changeset 16745:fcce5e09e23b

8005696: Add CompletableFuture Reviewed-by: chegar, martin
author chegar
date Tue, 09 Apr 2013 17:27:47 +0100
parents b3ca7ed8e44f
children 24848973edc4 ec2453e7d4ab
files jdk/make/java/java/FILES_java.gmk jdk/src/share/classes/java/util/concurrent/CompletableFuture.java jdk/src/share/classes/java/util/concurrent/CompletionException.java jdk/test/java/util/concurrent/CompletableFuture/Basic.java
diffstat 4 files changed, 4158 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-) [+]
line wrap: on
line diff
--- a/jdk/make/java/java/FILES_java.gmk	Tue Apr 09 15:51:50 2013 +0100
+++ b/jdk/make/java/java/FILES_java.gmk	Tue Apr 09 17:27:47 2013 +0100
@@ -316,6 +316,8 @@
     java/util/concurrent/BrokenBarrierException.java \
     java/util/concurrent/Callable.java \
     java/util/concurrent/CancellationException.java \
+    java/util/concurrent/CompletableFuture.java \
+    java/util/concurrent/CompletionException.java \
     java/util/concurrent/CompletionService.java \
     java/util/concurrent/ConcurrentHashMap.java \
     java/util/concurrent/ConcurrentLinkedDeque.java \
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/jdk/src/share/classes/java/util/concurrent/CompletableFuture.java	Tue Apr 09 17:27:47 2013 +0100
@@ -0,0 +1,3305 @@
+/*
+ * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+ *
+ * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+ * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
+ * particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
+ * by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
+ *
+ * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+ * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+ * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
+ * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+ * accompanied this code).
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+ * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+ * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+ *
+ * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
+ * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
+ * questions.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * This file is available under and governed by the GNU General Public
+ * License version 2 only, as published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ * However, the following notice accompanied the original version of this
+ * file:
+ *
+ * Written by Doug Lea with assistance from members of JCP JSR-166
+ * Expert Group and released to the public domain, as explained at
+ * http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/
+ */
+
+package java.util.concurrent;
+import java.util.function.Supplier;
+import java.util.function.Consumer;
+import java.util.function.BiConsumer;
+import java.util.function.Function;
+import java.util.function.BiFunction;
+import java.util.concurrent.Future;
+import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
+import java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool;
+import java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinTask;
+import java.util.concurrent.Executor;
+import java.util.concurrent.ThreadLocalRandom;
+import java.util.concurrent.ExecutionException;
+import java.util.concurrent.TimeoutException;
+import java.util.concurrent.CancellationException;
+import java.util.concurrent.atomic.AtomicInteger;
+import java.util.concurrent.locks.LockSupport;
+
+/**
+ * A {@link Future} that may be explicitly completed (setting its
+ * value and status), and may include dependent functions and actions
+ * that trigger upon its completion.
+ *
+ * <p>When two or more threads attempt to
+ * {@link #complete complete},
+ * {@link #completeExceptionally completeExceptionally}, or
+ * {@link #cancel cancel}
+ * a CompletableFuture, only one of them succeeds.
+ *
+ * <p>Methods are available for adding dependents based on
+ * user-provided Functions, Consumers, or Runnables. The appropriate
+ * form to use depends on whether actions require arguments and/or
+ * produce results.  Completion of a dependent action will trigger the
+ * completion of another CompletableFuture.  Actions may also be
+ * triggered after either or both the current and another
+ * CompletableFuture complete.  Multiple CompletableFutures may also
+ * be grouped as one using {@link #anyOf(CompletableFuture...)} and
+ * {@link #allOf(CompletableFuture...)}.
+ *
+ * <p>CompletableFutures themselves do not execute asynchronously.
+ * However, actions supplied for dependent completions of another
+ * CompletableFuture may do so, depending on whether they are provided
+ * via one of the <em>async</em> methods (that is, methods with names
+ * of the form <tt><var>xxx</var>Async</tt>).  The <em>async</em>
+ * methods provide a way to commence asynchronous processing of an
+ * action using either a given {@link Executor} or by default the
+ * {@link ForkJoinPool#commonPool()}. To simplify monitoring,
+ * debugging, and tracking, all generated asynchronous tasks are
+ * instances of the marker interface {@link AsynchronousCompletionTask}.
+ *
+ * <p>Actions supplied for dependent completions of <em>non-async</em>
+ * methods may be performed by the thread that completes the current
+ * CompletableFuture, or by any other caller of these methods.  There
+ * are no guarantees about the order of processing completions unless
+ * constrained by these methods.
+ *
+ * <p>Since (unlike {@link FutureTask}) this class has no direct
+ * control over the computation that causes it to be completed,
+ * cancellation is treated as just another form of exceptional completion.
+ * Method {@link #cancel cancel} has the same effect as
+ * {@code completeExceptionally(new CancellationException())}.
+ *
+ * <p>Upon exceptional completion (including cancellation), or when a
+ * completion entails an additional computation which terminates
+ * abruptly with an (unchecked) exception or error, then all of their
+ * dependent completions (and their dependents in turn) generally act
+ * as {@code completeExceptionally} with a {@link CompletionException}
+ * holding that exception as its cause.  However, the {@link
+ * #exceptionally exceptionally} and {@link #handle handle}
+ * completions <em>are</em> able to handle exceptional completions of
+ * the CompletableFutures they depend on.
+ *
+ * <p>In case of exceptional completion with a CompletionException,
+ * methods {@link #get()} and {@link #get(long, TimeUnit)} throw an
+ * {@link ExecutionException} with the same cause as held in the
+ * corresponding CompletionException.  However, in these cases,
+ * methods {@link #join()} and {@link #getNow} throw the
+ * CompletionException, which simplifies usage.
+ *
+ * <p>Arguments used to pass a completion result (that is, for parameters
+ * of type {@code T}) may be null, but passing a null value for any other
+ * parameter will result in a {@link NullPointerException} being thrown.
+ *
+ * @author Doug Lea
+ * @since 1.8
+ */
+public class CompletableFuture<T> implements Future<T> {
+
+    /*
+     * Overview:
+     *
+     * 1. Non-nullness of field result (set via CAS) indicates done.
+     * An AltResult is used to box null as a result, as well as to
+     * hold exceptions.  Using a single field makes completion fast
+     * and simple to detect and trigger, at the expense of a lot of
+     * encoding and decoding that infiltrates many methods. One minor
+     * simplification relies on the (static) NIL (to box null results)
+     * being the only AltResult with a null exception field, so we
+     * don't usually need explicit comparisons with NIL. The CF
+     * exception propagation mechanics surrounding decoding rely on
+     * unchecked casts of decoded results really being unchecked,
+     * where user type errors are caught at point of use, as is
+     * currently the case in Java. These are highlighted by using
+     * SuppressWarnings-annotated temporaries.
+     *
+     * 2. Waiters are held in a Treiber stack similar to the one used
+     * in FutureTask, Phaser, and SynchronousQueue. See their
+     * internal documentation for algorithmic details.
+     *
+     * 3. Completions are also kept in a list/stack, and pulled off
+     * and run when completion is triggered. (We could even use the
+     * same stack as for waiters, but would give up the potential
+     * parallelism obtained because woken waiters help release/run
+     * others -- see method postComplete).  Because post-processing
+     * may race with direct calls, class Completion opportunistically
+     * extends AtomicInteger so callers can claim the action via
+     * compareAndSet(0, 1).  The Completion.run methods are all
+     * written a boringly similar uniform way (that sometimes includes
+     * unnecessary-looking checks, kept to maintain uniformity).
+     * There are enough dimensions upon which they differ that
+     * attempts to factor commonalities while maintaining efficiency
+     * require more lines of code than they would save.
+     *
+     * 4. The exported then/and/or methods do support a bit of
+     * factoring (see doThenApply etc). They must cope with the
+     * intrinsic races surrounding addition of a dependent action
+     * versus performing the action directly because the task is
+     * already complete.  For example, a CF may not be complete upon
+     * entry, so a dependent completion is added, but by the time it
+     * is added, the target CF is complete, so must be directly
+     * executed. This is all done while avoiding unnecessary object
+     * construction in safe-bypass cases.
+     */
+
+    // preliminaries
+
+    static final class AltResult {
+        final Throwable ex; // null only for NIL
+        AltResult(Throwable ex) { this.ex = ex; }
+    }
+
+    static final AltResult NIL = new AltResult(null);
+
+    // Fields
+
+    volatile Object result;    // Either the result or boxed AltResult
+    volatile WaitNode waiters; // Treiber stack of threads blocked on get()
+    volatile CompletionNode completions; // list (Treiber stack) of completions
+
+    // Basic utilities for triggering and processing completions
+
+    /**
+     * Removes and signals all waiting threads and runs all completions.
+     */
+    final void postComplete() {
+        WaitNode q; Thread t;
+        while ((q = waiters) != null) {
+            if (UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject(this, WAITERS, q, q.next) &&
+                (t = q.thread) != null) {
+                q.thread = null;
+                LockSupport.unpark(t);
+            }
+        }
+
+        CompletionNode h; Completion c;
+        while ((h = completions) != null) {
+            if (UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject(this, COMPLETIONS, h, h.next) &&
+                (c = h.completion) != null)
+                c.run();
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Triggers completion with the encoding of the given arguments:
+     * if the exception is non-null, encodes it as a wrapped
+     * CompletionException unless it is one already.  Otherwise uses
+     * the given result, boxed as NIL if null.
+     */
+    final void internalComplete(T v, Throwable ex) {
+        if (result == null)
+            UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject
+                (this, RESULT, null,
+                 (ex == null) ? (v == null) ? NIL : v :
+                 new AltResult((ex instanceof CompletionException) ? ex :
+                               new CompletionException(ex)));
+        postComplete(); // help out even if not triggered
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * If triggered, helps release and/or process completions.
+     */
+    final void helpPostComplete() {
+        if (result != null)
+            postComplete();
+    }
+
+    /* ------------- waiting for completions -------------- */
+
+    /** Number of processors, for spin control */
+    static final int NCPU = Runtime.getRuntime().availableProcessors();
+
+    /**
+     * Heuristic spin value for waitingGet() before blocking on
+     * multiprocessors
+     */
+    static final int SPINS = (NCPU > 1) ? 1 << 8 : 0;
+
+    /**
+     * Linked nodes to record waiting threads in a Treiber stack.  See
+     * other classes such as Phaser and SynchronousQueue for more
+     * detailed explanation. This class implements ManagedBlocker to
+     * avoid starvation when blocking actions pile up in
+     * ForkJoinPools.
+     */
+    static final class WaitNode implements ForkJoinPool.ManagedBlocker {
+        long nanos;          // wait time if timed
+        final long deadline; // non-zero if timed
+        volatile int interruptControl; // > 0: interruptible, < 0: interrupted
+        volatile Thread thread;
+        volatile WaitNode next;
+        WaitNode(boolean interruptible, long nanos, long deadline) {
+            this.thread = Thread.currentThread();
+            this.interruptControl = interruptible ? 1 : 0;
+            this.nanos = nanos;
+            this.deadline = deadline;
+        }
+        public boolean isReleasable() {
+            if (thread == null)
+                return true;
+            if (Thread.interrupted()) {
+                int i = interruptControl;
+                interruptControl = -1;
+                if (i > 0)
+                    return true;
+            }
+            if (deadline != 0L &&
+                (nanos <= 0L || (nanos = deadline - System.nanoTime()) <= 0L)) {
+                thread = null;
+                return true;
+            }
+            return false;
+        }
+        public boolean block() {
+            if (isReleasable())
+                return true;
+            else if (deadline == 0L)
+                LockSupport.park(this);
+            else if (nanos > 0L)
+                LockSupport.parkNanos(this, nanos);
+            return isReleasable();
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns raw result after waiting, or null if interruptible and
+     * interrupted.
+     */
+    private Object waitingGet(boolean interruptible) {
+        WaitNode q = null;
+        boolean queued = false;
+        int spins = SPINS;
+        for (Object r;;) {
+            if ((r = result) != null) {
+                if (q != null) { // suppress unpark
+                    q.thread = null;
+                    if (q.interruptControl < 0) {
+                        if (interruptible) {
+                            removeWaiter(q);
+                            return null;
+                        }
+                        Thread.currentThread().interrupt();
+                    }
+                }
+                postComplete(); // help release others
+                return r;
+            }
+            else if (spins > 0) {
+                int rnd = ThreadLocalRandom.nextSecondarySeed();
+                if (rnd == 0)
+                    rnd = ThreadLocalRandom.current().nextInt();
+                if (rnd >= 0)
+                    --spins;
+            }
+            else if (q == null)
+                q = new WaitNode(interruptible, 0L, 0L);
+            else if (!queued)
+                queued = UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject(this, WAITERS,
+                                                     q.next = waiters, q);
+            else if (interruptible && q.interruptControl < 0) {
+                removeWaiter(q);
+                return null;
+            }
+            else if (q.thread != null && result == null) {
+                try {
+                    ForkJoinPool.managedBlock(q);
+                } catch (InterruptedException ex) {
+                    q.interruptControl = -1;
+                }
+            }
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Awaits completion or aborts on interrupt or timeout.
+     *
+     * @param nanos time to wait
+     * @return raw result
+     */
+    private Object timedAwaitDone(long nanos)
+        throws InterruptedException, TimeoutException {
+        WaitNode q = null;
+        boolean queued = false;
+        for (Object r;;) {
+            if ((r = result) != null) {
+                if (q != null) {
+                    q.thread = null;
+                    if (q.interruptControl < 0) {
+                        removeWaiter(q);
+                        throw new InterruptedException();
+                    }
+                }
+                postComplete();
+                return r;
+            }
+            else if (q == null) {
+                if (nanos <= 0L)
+                    throw new TimeoutException();
+                long d = System.nanoTime() + nanos;
+                q = new WaitNode(true, nanos, d == 0L ? 1L : d); // avoid 0
+            }
+            else if (!queued)
+                queued = UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject(this, WAITERS,
+                                                     q.next = waiters, q);
+            else if (q.interruptControl < 0) {
+                removeWaiter(q);
+                throw new InterruptedException();
+            }
+            else if (q.nanos <= 0L) {
+                if (result == null) {
+                    removeWaiter(q);
+                    throw new TimeoutException();
+                }
+            }
+            else if (q.thread != null && result == null) {
+                try {
+                    ForkJoinPool.managedBlock(q);
+                } catch (InterruptedException ex) {
+                    q.interruptControl = -1;
+                }
+            }
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Tries to unlink a timed-out or interrupted wait node to avoid
+     * accumulating garbage.  Internal nodes are simply unspliced
+     * without CAS since it is harmless if they are traversed anyway
+     * by releasers.  To avoid effects of unsplicing from already
+     * removed nodes, the list is retraversed in case of an apparent
+     * race.  This is slow when there are a lot of nodes, but we don't
+     * expect lists to be long enough to outweigh higher-overhead
+     * schemes.
+     */
+    private void removeWaiter(WaitNode node) {
+        if (node != null) {
+            node.thread = null;
+            retry:
+            for (;;) {          // restart on removeWaiter race
+                for (WaitNode pred = null, q = waiters, s; q != null; q = s) {
+                    s = q.next;
+                    if (q.thread != null)
+                        pred = q;
+                    else if (pred != null) {
+                        pred.next = s;
+                        if (pred.thread == null) // check for race
+                            continue retry;
+                    }
+                    else if (!UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject(this, WAITERS, q, s))
+                        continue retry;
+                }
+                break;
+            }
+        }
+    }
+
+    /* ------------- Async tasks -------------- */
+
+    /**
+     * A marker interface identifying asynchronous tasks produced by
+     * {@code async} methods. This may be useful for monitoring,
+     * debugging, and tracking asynchronous activities.
+     *
+     * @since 1.8
+     */
+    public static interface AsynchronousCompletionTask {
+    }
+
+    /** Base class can act as either FJ or plain Runnable */
+    abstract static class Async extends ForkJoinTask<Void>
+        implements Runnable, AsynchronousCompletionTask {
+        public final Void getRawResult() { return null; }
+        public final void setRawResult(Void v) { }
+        public final void run() { exec(); }
+    }
+
+    static final class AsyncRun extends Async {
+        final Runnable fn;
+        final CompletableFuture<Void> dst;
+        AsyncRun(Runnable fn, CompletableFuture<Void> dst) {
+            this.fn = fn; this.dst = dst;
+        }
+        public final boolean exec() {
+            CompletableFuture<Void> d; Throwable ex;
+            if ((d = this.dst) != null && d.result == null) {
+                try {
+                    fn.run();
+                    ex = null;
+                } catch (Throwable rex) {
+                    ex = rex;
+                }
+                d.internalComplete(null, ex);
+            }
+            return true;
+        }
+        private static final long serialVersionUID = 5232453952276885070L;
+    }
+
+    static final class AsyncSupply<U> extends Async {
+        final Supplier<U> fn;
+        final CompletableFuture<U> dst;
+        AsyncSupply(Supplier<U> fn, CompletableFuture<U> dst) {
+            this.fn = fn; this.dst = dst;
+        }
+        public final boolean exec() {
+            CompletableFuture<U> d; U u; Throwable ex;
+            if ((d = this.dst) != null && d.result == null) {
+                try {
+                    u = fn.get();
+                    ex = null;
+                } catch (Throwable rex) {
+                    ex = rex;
+                    u = null;
+                }
+                d.internalComplete(u, ex);
+            }
+            return true;
+        }
+        private static final long serialVersionUID = 5232453952276885070L;
+    }
+
+    static final class AsyncApply<T,U> extends Async {
+        final T arg;
+        final Function<? super T,? extends U> fn;
+        final CompletableFuture<U> dst;
+        AsyncApply(T arg, Function<? super T,? extends U> fn,
+                   CompletableFuture<U> dst) {
+            this.arg = arg; this.fn = fn; this.dst = dst;
+        }
+        public final boolean exec() {
+            CompletableFuture<U> d; U u; Throwable ex;
+            if ((d = this.dst) != null && d.result == null) {
+                try {
+                    u = fn.apply(arg);
+                    ex = null;
+                } catch (Throwable rex) {
+                    ex = rex;
+                    u = null;
+                }
+                d.internalComplete(u, ex);
+            }
+            return true;
+        }
+        private static final long serialVersionUID = 5232453952276885070L;
+    }
+
+    static final class AsyncCombine<T,U,V> extends Async {
+        final T arg1;
+        final U arg2;
+        final BiFunction<? super T,? super U,? extends V> fn;
+        final CompletableFuture<V> dst;
+        AsyncCombine(T arg1, U arg2,
+                     BiFunction<? super T,? super U,? extends V> fn,
+                     CompletableFuture<V> dst) {
+            this.arg1 = arg1; this.arg2 = arg2; this.fn = fn; this.dst = dst;
+        }
+        public final boolean exec() {
+            CompletableFuture<V> d; V v; Throwable ex;
+            if ((d = this.dst) != null && d.result == null) {
+                try {
+                    v = fn.apply(arg1, arg2);
+                    ex = null;
+                } catch (Throwable rex) {
+                    ex = rex;
+                    v = null;
+                }
+                d.internalComplete(v, ex);
+            }
+            return true;
+        }
+        private static final long serialVersionUID = 5232453952276885070L;
+    }
+
+    static final class AsyncAccept<T> extends Async {
+        final T arg;
+        final Consumer<? super T> fn;
+        final CompletableFuture<Void> dst;
+        AsyncAccept(T arg, Consumer<? super T> fn,
+                    CompletableFuture<Void> dst) {
+            this.arg = arg; this.fn = fn; this.dst = dst;
+        }
+        public final boolean exec() {
+            CompletableFuture<Void> d; Throwable ex;
+            if ((d = this.dst) != null && d.result == null) {
+                try {
+                    fn.accept(arg);
+                    ex = null;
+                } catch (Throwable rex) {
+                    ex = rex;
+                }
+                d.internalComplete(null, ex);
+            }
+            return true;
+        }
+        private static final long serialVersionUID = 5232453952276885070L;
+    }
+
+    static final class AsyncAcceptBoth<T,U> extends Async {
+        final T arg1;
+        final U arg2;
+        final BiConsumer<? super T,? super U> fn;
+        final CompletableFuture<Void> dst;
+        AsyncAcceptBoth(T arg1, U arg2,
+                        BiConsumer<? super T,? super U> fn,
+                        CompletableFuture<Void> dst) {
+            this.arg1 = arg1; this.arg2 = arg2; this.fn = fn; this.dst = dst;
+        }
+        public final boolean exec() {
+            CompletableFuture<Void> d; Throwable ex;
+            if ((d = this.dst) != null && d.result == null) {
+                try {
+                    fn.accept(arg1, arg2);
+                    ex = null;
+                } catch (Throwable rex) {
+                    ex = rex;
+                }
+                d.internalComplete(null, ex);
+            }
+            return true;
+        }
+        private static final long serialVersionUID = 5232453952276885070L;
+    }
+
+    static final class AsyncCompose<T,U> extends Async {
+        final T arg;
+        final Function<? super T, CompletableFuture<U>> fn;
+        final CompletableFuture<U> dst;
+        AsyncCompose(T arg,
+                     Function<? super T, CompletableFuture<U>> fn,
+                     CompletableFuture<U> dst) {
+            this.arg = arg; this.fn = fn; this.dst = dst;
+        }
+        public final boolean exec() {
+            CompletableFuture<U> d, fr; U u; Throwable ex;
+            if ((d = this.dst) != null && d.result == null) {
+                try {
+                    fr = fn.apply(arg);
+                    ex = (fr == null) ? new NullPointerException() : null;
+                } catch (Throwable rex) {
+                    ex = rex;
+                    fr = null;
+                }
+                if (ex != null)
+                    u = null;
+                else {
+                    Object r = fr.result;
+                    if (r == null)
+                        r = fr.waitingGet(false);
+                    if (r instanceof AltResult) {
+                        ex = ((AltResult)r).ex;
+                        u = null;
+                    }
+                    else {
+                        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") U ur = (U) r;
+                        u = ur;
+                    }
+                }
+                d.internalComplete(u, ex);
+            }
+            return true;
+        }
+        private static final long serialVersionUID = 5232453952276885070L;
+    }
+
+    /* ------------- Completions -------------- */
+
+    /**
+     * Simple linked list nodes to record completions, used in
+     * basically the same way as WaitNodes. (We separate nodes from
+     * the Completions themselves mainly because for the And and Or
+     * methods, the same Completion object resides in two lists.)
+     */
+    static final class CompletionNode {
+        final Completion completion;
+        volatile CompletionNode next;
+        CompletionNode(Completion completion) { this.completion = completion; }
+    }
+
+    // Opportunistically subclass AtomicInteger to use compareAndSet to claim.
+    abstract static class Completion extends AtomicInteger implements Runnable {
+    }
+
+    static final class ThenApply<T,U> extends Completion {
+        final CompletableFuture<? extends T> src;
+        final Function<? super T,? extends U> fn;
+        final CompletableFuture<U> dst;
+        final Executor executor;
+        ThenApply(CompletableFuture<? extends T> src,
+                  Function<? super T,? extends U> fn,
+                  CompletableFuture<U> dst,
+                  Executor executor) {
+            this.src = src; this.fn = fn; this.dst = dst;
+            this.executor = executor;
+        }
+        public final void run() {
+            final CompletableFuture<? extends T> a;
+            final Function<? super T,? extends U> fn;
+            final CompletableFuture<U> dst;
+            Object r; T t; Throwable ex;
+            if ((dst = this.dst) != null &&
+                (fn = this.fn) != null &&
+                (a = this.src) != null &&
+                (r = a.result) != null &&
+                compareAndSet(0, 1)) {
+                if (r instanceof AltResult) {
+                    ex = ((AltResult)r).ex;
+                    t = null;
+                }
+                else {
+                    ex = null;
+                    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") T tr = (T) r;
+                    t = tr;
+                }
+                Executor e = executor;
+                U u = null;
+                if (ex == null) {
+                    try {
+                        if (e != null)
+                            e.execute(new AsyncApply<T,U>(t, fn, dst));
+                        else
+                            u = fn.apply(t);
+                    } catch (Throwable rex) {
+                        ex = rex;
+                    }
+                }
+                if (e == null || ex != null)
+                    dst.internalComplete(u, ex);
+            }
+        }
+        private static final long serialVersionUID = 5232453952276885070L;
+    }
+
+    static final class ThenAccept<T> extends Completion {
+        final CompletableFuture<? extends T> src;
+        final Consumer<? super T> fn;
+        final CompletableFuture<Void> dst;
+        final Executor executor;
+        ThenAccept(CompletableFuture<? extends T> src,
+                   Consumer<? super T> fn,
+                   CompletableFuture<Void> dst,
+                   Executor executor) {
+            this.src = src; this.fn = fn; this.dst = dst;
+            this.executor = executor;
+        }
+        public final void run() {
+            final CompletableFuture<? extends T> a;
+            final Consumer<? super T> fn;
+            final CompletableFuture<Void> dst;
+            Object r; T t; Throwable ex;
+            if ((dst = this.dst) != null &&
+                (fn = this.fn) != null &&
+                (a = this.src) != null &&
+                (r = a.result) != null &&
+                compareAndSet(0, 1)) {
+                if (r instanceof AltResult) {
+                    ex = ((AltResult)r).ex;
+                    t = null;
+                }
+                else {
+                    ex = null;
+                    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") T tr = (T) r;
+                    t = tr;
+                }
+                Executor e = executor;
+                if (ex == null) {
+                    try {
+                        if (e != null)
+                            e.execute(new AsyncAccept<T>(t, fn, dst));
+                        else
+                            fn.accept(t);
+                    } catch (Throwable rex) {
+                        ex = rex;
+                    }
+                }
+                if (e == null || ex != null)
+                    dst.internalComplete(null, ex);
+            }
+        }
+        private static final long serialVersionUID = 5232453952276885070L;
+    }
+
+    static final class ThenRun extends Completion {
+        final CompletableFuture<?> src;
+        final Runnable fn;
+        final CompletableFuture<Void> dst;
+        final Executor executor;
+        ThenRun(CompletableFuture<?> src,
+                Runnable fn,
+                CompletableFuture<Void> dst,
+                Executor executor) {
+            this.src = src; this.fn = fn; this.dst = dst;
+            this.executor = executor;
+        }
+        public final void run() {
+            final CompletableFuture<?> a;
+            final Runnable fn;
+            final CompletableFuture<Void> dst;
+            Object r; Throwable ex;
+            if ((dst = this.dst) != null &&
+                (fn = this.fn) != null &&
+                (a = this.src) != null &&
+                (r = a.result) != null &&
+                compareAndSet(0, 1)) {
+                if (r instanceof AltResult)
+                    ex = ((AltResult)r).ex;
+                else
+                    ex = null;
+                Executor e = executor;
+                if (ex == null) {
+                    try {
+                        if (e != null)
+                            e.execute(new AsyncRun(fn, dst));
+                        else
+                            fn.run();
+                    } catch (Throwable rex) {
+                        ex = rex;
+                    }
+                }
+                if (e == null || ex != null)
+                    dst.internalComplete(null, ex);
+            }
+        }
+        private static final long serialVersionUID = 5232453952276885070L;
+    }
+
+    static final class ThenCombine<T,U,V> extends Completion {
+        final CompletableFuture<? extends T> src;
+        final CompletableFuture<? extends U> snd;
+        final BiFunction<? super T,? super U,? extends V> fn;
+        final CompletableFuture<V> dst;
+        final Executor executor;
+        ThenCombine(CompletableFuture<? extends T> src,
+                    CompletableFuture<? extends U> snd,
+                    BiFunction<? super T,? super U,? extends V> fn,
+                    CompletableFuture<V> dst,
+                    Executor executor) {
+            this.src = src; this.snd = snd;
+            this.fn = fn; this.dst = dst;
+            this.executor = executor;
+        }
+        public final void run() {
+            final CompletableFuture<? extends T> a;
+            final CompletableFuture<? extends U> b;
+            final BiFunction<? super T,? super U,? extends V> fn;
+            final CompletableFuture<V> dst;
+            Object r, s; T t; U u; Throwable ex;
+            if ((dst = this.dst) != null &&
+                (fn = this.fn) != null &&
+                (a = this.src) != null &&
+                (r = a.result) != null &&
+                (b = this.snd) != null &&
+                (s = b.result) != null &&
+                compareAndSet(0, 1)) {
+                if (r instanceof AltResult) {
+                    ex = ((AltResult)r).ex;
+                    t = null;
+                }
+                else {
+                    ex = null;
+                    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") T tr = (T) r;
+                    t = tr;
+                }
+                if (ex != null)
+                    u = null;
+                else if (s instanceof AltResult) {
+                    ex = ((AltResult)s).ex;
+                    u = null;
+                }
+                else {
+                    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") U us = (U) s;
+                    u = us;
+                }
+                Executor e = executor;
+                V v = null;
+                if (ex == null) {
+                    try {
+                        if (e != null)
+                            e.execute(new AsyncCombine<T,U,V>(t, u, fn, dst));
+                        else
+                            v = fn.apply(t, u);
+                    } catch (Throwable rex) {
+                        ex = rex;
+                    }
+                }
+                if (e == null || ex != null)
+                    dst.internalComplete(v, ex);
+            }
+        }
+        private static final long serialVersionUID = 5232453952276885070L;
+    }
+
+    static final class ThenAcceptBoth<T,U> extends Completion {
+        final CompletableFuture<? extends T> src;
+        final CompletableFuture<? extends U> snd;
+        final BiConsumer<? super T,? super U> fn;
+        final CompletableFuture<Void> dst;
+        final Executor executor;
+        ThenAcceptBoth(CompletableFuture<? extends T> src,
+                       CompletableFuture<? extends U> snd,
+                       BiConsumer<? super T,? super U> fn,
+                       CompletableFuture<Void> dst,
+                       Executor executor) {
+            this.src = src; this.snd = snd;
+            this.fn = fn; this.dst = dst;
+            this.executor = executor;
+        }
+        public final void run() {
+            final CompletableFuture<? extends T> a;
+            final CompletableFuture<? extends U> b;
+            final BiConsumer<? super T,? super U> fn;
+            final CompletableFuture<Void> dst;
+            Object r, s; T t; U u; Throwable ex;
+            if ((dst = this.dst) != null &&
+                (fn = this.fn) != null &&
+                (a = this.src) != null &&
+                (r = a.result) != null &&
+                (b = this.snd) != null &&
+                (s = b.result) != null &&
+                compareAndSet(0, 1)) {
+                if (r instanceof AltResult) {
+                    ex = ((AltResult)r).ex;
+                    t = null;
+                }
+                else {
+                    ex = null;
+                    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") T tr = (T) r;
+                    t = tr;
+                }
+                if (ex != null)
+                    u = null;
+                else if (s instanceof AltResult) {
+                    ex = ((AltResult)s).ex;
+                    u = null;
+                }
+                else {
+                    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") U us = (U) s;
+                    u = us;
+                }
+                Executor e = executor;
+                if (ex == null) {
+                    try {
+                        if (e != null)
+                            e.execute(new AsyncAcceptBoth<T,U>(t, u, fn, dst));
+                        else
+                            fn.accept(t, u);
+                    } catch (Throwable rex) {
+                        ex = rex;
+                    }
+                }
+                if (e == null || ex != null)
+                    dst.internalComplete(null, ex);
+            }
+        }
+        private static final long serialVersionUID = 5232453952276885070L;
+    }
+
+    static final class RunAfterBoth extends Completion {
+        final CompletableFuture<?> src;
+        final CompletableFuture<?> snd;
+        final Runnable fn;
+        final CompletableFuture<Void> dst;
+        final Executor executor;
+        RunAfterBoth(CompletableFuture<?> src,
+                     CompletableFuture<?> snd,
+                     Runnable fn,
+                     CompletableFuture<Void> dst,
+                     Executor executor) {
+            this.src = src; this.snd = snd;
+            this.fn = fn; this.dst = dst;
+            this.executor = executor;
+        }
+        public final void run() {
+            final CompletableFuture<?> a;
+            final CompletableFuture<?> b;
+            final Runnable fn;
+            final CompletableFuture<Void> dst;
+            Object r, s; Throwable ex;
+            if ((dst = this.dst) != null &&
+                (fn = this.fn) != null &&
+                (a = this.src) != null &&
+                (r = a.result) != null &&
+                (b = this.snd) != null &&
+                (s = b.result) != null &&
+                compareAndSet(0, 1)) {
+                if (r instanceof AltResult)
+                    ex = ((AltResult)r).ex;
+                else
+                    ex = null;
+                if (ex == null && (s instanceof AltResult))
+                    ex = ((AltResult)s).ex;
+                Executor e = executor;
+                if (ex == null) {
+                    try {
+                        if (e != null)
+                            e.execute(new AsyncRun(fn, dst));
+                        else
+                            fn.run();
+                    } catch (Throwable rex) {
+                        ex = rex;
+                    }
+                }
+                if (e == null || ex != null)
+                    dst.internalComplete(null, ex);
+            }
+        }
+        private static final long serialVersionUID = 5232453952276885070L;
+    }
+
+    static final class AndCompletion extends Completion {
+        final CompletableFuture<?> src;
+        final CompletableFuture<?> snd;
+        final CompletableFuture<Void> dst;
+        AndCompletion(CompletableFuture<?> src,
+                      CompletableFuture<?> snd,
+                      CompletableFuture<Void> dst) {
+            this.src = src; this.snd = snd; this.dst = dst;
+        }
+        public final void run() {
+            final CompletableFuture<?> a;
+            final CompletableFuture<?> b;
+            final CompletableFuture<Void> dst;
+            Object r, s; Throwable ex;
+            if ((dst = this.dst) != null &&
+                (a = this.src) != null &&
+                (r = a.result) != null &&
+                (b = this.snd) != null &&
+                (s = b.result) != null &&
+                compareAndSet(0, 1)) {
+                if (r instanceof AltResult)
+                    ex = ((AltResult)r).ex;
+                else
+                    ex = null;
+                if (ex == null && (s instanceof AltResult))
+                    ex = ((AltResult)s).ex;
+                dst.internalComplete(null, ex);
+            }
+        }
+        private static final long serialVersionUID = 5232453952276885070L;
+    }
+
+    static final class ApplyToEither<T,U> extends Completion {
+        final CompletableFuture<? extends T> src;
+        final CompletableFuture<? extends T> snd;
+        final Function<? super T,? extends U> fn;
+        final CompletableFuture<U> dst;
+        final Executor executor;
+        ApplyToEither(CompletableFuture<? extends T> src,
+                      CompletableFuture<? extends T> snd,
+                      Function<? super T,? extends U> fn,
+                      CompletableFuture<U> dst,
+                      Executor executor) {
+            this.src = src; this.snd = snd;
+            this.fn = fn; this.dst = dst;
+            this.executor = executor;
+        }
+        public final void run() {
+            final CompletableFuture<? extends T> a;
+            final CompletableFuture<? extends T> b;
+            final Function<? super T,? extends U> fn;
+            final CompletableFuture<U> dst;
+            Object r; T t; Throwable ex;
+            if ((dst = this.dst) != null &&
+                (fn = this.fn) != null &&
+                (((a = this.src) != null && (r = a.result) != null) ||
+                 ((b = this.snd) != null && (r = b.result) != null)) &&
+                compareAndSet(0, 1)) {
+                if (r instanceof AltResult) {
+                    ex = ((AltResult)r).ex;
+                    t = null;
+                }
+                else {
+                    ex = null;
+                    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") T tr = (T) r;
+                    t = tr;
+                }
+                Executor e = executor;
+                U u = null;
+                if (ex == null) {
+                    try {
+                        if (e != null)
+                            e.execute(new AsyncApply<T,U>(t, fn, dst));
+                        else
+                            u = fn.apply(t);
+                    } catch (Throwable rex) {
+                        ex = rex;
+                    }
+                }
+                if (e == null || ex != null)
+                    dst.internalComplete(u, ex);
+            }
+        }
+        private static final long serialVersionUID = 5232453952276885070L;
+    }
+
+    static final class AcceptEither<T> extends Completion {
+        final CompletableFuture<? extends T> src;
+        final CompletableFuture<? extends T> snd;
+        final Consumer<? super T> fn;
+        final CompletableFuture<Void> dst;
+        final Executor executor;
+        AcceptEither(CompletableFuture<? extends T> src,
+                     CompletableFuture<? extends T> snd,
+                     Consumer<? super T> fn,
+                     CompletableFuture<Void> dst,
+                     Executor executor) {
+            this.src = src; this.snd = snd;
+            this.fn = fn; this.dst = dst;
+            this.executor = executor;
+        }
+        public final void run() {
+            final CompletableFuture<? extends T> a;
+            final CompletableFuture<? extends T> b;
+            final Consumer<? super T> fn;
+            final CompletableFuture<Void> dst;
+            Object r; T t; Throwable ex;
+            if ((dst = this.dst) != null &&
+                (fn = this.fn) != null &&
+                (((a = this.src) != null && (r = a.result) != null) ||
+                 ((b = this.snd) != null && (r = b.result) != null)) &&
+                compareAndSet(0, 1)) {
+                if (r instanceof AltResult) {
+                    ex = ((AltResult)r).ex;
+                    t = null;
+                }
+                else {
+                    ex = null;
+                    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") T tr = (T) r;
+                    t = tr;
+                }
+                Executor e = executor;
+                if (ex == null) {
+                    try {
+                        if (e != null)
+                            e.execute(new AsyncAccept<T>(t, fn, dst));
+                        else
+                            fn.accept(t);
+                    } catch (Throwable rex) {
+                        ex = rex;
+                    }
+                }
+                if (e == null || ex != null)
+                    dst.internalComplete(null, ex);
+            }
+        }
+        private static final long serialVersionUID = 5232453952276885070L;
+    }
+
+    static final class RunAfterEither extends Completion {
+        final CompletableFuture<?> src;
+        final CompletableFuture<?> snd;
+        final Runnable fn;
+        final CompletableFuture<Void> dst;
+        final Executor executor;
+        RunAfterEither(CompletableFuture<?> src,
+                       CompletableFuture<?> snd,
+                       Runnable fn,
+                       CompletableFuture<Void> dst,
+                       Executor executor) {
+            this.src = src; this.snd = snd;
+            this.fn = fn; this.dst = dst;
+            this.executor = executor;
+        }
+        public final void run() {
+            final CompletableFuture<?> a;
+            final CompletableFuture<?> b;
+            final Runnable fn;
+            final CompletableFuture<Void> dst;
+            Object r; Throwable ex;
+            if ((dst = this.dst) != null &&
+                (fn = this.fn) != null &&
+                (((a = this.src) != null && (r = a.result) != null) ||
+                 ((b = this.snd) != null && (r = b.result) != null)) &&
+                compareAndSet(0, 1)) {
+                if (r instanceof AltResult)
+                    ex = ((AltResult)r).ex;
+                else
+                    ex = null;
+                Executor e = executor;
+                if (ex == null) {
+                    try {
+                        if (e != null)
+                            e.execute(new AsyncRun(fn, dst));
+                        else
+                            fn.run();
+                    } catch (Throwable rex) {
+                        ex = rex;
+                    }
+                }
+                if (e == null || ex != null)
+                    dst.internalComplete(null, ex);
+            }
+        }
+        private static final long serialVersionUID = 5232453952276885070L;
+    }
+
+    static final class OrCompletion extends Completion {
+        final CompletableFuture<?> src;
+        final CompletableFuture<?> snd;
+        final CompletableFuture<Object> dst;
+        OrCompletion(CompletableFuture<?> src,
+                     CompletableFuture<?> snd,
+                     CompletableFuture<Object> dst) {
+            this.src = src; this.snd = snd; this.dst = dst;
+        }
+        public final void run() {
+            final CompletableFuture<?> a;
+            final CompletableFuture<?> b;
+            final CompletableFuture<Object> dst;
+            Object r, t; Throwable ex;
+            if ((dst = this.dst) != null &&
+                (((a = this.src) != null && (r = a.result) != null) ||
+                 ((b = this.snd) != null && (r = b.result) != null)) &&
+                compareAndSet(0, 1)) {
+                if (r instanceof AltResult) {
+                    ex = ((AltResult)r).ex;
+                    t = null;
+                }
+                else {
+                    ex = null;
+                    t = r;
+                }
+                dst.internalComplete(t, ex);
+            }
+        }
+        private static final long serialVersionUID = 5232453952276885070L;
+    }
+
+    static final class ExceptionCompletion<T> extends Completion {
+        final CompletableFuture<? extends T> src;
+        final Function<? super Throwable, ? extends T> fn;
+        final CompletableFuture<T> dst;
+        ExceptionCompletion(CompletableFuture<? extends T> src,
+                            Function<? super Throwable, ? extends T> fn,
+                            CompletableFuture<T> dst) {
+            this.src = src; this.fn = fn; this.dst = dst;
+        }
+        public final void run() {
+            final CompletableFuture<? extends T> a;
+            final Function<? super Throwable, ? extends T> fn;
+            final CompletableFuture<T> dst;
+            Object r; T t = null; Throwable ex, dx = null;
+            if ((dst = this.dst) != null &&
+                (fn = this.fn) != null &&
+                (a = this.src) != null &&
+                (r = a.result) != null &&
+                compareAndSet(0, 1)) {
+                if ((r instanceof AltResult) &&
+                    (ex = ((AltResult)r).ex) != null)  {
+                    try {
+                        t = fn.apply(ex);
+                    } catch (Throwable rex) {
+                        dx = rex;
+                    }
+                }
+                else {
+                    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") T tr = (T) r;
+                    t = tr;
+                }
+                dst.internalComplete(t, dx);
+            }
+        }
+        private static final long serialVersionUID = 5232453952276885070L;
+    }
+
+    static final class ThenCopy<T> extends Completion {
+        final CompletableFuture<?> src;
+        final CompletableFuture<T> dst;
+        ThenCopy(CompletableFuture<?> src,
+                 CompletableFuture<T> dst) {
+            this.src = src; this.dst = dst;
+        }
+        public final void run() {
+            final CompletableFuture<?> a;
+            final CompletableFuture<T> dst;
+            Object r; T t; Throwable ex;
+            if ((dst = this.dst) != null &&
+                (a = this.src) != null &&
+                (r = a.result) != null &&
+                compareAndSet(0, 1)) {
+                if (r instanceof AltResult) {
+                    ex = ((AltResult)r).ex;
+                    t = null;
+                }
+                else {
+                    ex = null;
+                    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") T tr = (T) r;
+                    t = tr;
+                }
+                dst.internalComplete(t, ex);
+            }
+        }
+        private static final long serialVersionUID = 5232453952276885070L;
+    }
+
+    // version of ThenCopy for CompletableFuture<Void> dst
+    static final class ThenPropagate extends Completion {
+        final CompletableFuture<?> src;
+        final CompletableFuture<Void> dst;
+        ThenPropagate(CompletableFuture<?> src,
+                      CompletableFuture<Void> dst) {
+            this.src = src; this.dst = dst;
+        }
+        public final void run() {
+            final CompletableFuture<?> a;
+            final CompletableFuture<Void> dst;
+            Object r; Throwable ex;
+            if ((dst = this.dst) != null &&
+                (a = this.src) != null &&
+                (r = a.result) != null &&
+                compareAndSet(0, 1)) {
+                if (r instanceof AltResult)
+                    ex = ((AltResult)r).ex;
+                else
+                    ex = null;
+                dst.internalComplete(null, ex);
+            }
+        }
+        private static final long serialVersionUID = 5232453952276885070L;
+    }
+
+    static final class HandleCompletion<T,U> extends Completion {
+        final CompletableFuture<? extends T> src;
+        final BiFunction<? super T, Throwable, ? extends U> fn;
+        final CompletableFuture<U> dst;
+        HandleCompletion(CompletableFuture<? extends T> src,
+                         BiFunction<? super T, Throwable, ? extends U> fn,
+                         CompletableFuture<U> dst) {
+            this.src = src; this.fn = fn; this.dst = dst;
+        }
+        public final void run() {
+            final CompletableFuture<? extends T> a;
+            final BiFunction<? super T, Throwable, ? extends U> fn;
+            final CompletableFuture<U> dst;
+            Object r; T t; Throwable ex;
+            if ((dst = this.dst) != null &&
+                (fn = this.fn) != null &&
+                (a = this.src) != null &&
+                (r = a.result) != null &&
+                compareAndSet(0, 1)) {
+                if (r instanceof AltResult) {
+                    ex = ((AltResult)r).ex;
+                    t = null;
+                }
+                else {
+                    ex = null;
+                    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") T tr = (T) r;
+                    t = tr;
+                }
+                U u = null; Throwable dx = null;
+                try {
+                    u = fn.apply(t, ex);
+                } catch (Throwable rex) {
+                    dx = rex;
+                }
+                dst.internalComplete(u, dx);
+            }
+        }
+        private static final long serialVersionUID = 5232453952276885070L;
+    }
+
+    static final class ThenCompose<T,U> extends Completion {
+        final CompletableFuture<? extends T> src;
+        final Function<? super T, CompletableFuture<U>> fn;
+        final CompletableFuture<U> dst;
+        final Executor executor;
+        ThenCompose(CompletableFuture<? extends T> src,
+                    Function<? super T, CompletableFuture<U>> fn,
+                    CompletableFuture<U> dst,
+                    Executor executor) {
+            this.src = src; this.fn = fn; this.dst = dst;
+            this.executor = executor;
+        }
+        public final void run() {
+            final CompletableFuture<? extends T> a;
+            final Function<? super T, CompletableFuture<U>> fn;
+            final CompletableFuture<U> dst;
+            Object r; T t; Throwable ex; Executor e;
+            if ((dst = this.dst) != null &&
+                (fn = this.fn) != null &&
+                (a = this.src) != null &&
+                (r = a.result) != null &&
+                compareAndSet(0, 1)) {
+                if (r instanceof AltResult) {
+                    ex = ((AltResult)r).ex;
+                    t = null;
+                }
+                else {
+                    ex = null;
+                    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") T tr = (T) r;
+                    t = tr;
+                }
+                CompletableFuture<U> c = null;
+                U u = null;
+                boolean complete = false;
+                if (ex == null) {
+                    if ((e = executor) != null)
+                        e.execute(new AsyncCompose<T,U>(t, fn, dst));
+                    else {
+                        try {
+                            if ((c = fn.apply(t)) == null)
+                                ex = new NullPointerException();
+                        } catch (Throwable rex) {
+                            ex = rex;
+                        }
+                    }
+                }
+                if (c != null) {
+                    ThenCopy<U> d = null;
+                    Object s;
+                    if ((s = c.result) == null) {
+                        CompletionNode p = new CompletionNode
+                            (d = new ThenCopy<U>(c, dst));
+                        while ((s = c.result) == null) {
+                            if (UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject
+                                (c, COMPLETIONS, p.next = c.completions, p))
+                                break;
+                        }
+                    }
+                    if (s != null && (d == null || d.compareAndSet(0, 1))) {
+                        complete = true;
+                        if (s instanceof AltResult) {
+                            ex = ((AltResult)s).ex;  // no rewrap
+                            u = null;
+                        }
+                        else {
+                            @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") U us = (U) s;
+                            u = us;
+                        }
+                    }
+                }
+                if (complete || ex != null)
+                    dst.internalComplete(u, ex);
+                if (c != null)
+                    c.helpPostComplete();
+            }
+        }
+        private static final long serialVersionUID = 5232453952276885070L;
+    }
+
+    // public methods
+
+    /**
+     * Creates a new incomplete CompletableFuture.
+     */
+    public CompletableFuture() {
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is asynchronously completed
+     * by a task running in the {@link ForkJoinPool#commonPool()} with
+     * the value obtained by calling the given Supplier.
+     *
+     * @param supplier a function returning the value to be used
+     * to complete the returned CompletableFuture
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public static <U> CompletableFuture<U> supplyAsync(Supplier<U> supplier) {
+        if (supplier == null) throw new NullPointerException();
+        CompletableFuture<U> f = new CompletableFuture<U>();
+        ForkJoinPool.commonPool().
+            execute((ForkJoinTask<?>)new AsyncSupply<U>(supplier, f));
+        return f;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is asynchronously completed
+     * by a task running in the given executor with the value obtained
+     * by calling the given Supplier.
+     *
+     * @param supplier a function returning the value to be used
+     * to complete the returned CompletableFuture
+     * @param executor the executor to use for asynchronous execution
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public static <U> CompletableFuture<U> supplyAsync(Supplier<U> supplier,
+                                                       Executor executor) {
+        if (executor == null || supplier == null)
+            throw new NullPointerException();
+        CompletableFuture<U> f = new CompletableFuture<U>();
+        executor.execute(new AsyncSupply<U>(supplier, f));
+        return f;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is asynchronously completed
+     * by a task running in the {@link ForkJoinPool#commonPool()} after
+     * it runs the given action.
+     *
+     * @param runnable the action to run before completing the
+     * returned CompletableFuture
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public static CompletableFuture<Void> runAsync(Runnable runnable) {
+        if (runnable == null) throw new NullPointerException();
+        CompletableFuture<Void> f = new CompletableFuture<Void>();
+        ForkJoinPool.commonPool().
+            execute((ForkJoinTask<?>)new AsyncRun(runnable, f));
+        return f;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is asynchronously completed
+     * by a task running in the given executor after it runs the given
+     * action.
+     *
+     * @param runnable the action to run before completing the
+     * returned CompletableFuture
+     * @param executor the executor to use for asynchronous execution
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public static CompletableFuture<Void> runAsync(Runnable runnable,
+                                                   Executor executor) {
+        if (executor == null || runnable == null)
+            throw new NullPointerException();
+        CompletableFuture<Void> f = new CompletableFuture<Void>();
+        executor.execute(new AsyncRun(runnable, f));
+        return f;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is already completed with
+     * the given value.
+     *
+     * @param value the value
+     * @return the completed CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public static <U> CompletableFuture<U> completedFuture(U value) {
+        CompletableFuture<U> f = new CompletableFuture<U>();
+        f.result = (value == null) ? NIL : value;
+        return f;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns {@code true} if completed in any fashion: normally,
+     * exceptionally, or via cancellation.
+     *
+     * @return {@code true} if completed
+     */
+    public boolean isDone() {
+        return result != null;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Waits if necessary for this future to complete, and then
+     * returns its result.
+     *
+     * @return the result value
+     * @throws CancellationException if this future was cancelled
+     * @throws ExecutionException if this future completed exceptionally
+     * @throws InterruptedException if the current thread was interrupted
+     * while waiting
+     */
+    public T get() throws InterruptedException, ExecutionException {
+        Object r; Throwable ex, cause;
+        if ((r = result) == null && (r = waitingGet(true)) == null)
+            throw new InterruptedException();
+        if (!(r instanceof AltResult)) {
+            @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") T tr = (T) r;
+            return tr;
+        }
+        if ((ex = ((AltResult)r).ex) == null)
+            return null;
+        if (ex instanceof CancellationException)
+            throw (CancellationException)ex;
+        if ((ex instanceof CompletionException) &&
+            (cause = ex.getCause()) != null)
+            ex = cause;
+        throw new ExecutionException(ex);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Waits if necessary for at most the given time for this future
+     * to complete, and then returns its result, if available.
+     *
+     * @param timeout the maximum time to wait
+     * @param unit the time unit of the timeout argument
+     * @return the result value
+     * @throws CancellationException if this future was cancelled
+     * @throws ExecutionException if this future completed exceptionally
+     * @throws InterruptedException if the current thread was interrupted
+     * while waiting
+     * @throws TimeoutException if the wait timed out
+     */
+    public T get(long timeout, TimeUnit unit)
+        throws InterruptedException, ExecutionException, TimeoutException {
+        Object r; Throwable ex, cause;
+        long nanos = unit.toNanos(timeout);
+        if (Thread.interrupted())
+            throw new InterruptedException();
+        if ((r = result) == null)
+            r = timedAwaitDone(nanos);
+        if (!(r instanceof AltResult)) {
+            @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") T tr = (T) r;
+            return tr;
+        }
+        if ((ex = ((AltResult)r).ex) == null)
+            return null;
+        if (ex instanceof CancellationException)
+            throw (CancellationException)ex;
+        if ((ex instanceof CompletionException) &&
+            (cause = ex.getCause()) != null)
+            ex = cause;
+        throw new ExecutionException(ex);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns the result value when complete, or throws an
+     * (unchecked) exception if completed exceptionally. To better
+     * conform with the use of common functional forms, if a
+     * computation involved in the completion of this
+     * CompletableFuture threw an exception, this method throws an
+     * (unchecked) {@link CompletionException} with the underlying
+     * exception as its cause.
+     *
+     * @return the result value
+     * @throws CancellationException if the computation was cancelled
+     * @throws CompletionException if this future completed
+     * exceptionally or a completion computation threw an exception
+     */
+    public T join() {
+        Object r; Throwable ex;
+        if ((r = result) == null)
+            r = waitingGet(false);
+        if (!(r instanceof AltResult)) {
+            @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") T tr = (T) r;
+            return tr;
+        }
+        if ((ex = ((AltResult)r).ex) == null)
+            return null;
+        if (ex instanceof CancellationException)
+            throw (CancellationException)ex;
+        if (ex instanceof CompletionException)
+            throw (CompletionException)ex;
+        throw new CompletionException(ex);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns the result value (or throws any encountered exception)
+     * if completed, else returns the given valueIfAbsent.
+     *
+     * @param valueIfAbsent the value to return if not completed
+     * @return the result value, if completed, else the given valueIfAbsent
+     * @throws CancellationException if the computation was cancelled
+     * @throws CompletionException if this future completed
+     * exceptionally or a completion computation threw an exception
+     */
+    public T getNow(T valueIfAbsent) {
+        Object r; Throwable ex;
+        if ((r = result) == null)
+            return valueIfAbsent;
+        if (!(r instanceof AltResult)) {
+            @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") T tr = (T) r;
+            return tr;
+        }
+        if ((ex = ((AltResult)r).ex) == null)
+            return null;
+        if (ex instanceof CancellationException)
+            throw (CancellationException)ex;
+        if (ex instanceof CompletionException)
+            throw (CompletionException)ex;
+        throw new CompletionException(ex);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * If not already completed, sets the value returned by {@link
+     * #get()} and related methods to the given value.
+     *
+     * @param value the result value
+     * @return {@code true} if this invocation caused this CompletableFuture
+     * to transition to a completed state, else {@code false}
+     */
+    public boolean complete(T value) {
+        boolean triggered = result == null &&
+            UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject(this, RESULT, null,
+                                        value == null ? NIL : value);
+        postComplete();
+        return triggered;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * If not already completed, causes invocations of {@link #get()}
+     * and related methods to throw the given exception.
+     *
+     * @param ex the exception
+     * @return {@code true} if this invocation caused this CompletableFuture
+     * to transition to a completed state, else {@code false}
+     */
+    public boolean completeExceptionally(Throwable ex) {
+        if (ex == null) throw new NullPointerException();
+        boolean triggered = result == null &&
+            UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject(this, RESULT, null, new AltResult(ex));
+        postComplete();
+        return triggered;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is completed
+     * when this CompletableFuture completes, with the result of the
+     * given function of this CompletableFuture's result.
+     *
+     * <p>If this CompletableFuture completes exceptionally, or the
+     * supplied function throws an exception, then the returned
+     * CompletableFuture completes exceptionally with a
+     * CompletionException holding the exception as its cause.
+     *
+     * @param fn the function to use to compute the value of
+     * the returned CompletableFuture
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public <U> CompletableFuture<U> thenApply(Function<? super T,? extends U> fn) {
+        return doThenApply(fn, null);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is asynchronously completed
+     * when this CompletableFuture completes, with the result of the
+     * given function of this CompletableFuture's result from a
+     * task running in the {@link ForkJoinPool#commonPool()}.
+     *
+     * <p>If this CompletableFuture completes exceptionally, or the
+     * supplied function throws an exception, then the returned
+     * CompletableFuture completes exceptionally with a
+     * CompletionException holding the exception as its cause.
+     *
+     * @param fn the function to use to compute the value of
+     * the returned CompletableFuture
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public <U> CompletableFuture<U> thenApplyAsync
+        (Function<? super T,? extends U> fn) {
+        return doThenApply(fn, ForkJoinPool.commonPool());
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is asynchronously completed
+     * when this CompletableFuture completes, with the result of the
+     * given function of this CompletableFuture's result from a
+     * task running in the given executor.
+     *
+     * <p>If this CompletableFuture completes exceptionally, or the
+     * supplied function throws an exception, then the returned
+     * CompletableFuture completes exceptionally with a
+     * CompletionException holding the exception as its cause.
+     *
+     * @param fn the function to use to compute the value of
+     * the returned CompletableFuture
+     * @param executor the executor to use for asynchronous execution
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public <U> CompletableFuture<U> thenApplyAsync
+        (Function<? super T,? extends U> fn,
+         Executor executor) {
+        if (executor == null) throw new NullPointerException();
+        return doThenApply(fn, executor);
+    }
+
+    private <U> CompletableFuture<U> doThenApply
+        (Function<? super T,? extends U> fn,
+         Executor e) {
+        if (fn == null) throw new NullPointerException();
+        CompletableFuture<U> dst = new CompletableFuture<U>();
+        ThenApply<T,U> d = null;
+        Object r;
+        if ((r = result) == null) {
+            CompletionNode p = new CompletionNode
+                (d = new ThenApply<T,U>(this, fn, dst, e));
+            while ((r = result) == null) {
+                if (UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject
+                    (this, COMPLETIONS, p.next = completions, p))
+                    break;
+            }
+        }
+        if (r != null && (d == null || d.compareAndSet(0, 1))) {
+            T t; Throwable ex;
+            if (r instanceof AltResult) {
+                ex = ((AltResult)r).ex;
+                t = null;
+            }
+            else {
+                ex = null;
+                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") T tr = (T) r;
+                t = tr;
+            }
+            U u = null;
+            if (ex == null) {
+                try {
+                    if (e != null)
+                        e.execute(new AsyncApply<T,U>(t, fn, dst));
+                    else
+                        u = fn.apply(t);
+                } catch (Throwable rex) {
+                    ex = rex;
+                }
+            }
+            if (e == null || ex != null)
+                dst.internalComplete(u, ex);
+        }
+        helpPostComplete();
+        return dst;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is completed
+     * when this CompletableFuture completes, after performing the given
+     * action with this CompletableFuture's result.
+     *
+     * <p>If this CompletableFuture completes exceptionally, or the
+     * supplied action throws an exception, then the returned
+     * CompletableFuture completes exceptionally with a
+     * CompletionException holding the exception as its cause.
+     *
+     * @param block the action to perform before completing the
+     * returned CompletableFuture
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public CompletableFuture<Void> thenAccept(Consumer<? super T> block) {
+        return doThenAccept(block, null);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is asynchronously completed
+     * when this CompletableFuture completes, after performing the given
+     * action with this CompletableFuture's result from a task running
+     * in the {@link ForkJoinPool#commonPool()}.
+     *
+     * <p>If this CompletableFuture completes exceptionally, or the
+     * supplied action throws an exception, then the returned
+     * CompletableFuture completes exceptionally with a
+     * CompletionException holding the exception as its cause.
+     *
+     * @param block the action to perform before completing the
+     * returned CompletableFuture
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public CompletableFuture<Void> thenAcceptAsync(Consumer<? super T> block) {
+        return doThenAccept(block, ForkJoinPool.commonPool());
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is asynchronously completed
+     * when this CompletableFuture completes, after performing the given
+     * action with this CompletableFuture's result from a task running
+     * in the given executor.
+     *
+     * <p>If this CompletableFuture completes exceptionally, or the
+     * supplied action throws an exception, then the returned
+     * CompletableFuture completes exceptionally with a
+     * CompletionException holding the exception as its cause.
+     *
+     * @param block the action to perform before completing the
+     * returned CompletableFuture
+     * @param executor the executor to use for asynchronous execution
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public CompletableFuture<Void> thenAcceptAsync(Consumer<? super T> block,
+                                                   Executor executor) {
+        if (executor == null) throw new NullPointerException();
+        return doThenAccept(block, executor);
+    }
+
+    private CompletableFuture<Void> doThenAccept(Consumer<? super T> fn,
+                                                 Executor e) {
+        if (fn == null) throw new NullPointerException();
+        CompletableFuture<Void> dst = new CompletableFuture<Void>();
+        ThenAccept<T> d = null;
+        Object r;
+        if ((r = result) == null) {
+            CompletionNode p = new CompletionNode
+                (d = new ThenAccept<T>(this, fn, dst, e));
+            while ((r = result) == null) {
+                if (UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject
+                    (this, COMPLETIONS, p.next = completions, p))
+                    break;
+            }
+        }
+        if (r != null && (d == null || d.compareAndSet(0, 1))) {
+            T t; Throwable ex;
+            if (r instanceof AltResult) {
+                ex = ((AltResult)r).ex;
+                t = null;
+            }
+            else {
+                ex = null;
+                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") T tr = (T) r;
+                t = tr;
+            }
+            if (ex == null) {
+                try {
+                    if (e != null)
+                        e.execute(new AsyncAccept<T>(t, fn, dst));
+                    else
+                        fn.accept(t);
+                } catch (Throwable rex) {
+                    ex = rex;
+                }
+            }
+            if (e == null || ex != null)
+                dst.internalComplete(null, ex);
+        }
+        helpPostComplete();
+        return dst;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is completed
+     * when this CompletableFuture completes, after performing the given
+     * action.
+     *
+     * <p>If this CompletableFuture completes exceptionally, or the
+     * supplied action throws an exception, then the returned
+     * CompletableFuture completes exceptionally with a
+     * CompletionException holding the exception as its cause.
+     *
+     * @param action the action to perform before completing the
+     * returned CompletableFuture
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public CompletableFuture<Void> thenRun(Runnable action) {
+        return doThenRun(action, null);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is asynchronously completed
+     * when this CompletableFuture completes, after performing the given
+     * action from a task running in the {@link ForkJoinPool#commonPool()}.
+     *
+     * <p>If this CompletableFuture completes exceptionally, or the
+     * supplied action throws an exception, then the returned
+     * CompletableFuture completes exceptionally with a
+     * CompletionException holding the exception as its cause.
+     *
+     * @param action the action to perform before completing the
+     * returned CompletableFuture
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public CompletableFuture<Void> thenRunAsync(Runnable action) {
+        return doThenRun(action, ForkJoinPool.commonPool());
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is asynchronously completed
+     * when this CompletableFuture completes, after performing the given
+     * action from a task running in the given executor.
+     *
+     * <p>If this CompletableFuture completes exceptionally, or the
+     * supplied action throws an exception, then the returned
+     * CompletableFuture completes exceptionally with a
+     * CompletionException holding the exception as its cause.
+     *
+     * @param action the action to perform before completing the
+     * returned CompletableFuture
+     * @param executor the executor to use for asynchronous execution
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public CompletableFuture<Void> thenRunAsync(Runnable action,
+                                                Executor executor) {
+        if (executor == null) throw new NullPointerException();
+        return doThenRun(action, executor);
+    }
+
+    private CompletableFuture<Void> doThenRun(Runnable action,
+                                              Executor e) {
+        if (action == null) throw new NullPointerException();
+        CompletableFuture<Void> dst = new CompletableFuture<Void>();
+        ThenRun d = null;
+        Object r;
+        if ((r = result) == null) {
+            CompletionNode p = new CompletionNode
+                (d = new ThenRun(this, action, dst, e));
+            while ((r = result) == null) {
+                if (UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject
+                    (this, COMPLETIONS, p.next = completions, p))
+                    break;
+            }
+        }
+        if (r != null && (d == null || d.compareAndSet(0, 1))) {
+            Throwable ex;
+            if (r instanceof AltResult)
+                ex = ((AltResult)r).ex;
+            else
+                ex = null;
+            if (ex == null) {
+                try {
+                    if (e != null)
+                        e.execute(new AsyncRun(action, dst));
+                    else
+                        action.run();
+                } catch (Throwable rex) {
+                    ex = rex;
+                }
+            }
+            if (e == null || ex != null)
+                dst.internalComplete(null, ex);
+        }
+        helpPostComplete();
+        return dst;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is completed
+     * when both this and the other given CompletableFuture complete,
+     * with the result of the given function of the results of the two
+     * CompletableFutures.
+     *
+     * <p>If this and/or the other CompletableFuture complete
+     * exceptionally, or the supplied function throws an exception,
+     * then the returned CompletableFuture completes exceptionally
+     * with a CompletionException holding the exception as its cause.
+     *
+     * @param other the other CompletableFuture
+     * @param fn the function to use to compute the value of
+     * the returned CompletableFuture
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public <U,V> CompletableFuture<V> thenCombine
+        (CompletableFuture<? extends U> other,
+         BiFunction<? super T,? super U,? extends V> fn) {
+        return doThenCombine(other, fn, null);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is asynchronously completed
+     * when both this and the other given CompletableFuture complete,
+     * with the result of the given function of the results of the two
+     * CompletableFutures from a task running in the
+     * {@link ForkJoinPool#commonPool()}.
+     *
+     * <p>If this and/or the other CompletableFuture complete
+     * exceptionally, or the supplied function throws an exception,
+     * then the returned CompletableFuture completes exceptionally
+     * with a CompletionException holding the exception as its cause.
+     *
+     * @param other the other CompletableFuture
+     * @param fn the function to use to compute the value of
+     * the returned CompletableFuture
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public <U,V> CompletableFuture<V> thenCombineAsync
+        (CompletableFuture<? extends U> other,
+         BiFunction<? super T,? super U,? extends V> fn) {
+        return doThenCombine(other, fn, ForkJoinPool.commonPool());
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is asynchronously completed
+     * when both this and the other given CompletableFuture complete,
+     * with the result of the given function of the results of the two
+     * CompletableFutures from a task running in the given executor.
+     *
+     * <p>If this and/or the other CompletableFuture complete
+     * exceptionally, or the supplied function throws an exception,
+     * then the returned CompletableFuture completes exceptionally
+     * with a CompletionException holding the exception as its cause.
+     *
+     * @param other the other CompletableFuture
+     * @param fn the function to use to compute the value of
+     * the returned CompletableFuture
+     * @param executor the executor to use for asynchronous execution
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public <U,V> CompletableFuture<V> thenCombineAsync
+        (CompletableFuture<? extends U> other,
+         BiFunction<? super T,? super U,? extends V> fn,
+         Executor executor) {
+        if (executor == null) throw new NullPointerException();
+        return doThenCombine(other, fn, executor);
+    }
+
+    private <U,V> CompletableFuture<V> doThenCombine
+        (CompletableFuture<? extends U> other,
+         BiFunction<? super T,? super U,? extends V> fn,
+         Executor e) {
+        if (other == null || fn == null) throw new NullPointerException();
+        CompletableFuture<V> dst = new CompletableFuture<V>();
+        ThenCombine<T,U,V> d = null;
+        Object r, s = null;
+        if ((r = result) == null || (s = other.result) == null) {
+            d = new ThenCombine<T,U,V>(this, other, fn, dst, e);
+            CompletionNode q = null, p = new CompletionNode(d);
+            while ((r == null && (r = result) == null) ||
+                   (s == null && (s = other.result) == null)) {
+                if (q != null) {
+                    if (s != null ||
+                        UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject
+                        (other, COMPLETIONS, q.next = other.completions, q))
+                        break;
+                }
+                else if (r != null ||
+                         UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject
+                         (this, COMPLETIONS, p.next = completions, p)) {
+                    if (s != null)
+                        break;
+                    q = new CompletionNode(d);
+                }
+            }
+        }
+        if (r != null && s != null && (d == null || d.compareAndSet(0, 1))) {
+            T t; U u; Throwable ex;
+            if (r instanceof AltResult) {
+                ex = ((AltResult)r).ex;
+                t = null;
+            }
+            else {
+                ex = null;
+                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") T tr = (T) r;
+                t = tr;
+            }
+            if (ex != null)
+                u = null;
+            else if (s instanceof AltResult) {
+                ex = ((AltResult)s).ex;
+                u = null;
+            }
+            else {
+                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") U us = (U) s;
+                u = us;
+            }
+            V v = null;
+            if (ex == null) {
+                try {
+                    if (e != null)
+                        e.execute(new AsyncCombine<T,U,V>(t, u, fn, dst));
+                    else
+                        v = fn.apply(t, u);
+                } catch (Throwable rex) {
+                    ex = rex;
+                }
+            }
+            if (e == null || ex != null)
+                dst.internalComplete(v, ex);
+        }
+        helpPostComplete();
+        other.helpPostComplete();
+        return dst;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is completed
+     * when both this and the other given CompletableFuture complete,
+     * after performing the given action with the results of the two
+     * CompletableFutures.
+     *
+     * <p>If this and/or the other CompletableFuture complete
+     * exceptionally, or the supplied action throws an exception,
+     * then the returned CompletableFuture completes exceptionally
+     * with a CompletionException holding the exception as its cause.
+     *
+     * @param other the other CompletableFuture
+     * @param block the action to perform before completing the
+     * returned CompletableFuture
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public <U> CompletableFuture<Void> thenAcceptBoth
+        (CompletableFuture<? extends U> other,
+         BiConsumer<? super T, ? super U> block) {
+        return doThenAcceptBoth(other, block, null);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is asynchronously completed
+     * when both this and the other given CompletableFuture complete,
+     * after performing the given action with the results of the two
+     * CompletableFutures from a task running in the {@link
+     * ForkJoinPool#commonPool()}.
+     *
+     * <p>If this and/or the other CompletableFuture complete
+     * exceptionally, or the supplied action throws an exception,
+     * then the returned CompletableFuture completes exceptionally
+     * with a CompletionException holding the exception as its cause.
+     *
+     * @param other the other CompletableFuture
+     * @param block the action to perform before completing the
+     * returned CompletableFuture
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public <U> CompletableFuture<Void> thenAcceptBothAsync
+        (CompletableFuture<? extends U> other,
+         BiConsumer<? super T, ? super U> block) {
+        return doThenAcceptBoth(other, block, ForkJoinPool.commonPool());
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is asynchronously completed
+     * when both this and the other given CompletableFuture complete,
+     * after performing the given action with the results of the two
+     * CompletableFutures from a task running in the given executor.
+     *
+     * <p>If this and/or the other CompletableFuture complete
+     * exceptionally, or the supplied action throws an exception,
+     * then the returned CompletableFuture completes exceptionally
+     * with a CompletionException holding the exception as its cause.
+     *
+     * @param other the other CompletableFuture
+     * @param block the action to perform before completing the
+     * returned CompletableFuture
+     * @param executor the executor to use for asynchronous execution
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public <U> CompletableFuture<Void> thenAcceptBothAsync
+        (CompletableFuture<? extends U> other,
+         BiConsumer<? super T, ? super U> block,
+         Executor executor) {
+        if (executor == null) throw new NullPointerException();
+        return doThenAcceptBoth(other, block, executor);
+    }
+
+    private <U> CompletableFuture<Void> doThenAcceptBoth
+        (CompletableFuture<? extends U> other,
+         BiConsumer<? super T,? super U> fn,
+         Executor e) {
+        if (other == null || fn == null) throw new NullPointerException();
+        CompletableFuture<Void> dst = new CompletableFuture<Void>();
+        ThenAcceptBoth<T,U> d = null;
+        Object r, s = null;
+        if ((r = result) == null || (s = other.result) == null) {
+            d = new ThenAcceptBoth<T,U>(this, other, fn, dst, e);
+            CompletionNode q = null, p = new CompletionNode(d);
+            while ((r == null && (r = result) == null) ||
+                   (s == null && (s = other.result) == null)) {
+                if (q != null) {
+                    if (s != null ||
+                        UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject
+                        (other, COMPLETIONS, q.next = other.completions, q))
+                        break;
+                }
+                else if (r != null ||
+                         UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject
+                         (this, COMPLETIONS, p.next = completions, p)) {
+                    if (s != null)
+                        break;
+                    q = new CompletionNode(d);
+                }
+            }
+        }
+        if (r != null && s != null && (d == null || d.compareAndSet(0, 1))) {
+            T t; U u; Throwable ex;
+            if (r instanceof AltResult) {
+                ex = ((AltResult)r).ex;
+                t = null;
+            }
+            else {
+                ex = null;
+                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") T tr = (T) r;
+                t = tr;
+            }
+            if (ex != null)
+                u = null;
+            else if (s instanceof AltResult) {
+                ex = ((AltResult)s).ex;
+                u = null;
+            }
+            else {
+                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") U us = (U) s;
+                u = us;
+            }
+            if (ex == null) {
+                try {
+                    if (e != null)
+                        e.execute(new AsyncAcceptBoth<T,U>(t, u, fn, dst));
+                    else
+                        fn.accept(t, u);
+                } catch (Throwable rex) {
+                    ex = rex;
+                }
+            }
+            if (e == null || ex != null)
+                dst.internalComplete(null, ex);
+        }
+        helpPostComplete();
+        other.helpPostComplete();
+        return dst;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is completed
+     * when both this and the other given CompletableFuture complete,
+     * after performing the given action.
+     *
+     * <p>If this and/or the other CompletableFuture complete
+     * exceptionally, or the supplied action throws an exception,
+     * then the returned CompletableFuture completes exceptionally
+     * with a CompletionException holding the exception as its cause.
+     *
+     * @param other the other CompletableFuture
+     * @param action the action to perform before completing the
+     * returned CompletableFuture
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public CompletableFuture<Void> runAfterBoth(CompletableFuture<?> other,
+                                                Runnable action) {
+        return doRunAfterBoth(other, action, null);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is asynchronously completed
+     * when both this and the other given CompletableFuture complete,
+     * after performing the given action from a task running in the
+     * {@link ForkJoinPool#commonPool()}.
+     *
+     * <p>If this and/or the other CompletableFuture complete
+     * exceptionally, or the supplied action throws an exception,
+     * then the returned CompletableFuture completes exceptionally
+     * with a CompletionException holding the exception as its cause.
+     *
+     * @param other the other CompletableFuture
+     * @param action the action to perform before completing the
+     * returned CompletableFuture
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public CompletableFuture<Void> runAfterBothAsync(CompletableFuture<?> other,
+                                                     Runnable action) {
+        return doRunAfterBoth(other, action, ForkJoinPool.commonPool());
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is asynchronously completed
+     * when both this and the other given CompletableFuture complete,
+     * after performing the given action from a task running in the
+     * given executor.
+     *
+     * <p>If this and/or the other CompletableFuture complete
+     * exceptionally, or the supplied action throws an exception,
+     * then the returned CompletableFuture completes exceptionally
+     * with a CompletionException holding the exception as its cause.
+     *
+     * @param other the other CompletableFuture
+     * @param action the action to perform before completing the
+     * returned CompletableFuture
+     * @param executor the executor to use for asynchronous execution
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public CompletableFuture<Void> runAfterBothAsync(CompletableFuture<?> other,
+                                                     Runnable action,
+                                                     Executor executor) {
+        if (executor == null) throw new NullPointerException();
+        return doRunAfterBoth(other, action, executor);
+    }
+
+    private CompletableFuture<Void> doRunAfterBoth(CompletableFuture<?> other,
+                                                   Runnable action,
+                                                   Executor e) {
+        if (other == null || action == null) throw new NullPointerException();
+        CompletableFuture<Void> dst = new CompletableFuture<Void>();
+        RunAfterBoth d = null;
+        Object r, s = null;
+        if ((r = result) == null || (s = other.result) == null) {
+            d = new RunAfterBoth(this, other, action, dst, e);
+            CompletionNode q = null, p = new CompletionNode(d);
+            while ((r == null && (r = result) == null) ||
+                   (s == null && (s = other.result) == null)) {
+                if (q != null) {
+                    if (s != null ||
+                        UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject
+                        (other, COMPLETIONS, q.next = other.completions, q))
+                        break;
+                }
+                else if (r != null ||
+                         UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject
+                         (this, COMPLETIONS, p.next = completions, p)) {
+                    if (s != null)
+                        break;
+                    q = new CompletionNode(d);
+                }
+            }
+        }
+        if (r != null && s != null && (d == null || d.compareAndSet(0, 1))) {
+            Throwable ex;
+            if (r instanceof AltResult)
+                ex = ((AltResult)r).ex;
+            else
+                ex = null;
+            if (ex == null && (s instanceof AltResult))
+                ex = ((AltResult)s).ex;
+            if (ex == null) {
+                try {
+                    if (e != null)
+                        e.execute(new AsyncRun(action, dst));
+                    else
+                        action.run();
+                } catch (Throwable rex) {
+                    ex = rex;
+                }
+            }
+            if (e == null || ex != null)
+                dst.internalComplete(null, ex);
+        }
+        helpPostComplete();
+        other.helpPostComplete();
+        return dst;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is completed
+     * when either this or the other given CompletableFuture completes,
+     * with the result of the given function of either this or the other
+     * CompletableFuture's result.
+     *
+     * <p>If this and/or the other CompletableFuture complete
+     * exceptionally, then the returned CompletableFuture may also do so,
+     * with a CompletionException holding one of these exceptions as its
+     * cause.  No guarantees are made about which result or exception is
+     * used in the returned CompletableFuture.  If the supplied function
+     * throws an exception, then the returned CompletableFuture completes
+     * exceptionally with a CompletionException holding the exception as
+     * its cause.
+     *
+     * @param other the other CompletableFuture
+     * @param fn the function to use to compute the value of
+     * the returned CompletableFuture
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public <U> CompletableFuture<U> applyToEither
+        (CompletableFuture<? extends T> other,
+         Function<? super T, U> fn) {
+        return doApplyToEither(other, fn, null);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is asynchronously completed
+     * when either this or the other given CompletableFuture completes,
+     * with the result of the given function of either this or the other
+     * CompletableFuture's result from a task running in the
+     * {@link ForkJoinPool#commonPool()}.
+     *
+     * <p>If this and/or the other CompletableFuture complete
+     * exceptionally, then the returned CompletableFuture may also do so,
+     * with a CompletionException holding one of these exceptions as its
+     * cause.  No guarantees are made about which result or exception is
+     * used in the returned CompletableFuture.  If the supplied function
+     * throws an exception, then the returned CompletableFuture completes
+     * exceptionally with a CompletionException holding the exception as
+     * its cause.
+     *
+     * @param other the other CompletableFuture
+     * @param fn the function to use to compute the value of
+     * the returned CompletableFuture
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public <U> CompletableFuture<U> applyToEitherAsync
+        (CompletableFuture<? extends T> other,
+         Function<? super T, U> fn) {
+        return doApplyToEither(other, fn, ForkJoinPool.commonPool());
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is asynchronously completed
+     * when either this or the other given CompletableFuture completes,
+     * with the result of the given function of either this or the other
+     * CompletableFuture's result from a task running in the
+     * given executor.
+     *
+     * <p>If this and/or the other CompletableFuture complete
+     * exceptionally, then the returned CompletableFuture may also do so,
+     * with a CompletionException holding one of these exceptions as its
+     * cause.  No guarantees are made about which result or exception is
+     * used in the returned CompletableFuture.  If the supplied function
+     * throws an exception, then the returned CompletableFuture completes
+     * exceptionally with a CompletionException holding the exception as
+     * its cause.
+     *
+     * @param other the other CompletableFuture
+     * @param fn the function to use to compute the value of
+     * the returned CompletableFuture
+     * @param executor the executor to use for asynchronous execution
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public <U> CompletableFuture<U> applyToEitherAsync
+        (CompletableFuture<? extends T> other,
+         Function<? super T, U> fn,
+         Executor executor) {
+        if (executor == null) throw new NullPointerException();
+        return doApplyToEither(other, fn, executor);
+    }
+
+    private <U> CompletableFuture<U> doApplyToEither
+        (CompletableFuture<? extends T> other,
+         Function<? super T, U> fn,
+         Executor e) {
+        if (other == null || fn == null) throw new NullPointerException();
+        CompletableFuture<U> dst = new CompletableFuture<U>();
+        ApplyToEither<T,U> d = null;
+        Object r;
+        if ((r = result) == null && (r = other.result) == null) {
+            d = new ApplyToEither<T,U>(this, other, fn, dst, e);
+            CompletionNode q = null, p = new CompletionNode(d);
+            while ((r = result) == null && (r = other.result) == null) {
+                if (q != null) {
+                    if (UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject
+                        (other, COMPLETIONS, q.next = other.completions, q))
+                        break;
+                }
+                else if (UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject
+                         (this, COMPLETIONS, p.next = completions, p))
+                    q = new CompletionNode(d);
+            }
+        }
+        if (r != null && (d == null || d.compareAndSet(0, 1))) {
+            T t; Throwable ex;
+            if (r instanceof AltResult) {
+                ex = ((AltResult)r).ex;
+                t = null;
+            }
+            else {
+                ex = null;
+                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") T tr = (T) r;
+                t = tr;
+            }
+            U u = null;
+            if (ex == null) {
+                try {
+                    if (e != null)
+                        e.execute(new AsyncApply<T,U>(t, fn, dst));
+                    else
+                        u = fn.apply(t);
+                } catch (Throwable rex) {
+                    ex = rex;
+                }
+            }
+            if (e == null || ex != null)
+                dst.internalComplete(u, ex);
+        }
+        helpPostComplete();
+        other.helpPostComplete();
+        return dst;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is completed
+     * when either this or the other given CompletableFuture completes,
+     * after performing the given action with the result of either this
+     * or the other CompletableFuture's result.
+     *
+     * <p>If this and/or the other CompletableFuture complete
+     * exceptionally, then the returned CompletableFuture may also do so,
+     * with a CompletionException holding one of these exceptions as its
+     * cause.  No guarantees are made about which result or exception is
+     * used in the returned CompletableFuture.  If the supplied action
+     * throws an exception, then the returned CompletableFuture completes
+     * exceptionally with a CompletionException holding the exception as
+     * its cause.
+     *
+     * @param other the other CompletableFuture
+     * @param block the action to perform before completing the
+     * returned CompletableFuture
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public CompletableFuture<Void> acceptEither
+        (CompletableFuture<? extends T> other,
+         Consumer<? super T> block) {
+        return doAcceptEither(other, block, null);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is asynchronously completed
+     * when either this or the other given CompletableFuture completes,
+     * after performing the given action with the result of either this
+     * or the other CompletableFuture's result from a task running in
+     * the {@link ForkJoinPool#commonPool()}.
+     *
+     * <p>If this and/or the other CompletableFuture complete
+     * exceptionally, then the returned CompletableFuture may also do so,
+     * with a CompletionException holding one of these exceptions as its
+     * cause.  No guarantees are made about which result or exception is
+     * used in the returned CompletableFuture.  If the supplied action
+     * throws an exception, then the returned CompletableFuture completes
+     * exceptionally with a CompletionException holding the exception as
+     * its cause.
+     *
+     * @param other the other CompletableFuture
+     * @param block the action to perform before completing the
+     * returned CompletableFuture
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public CompletableFuture<Void> acceptEitherAsync
+        (CompletableFuture<? extends T> other,
+         Consumer<? super T> block) {
+        return doAcceptEither(other, block, ForkJoinPool.commonPool());
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is asynchronously completed
+     * when either this or the other given CompletableFuture completes,
+     * after performing the given action with the result of either this
+     * or the other CompletableFuture's result from a task running in
+     * the given executor.
+     *
+     * <p>If this and/or the other CompletableFuture complete
+     * exceptionally, then the returned CompletableFuture may also do so,
+     * with a CompletionException holding one of these exceptions as its
+     * cause.  No guarantees are made about which result or exception is
+     * used in the returned CompletableFuture.  If the supplied action
+     * throws an exception, then the returned CompletableFuture completes
+     * exceptionally with a CompletionException holding the exception as
+     * its cause.
+     *
+     * @param other the other CompletableFuture
+     * @param block the action to perform before completing the
+     * returned CompletableFuture
+     * @param executor the executor to use for asynchronous execution
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public CompletableFuture<Void> acceptEitherAsync
+        (CompletableFuture<? extends T> other,
+         Consumer<? super T> block,
+         Executor executor) {
+        if (executor == null) throw new NullPointerException();
+        return doAcceptEither(other, block, executor);
+    }
+
+    private CompletableFuture<Void> doAcceptEither
+        (CompletableFuture<? extends T> other,
+         Consumer<? super T> fn,
+         Executor e) {
+        if (other == null || fn == null) throw new NullPointerException();
+        CompletableFuture<Void> dst = new CompletableFuture<Void>();
+        AcceptEither<T> d = null;
+        Object r;
+        if ((r = result) == null && (r = other.result) == null) {
+            d = new AcceptEither<T>(this, other, fn, dst, e);
+            CompletionNode q = null, p = new CompletionNode(d);
+            while ((r = result) == null && (r = other.result) == null) {
+                if (q != null) {
+                    if (UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject
+                        (other, COMPLETIONS, q.next = other.completions, q))
+                        break;
+                }
+                else if (UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject
+                         (this, COMPLETIONS, p.next = completions, p))
+                    q = new CompletionNode(d);
+            }
+        }
+        if (r != null && (d == null || d.compareAndSet(0, 1))) {
+            T t; Throwable ex;
+            if (r instanceof AltResult) {
+                ex = ((AltResult)r).ex;
+                t = null;
+            }
+            else {
+                ex = null;
+                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") T tr = (T) r;
+                t = tr;
+            }
+            if (ex == null) {
+                try {
+                    if (e != null)
+                        e.execute(new AsyncAccept<T>(t, fn, dst));
+                    else
+                        fn.accept(t);
+                } catch (Throwable rex) {
+                    ex = rex;
+                }
+            }
+            if (e == null || ex != null)
+                dst.internalComplete(null, ex);
+        }
+        helpPostComplete();
+        other.helpPostComplete();
+        return dst;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is completed
+     * when either this or the other given CompletableFuture completes,
+     * after performing the given action.
+     *
+     * <p>If this and/or the other CompletableFuture complete
+     * exceptionally, then the returned CompletableFuture may also do so,
+     * with a CompletionException holding one of these exceptions as its
+     * cause.  No guarantees are made about which result or exception is
+     * used in the returned CompletableFuture.  If the supplied action
+     * throws an exception, then the returned CompletableFuture completes
+     * exceptionally with a CompletionException holding the exception as
+     * its cause.
+     *
+     * @param other the other CompletableFuture
+     * @param action the action to perform before completing the
+     * returned CompletableFuture
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public CompletableFuture<Void> runAfterEither(CompletableFuture<?> other,
+                                                  Runnable action) {
+        return doRunAfterEither(other, action, null);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is asynchronously completed
+     * when either this or the other given CompletableFuture completes,
+     * after performing the given action from a task running in the
+     * {@link ForkJoinPool#commonPool()}.
+     *
+     * <p>If this and/or the other CompletableFuture complete
+     * exceptionally, then the returned CompletableFuture may also do so,
+     * with a CompletionException holding one of these exceptions as its
+     * cause.  No guarantees are made about which result or exception is
+     * used in the returned CompletableFuture.  If the supplied action
+     * throws an exception, then the returned CompletableFuture completes
+     * exceptionally with a CompletionException holding the exception as
+     * its cause.
+     *
+     * @param other the other CompletableFuture
+     * @param action the action to perform before completing the
+     * returned CompletableFuture
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public CompletableFuture<Void> runAfterEitherAsync
+        (CompletableFuture<?> other,
+         Runnable action) {
+        return doRunAfterEither(other, action, ForkJoinPool.commonPool());
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is asynchronously completed
+     * when either this or the other given CompletableFuture completes,
+     * after performing the given action from a task running in the
+     * given executor.
+     *
+     * <p>If this and/or the other CompletableFuture complete
+     * exceptionally, then the returned CompletableFuture may also do so,
+     * with a CompletionException holding one of these exceptions as its
+     * cause.  No guarantees are made about which result or exception is
+     * used in the returned CompletableFuture.  If the supplied action
+     * throws an exception, then the returned CompletableFuture completes
+     * exceptionally with a CompletionException holding the exception as
+     * its cause.
+     *
+     * @param other the other CompletableFuture
+     * @param action the action to perform before completing the
+     * returned CompletableFuture
+     * @param executor the executor to use for asynchronous execution
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public CompletableFuture<Void> runAfterEitherAsync
+        (CompletableFuture<?> other,
+         Runnable action,
+         Executor executor) {
+        if (executor == null) throw new NullPointerException();
+        return doRunAfterEither(other, action, executor);
+    }
+
+    private CompletableFuture<Void> doRunAfterEither
+        (CompletableFuture<?> other,
+         Runnable action,
+         Executor e) {
+        if (other == null || action == null) throw new NullPointerException();
+        CompletableFuture<Void> dst = new CompletableFuture<Void>();
+        RunAfterEither d = null;
+        Object r;
+        if ((r = result) == null && (r = other.result) == null) {
+            d = new RunAfterEither(this, other, action, dst, e);
+            CompletionNode q = null, p = new CompletionNode(d);
+            while ((r = result) == null && (r = other.result) == null) {
+                if (q != null) {
+                    if (UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject
+                        (other, COMPLETIONS, q.next = other.completions, q))
+                        break;
+                }
+                else if (UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject
+                         (this, COMPLETIONS, p.next = completions, p))
+                    q = new CompletionNode(d);
+            }
+        }
+        if (r != null && (d == null || d.compareAndSet(0, 1))) {
+            Throwable ex;
+            if (r instanceof AltResult)
+                ex = ((AltResult)r).ex;
+            else
+                ex = null;
+            if (ex == null) {
+                try {
+                    if (e != null)
+                        e.execute(new AsyncRun(action, dst));
+                    else
+                        action.run();
+                } catch (Throwable rex) {
+                    ex = rex;
+                }
+            }
+            if (e == null || ex != null)
+                dst.internalComplete(null, ex);
+        }
+        helpPostComplete();
+        other.helpPostComplete();
+        return dst;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a CompletableFuture that upon completion, has the same
+     * value as produced by the given function of the result of this
+     * CompletableFuture.
+     *
+     * <p>If this CompletableFuture completes exceptionally, then the
+     * returned CompletableFuture also does so, with a
+     * CompletionException holding this exception as its cause.
+     * Similarly, if the computed CompletableFuture completes
+     * exceptionally, then so does the returned CompletableFuture.
+     *
+     * @param fn the function returning a new CompletableFuture
+     * @return the CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public <U> CompletableFuture<U> thenCompose
+        (Function<? super T, CompletableFuture<U>> fn) {
+        return doThenCompose(fn, null);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a CompletableFuture that upon completion, has the same
+     * value as that produced asynchronously using the {@link
+     * ForkJoinPool#commonPool()} by the given function of the result
+     * of this CompletableFuture.
+     *
+     * <p>If this CompletableFuture completes exceptionally, then the
+     * returned CompletableFuture also does so, with a
+     * CompletionException holding this exception as its cause.
+     * Similarly, if the computed CompletableFuture completes
+     * exceptionally, then so does the returned CompletableFuture.
+     *
+     * @param fn the function returning a new CompletableFuture
+     * @return the CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public <U> CompletableFuture<U> thenComposeAsync
+        (Function<? super T, CompletableFuture<U>> fn) {
+        return doThenCompose(fn, ForkJoinPool.commonPool());
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a CompletableFuture that upon completion, has the same
+     * value as that produced asynchronously using the given executor
+     * by the given function of this CompletableFuture.
+     *
+     * <p>If this CompletableFuture completes exceptionally, then the
+     * returned CompletableFuture also does so, with a
+     * CompletionException holding this exception as its cause.
+     * Similarly, if the computed CompletableFuture completes
+     * exceptionally, then so does the returned CompletableFuture.
+     *
+     * @param fn the function returning a new CompletableFuture
+     * @param executor the executor to use for asynchronous execution
+     * @return the CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public <U> CompletableFuture<U> thenComposeAsync
+        (Function<? super T, CompletableFuture<U>> fn,
+         Executor executor) {
+        if (executor == null) throw new NullPointerException();
+        return doThenCompose(fn, executor);
+    }
+
+    private <U> CompletableFuture<U> doThenCompose
+        (Function<? super T, CompletableFuture<U>> fn,
+         Executor e) {
+        if (fn == null) throw new NullPointerException();
+        CompletableFuture<U> dst = null;
+        ThenCompose<T,U> d = null;
+        Object r;
+        if ((r = result) == null) {
+            dst = new CompletableFuture<U>();
+            CompletionNode p = new CompletionNode
+                (d = new ThenCompose<T,U>(this, fn, dst, e));
+            while ((r = result) == null) {
+                if (UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject
+                    (this, COMPLETIONS, p.next = completions, p))
+                    break;
+            }
+        }
+        if (r != null && (d == null || d.compareAndSet(0, 1))) {
+            T t; Throwable ex;
+            if (r instanceof AltResult) {
+                ex = ((AltResult)r).ex;
+                t = null;
+            }
+            else {
+                ex = null;
+                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") T tr = (T) r;
+                t = tr;
+            }
+            if (ex == null) {
+                if (e != null) {
+                    if (dst == null)
+                        dst = new CompletableFuture<U>();
+                    e.execute(new AsyncCompose<T,U>(t, fn, dst));
+                }
+                else {
+                    try {
+                        if ((dst = fn.apply(t)) == null)
+                            ex = new NullPointerException();
+                    } catch (Throwable rex) {
+                        ex = rex;
+                    }
+                }
+            }
+            if (dst == null)
+                dst = new CompletableFuture<U>();
+            if (e == null || ex != null)
+                dst.internalComplete(null, ex);
+        }
+        helpPostComplete();
+        dst.helpPostComplete();
+        return dst;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is completed when this
+     * CompletableFuture completes, with the result of the given
+     * function of the exception triggering this CompletableFuture's
+     * completion when it completes exceptionally; otherwise, if this
+     * CompletableFuture completes normally, then the returned
+     * CompletableFuture also completes normally with the same value.
+     *
+     * @param fn the function to use to compute the value of the
+     * returned CompletableFuture if this CompletableFuture completed
+     * exceptionally
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public CompletableFuture<T> exceptionally
+        (Function<Throwable, ? extends T> fn) {
+        if (fn == null) throw new NullPointerException();
+        CompletableFuture<T> dst = new CompletableFuture<T>();
+        ExceptionCompletion<T> d = null;
+        Object r;
+        if ((r = result) == null) {
+            CompletionNode p =
+                new CompletionNode(d = new ExceptionCompletion<T>(this, fn, dst));
+            while ((r = result) == null) {
+                if (UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject(this, COMPLETIONS,
+                                                p.next = completions, p))
+                    break;
+            }
+        }
+        if (r != null && (d == null || d.compareAndSet(0, 1))) {
+            T t = null; Throwable ex, dx = null;
+            if (r instanceof AltResult) {
+                if ((ex = ((AltResult)r).ex) != null)  {
+                    try {
+                        t = fn.apply(ex);
+                    } catch (Throwable rex) {
+                        dx = rex;
+                    }
+                }
+            }
+            else {
+                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") T tr = (T) r;
+                t = tr;
+            }
+            dst.internalComplete(t, dx);
+        }
+        helpPostComplete();
+        return dst;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is completed when this
+     * CompletableFuture completes, with the result of the given
+     * function of the result and exception of this CompletableFuture's
+     * completion.  The given function is invoked with the result (or
+     * {@code null} if none) and the exception (or {@code null} if none)
+     * of this CompletableFuture when complete.
+     *
+     * @param fn the function to use to compute the value of the
+     * returned CompletableFuture
+     * @return the new CompletableFuture
+     */
+    public <U> CompletableFuture<U> handle
+        (BiFunction<? super T, Throwable, ? extends U> fn) {
+        if (fn == null) throw new NullPointerException();
+        CompletableFuture<U> dst = new CompletableFuture<U>();
+        HandleCompletion<T,U> d = null;
+        Object r;
+        if ((r = result) == null) {
+            CompletionNode p =
+                new CompletionNode(d = new HandleCompletion<T,U>(this, fn, dst));
+            while ((r = result) == null) {
+                if (UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject(this, COMPLETIONS,
+                                                p.next = completions, p))
+                    break;
+            }
+        }
+        if (r != null && (d == null || d.compareAndSet(0, 1))) {
+            T t; Throwable ex;
+            if (r instanceof AltResult) {
+                ex = ((AltResult)r).ex;
+                t = null;
+            }
+            else {
+                ex = null;
+                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") T tr = (T) r;
+                t = tr;
+            }
+            U u; Throwable dx;
+            try {
+                u = fn.apply(t, ex);
+                dx = null;
+            } catch (Throwable rex) {
+                dx = rex;
+                u = null;
+            }
+            dst.internalComplete(u, dx);
+        }
+        helpPostComplete();
+        return dst;
+    }
+
+
+    /* ------------- Arbitrary-arity constructions -------------- */
+
+    /*
+     * The basic plan of attack is to recursively form binary
+     * completion trees of elements. This can be overkill for small
+     * sets, but scales nicely. The And/All vs Or/Any forms use the
+     * same idea, but details differ.
+     */
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is completed when all of
+     * the given CompletableFutures complete.  If any of the given
+     * CompletableFutures complete exceptionally, then the returned
+     * CompletableFuture also does so, with a CompletionException
+     * holding this exception as its cause.  Otherwise, the results,
+     * if any, of the given CompletableFutures are not reflected in
+     * the returned CompletableFuture, but may be obtained by
+     * inspecting them individually. If no CompletableFutures are
+     * provided, returns a CompletableFuture completed with the value
+     * {@code null}.
+     *
+     * <p>Among the applications of this method is to await completion
+     * of a set of independent CompletableFutures before continuing a
+     * program, as in: {@code CompletableFuture.allOf(c1, c2,
+     * c3).join();}.
+     *
+     * @param cfs the CompletableFutures
+     * @return a new CompletableFuture that is completed when all of the
+     * given CompletableFutures complete
+     * @throws NullPointerException if the array or any of its elements are
+     * {@code null}
+     */
+    public static CompletableFuture<Void> allOf(CompletableFuture<?>... cfs) {
+        int len = cfs.length; // Directly handle empty and singleton cases
+        if (len > 1)
+            return allTree(cfs, 0, len - 1);
+        else {
+            CompletableFuture<Void> dst = new CompletableFuture<Void>();
+            CompletableFuture<?> f;
+            if (len == 0)
+                dst.result = NIL;
+            else if ((f = cfs[0]) == null)
+                throw new NullPointerException();
+            else {
+                ThenPropagate d = null;
+                CompletionNode p = null;
+                Object r;
+                while ((r = f.result) == null) {
+                    if (d == null)
+                        d = new ThenPropagate(f, dst);
+                    else if (p == null)
+                        p = new CompletionNode(d);
+                    else if (UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject
+                             (f, COMPLETIONS, p.next = f.completions, p))
+                        break;
+                }
+                if (r != null && (d == null || d.compareAndSet(0, 1)))
+                    dst.internalComplete(null, (r instanceof AltResult) ?
+                                         ((AltResult)r).ex : null);
+                f.helpPostComplete();
+            }
+            return dst;
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Recursively constructs an And'ed tree of CompletableFutures.
+     * Called only when array known to have at least two elements.
+     */
+    private static CompletableFuture<Void> allTree(CompletableFuture<?>[] cfs,
+                                                   int lo, int hi) {
+        CompletableFuture<?> fst, snd;
+        int mid = (lo + hi) >>> 1;
+        if ((fst = (lo == mid   ? cfs[lo] : allTree(cfs, lo,    mid))) == null ||
+            (snd = (hi == mid+1 ? cfs[hi] : allTree(cfs, mid+1, hi))) == null)
+            throw new NullPointerException();
+        CompletableFuture<Void> dst = new CompletableFuture<Void>();
+        AndCompletion d = null;
+        CompletionNode p = null, q = null;
+        Object r = null, s = null;
+        while ((r = fst.result) == null || (s = snd.result) == null) {
+            if (d == null)
+                d = new AndCompletion(fst, snd, dst);
+            else if (p == null)
+                p = new CompletionNode(d);
+            else if (q == null) {
+                if (UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject
+                    (fst, COMPLETIONS, p.next = fst.completions, p))
+                    q = new CompletionNode(d);
+            }
+            else if (UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject
+                     (snd, COMPLETIONS, q.next = snd.completions, q))
+                break;
+        }
+        if ((r != null || (r = fst.result) != null) &&
+            (s != null || (s = snd.result) != null) &&
+            (d == null || d.compareAndSet(0, 1))) {
+            Throwable ex;
+            if (r instanceof AltResult)
+                ex = ((AltResult)r).ex;
+            else
+                ex = null;
+            if (ex == null && (s instanceof AltResult))
+                ex = ((AltResult)s).ex;
+            dst.internalComplete(null, ex);
+        }
+        fst.helpPostComplete();
+        snd.helpPostComplete();
+        return dst;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is completed when any of
+     * the given CompletableFutures complete, with the same result.
+     * Otherwise, if it completed exceptionally, the returned
+     * CompletableFuture also does so, with a CompletionException
+     * holding this exception as its cause.  If no CompletableFutures
+     * are provided, returns an incomplete CompletableFuture.
+     *
+     * @param cfs the CompletableFutures
+     * @return a new CompletableFuture that is completed with the
+     * result or exception of any of the given CompletableFutures when
+     * one completes
+     * @throws NullPointerException if the array or any of its elements are
+     * {@code null}
+     */
+    public static CompletableFuture<Object> anyOf(CompletableFuture<?>... cfs) {
+        int len = cfs.length; // Same idea as allOf
+        if (len > 1)
+            return anyTree(cfs, 0, len - 1);
+        else {
+            CompletableFuture<Object> dst = new CompletableFuture<Object>();
+            CompletableFuture<?> f;
+            if (len == 0)
+                ; // skip
+            else if ((f = cfs[0]) == null)
+                throw new NullPointerException();
+            else {
+                ThenCopy<Object> d = null;
+                CompletionNode p = null;
+                Object r;
+                while ((r = f.result) == null) {
+                    if (d == null)
+                        d = new ThenCopy<Object>(f, dst);
+                    else if (p == null)
+                        p = new CompletionNode(d);
+                    else if (UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject
+                             (f, COMPLETIONS, p.next = f.completions, p))
+                        break;
+                }
+                if (r != null && (d == null || d.compareAndSet(0, 1))) {
+                    Throwable ex; Object t;
+                    if (r instanceof AltResult) {
+                        ex = ((AltResult)r).ex;
+                        t = null;
+                    }
+                    else {
+                        ex = null;
+                        t = r;
+                    }
+                    dst.internalComplete(t, ex);
+                }
+                f.helpPostComplete();
+            }
+            return dst;
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Recursively constructs an Or'ed tree of CompletableFutures.
+     */
+    private static CompletableFuture<Object> anyTree(CompletableFuture<?>[] cfs,
+                                                     int lo, int hi) {
+        CompletableFuture<?> fst, snd;
+        int mid = (lo + hi) >>> 1;
+        if ((fst = (lo == mid   ? cfs[lo] : anyTree(cfs, lo,    mid))) == null ||
+            (snd = (hi == mid+1 ? cfs[hi] : anyTree(cfs, mid+1, hi))) == null)
+            throw new NullPointerException();
+        CompletableFuture<Object> dst = new CompletableFuture<Object>();
+        OrCompletion d = null;
+        CompletionNode p = null, q = null;
+        Object r;
+        while ((r = fst.result) == null && (r = snd.result) == null) {
+            if (d == null)
+                d = new OrCompletion(fst, snd, dst);
+            else if (p == null)
+                p = new CompletionNode(d);
+            else if (q == null) {
+                if (UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject
+                    (fst, COMPLETIONS, p.next = fst.completions, p))
+                    q = new CompletionNode(d);
+            }
+            else if (UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject
+                     (snd, COMPLETIONS, q.next = snd.completions, q))
+                break;
+        }
+        if ((r != null || (r = fst.result) != null ||
+             (r = snd.result) != null) &&
+            (d == null || d.compareAndSet(0, 1))) {
+            Throwable ex; Object t;
+            if (r instanceof AltResult) {
+                ex = ((AltResult)r).ex;
+                t = null;
+            }
+            else {
+                ex = null;
+                t = r;
+            }
+            dst.internalComplete(t, ex);
+        }
+        fst.helpPostComplete();
+        snd.helpPostComplete();
+        return dst;
+    }
+
+    /* ------------- Control and status methods -------------- */
+
+    /**
+     * If not already completed, completes this CompletableFuture with
+     * a {@link CancellationException}. Dependent CompletableFutures
+     * that have not already completed will also complete
+     * exceptionally, with a {@link CompletionException} caused by
+     * this {@code CancellationException}.
+     *
+     * @param mayInterruptIfRunning this value has no effect in this
+     * implementation because interrupts are not used to control
+     * processing.
+     *
+     * @return {@code true} if this task is now cancelled
+     */
+    public boolean cancel(boolean mayInterruptIfRunning) {
+        boolean cancelled = (result == null) &&
+            UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject
+            (this, RESULT, null, new AltResult(new CancellationException()));
+        postComplete();
+        return cancelled || isCancelled();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns {@code true} if this CompletableFuture was cancelled
+     * before it completed normally.
+     *
+     * @return {@code true} if this CompletableFuture was cancelled
+     * before it completed normally
+     */
+    public boolean isCancelled() {
+        Object r;
+        return ((r = result) instanceof AltResult) &&
+            (((AltResult)r).ex instanceof CancellationException);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Forcibly sets or resets the value subsequently returned by
+     * method {@link #get()} and related methods, whether or not
+     * already completed. This method is designed for use only in
+     * error recovery actions, and even in such situations may result
+     * in ongoing dependent completions using established versus
+     * overwritten outcomes.
+     *
+     * @param value the completion value
+     */
+    public void obtrudeValue(T value) {
+        result = (value == null) ? NIL : value;
+        postComplete();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Forcibly causes subsequent invocations of method {@link #get()}
+     * and related methods to throw the given exception, whether or
+     * not already completed. This method is designed for use only in
+     * recovery actions, and even in such situations may result in
+     * ongoing dependent completions using established versus
+     * overwritten outcomes.
+     *
+     * @param ex the exception
+     */
+    public void obtrudeException(Throwable ex) {
+        if (ex == null) throw new NullPointerException();
+        result = new AltResult(ex);
+        postComplete();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns the estimated number of CompletableFutures whose
+     * completions are awaiting completion of this CompletableFuture.
+     * This method is designed for use in monitoring system state, not
+     * for synchronization control.
+     *
+     * @return the number of dependent CompletableFutures
+     */
+    public int getNumberOfDependents() {
+        int count = 0;
+        for (CompletionNode p = completions; p != null; p = p.next)
+            ++count;
+        return count;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a string identifying this CompletableFuture, as well as
+     * its completion state.  The state, in brackets, contains the
+     * String {@code "Completed Normally"} or the String {@code
+     * "Completed Exceptionally"}, or the String {@code "Not
+     * completed"} followed by the number of CompletableFutures
+     * dependent upon its completion, if any.
+     *
+     * @return a string identifying this CompletableFuture, as well as its state
+     */
+    public String toString() {
+        Object r = result;
+        int count;
+        return super.toString() +
+            ((r == null) ?
+             (((count = getNumberOfDependents()) == 0) ?
+              "[Not completed]" :
+              "[Not completed, " + count + " dependents]") :
+             (((r instanceof AltResult) && ((AltResult)r).ex != null) ?
+              "[Completed exceptionally]" :
+              "[Completed normally]"));
+    }
+
+    // Unsafe mechanics
+    private static final sun.misc.Unsafe UNSAFE;
+    private static final long RESULT;
+    private static final long WAITERS;
+    private static final long COMPLETIONS;
+    static {
+        try {
+            UNSAFE = sun.misc.Unsafe.getUnsafe();
+            Class<?> k = CompletableFuture.class;
+            RESULT = UNSAFE.objectFieldOffset
+                (k.getDeclaredField("result"));
+            WAITERS = UNSAFE.objectFieldOffset
+                (k.getDeclaredField("waiters"));
+            COMPLETIONS = UNSAFE.objectFieldOffset
+                (k.getDeclaredField("completions"));
+        } catch (Exception e) {
+            throw new Error(e);
+        }
+    }
+}
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/jdk/src/share/classes/java/util/concurrent/CompletionException.java	Tue Apr 09 17:27:47 2013 +0100
@@ -0,0 +1,90 @@
+/*
+ * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+ *
+ * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+ * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
+ * particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
+ * by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
+ *
+ * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+ * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+ * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
+ * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+ * accompanied this code).
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+ * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+ * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+ *
+ * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
+ * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
+ * questions.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * This file is available under and governed by the GNU General Public
+ * License version 2 only, as published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ * However, the following notice accompanied the original version of this
+ * file:
+ *
+ * Written by Doug Lea with assistance from members of JCP JSR-166
+ * Expert Group and released to the public domain, as explained at
+ * http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/
+ */
+
+package java.util.concurrent;
+
+/**
+ * Exception thrown when an error or other exception is encountered
+ * in the course of completing a result or task.
+ *
+ * @since 1.8
+ * @author Doug Lea
+ */
+public class CompletionException extends RuntimeException {
+    private static final long serialVersionUID = 7830266012832686185L;
+
+    /**
+     * Constructs a {@code CompletionException} with no detail message.
+     * The cause is not initialized, and may subsequently be
+     * initialized by a call to {@link #initCause(Throwable) initCause}.
+     */
+    protected CompletionException() { }
+
+    /**
+     * Constructs a {@code CompletionException} with the specified detail
+     * message. The cause is not initialized, and may subsequently be
+     * initialized by a call to {@link #initCause(Throwable) initCause}.
+     *
+     * @param message the detail message
+     */
+    protected CompletionException(String message) {
+        super(message);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Constructs a {@code CompletionException} with the specified detail
+     * message and cause.
+     *
+     * @param  message the detail message
+     * @param  cause the cause (which is saved for later retrieval by the
+     *         {@link #getCause()} method)
+     */
+    public CompletionException(String message, Throwable cause) {
+        super(message, cause);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Constructs a {@code CompletionException} with the specified cause.
+     * The detail message is set to {@code (cause == null ? null :
+     * cause.toString())} (which typically contains the class and
+     * detail message of {@code cause}).
+     *
+     * @param  cause the cause (which is saved for later retrieval by the
+     *         {@link #getCause()} method)
+     */
+    public CompletionException(Throwable cause) {
+        super(cause);
+    }
+}
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/jdk/test/java/util/concurrent/CompletableFuture/Basic.java	Tue Apr 09 17:27:47 2013 +0100
@@ -0,0 +1,761 @@
+/*
+ * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+ *
+ * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+ * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ *
+ * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+ * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+ * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
+ * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+ * accompanied this code).
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+ * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+ * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+ *
+ * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
+ * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
+ * questions.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * This file is available under and governed by the GNU General Public
+ * License version 2 only, as published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ * However, the following notice accompanied the original version of this
+ * file:
+ *
+ * Written by Doug Lea with assistance from members of JCP JSR-166
+ * Expert Group and released to the public domain, as explained at
+ * http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/
+ */
+
+/*
+ * @test
+ * @bug 8005696
+ * @summary Basic tests for CompletableFuture
+ * @author Chris Hegarty
+ */
+
+import java.lang.reflect.Array;
+import java.util.concurrent.Phaser;
+import static java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit.*;
+import java.util.concurrent.CompletableFuture;
+import static java.util.concurrent.CompletableFuture.*;
+import java.util.concurrent.CompletionException;
+import java.util.concurrent.CancellationException;
+import java.util.concurrent.ExecutionException;
+import java.util.concurrent.ExecutorService;
+import java.util.concurrent.Executors;
+import static java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool.*;
+import java.util.concurrent.atomic.AtomicInteger;
+
+
+public class Basic {
+
+    static void checkCompletedNormally(CompletableFuture<?> cf, Object value) {
+        checkCompletedNormally(cf, value == null ? null : new Object[] { value });
+    }
+
+    static void checkCompletedNormally(CompletableFuture<?> cf, Object[] values) {
+        try { equalAnyOf(cf.join(), values); } catch (Throwable x) { unexpected(x); }
+        try { equalAnyOf(cf.getNow(null), values); } catch (Throwable x) { unexpected(x); }
+        try { equalAnyOf(cf.get(), values); } catch (Throwable x) { unexpected(x); }
+        try { equalAnyOf(cf.get(0L, SECONDS), values); } catch (Throwable x) { unexpected(x); }
+        check(cf.isDone(), "Expected isDone to be true, got:" + cf);
+        check(!cf.isCancelled(), "Expected isCancelled to be false");
+        check(!cf.cancel(true), "Expected cancel to return false");
+        check(cf.toString().contains("[Completed normally]"));
+        check(cf.complete(null) == false, "Expected complete() to fail");
+        check(cf.completeExceptionally(new Throwable()) == false,
+              "Expected completeExceptionally() to fail");
+    }
+
+    static <T> void checkCompletedExceptionally(CompletableFuture<T> cf)
+        throws Exception
+    {
+        checkCompletedExceptionally(cf, false);
+    }
+
+    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
+    static <T> void checkCompletedExceptionally(CompletableFuture<T> cf, boolean cancelled)
+        throws Exception
+    {
+        try { cf.join(); fail("Excepted exception to be thrown"); }
+        catch (CompletionException x) { if (cancelled) fail(); else pass(); }
+        catch (CancellationException x) { if (cancelled) pass(); else fail(); }
+        try { cf.getNow(null); fail("Excepted exception to be thrown"); }
+        catch (CompletionException x) { if (cancelled) fail(); else pass(); }
+        catch (CancellationException x) { if (cancelled) pass(); else fail(); }
+        try { cf.get(); fail("Excepted exception to be thrown");}
+        catch (CancellationException x) { if (cancelled) pass(); else fail(); }
+        catch (ExecutionException x) { if (cancelled) check(x.getCause() instanceof CancellationException); else pass(); }
+        try { cf.get(0L, SECONDS); fail("Excepted exception to be thrown");}
+        catch (CancellationException x) { if (cancelled) pass(); else fail(); }
+        catch (ExecutionException x) { if (cancelled) check(x.getCause() instanceof CancellationException); else pass(); }
+        check(cf.isDone(), "Expected isDone to be true, got:" + cf);
+        check(cf.isCancelled() == cancelled, "Expected isCancelled: " + cancelled + ", got:"  + cf.isCancelled());
+        check(cf.cancel(true) == cancelled, "Expected cancel: " + cancelled + ", got:"  + cf.cancel(true));
+        check(cf.toString().contains("[Completed exceptionally]"));  // ## TODO: 'E'xceptionally
+        check(cf.complete((T)new Object()) == false, "Expected complete() to fail");
+        check(cf.completeExceptionally(new Throwable()) == false,
+              "Expected completeExceptionally() to fail, already completed");
+    }
+
+    private static void realMain(String[] args) throws Throwable {
+        ExecutorService executor = Executors.newFixedThreadPool(2);
+        try {
+            test(executor);
+        } finally {
+            executor.shutdown();
+            executor.awaitTermination(30, SECONDS);
+        }
+    }
+
+    static AtomicInteger atomicInt = new AtomicInteger(0);
+
+    private static void test(ExecutorService executor) throws Throwable {
+
+        Thread.currentThread().setName("mainThread");
+
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        // supplyAsync tests
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        try {
+            CompletableFuture<String> cf = supplyAsync(() -> "a test string");
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf, cf.join());
+            cf = supplyAsync(() -> "a test string", commonPool());
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf, cf.join());
+            cf = supplyAsync(() -> "a test string", executor);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf, cf.join());
+            cf = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf);
+            cf = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); }, commonPool());
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf);
+            cf = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); }, executor);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf);
+        } catch (Throwable t) { unexpected(t); }
+
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        // runAsync tests
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        try {
+            CompletableFuture<Void> cf = runAsync(() -> { });
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf, cf.join());
+            cf = runAsync(() -> { }, commonPool());
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf, cf.join());
+            cf = runAsync(() -> { }, executor);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf, cf.join());
+            cf = runAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf);
+            cf = runAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); }, commonPool());
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf);
+            cf = runAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); }, executor);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf);
+        } catch (Throwable t) { unexpected(t); }
+
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        // explicit completion
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        try {
+            final Phaser phaser = new Phaser(1);
+            final int phase = phaser.getPhase();
+            CompletableFuture<Integer> cf;
+            cf = supplyAsync(() -> { phaser.awaitAdvance(phase); return 1; });
+            cf.complete(2);
+            phaser.arrive();
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf, 2);
+
+            cf = supplyAsync(() -> { phaser.awaitAdvance(phase+1); return 1; });
+            cf.completeExceptionally(new Throwable());
+            phaser.arrive();
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf);
+
+            cf = supplyAsync(() -> { phaser.awaitAdvance(phase+2); return 1; });
+            cf.cancel(true);
+            phaser.arrive();
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf, true);
+
+            cf = supplyAsync(() -> { phaser.awaitAdvance(phase+3); return 1; });
+            check(cf.getNow(2) == 2);
+            phaser.arrive();
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf, 1);
+            check(cf.getNow(2) == 1);
+        } catch (Throwable t) { unexpected(t); }
+
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        // thenApplyXXX tests
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        try {
+            CompletableFuture<Integer> cf2;
+            CompletableFuture<String> cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> "a test string");
+            cf2 = cf1.thenApply((x) -> { if (x.equals("a test string")) return 1; else return 0; });
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf1, "a test string");
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf2, 1);
+
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> "a test string");
+            cf2 = cf1.thenApplyAsync((x) -> { if (x.equals("a test string")) return 1; else return 0; });
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf1, "a test string");
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf2, 1);
+
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> "a test string");
+            cf2 = cf1.thenApplyAsync((x) -> { if (x.equals("a test string")) return 1; else return 0; }, executor);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf1, "a test string");
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf2, 1);
+
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf2 = cf1.thenApply((x) -> { return 0; } );
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf1);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf2);
+
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf2 = cf1.thenApplyAsync((x) -> { return 0; } );
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf1);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf2);
+
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf2 = cf1.thenApplyAsync((x) -> { return 0; }, executor);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf1);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf2);
+        } catch (Throwable t) { unexpected(t); }
+
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        // thenAcceptXXX tests
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        try {
+            CompletableFuture<Void> cf2;
+            int before = atomicInt.get();
+            CompletableFuture<String> cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> "a test string");
+            cf2 = cf1.thenAccept((x) -> { if (x.equals("a test string")) { atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); return; } throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf1, "a test string");
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf2, null);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == (before + 1));
+
+            before = atomicInt.get();
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> "a test string");
+            cf2 = cf1.thenAcceptAsync((x) -> { if (x.equals("a test string")) { atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); return; } throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf1, "a test string");
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf2, null);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == (before + 1));
+
+            before = atomicInt.get();
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> "a test string");
+            cf2 = cf1.thenAcceptAsync((x) -> { if (x.equals("a test string")) { atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); return; } throw new RuntimeException(); }, executor);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf1, "a test string");
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf2, null);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == (before + 1));
+
+            before = atomicInt.get();
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf2 = cf1.thenAccept((x) -> { atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); } );
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf1);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf2);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == before);
+
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf2 = cf1.thenAcceptAsync((x) -> { atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); } );
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf1);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf2);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == before);
+
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf2 = cf1.thenAcceptAsync((x) -> { atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); }, executor );
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf1);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf2);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == before);
+        } catch (Throwable t) { unexpected(t); }
+
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        // thenRunXXX tests
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        try {
+            CompletableFuture<Void> cf2;
+            int before = atomicInt.get();
+            CompletableFuture<String> cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> "a test string");
+            cf2 = cf1.thenRun(() -> { atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); });
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf1, "a test string");
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf2, null);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == (before + 1));
+
+            before = atomicInt.get();
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> "a test string");
+            cf2 = cf1.thenRunAsync(() -> { atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); });
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf1, "a test string");
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf2, null);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == (before + 1));
+
+            before = atomicInt.get();
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> "a test string");
+            cf2 = cf1.thenRunAsync(() -> { atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); }, executor);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf1, "a test string");
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf2, null);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == (before + 1));
+
+            before = atomicInt.get();
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf2 = cf1.thenRun(() -> { atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); });
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf1);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf2);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == before);
+
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf2 = cf1.thenRunAsync(() -> { atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); });
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf1);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf2);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == before);
+
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf2 = cf1.thenRunAsync(() -> { atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); }, executor);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf1);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf2);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == before);
+        } catch (Throwable t) { unexpected(t); }
+
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        // thenCombineXXX tests
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        try {
+            CompletableFuture<Integer> cf3;
+            CompletableFuture<Integer> cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            CompletableFuture<Integer> cf2 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            cf3 = cf1.thenCombine(cf2, (x, y) -> { return x + y; });
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf1, 1);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf2, 1);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf3, 2);
+
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            cf2 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            cf3 = cf1.thenCombineAsync(cf2, (x, y) -> { return x + y; });
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf1, 1);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf2, 1);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf3, 2);
+
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            cf2 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            cf3 = cf1.thenCombineAsync(cf2, (x, y) -> { return x + y; }, executor);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf1, 1);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf2, 1);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf3, 2);
+
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf2 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            cf3 = cf1.thenCombine(cf2, (x, y) -> { return 0; });
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf1);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf2, 1);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf3);
+
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            cf2 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf3 = cf1.thenCombineAsync(cf2, (x, y) -> { return 0; });
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf1, 1);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf2);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf3);
+
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf2 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf3 = cf1.thenCombineAsync(cf2, (x, y) -> { return 0; }, executor);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf1);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf2);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf3);
+        } catch (Throwable t) { unexpected(t); }
+
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        // thenAcceptBothXXX tests
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        try {
+            CompletableFuture<Void> cf3;
+            int before = atomicInt.get();
+            CompletableFuture<Integer> cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            CompletableFuture<Integer> cf2 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            cf3 = cf1.thenAcceptBoth(cf2, (x, y) -> { check(x + y == 2); atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); });
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf1, 1);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf2, 1);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf3, null);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == (before + 1));
+
+            before = atomicInt.get();
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            cf2 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            cf3 = cf1.thenAcceptBothAsync(cf2, (x, y) -> { check(x + y == 2); atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); });
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf1, 1);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf2, 1);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf3, null);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == (before + 1));
+
+            before = atomicInt.get();
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            cf2 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            cf3 = cf1.thenAcceptBothAsync(cf2, (x, y) -> { check(x + y == 2); atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); }, executor);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf1, 1);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf2, 1);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf3, null);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == (before + 1));
+
+            before = atomicInt.get();
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf2 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            cf3 = cf1.thenAcceptBoth(cf2, (x, y) -> { atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); });
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf1);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf2, 1);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf3);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == before);
+
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            cf2 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf3 = cf1.thenAcceptBothAsync(cf2, (x, y) -> { atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); });
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf1, 1);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf2);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf3);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == before);
+
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf2 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf3 = cf1.thenAcceptBothAsync(cf2, (x, y) -> { atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); }, executor);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf1);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf2);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf3);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == before);
+        } catch (Throwable t) { unexpected(t); }
+
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        // runAfterBothXXX tests
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        try {
+            CompletableFuture<Void> cf3;
+            int before = atomicInt.get();
+            CompletableFuture<Integer> cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            CompletableFuture<Integer> cf2 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            cf3 = cf1.runAfterBoth(cf2, () -> { check(cf1.isDone()); check(cf2.isDone()); atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); });
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf1, 1);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf2, 1);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf3, null);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == (before + 1));
+
+            before = atomicInt.get();
+            CompletableFuture<Integer> cfa = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            CompletableFuture<Integer> cfb = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            cf3 = cfa.runAfterBothAsync(cfb, () -> { check(cfa.isDone()); check(cfb.isDone()); atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); });
+            checkCompletedNormally(cfa, 1);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cfb, 1);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf3, null);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == (before + 1));
+
+            before = atomicInt.get();
+            CompletableFuture<Integer> cfx = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            CompletableFuture<Integer> cfy = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            cf3 = cfy.runAfterBothAsync(cfx, () -> { check(cfx.isDone()); check(cfy.isDone()); atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); }, executor);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cfx, 1);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cfy, 1);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf3, null);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == (before + 1));
+
+            before = atomicInt.get();
+            CompletableFuture<Integer> cf4 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            CompletableFuture<Integer> cf5 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            cf3 = cf5.runAfterBothAsync(cf4, () -> { atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); }, executor);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf4);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf5, 1);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf3);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == before);
+
+            before = atomicInt.get();
+            cf4 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            cf5 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf3 = cf5.runAfterBothAsync(cf4, () -> { atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); });
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf4, 1);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf5);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf3);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == before);
+
+            before = atomicInt.get();
+            cf4 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf5 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf3 = cf5.runAfterBoth(cf4, () -> { atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); });
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf4);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf5);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf3);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == before);
+        } catch (Throwable t) { unexpected(t); }
+
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        // applyToEitherXXX tests
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        try {
+            CompletableFuture<Integer> cf3;
+            CompletableFuture<Integer> cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            CompletableFuture<Integer> cf2 = supplyAsync(() -> 2);
+            cf3 = cf1.applyToEither(cf2, (x) -> { check(x == 1 || x == 2); return x; });
+            check(cf1.isDone() || cf2.isDone());
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf3, new Object[] {1, 2});
+
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            cf2 = supplyAsync(() -> 2);
+            cf3 = cf1.applyToEitherAsync(cf2, (x) -> { check(x == 1 || x == 2); return x; });
+            check(cf1.isDone() || cf2.isDone());
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf3, new Object[] {1, 2});
+
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            cf2 = supplyAsync(() -> 2);
+            cf3 = cf1.applyToEitherAsync(cf2, (x) -> { check(x == 1 || x == 2); return x; }, executor);
+            check(cf1.isDone() || cf2.isDone());
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf3, new Object[] {1, 2});
+
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf2 = supplyAsync(() -> 2);
+            cf3 = cf1.applyToEither(cf2, (x) -> { check(x == 2); return x; });
+            check(cf1.isDone() || cf2.isDone());
+            try { check(cf3.join() == 1); } catch (CompletionException x) { pass(); }
+            check(cf3.isDone());
+
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            cf2 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf3 = cf1.applyToEitherAsync(cf2, (x) -> { check(x == 1); return x; });
+            check(cf1.isDone() || cf2.isDone());
+            try { check(cf3.join() == 1); } catch (CompletionException x) { pass(); }
+            check(cf3.isDone());
+
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf2 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf3 = cf1.applyToEitherAsync(cf2, (x) -> { fail(); return x; });
+            check(cf1.isDone() || cf2.isDone());
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf3);
+        } catch (Throwable t) { unexpected(t); }
+
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        // acceptEitherXXX tests
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        try {
+            CompletableFuture<Void> cf3;
+            int before = atomicInt.get();
+            CompletableFuture<Integer> cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            CompletableFuture<Integer> cf2 = supplyAsync(() -> 2);
+            cf3 = cf1.acceptEither(cf2, (x) -> { check(x == 1 || x == 2); atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); });
+            check(cf1.isDone() || cf2.isDone());
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf3, null);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == (before + 1));
+
+            before = atomicInt.get();
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            cf2 = supplyAsync(() -> 2);
+            cf3 = cf1.acceptEitherAsync(cf2, (x) -> { check(x == 1 || x == 2); atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); });
+            check(cf1.isDone() || cf2.isDone());
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf3, null);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == (before + 1));
+
+            before = atomicInt.get();
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            cf2 = supplyAsync(() -> 2);
+            cf3 = cf2.acceptEitherAsync(cf1, (x) -> { check(x == 1 || x == 2); atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); }, executor);
+            check(cf1.isDone() || cf2.isDone());
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf3, null);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == (before + 1));
+
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf2 = supplyAsync(() -> 2);
+            cf3 = cf2.acceptEitherAsync(cf1, (x) -> { check(x == 2); }, executor);
+            check(cf1.isDone() || cf2.isDone());
+            try { check(cf3.join() == null); } catch (CompletionException x) { pass(); }
+            check(cf3.isDone());
+
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            cf2 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf3 = cf2.acceptEitherAsync(cf1, (x) -> { check(x == 1); });
+            check(cf1.isDone() || cf2.isDone());
+            try { check(cf3.join() == null); } catch (CompletionException x) { pass(); }
+            check(cf3.isDone());
+
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf2 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf3 = cf2.acceptEitherAsync(cf1, (x) -> { fail(); });
+            check(cf1.isDone() || cf2.isDone());
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf3);
+        } catch (Throwable t) { unexpected(t); }
+
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        // runAfterEitherXXX tests
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        try {
+            CompletableFuture<Void> cf3;
+            int before = atomicInt.get();
+            CompletableFuture<Void> cf1 = runAsync(() -> { });
+            CompletableFuture<Void> cf2 = runAsync(() -> { });
+            cf3 = cf1.runAfterEither(cf2, () -> { atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); });
+            check(cf1.isDone() || cf2.isDone());
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf3, null);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == (before + 1));
+
+            before = atomicInt.get();
+            cf1 = runAsync(() -> { });
+            cf2 = runAsync(() -> { });
+            cf3 = cf1.runAfterEitherAsync(cf2, () -> { atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); });
+            check(cf1.isDone() || cf2.isDone());
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf3, null);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == (before + 1));
+
+            before = atomicInt.get();
+            cf1 = runAsync(() -> { });
+            cf2 = runAsync(() -> { });
+            cf3 = cf2.runAfterEitherAsync(cf1, () -> { atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); }, executor);
+            check(cf1.isDone() || cf2.isDone());
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf3, null);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == (before + 1));
+
+            before = atomicInt.get();
+            cf1 = runAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf2 = runAsync(() -> { });
+            cf3 = cf2.runAfterEither(cf1, () -> { atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); });
+            check(cf1.isDone() || cf2.isDone());
+            try { check(cf3.join() == null); } catch (CompletionException x) { pass(); }
+            check(cf3.isDone());
+            check(atomicInt.get() == (before + 1));
+
+            before = atomicInt.get();
+            cf1 = runAsync(() -> { });
+            cf2 = runAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf3 = cf1.runAfterEitherAsync(cf2, () -> { atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); });
+            check(cf1.isDone() || cf2.isDone());
+            try { check(cf3.join() == null); } catch (CompletionException x) { pass(); }
+            check(cf3.isDone());
+            check(atomicInt.get() == (before + 1));
+
+            before = atomicInt.get();
+            cf1 = runAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf2 = runAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf3 = cf2.runAfterEitherAsync(cf1, () -> { atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); }, executor);
+            check(cf1.isDone() || cf2.isDone());
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf3);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == before);
+        } catch (Throwable t) { unexpected(t); }
+
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        // thenComposeXXX tests
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        try {
+            CompletableFuture<Integer> cf2;
+            CompletableFuture<Integer> cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            cf2 = cf1.thenCompose((x) -> { check(x ==1); return CompletableFuture.completedFuture(2); });
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf1, 1);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf2, 2);
+
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            cf2 = cf1.thenComposeAsync((x) -> { check(x ==1); return CompletableFuture.completedFuture(2); });
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf1, 1);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf2, 2);
+
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            cf2 = cf1.thenComposeAsync((x) -> { check(x ==1); return CompletableFuture.completedFuture(2); }, executor);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf1, 1);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf2, 2);
+
+            int before = atomicInt.get();
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf2 = cf1.thenCompose((x) -> { atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); return CompletableFuture.completedFuture(2); });
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf1);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf2);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == before);
+
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw new RuntimeException(); });
+            cf2 = cf1.thenComposeAsync((x) -> { atomicInt.incrementAndGet(); return CompletableFuture.completedFuture(2); });
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf1);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf2);
+            check(atomicInt.get() == before);
+
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            cf2 = cf1.thenComposeAsync((x) -> { throw new RuntimeException(); }, executor);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf1, 1);
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf2);
+        } catch (Throwable t) { unexpected(t); }
+
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        // anyOf tests
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        //try {
+        //    CompletableFuture<Object> cf3;
+        //    for (int k=0; k < 10; k++){
+        //        CompletableFuture<Integer> cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+        //        CompletableFuture<Integer> cf2 = supplyAsync(() -> 2);
+        //        cf3 = CompletableFuture.anyOf(cf1, cf2);
+        //        check(cf1.isDone() || cf2.isDone());
+        //        checkCompletedNormally(cf3, new Object[] {1, 2});
+        //    }
+        //} catch (Throwable t) { unexpected(t); }
+
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        // allOf tests
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        try {
+            CompletableFuture<?> cf3;
+            for (int k=0; k < 10; k++){
+                CompletableFuture<Integer>[] cfs = (CompletableFuture<Integer>[])
+                        Array.newInstance(CompletableFuture.class, 10);
+                for (int j=0; j < 10; j++) {
+                    final int v = j;
+                    cfs[j] = supplyAsync(() -> v);
+                }
+                cf3 = CompletableFuture.allOf(cfs);
+                for (int j=0; j < 10; j++)
+                    checkCompletedNormally(cfs[j], j);
+                checkCompletedNormally(cf3, null);
+            }
+        } catch (Throwable t) { unexpected(t); }
+
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        // exceptionally tests
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        try {
+            CompletableFuture<Integer> cf2;
+            CompletableFuture<Integer> cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            cf2 = cf1.exceptionally((t) -> { fail("function should never be called"); return 2;});
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf1, 1);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf2, 1);
+
+            final RuntimeException t = new RuntimeException();
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw t; });
+            cf2 = cf1.exceptionally((x) -> { check(x.getCause() == t); return 2;});
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf1);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf2, 2);
+        } catch (Throwable t) { unexpected(t); }
+
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        // handle tests
+        //----------------------------------------------------------------
+        try {
+            CompletableFuture<Integer> cf2;
+            CompletableFuture<Integer> cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> 1);
+            cf2 = cf1.handle((x,t) -> x+1);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf1, 1);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf2, 2);
+
+            final RuntimeException ex = new RuntimeException();
+            cf1 = supplyAsync(() -> { throw ex; });
+            cf2 = cf1.handle((x,t) -> { check(t.getCause() == ex); return 2;});
+            checkCompletedExceptionally(cf1);
+            checkCompletedNormally(cf2, 2);
+        } catch (Throwable t) { unexpected(t); }
+
+    }
+
+    //--------------------- Infrastructure ---------------------------
+    static volatile int passed = 0, failed = 0;
+    static void pass() {passed++;}
+    static void fail() {failed++; Thread.dumpStack();}
+    static void fail(String msg) {System.out.println(msg); fail();}
+    static void unexpected(Throwable t) {failed++; t.printStackTrace();}
+    static void check(boolean cond) {if (cond) pass(); else fail();}
+    static void check(boolean cond, String msg) {if (cond) pass(); else fail(msg);}
+    static void equal(Object x, Object y) {
+        if (x == null ? y == null : x.equals(y)) pass();
+        else fail(x + " not equal to " + y);}
+    static void equalAnyOf(Object x, Object[] y) {
+        if (x == null && y == null) { pass(); return; }
+        for (Object z : y) { if (x.equals(z)) { pass(); return; } }
+        StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
+        for (Object o : y)
+            sb.append(o).append(" ");
+        fail(x + " not equal to one of [" + sb + "]");}
+    public static void main(String[] args) throws Throwable {
+        try {realMain(args);} catch (Throwable t) {unexpected(t);}
+        System.out.printf("%nPassed = %d, failed = %d%n%n", passed, failed);
+        if (failed > 0) throw new AssertionError("Some tests failed");}
+}