (+) , or two version\-ranges combined using an ampersand (&). The star means prefix match, the plus sign means this version or greater, and the ampersand means the logical anding of the two version\-ranges. For example:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-\-version:"1.6.0_13 1.6*&1.6.0_10+"
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-The meaning of the above is that the class or jar file requires either version 1.6.0_13, or a version with 1.6 as a version\-id prefix and that is not less than 1.6.0_10.. The exact syntax and definition of version strings may be found in Appendix A of the Java Network Launching Protocol & API Specification (JSR\-56).
+Enables the incremental mode for the CMS collector\&. This option is disabled by default and should only be enabled for configurations with no more than two GC threads\&. All options that start with \f3CMSIncremental\fR apply only when this option is enabled\&.
+.TP
+-XX:CMSIncrementalOffset=\fIpercent\fR
 .br
+Sets the percentage of time (0 to 100) by which the incremental mode duty cycle is shifted to the right within the period between minor collections\&. By default, the offset is set to 0%\&. The following example shows how to set the duty cycle offset to 25%:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:CMSIncrementalOffset=25\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:+CMSIncrementalPacing
 .br
-For jar files, the usual preference is to specify version requirements in the jar file manifest rather than on the command line.
+Enables automatic adjustment of the incremental mode duty cycle based on statistics collected while the JVM is running\&. This option is enabled by default\&. To disable automatic adjustment of the incremental mode duty cycle, specify \f3-XX:-CMSIncrementalPacing\fR\&.
+.TP
+-XX:CMSIncrementalSafetyFactor=\fIpercent\fR
 .br
+Sets the percentage of time (0 to 100) used to add conservatism when computing the duty cycle\&. By default, the safety factor is set to 10%\&. The example below shows how to set the safety factor to 5%:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:CMSIncrementalSafetyFactor=5\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:CMSInitiatingOccupancyFraction=\fIpercent\fR
 .br
-See the following NOTES section for important policy information on the use of this option.
-.TP 3
-\-showversion
-Display version information and continue.
-.TP 3
-\-?
-.TP 3
-\-help
-Display usage information and exit.
-.TP 3
-\-splash:imagepath
-Show splash screen with image specified by \f2imagepath\fP.
-.TP 3
-\-X
-Display information about non\-standard options and exit.
-.RE
+Sets the percentage of the old generation occupancy (0 to 100) at which to start a CMS collection cycle\&. The default value is set to -1\&. Any negative value (including the default) implies that \f3-XX:CMSTriggerRatio\fR is used to define the value of the initiating occupancy fraction\&.
 
-.LP
-.SS
-Non\-Standard Options
-.LP
-.RS 3
-.TP 3
-\-Xint
-Operate in interpreted\-only mode. Compilation to native code is disabled, and all bytecodes are executed by the interpreter. The performance benefits offered by the Java HotSpot VMs' adaptive compiler will not be present in this mode.
-.TP 3
-\-Xbatch
-Disable background compilation. Normally the VM will compile the method as a background task, running the method in interpreter mode until the background compilation is finished. The \f2\-Xbatch\fP flag disables background compilation so that compilation of all methods proceeds as a foreground task until completed.
-.TP 3
-\-Xbootclasspath:bootclasspath
-Specify a colon\-separated list of directories, JAR archives, and ZIP archives to search for boot class files. These are used in place of the boot class files included in the Java platform JDK. \f2Note: Applications that use this option for the purpose of overriding a class in rt.jar should not be deployed as doing so would contravene the Java Runtime Environment binary code license.\fP
-.TP 3
-\-Xbootclasspath/a:path
-Specify a colon\-separated path of directires, JAR archives, and ZIP archives to append to the default bootstrap class path.
-.TP 3
-\-Xbootclasspath/p:path
-Specify a colon\-separated path of directires, JAR archives, and ZIP archives to prepend in front of the default bootstrap class path. \f2Note: Applications that use this option for the purpose of overriding a class in rt.jar should not be deployed as doing so would contravene the Java Runtime Environment binary code license.\fP
-.TP 3
-\-Xcheck:jni
-Perform additional checks for Java Native Interface (JNI) functions. Specifically, the Java Virtual Machine validates the parameters passed to the JNI function as well as the runtime environment data before processing the JNI request. Any invalid data encountered indicates a problem in the native code, and the Java Virtual Machine will terminate with a fatal error in such cases. Expect a performance degradation when this option is used.
-.TP 3
-\-Xfuture
-Perform strict class\-file format checks. For purposes of backwards compatibility, the default format checks performed by the JDK's virtual machine are no stricter than the checks performed by 1.1.x versions of the JDK software. The \f3\-Xfuture\fP flag turns on stricter class\-file format checks that enforce closer conformance to the class\-file format specification. Developers are encouraged to use this flag when developing new code because the stricter checks will become the default in future releases of the Java application launcher.
-.TP 3
-\-Xnoclassgc
-Disable class garbage collection. Use of this option will prevent memory recovery from loaded classes thus increasing overall memory usage. This could cause OutOfMemoryError to be thrown in some applications.
-.TP 3
-\-Xincgc
-Enable the incremental garbage collector. The incremental garbage collector, which is off by default, will reduce the occasional long garbage\-collection pauses during program execution. The incremental garbage collector will at times execute concurrently with the program and during such times will reduce the processor capacity available to the program.
-.TP 3
-\-Xloggc:file
-Report on each garbage collection event, as with \-verbose:gc, but log this data to \f2file\fP. In addition to the information \f2\-verbose:gc\fP gives, each reported event will be preceeded by the time (in seconds) since the first garbage\-collection event.
+The following example shows how to set the occupancy fraction to 20%:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:CMSInitiatingOccupancyFraction=20\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:+CMSScavengeBeforeRemark
 .br
+Enables scavenging attempts before the CMS remark step\&. By default, this option is disabled\&.
+.TP
+-XX:CMSTriggerRatio=\fIpercent\fR
 .br
-Always use a local file system for storage of this file to avoid stalling the JVM due to network latency. The file may be truncated in the case of a full file system and logging will continue on the truncated file. This option overrides \f2\-verbose:gc\fP if both are given on the command line.
-.TP 3
-\-Xmsn
-Specify the initial size, in bytes, of the memory allocation pool. This value must be a multiple of 1024 greater than 1MB. Append the letter \f2k\fP or \f2K\fP to indicate kilobytes, or \f2m\fP or \f2M\fP to indicate megabytes. The default value is chosen at runtime based on system configuration. For more information, see
-.na
-\f2HotSpot Ergonomics\fP @
-.fi
-http://download.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/technotes/guides/vm/gc\-ergonomics.html
+Sets the percentage (0 to 100) of the value specified by \f3-XX:MinHeapFreeRatio\fR that is allocated before a CMS collection cycle commences\&. The default value is set to 80%\&.
+
+The following example shows how to set the occupancy fraction to 75%:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:CMSTriggerRatio=75\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:ConcGCThreads=\fIthreads\fR
 .br
+Sets the number of threads used for concurrent GC\&. The default value depends on the number of CPUs available to the JVM\&.
+
+For example, to set the number of threads for concurrent GC to 2, specify the following option:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:ConcGCThreads=2\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:+DisableExplicitGC
 .br
-Examples:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-       \-Xms6291456
-.fl
-       \-Xms6144k
-.fl
-       \-Xms6m
-.fl
+Enables the option that disables processing of calls to \f3System\&.gc()\fR\&. This option is disabled by default, meaning that calls to \f3System\&.gc()\fR are processed\&. If processing of calls to \f3System\&.gc()\fR is disabled, the JVM still performs GC when necessary\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+ExplicitGCInvokesConcurrent
+.br
+Enables invoking of concurrent GC by using the \f3System\&.gc()\fR request\&. This option is disabled by default and can be enabled only together with the \f3-XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC\fR option\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+ExplicitGCInvokesConcurrentAndUnloadsClasses
+.br
+Enables invoking of concurrent GC by using the \f3System\&.gc()\fR request and unloading of classes during the concurrent GC cycle\&. This option is disabled by default and can be enabled only together with the \f3-XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC\fR option\&.
+.TP
+-XX:G1HeapRegionSize=\fIsize\fR
+.br
+Sets the size of the regions into which the Java heap is subdivided when using the garbage-first (G1) collector\&. The value can be between 1 MB and 32 MB\&. The default region size is determined ergonomically based on the heap size\&.
 
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-.TP 3
-\-Xmxn
-Specify the maximum size, in bytes, of the memory allocation pool. This value must a multiple of 1024 greater than 2MB. Append the letter \f2k\fP or \f2K\fP to indicate kilobytes, or \f2m\fP or \f2M\fP to indicate megabytes. The default value is chosen at runtime based on system configuration. For more information, see
-.na
-\f2HotSpot Ergonomics\fP @
-.fi
-http://download.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/technotes/guides/vm/gc\-ergonomics.html
+The following example shows how to set the size of the subdivisions to 16 MB:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:G1HeapRegionSize=16m\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:+G1PrintHeapRegions
 .br
+Enables the printing of information about which regions are allocated and which are reclaimed by the G1 collector\&. By default, this option is disabled\&.
+.TP
+-XX:G1ReservePercent=\fIpercent\fR
 .br
-Examples:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-       \-Xmx83886080
-.fl
-       \-Xmx81920k
-.fl
-       \-Xmx80m
-.fl
+Sets the percentage of the heap (0 to 50) that is reserved as a false ceiling to reduce the possibility of promotion failure for the G1 collector\&. By default, this option is set to 10%\&.
 
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-On Solaris 7 and Solaris 8 SPARC platforms, the upper limit for this value is approximately 4000m minus overhead amounts. On Solaris 2.6 and x86 platforms, the upper limit is approximately 2000m minus overhead amounts. On Bsd platforms, the upper limit is approximately 2000m minus overhead amounts.
-.TP 3
-\-Xprof
-Profiles the running program, and sends profiling data to standard output. This option is provided as a utility that is useful in program development and is not intended to be used in production systems.
-.TP 3
-\-Xrs
-Reduces use of operating\-system signals by the Java virtual machine (JVM).
+The following example shows how to set the reserved heap to 20%:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:G1ReservePercent=20\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:InitialHeapSize=\fIsize\fR
 .br
+Sets the initial size (in bytes) of the memory allocation pool\&. This value must be either 0, or a multiple of 1024 and greater than 1 MB\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. The default value is chosen at runtime based on system configuration\&. For more information, see Garbage Collector Ergonomics at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/vm/gc-ergonomics\&.html
+
+The following examples show how to set the size of allocated memory to 6 MB using various units:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:InitialHeapSize=6291456\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:InitialHeapSize=6144k\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:InitialHeapSize=6m\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+If you set this option to 0, then the initial size will be set as the sum of the sizes allocated for the old generation and the young generation\&. The size of the heap for the young generation can be set using the \f3-XX:NewSize\fR option\&.
+.TP
+-XX:InitialSurvivorRatio=\fIratio\fR
 .br
-In a previous release, the Shutdown Hooks facility was added to allow orderly shutdown of a Java application. The intent was to allow user cleanup code (such as closing database connections) to run at shutdown, even if the JVM terminates abruptly.
+Sets the initial survivor space ratio used by the throughput garbage collector (which is enabled by the \f3-XX:+UseParallelGC\fR and/or -\f3XX:+UseParallelOldGC\fR options)\&. Adaptive sizing is enabled by default with the throughput garbage collector by using the \f3-XX:+UseParallelGC\fR and \f3-XX:+UseParallelOldGC\fR options, and survivor space is resized according to the application behavior, starting with the initial value\&. If adaptive sizing is disabled (using the \f3-XX:-UseAdaptiveSizePolicy\fR option), then the \f3-XX:SurvivorRatio\fR option should be used to set the size of the survivor space for the entire execution of the application\&.
+
+The following formula can be used to calculate the initial size of survivor space (S) based on the size of the young generation (Y), and the initial survivor space ratio (R):
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3S=Y/(R+2)\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+The 2 in the equation denotes two survivor spaces\&. The larger the value specified as the initial survivor space ratio, the smaller the initial survivor space size\&.
+
+By default, the initial survivor space ratio is set to 8\&. If the default value for the young generation space size is used (2 MB), the initial size of the survivor space will be 0\&.2 MB\&.
+
+The following example shows how to set the initial survivor space ratio to 4:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:InitialSurvivorRatio=4\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:InitiatingHeapOccupancyPercent=\fIpercent\fR
 .br
+Sets the percentage of the heap occupancy (0 to 100) at which to start a concurrent GC cycle\&. It is used by garbage collectors that trigger a concurrent GC cycle based on the occupancy of the entire heap, not just one of the generations (for example, the G1 garbage collector)\&.
+
+By default, the initiating value is set to 45%\&. A value of 0 implies nonstop GC cycles\&. The following example shows how to set the initiating heap occupancy to 75%:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:InitiatingHeapOccupancyPercent=75\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:MaxGCPauseMillis=\fItime\fR
 .br
-Sun's JVM catches signals to implement shutdown hooks for abnormal JVM termination. The JVM uses SIGHUP, SIGINT, and SIGTERM to initiate the running of shutdown hooks.
+Sets a target for the maximum GC pause time (in milliseconds)\&. This is a soft goal, and the JVM will make its best effort to achieve it\&. By default, there is no maximum pause time value\&.
+
+The following example shows how to set the maximum target pause time to 500 ms:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:MaxGCPauseMillis=500\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:MaxHeapSize=\fIsize\fR
 .br
+Sets the maximum size (in byes) of the memory allocation pool\&. This value must be a multiple of 1024 and greater than 2 MB\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. The default value is chosen at runtime based on system configuration\&. For server deployments, \f3-XX:InitialHeapSize\fR and \f3-XX:MaxHeapSize\fR are often set to the same value\&. For more information, see Garbage Collector Ergonomics at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/vm/gc-ergonomics\&.html
+
+The following examples show how to set the maximum allowed size of allocated memory to 80 MB using various units:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:MaxHeapSize=83886080\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:MaxHeapSize=81920k\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:MaxHeapSize=80m\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+On Oracle Solaris 7 and Oracle Solaris 8 SPARC platforms, the upper limit for this value is approximately 4,000 MB minus overhead amounts\&. On Oracle Solaris 2\&.6 and x86 platforms, the upper limit is approximately 2,000 MB minus overhead amounts\&. On Linux platforms, the upper limit is approximately 2,000 MB minus overhead amounts\&.
+
+The \f3-XX:MaxHeapSize\fR option is equivalent to \f3-Xmx\fR\&.
+.TP
+-XX:MaxHeapFreeRatio=\fIpercent\fR
 .br
-The JVM uses a similar mechanism to implement the pre\-1.2 feature of dumping thread stacks for debugging purposes. Sun's JVM uses SIGQUIT to perform thread dumps.
+Sets the maximum allowed percentage of free heap space (0 to 100) after a GC event\&. If free heap space expands above this value, then the heap will be shrunk\&. By default, this value is set to 70%\&.
+
+The following example shows how to set the maximum free heap ratio to 75%:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:MaxHeapFreeRatio=75\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:MaxMetaspaceSize=\fIsize\fR
 .br
+Sets the maximum amount of native memory that can be allocated for class metadata\&. By default, the size is not limited\&. The amount of metadata for an application depends on the application itself, other running applications, and the amount of memory available on the system\&.
+
+The following example shows how to set the maximum class metadata size to 256 MB:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:MaxMetaspaceSize=256m\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:MaxNewSize=\fIsize\fR
 .br
-Applications embedding the JVM frequently need to trap signals like SIGINT or SIGTERM, which can lead to interference with the JVM's own signal handlers. The \f3\-Xrs\fP command\-line option is available to address this issue. When \f3\-Xrs\fP is used on Sun's JVM, the signal masks for SIGINT, SIGTERM, SIGHUP, and SIGQUIT are not changed by the JVM, and signal handlers for these signals are not installed.
+Sets the maximum size (in bytes) of the heap for the young generation (nursery)\&. The default value is set ergonomically\&.
+.TP
+-XX:MaxTenuringThreshold=\fIthreshold\fR
 .br
+Sets the maximum tenuring threshold for use in adaptive GC sizing\&. The largest value is 15\&. The default value is 15 for the parallel (throughput) collector, and 6 for the CMS collector\&.
+
+The following example shows how to set the maximum tenuring threshold to 10:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:MaxTenuringThreshold=10\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:MetaspaceSize=\fIsize\fR
 .br
-There are two consequences of specifying \f3\-Xrs\fP:
-.RS 3
-.TP 2
-o
-SIGQUIT thread dumps are not available.
-.TP 2
-o
-User code is responsible for causing shutdown hooks to run, for example by calling System.exit() when the JVM is to be terminated.
-.RE
-.TP 3
-\-Xssn
-Set thread stack size.
-.TP 3
-\-XX:+UseAltSigs
-The VM uses \f2SIGUSR1\fP and \f2SIGUSR2\fP by default, which can sometimes conflict with applications that signal\-chain \f2SIGUSR1\fP and \f2SIGUSR2\fP. The \f2\-XX:+UseAltSigs\fP option will cause the VM to use signals other than \f2SIGUSR1\fP and \f2SIGUSR2\fP as the default.
-.RE
+Sets the size of the allocated class metadata space that will trigger a garbage collection the first time it is exceeded\&. This threshold for a garbage collection is increased or decreased depending on the amount of metadata used\&. The default size depends on the platform\&.
+.TP
+-XX:MinHeapFreeRatio=\fIpercent\fR
+.br
+Sets the minimum allowed percentage of free heap space (0 to 100) after a GC event\&. If free heap space falls below this value, then the heap will be expanded\&. By default, this value is set to 40%\&.
 
-.LP
-.SH "NOTES"
-.LP
-.LP
-The \f3\-version:\fP\f2release\fP command line option places no restrictions on the complexity of the release specification. However, only a restricted subset of the possible release specifications represent sound policy and only these are fully supported. These policies are:
-.LP
-.RS 3
-.TP 3
-1.
-Any version, represented by not using this option.
-.TP 3
-2.
-Any version greater than an arbitrarily precise version\-id. For example:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-"1.6.0_10+"
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-This would utilize any version greater than \f21.6.0_10\fP. This is useful for a case where an interface was introduced (or a bug fixed) in the release specified.
-.TP 3
-3.
-A version greater than an arbitrarily precise version\-id, bounded by the upper bound of that release family. For example:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-"1.6.0_10+&1.6*"
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-.TP 3
-4.
-"Or" expressions of items 2. or 3. above. For example:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-"1.6.0_10+&1.6* 1.7+"
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-Similar to item 2. this is useful when a change was introduced in a release (1.7) but also made available in updates to previous releases.
-.RE
+The following example shows how to set the minimum free heap ratio to 25%:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:MinHeapFreeRatio=25\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
 
-.LP
-.SH "EXIT STATUS"
-.LP
-.LP
-The following exit values are generally returned by the launcher, typically when the launcher is called with the wrong arguments, serious errors, or exceptions thrown from the Java Virtual Machine. However, a Java application may choose to return any value using the API call \f2System.exit(exitValue)\fP.
-.LP
-.RS 3
-.TP 2
-o
-\f20\fP: Successful completion
-.TP 2
-o
-\f2>0\fP: An error occurred
-.RE
+.TP
+-XX:NewRatio=\fIratio\fR
+.br
+Sets the ratio between young and old generation sizes\&. By default, this option is set to 2\&. The following example shows how to set the young/old ratio to 1:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:NewRatio=1\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
 
-.LP
-.SH "SEE ALSO"
-.LP
-.RS 3
-.TP 2
-o
+.TP
+-XX:NewSize=\fIsize\fR
+.br
+Sets the initial size (in bytes) of the heap for the young generation (nursery)\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&.
+
+The young generation region of the heap is used for new objects\&. GC is performed in this region more often than in other regions\&. If the size for the young generation is too low, then a large number of minor GCs will be performed\&. If the size is too high, then only full GCs will be performed, which can take a long time to complete\&. Oracle recommends that you keep the size for the young generation between a half and a quarter of the overall heap size\&.
+
+The following examples show how to set the initial size of young generation to 256 MB using various units:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:NewSize=256m\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:NewSize=262144k\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:NewSize=268435456\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+The \f3-XX:NewSize\fR option is equivalent to \f3-Xmn\fR\&.
+.TP
+-XX:ParallelGCThreads=\fIthreads\fR
+.br
+Sets the number of threads used for parallel garbage collection in the young and old generations\&. The default value depends on the number of CPUs available to the JVM\&.
+
+For example, to set the number of threads for parallel GC to 2, specify the following option:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:ParallelGCThreads=2\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:+ParallelRefProcEnabled
+.br
+Enables parallel reference processing\&. By default, this option is disabled\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+PrintAdaptiveSizePolicy
+.br
+Enables printing of information about adaptive generation sizing\&. By default, this option is disabled\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+PrintGC
+.br
+Enables printing of messages at every GC\&. By default, this option is disabled\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+PrintGCApplicationConcurrentTime
+.br
+Enables printing of how much time elapsed since the last pause (for example, a GC pause)\&. By default, this option is disabled\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+PrintGCApplicationStoppedTime
+.br
+Enables printing of how much time the pause (for example, a GC pause) lasted\&. By default, this option is disabled\&.
+.TP
+-XX+PrintGCDateStamp
+.br
+Enables printing of a date stamp at every GC\&. By default, this option is disabled\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+PrintGCDetails
+.br
+Enables printing of detailed messages at every GC\&. By default, this option is disabled\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+PrintGCTaskTimeStamps
+.br
+Enables printing of time stamps for every individual GC worker thread task\&. By default, this option is disabled\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+PrintGCTimeStamp
+.br
+Enables printing of time stamps at every GC\&. By default, this option is disabled\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+PrintTenuringDistribution
+.br
+Enables printing of tenuring age information\&. The following is an example of the output:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3Desired survivor size 48286924 bytes, new threshold 10 (max 10)\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\- age 1: 28992024 bytes, 28992024 total\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\- age 2: 1366864 bytes, 30358888 total\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\- age 3: 1425912 bytes, 31784800 total\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\&.\&.\&.\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+Age 1 objects are the youngest survivors (they were created after the previous scavenge, survived the latest scavenge, and moved from eden to survivor space)\&. Age 2 objects have survived two scavenges (during the second scavenge they were copied from one survivor space to the next)\&. And so on\&.
+
+In the preceding example, 28 992 024 bytes survived one scavenge and were copied from eden to survivor space, 1 366 864 bytes are occupied by age 2 objects, etc\&. The third value in each row is the cumulative size of objects of age n or less\&.
+
+By default, this option is disabled\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+ScavengeBeforeFullGC
+.br
+Enables GC of the young generation before each full GC\&. This option is enabled by default\&. Oracle recommends that you \fIdo not\fR disable it, because scavenging the young generation before a full GC can reduce the number of objects reachable from the old generation space into the young generation space\&. To disable GC of the young generation before each full GC, specify \f3-XX:-ScavengeBeforeFullGC\fR\&.
+.TP
+-XX:SoftRefLRUPolicyMSPerMB=\fItime\fR
+.br
+Sets the amount of time (in milliseconds) a softly reachable object is kept active on the heap after the last time it was referenced\&. The default value is one second of lifetime per free megabyte in the heap\&. The \f3-XX:SoftRefLRUPolicyMSPerMB\fR option accepts integer values representing milliseconds per one megabyte of the current heap size (for Java HotSpot Client VM) or the maximum possible heap size (for Java HotSpot Server VM)\&. This difference means that the Client VM tends to flush soft references rather than grow the heap, whereas the Server VM tends to grow the heap rather than flush soft references\&. In the latter case, the value of the \f3-Xmx\fR option has a significant effect on how quickly soft references are garbage collected\&.
+
+The following example shows how to set the value to 2\&.5 seconds:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:SoftRefLRUPolicyMSPerMB=2500\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:SurvivorRatio=\fIratio\fR
+.br
+Sets the ratio between eden space size and survivor space size\&. By default, this option is set to 8\&. The following example shows how to set the eden/survivor space ratio to 4:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:SurvivorRatio=4\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:TargetSurvivorRatio=\fIpercent\fR
+.br
+Sets the desired percentage of survivor space (0 to 100) used after young garbage collection\&. By default, this option is set to 50%\&.
+
+The following example shows how to set the target survivor space ratio to 30%:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:TargetSurvivorRatio=30\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:TLABSize=\fIsize\fR
+.br
+Sets the initial size (in bytes) of a thread-local allocation buffer (TLAB)\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. If this option is set to 0, then the JVM chooses the initial size automatically\&.
+
+The following example shows how to set the initial TLAB size to 512 KB:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-XX:TLABSize=512k\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-XX:+UseAdaptiveSizePolicy
+.br
+Enables the use of adaptive generation sizing\&. This option is enabled by default\&. To disable adaptive generation sizing, specify \f3-XX:-UseAdaptiveSizePolicy\fR and set the size of the memory allocation pool explicitly (see the \f3-XX:SurvivorRatio\fR option)\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+UseCMSInitiatingOccupancyOnly
+.br
+Enables the use of the occupancy value as the only criterion for initiating the CMS collector\&. By default, this option is disabled and other criteria may be used\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC
+.br
+Enables the use of the CMS garbage collector for the old generation\&. Oracle recommends that you use the CMS garbage collector when application latency requirements cannot be met by the throughput (\f3-XX:+UseParallelGC\fR) garbage collector\&. The G1 garbage collector (\f3-XX:+UseG1GC\fR) is another alternative\&.
+
+By default, this option is disabled and the collector is chosen automatically based on the configuration of the machine and type of the JVM\&. When this option is enabled, the \f3-XX:+UseParNewGC\fR option is automatically set\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+UseG1GC
+.br
+Enables the use of the G1 garbage collector\&. It is a server-style garbage collector, targeted for multiprocessor machines with a large amount of RAM\&. It meets GC pause time goals with high probability, while maintaining good throughput\&. The G1 collector is recommended for applications requiring large heaps (sizes of around 6 GB or larger) with limited GC latency requirements (stable and predictable pause time below 0\&.5 seconds)\&.
+
+By default, this option is disabled and the collector is chosen automatically based on the configuration of the machine and type of the JVM\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+UseGCOverheadLimit
+.br
+Enables the use of a policy that limits the proportion of time spent by the JVM on GC before an \f3OutOfMemoryError\fR exception is thrown\&. This option is enabled, by default and the parallel GC will throw an \f3OutOfMemoryError\fR if more than 98% of the total time is spent on garbage collection and less than 2% of the heap is recovered\&. When the heap is small, this feature can be used to prevent applications from running for long periods of time with little or no progress\&. To disable this option, specify \f3-XX:-UseGCOverheadLimit\fR\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+UseNUMA
+.br
+Enables performance optimization of an application on a machine with nonuniform memory architecture (NUMA) by increasing the application\&'s use of lower latency memory\&. By default, this option is disabled and no optimization for NUMA is made\&. The option is only available when the parallel garbage collector is used (\f3-XX:+UseParallelGC\fR)\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+UseParallelGC
+.br
+Enables the use of the parallel scavenge garbage collector (also known as the throughput collector) to improve the performance of your application by leveraging multiple processors\&.
+
+By default, this option is disabled and the collector is chosen automatically based on the configuration of the machine and type of the JVM\&. If it is enabled, then the \f3-XX:+UseParallelOldGC\fR option is automatically enabled, unless you explicitly disable it\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+UseParallelOldGC
+.br
+Enables the use of the parallel garbage collector for full GCs\&. By default, this option is disabled\&. Enabling it automatically enables the \f3-XX:+UseParallelGC\fR option\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+UseParNewGC
+.br
+Enables the use of parallel threads for collection in the young generation\&. By default, this option is disabled\&. It is automatically enabled when you set the \f3-XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC\fR option\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+UseSerialGC
+.br
+Enables the use of the serial garbage collector\&. This is generally the best choice for small and simple applications that do not require any special functionality from garbage collection\&. By default, this option is disabled and the collector is chosen automatically based on the configuration of the machine and type of the JVM\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+UseTLAB
+.br
+Enables the use of thread-local allocation blocks (TLABs) in the young generation space\&. This option is enabled by default\&. To disable the use of TLABs, specify \f3-XX:-UseTLAB\fR\&.
+.SS DEPRECATED\ AND\ REMOVED\ OPTIONS    
+These options were included in the previous release, but have since been considered unnecessary\&.
+.TP
+-Xrun\fIlibname\fR
+.br
+Loads the specified debugging/profiling library\&. This option was superseded by the \f3-agentlib\fR option\&.
+.TP
+-XX:CMSInitiatingPermOccupancyFraction=\fIpercent\fR
+.br
+Sets the percentage of the permanent generation occupancy (0 to 100) at which to start a GC\&. This option was deprecated in JDK 8 with no replacement\&.
+.TP
+-XX:MaxPermSize=\fIsize\fR
+.br
+Sets the maximum permanent generation space size (in bytes)\&. This option was deprecated in JDK 8, and superseded by the \f3-XX:MaxMetaspaceSize\fR option\&.
+.TP
+-XX:PermSize=\fIsize\fR
+.br
+Sets the space (in bytes) allocated to the permanent generation that triggers a garbage collection if it is exceeded\&. This option was deprecated un JDK 8, and superseded by the \f3-XX:MetaspaceSize\fR option\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+UseSplitVerifier
+.br
+Enables splitting of the verification process\&. By default, this option was enabled in the previous releases, and verification was split into two phases: type referencing (performed by the compiler) and type checking (performed by the JVM runtime)\&. This option was deprecated in JDK 8, and verification is now split by default without a way to disable it\&.
+.TP
+-XX:+UseStringCache
+.br
+Enables caching of commonly allocated strings\&. This option was removed from JDK 8 with no replacement\&.
+.SH PERFORMANCE\ TUNING\ EXAMPLES    
+The following examples show how to use experimental tuning flags to either optimize throughput or to provide lower response time\&.
+.PP
+\f3Example 1 Tuning for Higher Throughput\fR
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3java \-d64 \-server \-XX:+AggressiveOpts \-XX:+UseLargePages \-Xmn10g  \-Xms26g \-Xmx26g\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+\f3Example 2 Tuning for Lower Response Time\fR
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3java \-d64 \-XX:+UseG1GC \-Xms26g Xmx26g \-XX:MaxGCPauseMillis=500 \-XX:+PrintGCTimeStamp\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+.SH EXIT\ STATUS    
+The following exit values are typically returned by the launcher when the launcher is called with the wrong arguments, serious errors, or exceptions thrown by the JVM\&. However, a Java application may choose to return any value by using the API call \f3System\&.exit(exitValue)\fR\&. The values are:
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+\f30\fR: Successful completion
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+\f3>0\fR: An error occurred
+.SH SEE\ ALSO    
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
 javac(1)
-.TP 2
-o
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
 jdb(1)
-.TP 2
-o
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
 javah(1)
-.TP 2
-o
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
 jar(1)
-.TP 2
-o
-.na
-\f2The Java Extensions Framework\fP @
-.fi
-http://download.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/technotes/guides/extensions/index.html
-.TP 2
-o
-.na
-\f2Security Features\fP @
-.fi
-http://download.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/technotes/guides/security/index.html.
-.TP 2
-o
-.na
-\f2HotSpot VM Specific Options\fP @
-.fi
-http://java.sun.com/docs/hotspot/VMOptions.html.
-.RE
-
-.LP
-
+.RE
+.br
+'pl 8.5i
+'bp
--- a/jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/javac.1	Thu Nov 21 09:23:03 2013 -0800
+++ b/jdk/src/bsd/doc/man/javac.1	Mon Nov 25 20:19:02 2013 -0800
@@ -1,1205 +1,1364 @@
-." Copyright (c) 1994, 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
-." DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
-."
-." This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
-." under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
-." published by the Free Software Foundation.
-."
-." This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
-." ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
-." FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
-." version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
-." accompanied this code).
-."
-." You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
-." 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
-." Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
-."
-." Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
-." or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
-." questions.
-."
-.TH javac 1 "10 May 2011"
+'\" t
+.\"  Copyright (c) 1994, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+.\"
+.\" DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+.\"
+.\" This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+.\" under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+.\" published by the Free Software Foundation.
+.\"
+.\" This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+.\" ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+.\" FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License
+.\" version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+.\" accompanied this code).
+.\"
+.\" You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+.\" 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+.\" Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+.\"
+.\" Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
+.\" or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
+.\" questions.
+.\"
+.\"     Arch: generic
+.\"     Software: JDK 8
+.\"     Date: 21 November 2013
+.\"     SectDesc: Basic Tools
+.\"     Title: javac.1
+.\"
+.if n .pl 99999
+.TH javac 1 "21 November 2013" "JDK 8" "Basic Tools"
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * Define some portability stuff
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+.\" http://bugs.debian.org/507673
+.\" http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/groff/2009-02/msg00013.html
+.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+.ie \n(.g .ds Aq \(aq
+.el       .ds Aq '
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * set default formatting
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" disable hyphenation
+.nh
+.\" disable justification (adjust text to left margin only)
+.ad l
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * MAIN CONTENT STARTS HERE *
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
 
-.LP
-.SH "Name"
-javac \- Java programming language compiler
-.LP
-.SH "SYNOPSIS"
-.LP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-        \fP\f3javac\fP [ options ] [ sourcefiles ] [ classes ] [ @argfiles ]
-.fl
+.SH NAME    
+javac \- Reads Java class and interface definitions and compiles them into bytecode and class files\&.
+.SH SYNOPSIS    
+.sp     
+.nf     
 
-.fl
-.fi
+\fBjavac\fR [ \fIoptions\fR ] [ \fIsourcefiles\fR ] [ \fIclasses\fR] [ \fI@argfiles\fR ]
+.fi     
+.sp     
+Arguments can be in any order:
+.TP     
+\fIoptions\fR
+Command-line options\&. See Options\&.
+.TP     
+\fIsourcefiles\fR
+One or more source files to be compiled (such as \f3MyClass\&.java\fR)\&.
+.TP     
+\fIclasses\fR
+One or more classes to be processed for annotations (such as \f3MyPackage\&.MyClass\fR)\&.
+.TP     
+\fI@argfiles\fR
+One or more files that list options and source files\&. The \f3-J\fR options are not allowed in these files\&. See Command-Line Argument Files\&.
+.SH DESCRIPTION    
+The \f3javac\fR command reads class and interface definitions, written in the Java programming language, and compiles them into bytecode class files\&. The \f3javac\fR command can also process annotations in Java source files and classes\&.
+.PP
+There are two ways to pass source code file names to \f3javac\fR\&.
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+For a small number of source files, list the file names on the command line\&.
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+For a large number of source files, list the file names in a file that is separated by blanks or line breaks\&. Use the list file name preceded by an at sign (@) with the \f3javac\fR command\&.
+.PP
+Source code file names must have \&.java suffixes, class file names must have \&.class suffixes, and both source and class files must have root names that identify the class\&. For example, a class called \f3MyClass\fR would be written in a source file called \f3MyClass\&.java\fR and compiled into a bytecode class file called \f3MyClass\&.class\fR\&.
+.PP
+Inner class definitions produce additional class files\&. These class files have names that combine the inner and outer class names, such as \f3MyClass$MyInnerClass\&.class\fR\&.
+.PP
+Arrange source files in a directory tree that reflects their package tree\&. For example, if all of your source files are in \f3/workspace\fR, then put the source code for \f3com\&.mysoft\&.mypack\&.MyClass\fR in \f3/workspace/com/mysoft/mypack/MyClass\&.java\fR\&.
+.PP
+By default, the compiler puts each class file in the same directory as its source file\&. You can specify a separate destination directory with the \f3-d\fR option\&.
+.SH OPTIONS    
+The compiler has a set of standard options that are supported on the current development environment\&. An additional set of nonstandard options are specific to the current virtual machine and compiler implementations and are subject to change in the future\&. Nonstandard options begin with the \f3-X\fR option\&.
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+See also Cross-Compilation Options
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+See also Nonstandard Options
+.SS STANDARD\ OPTIONS    
+.TP
+-A\fIkey\fR[\fI=value\fR]
+.br
+Specifies options to pass to annotation processors\&. These options are not interpreted by \f3javac\fR directly, but are made available for use by individual processors\&. The \f3key\fR value should be one or more identifiers separated by a dot (\&.)\&.
+.TP
+-cp \fIpath\fR or -classpath \fIpath\fR
+.br
+Specifies where to find user class files, and (optionally) annotation processors and source files\&. This class path overrides the user class path in the \f3CLASSPATH\fR environment variable\&. If neither \f3CLASSPATH\fR, \f3-cp\fR nor \f3-classpath\fR is specified, then the user \fIclass path\fR is the current directory\&. See Setting the Class Path\&.
 
-.LP
-.LP
-Arguments may be in any order.
-.LP
-.RS 3
-.TP 3
+If the \f3-sourcepath\fR option is not specified, then the user class path is also searched for source files\&.
+
+If the \f3-processorpath\fR option is not specified, then the class path is also searched for annotation processors\&.
+.TP
+-Djava\&.ext\&.dirs=\fIdirectories\fR
+.br
+Overrides the location of installed extensions\&.
+.TP
+-Djava\&.endorsed\&.dirs=\fIdirectories\fR
+.br
+Overrides the location of the endorsed standards path\&.
+.TP
+-d \fIdirectory\fR
+.br
+Sets the destination directory for class files\&. The directory must already exist because \f3javac\fR does not create it\&. If a class is part of a package, then \f3javac\fR puts the class file in a subdirectory that reflects the package name and creates directories as needed\&.
+
+If you specify \f3-d\fR\f3/home/myclasses\fR and the class is called \f3com\&.mypackage\&.MyClass\fR, then the class file is \f3/home/myclasses/com/mypackage/MyClass\&.class\fR\&.
+
+If the \fI-d\fR option is not specified, then \f3javac\fR puts each class file in the same directory as the source file from which it was generated\&.
+
+\fINote:\fR The directory specified by the \fI-d\fR option is not automatically added to your user class path\&.
+.TP
+-deprecation
+.br
+Shows a description of each use or override of a deprecated member or class\&. Without the \f3-deprecation\fR option, \f3javac\fR shows a summary of the source files that use or override deprecated members or classes\&. The \f3-deprecation\fR option is shorthand for \f3-Xlint:deprecation\fR\&.
+.TP
+-encoding \fIencoding\fR
+.br
+Sets the source file encoding name, such as EUC-JP and UTF-8\&. If the \f3-encoding\fR option is not specified, then the platform default converter is used\&.
+.TP
+-endorseddirs \fIdirectories\fR
+.br
+Overrides the location of the endorsed standards path\&.
+.TP
+-extdirs \fIdirectories\fR
+.br
+Overrides the location of the \f3ext\fR directory\&. The directories variable is a colon-separated list of directories\&. Each JAR file in the specified directories is searched for class files\&. All JAR files found become part of the class path\&.
+
+If you are cross-compiling (compiling classes against bootstrap and extension classes of a different Java platform implementation), then this option specifies the directories that contain the extension classes\&. See Cross-Compilation Options for more information\&.
+.TP
+-g
+.br
+Generates all debugging information, including local variables\&. By default, only line number and source file information is generated\&.
+.TP
+-g:none
+.br
+Does not generate any debugging information\&.
+.TP
+-g:[\fIkeyword list\fR]
+.br
+Generates only some kinds of debugging information, specified by a comma separated list of keywords\&. Valid keywords are:
+.RS     
+.TP     
+source
+Source file debugging information\&.
+.TP     
+lines
+Line number debugging information\&.
+.TP     
+vars
+Local variable debugging information\&.
+.RE     
+
+.TP
+-help
+.br
+Prints a synopsis of standard options\&.
+.TP
+-implicit:[\fIclass, none\fR]
+.br
+Controls the generation of class files for implicitly loaded source files\&. To automatically generate class files, use \f3-implicit:class\fR\&. To suppress class file generation, use \f3-implicit:none\fR\&. If this option is not specified, then the default is to automatically generate class files\&. In this case, the compiler issues a warning if any such class files are generated when also doing annotation processing\&. The warning is not issued when the \f3-implicit\fR option is set explicitly\&. See Searching for Types\&.
+.TP
+-J\fIoption\fR
+.br
+Passes \f3option\fR to the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), where option is one of the options described on the reference page for the Java launcher\&. For example, \f3-J-Xms48m\fR sets the startup memory to 48 MB\&. See java(1)\&.
+
+\fINote:\fR The \fICLASSPATH\fR, \f3-classpath\fR, \f3-bootclasspath\fR, and \f3-extdirs\fR options do not specify the classes used to run \f3javac\fR\&. Trying to customize the compiler implementation with these options and variables is risky and often does not accomplish what you want\&. If you must customize the complier implementation, then use the \f3-J\fR option to pass options through to the underlying \f3\fRJava launcher\&.
+.TP
+-nowarn
+.br
+Disables warning messages\&. This option operates the same as the \f3-Xlint:none\fR option\&.
+.TP
+-parameters
+.br
+Stores formal parameter names of constructors and methods in the generated class file so that the method \f3java\&.lang\&.reflect\&.Executable\&.getParameters\fR from the Reflection API can retrieve them\&.
+.TP
+-proc: [\fInone\fR, \fIonly\fR]
+.br
+Controls whether annotation processing and compilation are done\&. \f3-proc:none\fR means that compilation takes place without annotation processing\&. \f3-proc:only\fR means that only annotation processing is done, without any subsequent compilation\&.
+.TP
+-processor \fIclass1\fR [,\fIclass2\fR,\fIclass3\fR\&.\&.\&.]
+.br
+Names of the annotation processors to run\&. This bypasses the default discovery process\&.
+.TP
+-processorpath \fIpath\fR
+.br
+Specifies where to find annotation processors\&. If this option is not used, then the class path is searched for processors\&.
+.TP
+-s \fIdir\fR
+.br
+Specifies the directory where to place the generated source files\&. The directory must already exist because \f3javac\fR does not create it\&. If a class is part of a package, then the compiler puts the source file in a subdirectory that reflects the package name and creates directories as needed\&.
+
+If you specify \f3-s /home/mysrc\fR and the class is called \f3com\&.mypackage\&.MyClass\fR, then the source file is put in \f3/home/mysrc/com/mypackage/MyClass\&.java\fR\&.
+.TP
+-source \fIrelease\fR
+.br
+Specifies the version of source code accepted\&. The following values for \f3release\fR are allowed:
+.RS     
+.TP     
+1\&.3
+The compiler does not support assertions, generics, or other language features introduced after Java SE 1\&.3\&.
+.TP     
+1\&.4
+The compiler accepts code containing assertions, which were introduced in Java SE 1\&.4\&.
+.TP     
+1\&.5
+The compiler accepts code containing generics and other language features introduced in Java SE 5\&.
+.TP     
+5
+Synonym for 1\&.5\&.
+.TP     
+1\&.6
+No language changes were introduced in Java SE 6\&. However, encoding errors in source files are now reported as errors instead of warnings as in earlier releases of Java Platform, Standard Edition\&.
+.TP     
+6
+Synonym for 1\&.6\&.
+.TP     
+1\&.7
+This is the default value\&. The compiler accepts code with features introduced in Java SE 7\&.
+.TP     
+7
+Synonym for 1\&.7\&.
+.RE     
+
+.TP
+-sourcepath \fIsourcepath\fR
+.br
+Specifies the source code path to search for class or interface definitions\&. As with the user class path, source path entries are separated by colons (:) on Oracle Solaris and semicolons on Windows and can be directories, JAR archives, or ZIP archives\&. If packages are used, then the local path name within the directory or archive must reflect the package name\&.
+
+\fINote:\fR Classes found through the class path might be recompiled when their source files are also found\&. See Searching for Types\&.
+.TP
+-verbose
+.br
+Uses verbose output, which includes information about each class loaded and each source file compiled\&.
+.TP
+-version
+.br
+Prints release information\&.
+.TP
+-werror
+.br
+Terminates compilation when warnings occur\&.
+.TP
+-X
+.br
+Displays information about nonstandard options and exits\&.
+.SS CROSS-COMPILATION\ OPTIONS    
+By default, classes are compiled against the bootstrap and extension classes of the platform that \f3javac\fR shipped with\&. But \f3javac\fR also supports cross-compiling, where classes are compiled against a bootstrap and extension classes of a different Java platform implementation\&. It is important to use the \f3-bootclasspath\fR and \f3-extdirs\fR options when cross-compiling\&.
+.TP
+-target \fIversion\fR
+.br
+Generates class files that target a specified release of the virtual machine\&. Class files will run on the specified target and on later releases, but not on earlier releases of the JVM\&. Valid targets are 1\&.1, 1\&.2, 1\&.3, 1\&.4, 1\&.5 (also 5), 1\&.6 (also 6), and 1\&.7 (also 7)\&.
+
+The default for the \f3-target\fR option depends on the value of the \f3-source\fR option:
+.RS     
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+If the \f3-source\fR option is not specified, then the value of the \f3-target\fR option is 1\&.7
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+If the \f3-source\fR option is 1\&.2, then the value of the \f3-target\fR option is 1\&.4
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+If the \f3-source\fR option is 1\&.3, then the value of the \f3-target\fR option is 1\&.4
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+If the \f3-source\fR option is 1\&.5, then the value of the \f3-target\fR option is 1\&.7
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+If the \f3-source\fR option is 1\&.6, then the value of the \f3-target\fR is option 1\&.7
+.TP 0.2i    
+\(bu
+For all other values of the \f3-source\fR option, the value of the \f3-target\fR option is the value of the \f3-source\fR option\&.
+.RE     
+
+.TP
+-bootclasspath \fIbootclasspath\fR
+.br
+Cross-compiles against the specified set of boot classes\&. As with the user class path, boot class path entries are separated by colons (:) and can be directories, JAR archives, or ZIP archives\&.
+.SS COMPACT\ PROFILE\ OPTION    
+Beginning with JDK 8, the \f3javac\fR compiler supports compact profiles\&. With compact profiles, applications that do not require the entire Java platform can be deployed and run with a smaller footprint\&. The compact profiles feature could be used to shorten the download time for applications from app stores\&. This feature makes for more compact deployment of Java applications that bundle the JRE\&. This feature is also useful in small devices\&.
+.PP
+The supported profile values are \f3compact1\fR, \f3compact2\fR, and \f3compact3\fR\&. These are additive layers\&. Each higher-numbered compact profile contains all of the APIs in profiles with smaller number names\&.
+.TP
+-profile
+.br
+When using compact profiles, this option specifies the profile name when compiling\&. For example:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3javac \-profile compact1 Hello\&.java\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+javac does not compile source code that uses any Java SE APIs that is not in the specified profile\&. Here is an example of the error message that results from attempting to compile such source code:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3cd jdk1\&.8\&.0/bin\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\&./javac \-profile compact1 Paint\&.java\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3Paint\&.java:5: error: Applet is not available in profile \&'compact1\&'\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3import java\&.applet\&.Applet;\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+In this example, you can correct the error by modifying the source to not use the \f3Applet\fR class\&. You could also correct the error by compiling without the -profile option\&. Then the compilation would be run against the full set of Java SE APIs\&. (None of the compact profiles include the \f3Applet\fR class\&.)
+
+An alternative way to compile with compact profiles is to use the \f3-bootclasspath\fR option to specify a path to an \f3rt\&.jar\fR file that specifies a profile\&'s image\&. Using the \f3-profile\fR option instead does not require a profile image to be present on the system at compile time\&. This is useful when cross-compiling\&.
+.SS NONSTANDARD\ OPTIONS    
+.TP
+-Xbootclasspath/p:\fIpath\fR
+.br
+Adds a suffix to the bootstrap class path\&.
+.TP
+-Xbootclasspath/a:\fIpath\fR
+.br
+Adds a prefix to the bootstrap class path\&.
+.TP
+-Xbootclasspath/:\fIpath\fR
+.br
+Overrides the location of the bootstrap class files\&.
+.TP
+-Xdoclint:[-]\fIgroup\fR [\fI/access\fR]
+.br
+Enables or disables specific groups of checks, where \fIgroup\fR is one of the following values: \f3accessibility\fR, \f3syntax\fR, \f3reference\fR, \f3html\fR or \f3missing\fR\&. For more information about these groups of checks see the \f3-Xdoclint\fR option of the \f3javadoc\fR command\&. The \f3-Xdoclint\fR option is disabled by default in the \f3javac\fR command\&.
+
+The variable \fIaccess\fR specifies the minimum visibility level of classes and members that the \f3-Xdoclint\fR option checks\&. It can have one of the following values (in order of most to least visible) : \f3public\fR, \f3protected\fR, \f3package\fR and \f3private\fR\&. For example, the following option checks classes and members (with all groups of checks) that have the access level protected and higher (which includes protected, package and public):
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-Xdoclint:all/protected\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+The following option enables all groups of checks for all access levels, except it will not check for HTML errors for classes and members that have access level package and higher (which includes package and public):
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3\-Xdoclint:all,\-html/package\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP
+-Xdoclint:none
+.br
+Disables all groups of checks\&.
+.TP
+-Xdoclint:all[\fI/access\fR]
+.br
+Enables all groups of checks\&.
+.TP
+-Xlint
+.br
+\fI\fREnables all recommended warnings\&. In this release, enabling all available warnings is recommended\&.
+.TP
+-Xlint:all
+.br
+\fI\fREnables all recommended warnings\&. In this release, enabling all available warnings is recommended\&.
+.TP
+-Xlint:none
+.br
+Disables all warnings\&.
+.TP
+-Xlint:\fIname\fR
+.br
+Disables warning name\&. See Enable or Disable Warnings with the -Xlint Option for a list of warnings you can disable with this option\&.
+.TP
+-Xlint:\fI-name\fR
+.br
+Disables warning name\&. See Enable or Disable Warnings with the -Xlint Option with the \f3-Xlint\fR option to get a list of warnings that you can disable with this option\&.
+.TP
+-Xmaxerrs \fInumber\fR
+.br
+Sets the maximum number of errors to print\&.
+.TP
+-Xmaxwarns \fInumber\fR
+.br
+Sets the maximum number of warnings to print\&.
+.TP
+-Xstdout \fIfilename\fR
+.br
+Sends compiler messages to the named file\&. By default, compiler messages go to \f3System\&.err\fR\&.
+.TP
+-Xprefer:[\fInewer,source\fR]
+.br
+Specifies which file to read when both a source file and class file are found for a type\&. (See Searching for Types)\&. If the \f3-Xprefer:newer\fR option is used, then it reads the newer of the source or class file for a type (default)\&. If the \f3-Xprefer:source\fR option is used, then it reads the source file\&. Use -\f3Xprefer:source\fR when you want to be sure that any annotation processors can access annotations declared with a retention policy of \f3SOURCE\fR\&.
+.TP
+-Xpkginfo:[\fIalways\fR,\fIlegacy\fR,\fInonempty\fR]
+.br
+Control whether javac generates \f3package-info\&.class\fR files from package-info\&.java files\&. Possible mode arguments for this option include the following\&.
+.RS     
+.TP     
+always
+Always generate a \f3package-info\&.class\fR file for every \f3package-info\&.java\fR file\&. This option may be useful if you use a build system such as Ant, which checks that each \f3\&.java\fR file has a corresponding \f3\&.class\fR file\&.
+.TP     
+legacy
+Generate a \f3package-info\&.class\fR file only if package-info\&.java contains annotations\&. Don\&'t generate a \f3package-info\&.class\fR file if package-info\&.java only contains comments\&.
+
+\fINote:\fR A \f3package-info\&.class\fR file might be generated but be empty if all the annotations in the package-info\&.java file have \f3RetentionPolicy\&.SOURCE\fR\&.
+.TP     
+nonempty
+Generate a \f3package-info\&.class\fR file only if package-info\&.java contains annotations with \f3RetentionPolicy\&.CLASS\fR or \f3RetentionPolicy\&.RUNTIME\fR\&.
+.RE     
+
+.TP
+-Xprint
+.br
+Prints a textual representation of specified types for debugging purposes\&. Perform neither annotation processing nor compilation\&. The format of the output could change\&.
+.TP
+-XprintProcessorInfo
+.br
+Prints information about which annotations a processor is asked to process\&.
+.TP
+-XprintRounds
+.br
+Prints information about initial and subsequent annotation processing rounds\&.
+.SH ENABLE\ OR\ DISABLE\ WARNINGS\ WITH\ THE\ -XLINT\ OPTION    
+Enable warning \fIname\fR with the \f3-Xlint:name\fR option, where \f3name\fR is one of the following warning names\&. Note that you can disable a warning with the \f3-Xlint:-name:\fR option\&.
+.TP     
+cast
+Warns about unnecessary and redundant casts, for example:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3String s = (String) "Hello!"\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP     
+classfile
+Warns about issues related to class file contents\&.
+.TP     
+deprecation
+Warns about the use of deprecated items, for example:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3java\&.util\&.Date myDate = new java\&.util\&.Date();\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3int currentDay = myDate\&.getDay();\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+The method \f3java\&.util\&.Date\&.getDay\fR has been deprecated since JDK 1\&.1
+.TP     
+dep-ann
+Warns about items that are documented with an \f3@deprecated\fR Javadoc comment, but do not have a \f3@Deprecated\fR annotation, for example:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3/**\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3  * @deprecated As of Java SE 7, replaced by {@link #newMethod()}\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3  */\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3public static void deprecatedMethood() { }\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3public static void newMethod() { }\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP     
+divzero
+Warns about division by the constant integer 0, for example:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3int divideByZero = 42 / 0;\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP     
+empty
+Warns about empty statements after \f3if\fRstatements, for example:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3class E {\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3    void m() {\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3         if (true) ;\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3    }\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3}\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+.TP     
+fallthrough
+Checks the switch blocks for fall-through cases and provides a warning message for any that are found\&. Fall-through cases are cases in a switch block, other than the last case in the block, whose code does not include a break statement, allowing code execution to fall through from that case to the next case\&. For example, the code following the case 1 label in this switch block does not end with a break statement:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3switch (x) {\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3case 1:\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3  System\&.out\&.println("1");\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3  // No break statement here\&.\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3case 2:\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3  System\&.out\&.println("2");\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3}\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+If the \f3-Xlint:fallthrough\fR option was used when compiling this code, then the compiler emits a warning about possible fall-through into case, with the line number of the case in question\&.
+.TP     
+finally
+Warns about \f3finally\fR clauses that cannot complete normally, for example:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3public static int m() {\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3  try {\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3     throw new NullPointerException();\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3  }  catch (NullPointerException(); {\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3     System\&.err\&.println("Caught NullPointerException\&.");\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3     return 1;\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3   } finally {\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3     return 0;\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3   }\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3  }\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+The compiler generates a warning for the \f3finally\fR block in this example\&. When the \f3int\fR method is called, it returns a value of 0\&. A \f3finally\fR block executes when the \f3try\fR block exits\&. In this example, when control is transferred to the \f3catch\fR block, the \f3int\fR method exits\&. However, the \f3finally\fR block must execute, so it is executed, even though control was transferred outside the method\&.
+.TP     
 options
-Command\-line options.
-.TP 3
-sourcefiles
-One or more source files to be compiled (such as MyClass.java).
-.TP 3
-classes
-One or more classes to be processed for annotations (such as MyPackage.MyClass).
-.TP 3
-@argfiles
-One or more files that lists options and source files. The \f2\-J\fP options are not allowed in these files.
-.RE
+Warns about issues that related to the use of command-line options\&. See Cross-Compilation Options\&.
+.TP     
+overrides
+Warns about issues regarding method overrides\&. For example, consider the following two classes:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3public class ClassWithVarargsMethod {\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3  void varargsMethod(String\&.\&.\&. s) { }\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3}\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3public class ClassWithOverridingMethod extends ClassWithVarargsMethod {\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3   @Override\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3   void varargsMethod(String[] s) { }\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3}\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
 
-.LP
-.SH "DESCRIPTION"
-.LP
-.LP
-The \f3javac\fP tool reads class and interface definitions, written in the Java programming language, and compiles them into bytecode class files. It can also process annotations in Java source files and classes.
-.LP
-.LP
-There are two ways to pass source code file names to \f3javac\fP:
-.LP
-.RS 3
-.TP 2
-o
-For a small number of source files, simply list the file names on the command line.
-.TP 2
-o
-For a large number of source files, list the file names in a file, separated by blanks or line breaks. Then use the list file name on the \f3javac\fP command line, preceded by an \f3@\fP character.
-.RE
 
-.LP
-.LP
-Source code file names must have \f2.java\fP suffixes, class file names must have \f2.class\fP suffixes, and both source and class files must have root names that identify the class. For example, a class called \f2MyClass\fP would be written in a source file called \f2MyClass.java\fP and compiled into a bytecode class file called \f2MyClass.class\fP.
-.LP
-.LP
-Inner class definitions produce additional class files. These class files have names combining the inner and outer class names, such as \f2MyClass$MyInnerClass.class\fP.
-.LP
-.LP
-You should arrange source files in a directory tree that reflects their package tree. For example, if you keep all your source files in \f3/workspace\fP, the source code for \f2com.mysoft.mypack.MyClass\fP should be in \f3/workspace/com/mysoft/mypack/MyClass.java\fP.
-.LP
-.LP
-By default, the compiler puts each class file in the same directory as its source file. You can specify a separate destination directory with \f3\-d\fP (see Options, below).
-.LP
-.SH "OPTIONS"
-.LP
-.LP
-The compiler has a set of standard options that are supported on the current development environment and will be supported in future releases. An additional set of non\-standard options are specific to the current virtual machine and compiler implementations and are subject to change in the future. Non\-standard options begin with \f3\-X\fP.
-.LP
-.SS
-Standard Options
-.LP
-.RS 3
-.TP 3
-\-Akey[=value]
-Options to pass to annotation processors. These are not interpreted by javac directly, but are made available for use by individual processors. \f2key\fP should be one or more identifiers separated by ".".
-.TP 3
-\-cp path or \-classpath path
-Specify where to find user class files, and (optionally) annotation processors and source files. This class path overrides the user class path in the \f3CLASSPATH\fP environment variable. If neither \f3CLASSPATH\fP, \f3\-cp\fP nor \f3\-classpath\fP is specified, the user class path consists of the current directory. See Setting the Class Path for more details.
-.br
-.br
->If the \f3\-sourcepath\fP option is not specified, the user class path is also searched for source files.
-.br
-.br
-If the \f3\-processorpath\fP option is not specified, the class path is also searched for annotation processors.
-.TP 3
-\-Djava.ext.dirs=directories
-Override the location of installed extensions.
-.TP 3
-\-Djava.endorsed.dirs=directories
-Override the location of endorsed standards path.
-.TP 3
-\-d directory
-Set the destination directory for class files. The directory must already exist; \f3javac\fP will not create it. If a class is part of a package, \f3javac\fP puts the class file in a subdirectory reflecting the package name, creating directories as needed. For example, if you specify \f3\-d /home/myclasses\fP and the class is called \f2com.mypackage.MyClass\fP, then the class file is called \f2/home/myclasses/com/mypackage/MyClass.class\fP.
-.br
-.br
-If \f3\-d\fP is not specified, \f3javac\fP puts each class files in the same directory as the source file from which it was generated.
-.br
-.br
-\f3Note:\fP The directory specified by \f3\-d\fP is not automatically added to your user class path.
-.TP 3
-\-deprecation
-Show a description of each use or override of a deprecated member or class. Without \f3\-deprecation\fP, \f3javac\fP shows a summary of the source files that use or override deprecated members or classes. \f3\-deprecation\fP is shorthand for \f3\-Xlint:deprecation\fP.
-.TP 3
-\-encoding encoding
-Set the source file encoding name, such as \f2EUC\-JP and UTF\-8\fP. If \f3\-encoding\fP is not specified, the platform default converter is used.
-.TP 3
-\-endorseddirs directories
-Override the location of endorsed standards path.
-.TP 3
-\-extdirs directories
-Overrides the location of the \f2ext\fP directory. The \f2directories\fP variable is a colon\-separated list of directories. Each JAR archive in the specified directories is searched for class files. All JAR archives found are automatically part of the class path.
-.br
-.br
-If you are cross\-compiling (compiling classes against bootstrap and extension classes of a different Java platform implementation), this option specifies the directories that contain the extension classes. See Cross\-Compilation Options for more information.
-.TP 3
-\-g
-Generate all debugging information, including local variables. By default, only line number and source file information is generated.
-.TP 3
-\-g:none
-Do not generate any debugging information.
-.TP 3
-\-g:{keyword list}
-Generate only some kinds of debugging information, specified by a comma separated list of keywords. Valid keywords are:
-.RS 3
-.TP 3
-source
-Source file debugging information
-.TP 3
-lines
-Line number debugging information
-.TP 3
-vars
-Local variable debugging information
-.RE
-.TP 3
-\-help
-Print a synopsis of standard options.
-.TP 3
-\-implicit:{class,none}
-Controls the generation of class files for implicitly loaded source files. To automatically generate class files, use \f3\-implicit:class\fP. To suppress class file generation, use \f3\-implicit:none\fP. If this option is not specified, the default is to automatically generate class files. In this case, the compiler will issue a warning if any such class files are generated when also doing annotation processing. The warning will not be issued if this option is set explicitly. See Searching For Types.
-.TP 3
-\-Joption
-Pass \f2option\fP to the \f3java\fP launcher called by \f3javac\fP. For example, \f3\-J\-Xms48m\fP sets the startup memory to 48 megabytes. It is a common convention for \f3\-J\fP to pass options to the underlying VM executing applications written in Java.
-.br
-.br
-\f3Note:\fP \f3CLASSPATH\fP, \f3\-classpath\fP, \f3\-bootclasspath\fP, and \f3\-extdirs\fP do \f2not\fP specify the classes used to run \f3javac\fP. Fiddling with the implementation of the compiler in this way is usually pointless and always risky. If you do need to do this, use the \f3\-J\fP option to pass through options to the underlying \f3java\fP launcher.
-.TP 3
-\-nowarn
-Disable warning messages. This has the same meaning as \f3\-Xlint:none\fP.
-.TP 3
-\-proc: {none,only}
-Controls whether annotation processing and/or compilation is done. \f3\-proc:none\fP means that compilation takes place without annotation processing. \f3\-proc:only\fP means that only annotation processing is done, without any subsequent compilation.
-.TP 3
-\-processor class1[,class2,class3...]
-Names of the annotation processors to run. This bypasses the default discovery process.
-.TP 3
-\-processorpath path
-Specify where to find annotation processors; if this option is not used, the class path will be searched for processors.
-.TP 3
-\-s dir
-Specify the directory where to place generated source files. The directory must already exist; \f3javac\fP will not create it. If a class is part of a package, the compiler puts the source file in a subdirectory reflecting the package name, creating directories as needed. For example, if you specify \f3\-s /home/mysrc\fP and the class is called \f2com.mypackage.MyClass\fP, then the source file will be placed in \f2/home/mysrc/com/mypackage/MyClass.java\fP.
-.TP 3
-\-source release
-Specifies the version of source code accepted. The following values for \f2release\fP are allowed:
-.RS 3
-.TP 3
-1.3
-The compiler does \f2not\fP support assertions, generics, or other language features introduced after JDK 1.3.
-.TP 3
-1.4
-The compiler accepts code containing assertions, which were introduced in JDK 1.4.
-.TP 3
-1.5
-The compiler accepts code containing generics and other language features introduced in JDK 5.
-.TP 3
-5
-Synonym for 1.5.
-.TP 3
-1.6
-This is the default value. No language changes were introduced in Java SE 6. However, encoding errors in source files are now reported as errors, instead of warnings, as previously.
-.TP 3
-6
-Synonym for 1.6.
-.TP 3
-1.7
-The compiler accepts code with features introduced in JDK 7.
-.TP 3
-7
-Synonym for 1.7.
-.RE
-.TP 3
-\-sourcepath sourcepath
-Specify the source code path to search for class or interface definitions. As with the user class path, source path entries are separated by colons (\f3:\fP) and can be directories, JAR archives, or ZIP archives. If packages are used, the local path name within the directory or archive must reflect the package name.
-.br
-.br
-\f3Note:\fP Classes found through the class path may be subject to automatic recompilation if their sources are also found. See Searching For Types.
-.TP 3
-\-verbose
-Verbose output. This includes information about each class loaded and each source file compiled.
-.TP 3
-\-version
-Print version information.
-.TP 3
-\-Werror
-Terminate compilation if warnings occur.
-.TP 3
-\-X
-Display information about non\-standard options and exit.
-.RE
+The compiler generates a warning similar to the following:\&.
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3warning: [override] varargsMethod(String[]) in ClassWithOverridingMethod \fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3overrides varargsMethod(String\&.\&.\&.) in ClassWithVarargsMethod; overriding\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3method is missing \&'\&.\&.\&.\&'\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
 
-.LP
-.SS
-Cross\-Compilation Options
-.LP
-.LP
-By default, classes are compiled against the bootstrap and extension classes of the platform that \f3javac\fP shipped with. But \f3javac\fP also supports \f2cross\-compiling\fP, where classes are compiled against a bootstrap and extension classes of a different Java platform implementation. It is important to use \f3\-bootclasspath\fP and \f3\-extdirs\fP when cross\-compiling; see Cross\-Compilation Example below.
-.LP
-.RS 3
-.TP 3
-\-target version
-Generate class files that target a specified version of the VM. Class files will run on the specified target and on later versions, but not on earlier versions of the VM. Valid targets are \f31.1\fP \f31.2\fP \f31.3\fP \f31.4\fP \f31.5\fP (also \f35\fP) \f31.6\fP (also \f36\fP) and \f31.7\fP (also \f37\fP).
-.br
-.br
-The default for \f3\-target\fP depends on the value of \f3\-source\fP:
-.RS 3
-.TP 2
-o
-If \-source is \f3not specified\fP, the value of \-target is \f31.7\fP
-.TP 2
-o
-If \-source is \f31.2\fP, the value of \-target is \f31.4\fP
-.TP 2
-o
-If \-source is \f31.3\fP, the value of \-target is \f31.4\fP
-.TP 2
-o
-For \f3all other values\fP of \-source, the value of \f3\-target\fP is the value of \f3\-source\fP.
-.RE
-.TP 3
-\-bootclasspath bootclasspath
-Cross\-compile against the specified set of boot classes. As with the user class path, boot class path entries are separated by colons (\f3:\fP) and can be directories, JAR archives, or ZIP archives.
-.RE
 
-.LP
-.SS
-Non\-Standard Options
-.LP
-.RS 3
-.TP 3
-\-Xbootclasspath/p:path
-Prepend to the bootstrap class path.
-.TP 3
-\-Xbootclasspath/a:path
-Append to the bootstrap class path.
-.TP 3
-\-Xbootclasspath/:path
-Override location of bootstrap class files.
-.TP 3
-\-Xlint
-Enable all recommended warnings. In this release, enabling all available warnings is recommended.
-.TP 3
-\-Xlint:all
-Enable all recommended warnings. In this release, enabling all available warnings is recommended.
-.TP 3
-\-Xlint:none
-Disable all warnings.
-.TP 3
-\-Xlint:name
-Enable warning \f2name\fP. See the section Warnings That Can Be Enabled or Disabled with \-Xlint Option for a list of warnings you can enable with this option.
-.TP 3
-\-Xlint:\-name
-Disable warning \f2name\fP. See the section Warnings That Can Be Enabled or Disabled with \-Xlint Option for a list of warnings you can disable with this option.
-.TP 3
-\-Xmaxerrs number
-Set the maximum number of errors to print.
-.TP 3
-\-Xmaxwarns number
-Set the maximum number of warnings to print.
-.TP 3
-\-Xstdout filename
-Send compiler messages to the named file. By default, compiler messages go to \f2System.err\fP.
-.TP 3
-\-Xprefer:{newer,source}
-Specify which file to read when both a source file and class file are found for a type. (See Searching For Types). If \f2\-Xprefer:newer\fP is used, it reads the newer of the source or class file for a type (default). If the \f2\-Xprefer:source\fP option is used, it reads source file. Use \f2\-Xprefer:source\fP when you want to be sure that any annotation processors can access annotations declared with a retention policy of \f2SOURCE\fP.
-.TP 3
-\-Xpkginfo:{always,legacy,nonempty}
-Specify handling of package\-info files
-.TP 3
-\-Xprint
-Print out textual representation of specified types for debugging purposes; perform neither annotation processing nor compilation. The format of the output may change.
-.TP 3
-\-XprintProcessorInfo
-Print information about which annotations a processor is asked to process.
-.TP 3
-\-XprintRounds
-Print information about initial and subsequent annotation processing rounds.
-.RE
+When the compiler encounters a \f3varargs\fR method, it translates the \f3varargs\fR formal parameter into an array\&. In the method \f3ClassWithVarargsMethod\&.varargsMethod\fR, the compiler translates the \f3varargs\fR formal parameter \f3String\&.\&.\&. s\fR to the formal parameter \f3String[] s\fR, an array, which matches the formal parameter of the method \f3ClassWithOverridingMethod\&.varargsMethod\fR\&. Consequently, this example compiles\&.
+.TP     
+path
+Warns about invalid path elements and nonexistent path directories on the command line (with regard to the class path, the source path, and other paths)\&. Such warnings cannot be suppressed with the \f3@SuppressWarnings\fR annotation, for example:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3javac \-Xlint:path \-classpath /nonexistentpath Example\&.java\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
 
-.LP
-.SS
-Warnings That Can Be Enabled or Disabled with \-Xlint Option
-.LP
-.LP
-Enable warning \f2name\fP with the option \f3\-Xlint:\fP\f2name\fP, where \f2name\fP is one of the following warning names. Similarly, you can disable warning \f2name\fP with the option \f3\-Xlint:\-\fP\f2name\fP:
-.LP
-.RS 3
-.TP 3
-cast
-Warn about unnecessary and redundant casts. For example:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-String s = (String)"Hello!"
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-.TP 3
-classfile
-Warn about issues related to classfile contents.
-.TP 3
-deprecation
-Warn about use of deprecated items. For example:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-    java.util.Date myDate = new java.util.Date();
-.fl
-    int currentDay = myDate.getDay();
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-The method \f2java.util.Date.getDay\fP has been deprecated since JDK 1.1.
-.TP 3
-dep\-ann
-Warn about items that are documented with an \f2@deprecated\fP Javadoc comment, but do not have a \f2@Deprecated\fP annotation. For example:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-  /**
-.fl
-   * @deprecated As of Java SE 7, replaced by {@link #newMethod()}
-.fl
-   */
-.fl
+.TP     
+processing
+Warn about issues regarding annotation processing\&. The compiler generates this warning when you have a class that has an annotation, and you use an annotation processor that cannot handle that type of exception\&. For example, the following is a simple annotation processor:
 
-.fl
-  public static void deprecatedMethood() { }
-.fl
+\fISource file AnnocProc\&.java\fR:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3import java\&.util\&.*;\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3import javax\&.annotation\&.processing\&.*;\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3import javax\&.lang\&.model\&.*;\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3import\&.javaz\&.lang\&.model\&.element\&.*;\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3@SupportedAnnotationTypes("NotAnno")\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3public class AnnoProc extends AbstractProcessor {\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3  public boolean process(Set<? extends TypeElement> elems, RoundEnvironment renv){\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3     return true;\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3  }\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3  public SourceVersion getSupportedSourceVersion() {\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3     return SourceVersion\&.latest();\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3   }\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3}\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
 
-.fl
-  public static void newMethod() { }
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-.TP 3
-divzero
-Warn about division by constant integer 0. For example:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-    int divideByZero = 42 / 0;
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-.TP 3
-empty
-Warn about empty statements after \f2if\fP statements. For example:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-class E {
-.fl
-    void m() {
-.fl
-        if (true) ;
-.fl
-    }
-.fl
-}
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-.TP 3
-fallthrough
-Check \f2switch\fP blocks for fall\-through cases and provide a warning message for any that are found. Fall\-through cases are cases in a \f2switch\fP block, other than the last case in the block, whose code does not include a \f2break\fP statement, allowing code execution to "fall through" from that case to the next case. For example, the code following the \f2case 1\fP label in this \f2switch\fP block does not end with a \f2break\fP statement:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-switch (x) {
-.fl
-case 1:
-.fl
-       System.out.println("1");
-.fl
-       //  No break statement here.
-.fl
-case 2:
-.fl
-       System.out.println("2");
-.fl
-}
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-If the \f2\-Xlint:fallthrough\fP flag were used when compiling this code, the compiler would emit a warning about "possible fall\-through into case," along with the line number of the case in question.
-.TP 3
-finally
-Warn about \f2finally\fP clauses that cannot complete normally. For example:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-  public static int m() {
-.fl
-    try {
-.fl
-      throw new NullPointerException();
-.fl
-    } catch (NullPointerException e) {
-.fl
-      System.err.println("Caught NullPointerException.");
-.fl
-      return 1;
-.fl
-    } finally {
-.fl
-      return 0;
-.fl
-    }
-.fl
-  }
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-The compiler generates a warning for \f2finally\fP block in this example. When this method is called, it returns a value of \f20\fP, not \f21\fP. A \f2finally\fP block always executes when the \f2try\fP block exits. In this example, if control is transferred to the \f2catch\fP, then the method exits. However, the \f2finally\fP block must be executed, so it is executed, even though control has already been transferred outside the method.
-.TP 3
-options
-Warn about issues relating to the use of command line options. See Cross\-Compilation Example for an example of this kind of warning.
-.TP 3
-overrides
-Warn about issues regarding method overrides. For example, consider the following two classes:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-public class ClassWithVarargsMethod {
-.fl
-  void varargsMethod(String... s) { }
-.fl
-}
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-public class ClassWithOverridingMethod extends ClassWithVarargsMethod {
-.fl
-  @Override
-.fl
-  void varargsMethod(String[] s) { }
-.fl
-}
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-The compiler generates a warning similar to the following:
-.br
-.br
-\f2warning: [override] varargsMethod(String[]) in ClassWithOverridingMethod overrides varargsMethod(String...) in ClassWithVarargsMethod; overriding method is missing '...'\fP
-.br
-.br
-When the compiler encounters a varargs method, it translates the varargs formal parameter into an array. In the method \f2ClassWithVarargsMethod.varargsMethod\fP, the compiler translates the varargs formal parameter \f2String... s\fP to the formal parameter \f2String[] s\fP, an array, which matches the formal parameter of the method \f2ClassWithOverridingMethod.varargsMethod\fP. Consequently, this example compiles.
-.TP 3
-path
-Warn about invalid path elements and nonexistent path directories on the command line (with regards to the class path, the source path, and other paths). Such warnings cannot be suppressed with the \f2@SuppressWarnings\fP annotation. For example:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-javac \-Xlint:path \-classpath /nonexistentpath Example.java
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-.TP 3
-processing
-Warn about issues regarding annotation processing. The compiler generates this warning if you have a class that has an annotation, and you use an annotation processor that cannot handle that type of exception. For example, the following is a simple annotation processor:
-.br
-.br
-\f3Source file \fP\f4AnnoProc.java\fP:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-import java.util.*;
-.fl
-import javax.annotation.processing.*;
-.fl
-import javax.lang.model.*;
-.fl
-import javax.lang.model.element.*;
-.fl
 
-.fl
-@SupportedAnnotationTypes("NotAnno")
-.fl
-public class AnnoProc extends AbstractProcessor {
-.fl
-    public boolean process(Set<? extends TypeElement> elems, RoundEnvironment renv) {
-.fl
-        return true;
-.fl
-    }
-.fl
+\fISource file AnnosWithoutProcessors\&.java\fR:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3@interface Anno { }\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3@Anno\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3class AnnosWithoutProcessors { }\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
 
-.fl
-    public SourceVersion getSupportedSourceVersion() {
-.fl
-        return SourceVersion.latest();
-.fl
-    }
-.fl
-}
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-\f3Source file \fP\f4AnnosWithoutProcessors.java\fP\f3:\fP
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-@interface Anno { }
-.fl
 
-.fl
-@Anno
-.fl
-class AnnosWithoutProcessors { }
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-The following commands compile the annotation processor \f2AnnoProc\fP, then run this annotation processor against the source file \f2AnnosWithoutProcessors.java\fP:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-% javac AnnoProc.java
-.fl
-% javac \-cp . \-Xlint:processing \-processor AnnoProc \-proc:only AnnosWithoutProcessors.java
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-When the compiler runs the annotation processor against the source file \f2AnnosWithoutProcessors.java\fP, it generates the following warning:
-.br
-.br
-\f2warning: [processing] No processor claimed any of these annotations: Anno\fP
-.br
-.br
-To resolve this issue, you can rename the annotation defined and used in the class \f2AnnosWithoutProcessors\fP from \f2Anno\fP to \f2NotAnno\fP.
-.TP 3
+The following commands compile the annotation processor \f3AnnoProc\fR, then run this annotation processor against the source file \f3AnnosWithoutProcessors\&.java\fR:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3javac AnnoProc\&.java\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3javac \-cp \&. \-Xlint:processing \-processor AnnoProc \-proc:only AnnosWithoutProcessors\&.java\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+When the compiler runs the annotation processor against the source file \f3AnnosWithoutProcessors\&.java\fR, it generates the following warning:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3warning: [processing] No processor claimed any of these annotations: Anno\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+To resolve this issue, you can rename the annotation defined and used in the class \f3AnnosWithoutProcessors\fR from \f3Anno\fR to \f3NotAnno\fR\&.
+.TP     
 rawtypes
-Warn about unchecked operations on raw types. The following statement generates a \f2rawtypes\fP warning:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-void countElements(List l) { ... }
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-The following does not generate a \f2rawtypes\fP warning:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-void countElements(List<?> l) { ... }
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-\f2List\fP is a raw type. However, \f2List<?>\fP is a unbounded wildcard parameterized type. Because \f2List\fP is a parameterized interface, you should always specify its type argument. In this example, the \f2List\fP formal argument is specified with a unbounded wildcard (\f2?\fP) as its formal type parameter, which means that the \f2countElements\fP method can accept any instantiation of the \f2List\fP interface.
-.TP 3
-serial
-Warn about missing \f2serialVersionUID\fP definitions on serializable classes. For example:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-public class PersistentTime implements Serializable
-.fl
-{
-.fl
-  private Date time;
-.fl
+Warns about unchecked operations on raw types\&. The following statement generates a \f3rawtypes\fR warning:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3void countElements(List l) { \&.\&.\&. }\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
 
-.fl
-   public PersistentTime() {
-.fl
-     time = Calendar.getInstance().getTime();
-.fl
-   }
-.fl
 
-.fl
-   public Date getTime() {
-.fl
-     return time;
-.fl
-   }
-.fl
-}
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
+The following example does not generate a \f3rawtypes\fR warning
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3void countElements(List<?> l) { \&.\&.\&. }\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+\f3List\fR is a raw type\&. However, \f3List<?>\fR is an unbounded wildcard parameterized type\&. Because \f3List\fR is a parameterized interface, always specify its type argument\&. In this example, the \f3List\fR formal argument is specified with an unbounded wildcard (\f3?\fR) as its formal type parameter, which means that the \f3countElements\fR method can accept any instantiation of the \f3List\fR interface\&.
+.TP     
+Serial
+Warns about missing \f3serialVersionUID\fR definitions on serializable classes, for example:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3public class PersistentTime implements Serializable\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3{\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3  private Date time;\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3   public PersistentTime() {\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3     time = Calendar\&.getInstance()\&.getTime();\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3   }\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3   public Date getTime() {\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3     return time;\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3   }\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3}\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
 The compiler generates the following warning:
-.br
-.br
-\f2warning: [serial] serializable class PersistentTime has no definition of serialVersionUID\fP
-.br
-.br
-If a serializable class does not explicitly declare a field named \f2serialVersionUID\fP, then the serialization runtime will calculate a default \f2serialVersionUID\fP value for that class based on various aspects of the class, as described in the Java Object Serialization Specification. However, it is strongly recommended that all serializable classes explicitly declare \f2serialVersionUID\fP values because the default process of computing \f2serialVersionUID\fP vales is highly sensitive to class details that may vary depending on compiler implementations, and can thus result in unexpected \f2InvalidClassExceptions\fP during deserialization. Therefore, to guarantee a consistent \f2serialVersionUID\fP value across different Java compiler implementations, a serializable class must declare an explicit \f2serialVersionUID\fP value.
-.TP 3
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3warning: [serial] serializable class PersistentTime has no definition of\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3serialVersionUID\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+If a serializable class does not explicitly declare a field named \f3serialVersionUID\fR, then the serialization runtime environment calculates a default \f3serialVersionUID\fR value for that class based on various aspects of the class, as described in the Java Object Serialization Specification\&. However, it is strongly recommended that all serializable classes explicitly declare \f3serialVersionUID\fR values because the default process of computing \f3serialVersionUID\fR vales is highly sensitive to class details that can vary depending on compiler implementations, and as a result, might cause an unexpected \f3InvalidClassExceptions\fR during deserialization\&. To guarantee a consistent \f3serialVersionUID\fR value across different Java compiler implementations, a serializable class must declare an explicit \f3serialVersionUID\fR value\&.
+.TP     
 static
-Warn about issues relating to use of statics. For example:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-class XLintStatic {
-.fl
-    static void m1() { }
-.fl
-    void m2() { this.m1(); }
-.fl
-}
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
+Warns about issues relating to the use of statics, for example:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3class XLintStatic {\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3    static void m1() { }\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3    void m2() { this\&.m1(); }\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3}\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
 The compiler generates the following warning:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-warning: [static] static method should be qualified by type name, XLintStatic, instead of by an expression
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-To resolve this issue, you can call the static method \f2m1\fP as follows:
-.nf
-\f3
-.fl
-XLintStatic.m1();
-.fl
-\fP
-.fi
-Alternatively, you can remove the \f2static\fP keyword from the declaration of the method \f2m1\fP.
-.TP 3
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3warning: [static] static method should be qualified by type name, \fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3XLintStatic, instead of by an expression\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+To resolve this issue, you can call the \f3static\fR method \f3m1\fR as follows:
+.sp     
+.nf     
+\f3XLintStatic\&.m1();\fP
+.fi     
+.nf     
+\f3\fP
+.fi     
+.sp     
+
+
+Alternately, you can remove the \f3static\fR keyword from the declaration of the method \f3m1\fR\&.
+.TP     
 try
-Warn about issues relating to use of \f2try\fP blocks, including try\-with\-resources statements. For example, a warning is generated for the following statement because the resource \f2ac\fP declared in the \f2try\fP statement is no