changeset 51237:ea900a7dc7d7 jdk-11+24

8208096: Update build documentation to reflect compiler upgrades at Oracle Reviewed-by: tbell
author erikj
date Wed, 25 Jul 2018 08:36:46 -0700
parents a90d8198d7e4
children 628718bf8970
files doc/building.html doc/building.md
diffstat 2 files changed, 63 insertions(+), 71 deletions(-) [+]
line wrap: on
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--- a/doc/building.html	Wed Jul 25 10:08:39 2018 +0100
+++ b/doc/building.html	Wed Jul 25 08:36:46 2018 -0700
@@ -1,16 +1,11 @@
 <!DOCTYPE html>
-<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" lang="" xml:lang="">
+<html>
 <head>
-  <meta charset="utf-8" />
-  <meta name="generator" content="pandoc" />
-  <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0, user-scalable=yes" />
+  <meta charset="utf-8">
+  <meta name="generator" content="pandoc">
+  <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0, user-scalable=yes">
   <title>Building the JDK</title>
-  <style type="text/css">
-      code{white-space: pre-wrap;}
-      span.smallcaps{font-variant: small-caps;}
-      span.underline{text-decoration: underline;}
-      div.column{display: inline-block; vertical-align: top; width: 50%;}
-  </style>
+  <style type="text/css">code{white-space: pre;}</style>
   <link rel="stylesheet" href="../make/data/docs-resources/resources/jdk-default.css">
   <!--[if lt IE 9]>
     <script src="//cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/html5shiv/3.7.3/html5shiv-printshiv.min.js"></script>
@@ -134,8 +129,8 @@
 <p>The JDK is a complex software project. Building it requires a certain amount of technical expertise, a fair number of dependencies on external software, and reasonably powerful hardware.</p>
 <p>If you just want to use the JDK and not build it yourself, this document is not for you. See for instance <a href="http://openjdk.java.net/install">OpenJDK installation</a> for some methods of installing a prebuilt JDK.</p>
 <h2 id="getting-the-source-code">Getting the Source Code</h2>
-<p>Make sure you are getting the correct version. As of JDK 10, the source is no longer split into separate repositories so you only need to clone one single repository. At the <a href="http://hg.openjdk.java.net/">OpenJDK Mercurial server</a> you can see a list of all available forests. If you want to build an older version, e.g. JDK 8, it is recommended that you get the <code>jdk8u</code> forest, which contains incremental updates, instead of the <code>jdk8</code> forest, which was frozen at JDK 8 GA.</p>
-<p>If you are new to Mercurial, a good place to start is the <a href="http://www.mercurial-scm.org/guide">Mercurial Beginner’s Guide</a>. The rest of this document assumes a working knowledge of Mercurial.</p>
+<p>Make sure you are getting the correct version. As of JDK 10, the source is no longer split into separate repositories so you only need to clone one single repository. At the <a href="http://hg.openjdk.java.net/">OpenJDK Mercurial server</a> you can see a list of all available forests. If you want to build an older version, e.g. JDK 8, it is recommended that you get the <code>jdk8u</code> forest, which contains incremental updates, instead of the <code>jdk8</code> forest, which was frozen at JDK 8 GA.</p>
+<p>If you are new to Mercurial, a good place to start is the <a href="http://www.mercurial-scm.org/guide">Mercurial Beginner's Guide</a>. The rest of this document assumes a working knowledge of Mercurial.</p>
 <h3 id="special-considerations">Special Considerations</h3>
 <p>For a smooth building experience, it is recommended that you follow these rules on where and how to check out the source code.</p>
 <ul>
@@ -144,7 +139,7 @@
 <li><p>Put the source code on a local disk, not a network share. If possible, use an SSD. The build process is very disk intensive, and having slow disk access will significantly increase build times. If you need to use a network share for the source code, see below for suggestions on how to keep the build artifacts on a local disk.</p></li>
 <li><p>On Windows, extra care must be taken to make sure the <a href="#cygwin">Cygwin</a> environment is consistent. It is recommended that you follow this procedure:</p>
 <ul>
-<li><p>Create the directory that is going to contain the top directory of the JDK clone by using the <code>mkdir</code> command in the Cygwin bash shell. That is, do <em>not</em> create it using Windows Explorer. This will ensure that it will have proper Cygwin attributes, and that it’s children will inherit those attributes.</p></li>
+<li><p>Create the directory that is going to contain the top directory of the JDK clone by using the <code>mkdir</code> command in the Cygwin bash shell. That is, do <em>not</em> create it using Windows Explorer. This will ensure that it will have proper Cygwin attributes, and that it's children will inherit those attributes.</p></li>
 <li><p>Do not put the JDK clone in a path under your Cygwin home directory. This is especially important if your user name contains spaces and/or mixed upper and lower case letters.</p></li>
 <li><p>Clone the JDK repository using the Cygwin command line <code>hg</code> client as instructed in this document. That is, do <em>not</em> use another Mercurial client such as TortoiseHg.</p></li>
 </ul>
@@ -161,7 +156,7 @@
 <h3 id="building-on-armaarch64">Building on arm/aarch64</h3>
 <p>This is not recommended. Instead, see the section on <a href="#cross-compiling">Cross-compiling</a>.</p>
 <h2 id="operating-system-requirements">Operating System Requirements</h2>
-<p>The mainline JDK project supports Linux, Solaris, macOS, AIX and Windows. Support for other operating system, e.g. BSD, exists in separate “port” projects.</p>
+<p>The mainline JDK project supports Linux, Solaris, macOS, AIX and Windows. Support for other operating system, e.g. BSD, exists in separate &quot;port&quot; projects.</p>
 <p>In general, the JDK can be built on a wide range of versions of these operating systems, but the further you deviate from what is tested on a daily basis, the more likely you are to run into problems.</p>
 <p>This table lists the OS versions used by Oracle when building the JDK. Such information is always subject to change, but this table is up to date at the time of writing.</p>
 <table>
@@ -196,7 +191,7 @@
 <p>Windows XP is not a supported platform, but all newer Windows should be able to build the JDK.</p>
 <p>On Windows, it is important that you pay attention to the instructions in the <a href="#special-considerations">Special Considerations</a>.</p>
 <p>Windows is the only non-POSIX OS supported by the JDK, and as such, requires some extra care. A POSIX support layer is required to build on Windows. Currently, the only supported such layer is Cygwin. (Msys is no longer supported due to a too old bash; msys2 and the new Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL) would likely be possible to support in a future version but that would require effort to implement.)</p>
-<p>Internally in the build system, all paths are represented as Unix-style paths, e.g. <code>/cygdrive/c/hg/jdk9/Makefile</code> rather than <code>C:\hg\jdk9\Makefile</code>. This rule also applies to input to the build system, e.g. in arguments to <code>configure</code>. So, use <code>--with-msvcr-dll=/cygdrive/c/msvcr100.dll</code> rather than <code>--with-msvcr-dll=c:\msvcr100.dll</code>. For details on this conversion, see the section on <a href="#fixpath">Fixpath</a>.</p>
+<p>Internally in the build system, all paths are represented as Unix-style paths, e.g. <code>/cygdrive/c/hg/jdk9/Makefile</code> rather than <code>C:\hg\jdk9\Makefile</code>. This rule also applies to input to the build system, e.g. in arguments to <code>configure</code>. So, use <code>--with-msvcr-dll=/cygdrive/c/msvcr100.dll</code> rather than <code>--with-msvcr-dll=c:\msvcr100.dll</code>. For details on this conversion, see the section on <a href="#fixpath">Fixpath</a>.</p>
 <h4 id="cygwin">Cygwin</h4>
 <p>A functioning <a href="http://www.cygwin.com/">Cygwin</a> environment is thus required for building the JDK on Windows. If you have a 64-bit OS, we strongly recommend using the 64-bit version of Cygwin.</p>
 <p><strong>Note:</strong> Cygwin has a model of continuously updating all packages without any easy way to install or revert to a specific version of a package. This means that whenever you add or update a package in Cygwin, you might (inadvertently) update tools that are used by the JDK build process, and that can cause unexpected build problems.</p>
@@ -210,13 +205,13 @@
 </ul>
 <p>Often, you can install these packages using the following command line:</p>
 <pre><code>&lt;path to Cygwin setup&gt;/setup-x86_64 -q -P autoconf -P make -P unzip -P zip</code></pre>
-<p>Unfortunately, Cygwin can be unreliable in certain circumstances. If you experience build tool crashes or strange issues when building on Windows, please check the Cygwin FAQ on the <a href="https://cygwin.com/faq/faq.html#faq.using.bloda">“BLODA” list</a> and the section on <a href="https://cygwin.com/faq/faq.html#faq.using.fixing-fork-failures">fork() failures</a>.</p>
+<p>Unfortunately, Cygwin can be unreliable in certain circumstances. If you experience build tool crashes or strange issues when building on Windows, please check the Cygwin FAQ on the <a href="https://cygwin.com/faq/faq.html#faq.using.bloda">&quot;BLODA&quot; list</a> and the section on <a href="https://cygwin.com/faq/faq.html#faq.using.fixing-fork-failures">fork() failures</a>.</p>
 <h3 id="solaris">Solaris</h3>
 <p>See <code>make/devkit/solaris11.1-package-list.txt</code> for a list of recommended packages to install when building on Solaris. The versions specified in this list is the versions used by the daily builds at Oracle, and is likely to work properly.</p>
 <p>Older versions of Solaris shipped a broken version of <code>objcopy</code>. At least version 2.21.1 is needed, which is provided by Solaris 11 Update 1. Objcopy is needed if you want to have external debug symbols. Please make sure you are using at least version 2.21.1 of objcopy, or that you disable external debug symbols.</p>
 <h3 id="macos">macOS</h3>
 <p>Apple is using a quite aggressive scheme of pushing OS updates, and coupling these updates with required updates of Xcode. Unfortunately, this makes it difficult for a project such as the JDK to keep pace with a continuously updated machine running macOS. See the section on <a href="#apple-xcode">Apple Xcode</a> on some strategies to deal with this.</p>
-<p>It is recommended that you use at least Mac OS X 10.9 (Mavericks). At the time of writing, the JDK has been successfully compiled on macOS versions up to 10.12.5 (Sierra), using XCode 8.3.2 and <code>--disable-warnings-as-errors</code>.</p>
+<p>It is recommended that you use at least Mac OS X 10.13 (High Sierra). At the time of writing, the JDK has been successfully compiled on macOS 10.12 (Sierra).</p>
 <p>The standard macOS environment contains the basic tooling needed to build, but for external libraries a package manager is recommended. The JDK uses <a href="https://brew.sh/">homebrew</a> in the examples, but feel free to use whatever manager you want (or none).</p>
 <h3 id="linux">Linux</h3>
 <p>It is often not much problem to build the JDK on Linux. The only general advice is to try to use the compilers, external libraries and header files as provided by your distribution.</p>
@@ -228,7 +223,7 @@
 <h3 id="aix">AIX</h3>
 <p>The regular builds by SAP is using AIX version 7.1, but AIX 5.3 is also supported. See the <a href="http://cr.openjdk.java.net/~simonis/ppc-aix-port">OpenJDK PowerPC Port Status Page</a> for details.</p>
 <h2 id="native-compiler-toolchain-requirements">Native Compiler (Toolchain) Requirements</h2>
-<p>Large portions of the JDK consists of native code, that needs to be compiled to be able to run on the target platform. In theory, toolchain and operating system should be independent factors, but in practice there’s more or less a one-to-one correlation between target operating system and toolchain.</p>
+<p>Large portions of the JDK consists of native code, that needs to be compiled to be able to run on the target platform. In theory, toolchain and operating system should be independent factors, but in practice there's more or less a one-to-one correlation between target operating system and toolchain.</p>
 <table>
 <thead>
 <tr class="header">
@@ -274,7 +269,7 @@
 </tr>
 <tr class="even">
 <td style="text-align: left;">macOS</td>
-<td style="text-align: left;">Apple Xcode 6.3 (using clang 6.1.0)</td>
+<td style="text-align: left;">Apple Xcode 9.4 (using clang 9.1.0)</td>
 </tr>
 <tr class="odd">
 <td style="text-align: left;">Solaris</td>
@@ -282,7 +277,7 @@
 </tr>
 <tr class="even">
 <td style="text-align: left;">Windows</td>
-<td style="text-align: left;">Microsoft Visual Studio 2013 update 4</td>
+<td style="text-align: left;">Microsoft Visual Studio 2017 update 15.5.5</td>
 </tr>
 </tbody>
 </table>
@@ -294,10 +289,10 @@
 <p>The minimum accepted version of clang is 3.2. Older versions will not be accepted by <code>configure</code>.</p>
 <p>To use clang instead of gcc on Linux, use <code>--with-toolchain-type=clang</code>.</p>
 <h3 id="apple-xcode">Apple Xcode</h3>
-<p>The oldest supported version of Xcode is 5.</p>
+<p>The oldest supported version of Xcode is 8.</p>
 <p>You will need the Xcode command lines developers tools to be able to build the JDK. (Actually, <em>only</em> the command lines tools are needed, not the IDE.) The simplest way to install these is to run:</p>
 <pre><code>xcode-select --install</code></pre>
-<p>It is advisable to keep an older version of Xcode for building the JDK when updating Xcode. This <a href="http://iosdevelopertips.com/xcode/install-multiple-versions-of-xcode.html">blog page</a> has good suggestions on managing multiple Xcode versions. To use a specific version of Xcode, use <code>xcode-select -s</code> before running <code>configure</code>, or use <code>--with-toolchain-path</code> to point to the version of Xcode to use, e.g. <code>configure --with-toolchain-path=/Applications/Xcode5.app/Contents/Developer/usr/bin</code></p>
+<p>It is advisable to keep an older version of Xcode for building the JDK when updating Xcode. This <a href="http://iosdevelopertips.com/xcode/install-multiple-versions-of-xcode.html">blog page</a> has good suggestions on managing multiple Xcode versions. To use a specific version of Xcode, use <code>xcode-select -s</code> before running <code>configure</code>, or use <code>--with-toolchain-path</code> to point to the version of Xcode to use, e.g. <code>configure --with-toolchain-path=/Applications/Xcode8.app/Contents/Developer/usr/bin</code></p>
 <p>If you have recently (inadvertently) updated your OS and/or Xcode version, and the JDK can no longer be built, please see the section on <a href="#problems-with-the-build-environment">Problems with the Build Environment</a>, and <a href="#getting-help">Getting Help</a> to find out if there are any recent, non-merged patches available for this update.</p>
 <h3 id="oracle-solaris-studio">Oracle Solaris Studio</h3>
 <p>The minimum accepted version of the Solaris Studio compilers is 5.13 (corresponding to Solaris Studio 12.4). Older versions will not be accepted by configure.</p>
@@ -358,15 +353,15 @@
 $ CC -V
 CC: Sun C++ 5.13 SunOS_i386 151846-10 2015/10/30</code></pre>
 <h3 id="microsoft-visual-studio">Microsoft Visual Studio</h3>
-<p>The minimum accepted version of Visual Studio is 2010. Older versions will not be accepted by <code>configure</code>. The maximum accepted version of Visual Studio is 2013.</p>
-<p>If you have multiple versions of Visual Studio installed, <code>configure</code> will by default pick the latest. You can request a specific version to be used by setting <code>--with-toolchain-version</code>, e.g. <code>--with-toolchain-version=2010</code>.</p>
+<p>The minimum accepted version of Visual Studio is 2010. Older versions will not be accepted by <code>configure</code>. The maximum accepted version of Visual Studio is 2017. Versions older than 2017 are unlikely to continue working for long.</p>
+<p>If you have multiple versions of Visual Studio installed, <code>configure</code> will by default pick the latest. You can request a specific version to be used by setting <code>--with-toolchain-version</code>, e.g. <code>--with-toolchain-version=2015</code>.</p>
 <p>If you get <code>LINK: fatal error LNK1123: failure during conversion to COFF: file invalid</code> when building using Visual Studio 2010, you have encountered <a href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2757355">KB2757355</a>, a bug triggered by a specific installation order. However, the solution suggested by the KB article does not always resolve the problem. See <a href="https://stackoverflow.com/questions/10888391">this stackoverflow discussion</a> for other suggestions.</p>
 <h3 id="ibm-xl-cc">IBM XL C/C++</h3>
 <p>The regular builds by SAP is using version 12.1, described as <code>IBM XL C/C++ for AIX, V12.1 (5765-J02, 5725-C72) Version: 12.01.0000.0017</code>.</p>
 <p>See the <a href="http://cr.openjdk.java.net/~simonis/ppc-aix-port">OpenJDK PowerPC Port Status Page</a> for details.</p>
 <h2 id="boot-jdk-requirements">Boot JDK Requirements</h2>
-<p>Paradoxically, building the JDK requires a pre-existing JDK. This is called the “boot JDK”. The boot JDK does not, however, have to be a JDK built directly from the source code available in the OpenJDK Community. If you are porting the JDK to a new platform, chances are that there already exists another JDK for that platform that is usable as boot JDK.</p>
-<p>The rule of thumb is that the boot JDK for building JDK major version <em>N</em> should be a JDK of major version <em>N-1</em>, so for building JDK 9 a JDK 8 would be suitable as boot JDK. However, the JDK should be able to “build itself”, so an up-to-date build of the current JDK source is an acceptable alternative. If you are following the <em>N-1</em> rule, make sure you’ve got the latest update version, since JDK 8 GA might not be able to build JDK 9 on all platforms.</p>
+<p>Paradoxically, building the JDK requires a pre-existing JDK. This is called the &quot;boot JDK&quot;. The boot JDK does not, however, have to be a JDK built directly from the source code available in the OpenJDK Community. If you are porting the JDK to a new platform, chances are that there already exists another JDK for that platform that is usable as boot JDK.</p>
+<p>The rule of thumb is that the boot JDK for building JDK major version <em>N</em> should be a JDK of major version <em>N-1</em>, so for building JDK 9 a JDK 8 would be suitable as boot JDK. However, the JDK should be able to &quot;build itself&quot;, so an up-to-date build of the current JDK source is an acceptable alternative. If you are following the <em>N-1</em> rule, make sure you've got the latest update version, since JDK 8 GA might not be able to build JDK 9 on all platforms.</p>
 <p>Early in the release cycle, version <em>N-1</em> may not yet have been released. In that case, the preferred boot JDK will be version <em>N-2</em> until version <em>N-1</em> is available.</p>
 <p>If the boot JDK is not automatically detected, or the wrong JDK is picked, use <code>--with-boot-jdk</code> to point to the JDK to use.</p>
 <h3 id="getting-jdk-binaries">Getting JDK binaries</h3>
@@ -428,14 +423,14 @@
 <h3 id="gnu-make">GNU Make</h3>
 <p>The JDK requires <a href="http://www.gnu.org/software/make">GNU Make</a>. No other flavors of make are supported.</p>
 <p>At least version 3.81 of GNU Make must be used. For distributions supporting GNU Make 4.0 or above, we strongly recommend it. GNU Make 4.0 contains useful functionality to handle parallel building (supported by <code>--with-output-sync</code>) and speed and stability improvements.</p>
-<p>Note that <code>configure</code> locates and verifies a properly functioning version of <code>make</code> and stores the path to this <code>make</code> binary in the configuration. If you start a build using <code>make</code> on the command line, you will be using the version of make found first in your <code>PATH</code>, and not necessarily the one stored in the configuration. This initial make will be used as “bootstrap make”, and in a second stage, the make located by <code>configure</code> will be called. Normally, this will present no issues, but if you have a very old <code>make</code>, or a non-GNU Make <code>make</code> in your path, this might cause issues.</p>
+<p>Note that <code>configure</code> locates and verifies a properly functioning version of <code>make</code> and stores the path to this <code>make</code> binary in the configuration. If you start a build using <code>make</code> on the command line, you will be using the version of make found first in your <code>PATH</code>, and not necessarily the one stored in the configuration. This initial make will be used as &quot;bootstrap make&quot;, and in a second stage, the make located by <code>configure</code> will be called. Normally, this will present no issues, but if you have a very old <code>make</code>, or a non-GNU Make <code>make</code> in your path, this might cause issues.</p>
 <p>If you want to override the default make found by <code>configure</code>, use the <code>MAKE</code> configure variable, e.g. <code>configure MAKE=/opt/gnu/make</code>.</p>
 <p>On Solaris, it is common to call the GNU version of make by using <code>gmake</code>.</p>
 <h3 id="gnu-bash">GNU Bash</h3>
 <p>The JDK requires <a href="http://www.gnu.org/software/bash">GNU Bash</a>. No other shells are supported.</p>
 <p>At least version 3.2 of GNU Bash must be used.</p>
 <h2 id="running-configure">Running Configure</h2>
-<p>To build the JDK, you need a “configuration”, which consists of a directory where to store the build output, coupled with information about the platform, the specific build machine, and choices that affect how the JDK is built.</p>
+<p>To build the JDK, you need a &quot;configuration&quot;, which consists of a directory where to store the build output, coupled with information about the platform, the specific build machine, and choices that affect how the JDK is built.</p>
 <p>The configuration is created by the <code>configure</code> script. The basic invocation of the <code>configure</code> script looks like this:</p>
 <pre><code>bash configure [options]</code></pre>
 <p>This will create an output directory containing the configuration and setup an area for the build result. This directory typically looks like <code>build/linux-x64-normal-server-release</code>, but the actual name depends on your specific configuration. (It can also be set directly, see <a href="#using-multiple-configurations">Using Multiple Configurations</a>). This directory is referred to as <code>$BUILD</code> in this documentation.</p>
@@ -497,13 +492,13 @@
 </ul>
 <h3 id="configure-control-variables">Configure Control Variables</h3>
 <p>It is possible to control certain aspects of <code>configure</code> by overriding the value of <code>configure</code> variables, either on the command line or in the environment.</p>
-<p>Normally, this is <strong>not recommended</strong>. If used improperly, it can lead to a broken configuration. Unless you’re well versed in the build system, this is hard to use properly. Therefore, <code>configure</code> will print a warning if this is detected.</p>
+<p>Normally, this is <strong>not recommended</strong>. If used improperly, it can lead to a broken configuration. Unless you're well versed in the build system, this is hard to use properly. Therefore, <code>configure</code> will print a warning if this is detected.</p>
 <p>However, there are a few <code>configure</code> variables, known as <em>control variables</em> that are supposed to be overriden on the command line. These are variables that describe the location of tools needed by the build, like <code>MAKE</code> or <code>GREP</code>. If any such variable is specified, <code>configure</code> will use that value instead of trying to autodetect the tool. For instance, <code>bash configure MAKE=/opt/gnumake4.0/bin/make</code>.</p>
-<p>If a configure argument exists, use that instead, e.g. use <code>--with-jtreg</code> instead of setting <code>JTREGEXE</code>.</p>
+<p>If a configure argument exists, use that instead, e.g. use <code>--with-jtreg</code> instead of setting <code>JTREGEXE</code>.</p>
 <p>Also note that, despite what autoconf claims, setting <code>CFLAGS</code> will not accomplish anything. Instead use <code>--with-extra-cflags</code> (and similar for <code>cxxflags</code> and <code>ldflags</code>).</p>
 <h2 id="running-make">Running Make</h2>
 <p>When you have a proper configuration, all you need to do to build the JDK is to run <code>make</code>. (But see the warning at <a href="#gnu-make">GNU Make</a> about running the correct version of make.)</p>
-<p>When running <code>make</code> without any arguments, the default target is used, which is the same as running <code>make default</code> or <code>make jdk</code>. This will build a minimal (or roughly minimal) set of compiled output (known as an “exploded image”) needed for a developer to actually execute the newly built JDK. The idea is that in an incremental development fashion, when doing a normal make, you should only spend time recompiling what’s changed (making it purely incremental) and only do the work that’s needed to actually run and test your code.</p>
+<p>When running <code>make</code> without any arguments, the default target is used, which is the same as running <code>make default</code> or <code>make jdk</code>. This will build a minimal (or roughly minimal) set of compiled output (known as an &quot;exploded image&quot;) needed for a developer to actually execute the newly built JDK. The idea is that in an incremental development fashion, when doing a normal make, you should only spend time recompiling what's changed (making it purely incremental) and only do the work that's needed to actually run and test your code.</p>
 <p>The output of the exploded image resides in <code>$BUILD/jdk</code>. You can test the newly built JDK like this: <code>$BUILD/jdk/bin/java -version</code>.</p>
 <h3 id="common-make-targets">Common Make Targets</h3>
 <p>Apart from the default target, here are some common make targets:</p>
@@ -534,8 +529,8 @@
 </ul>
 <h3 id="make-control-variables">Make Control Variables</h3>
 <p>It is possible to control <code>make</code> behavior by overriding the value of <code>make</code> variables, either on the command line or in the environment.</p>
-<p>Normally, this is <strong>not recommended</strong>. If used improperly, it can lead to a broken build. Unless you’re well versed in the build system, this is hard to use properly. Therefore, <code>make</code> will print a warning if this is detected.</p>
-<p>However, there are a few <code>make</code> variables, known as <em>control variables</em> that are supposed to be overriden on the command line. These make up the “make time” configuration, as opposed to the “configure time” configuration.</p>
+<p>Normally, this is <strong>not recommended</strong>. If used improperly, it can lead to a broken build. Unless you're well versed in the build system, this is hard to use properly. Therefore, <code>make</code> will print a warning if this is detected.</p>
+<p>However, there are a few <code>make</code> variables, known as <em>control variables</em> that are supposed to be overriden on the command line. These make up the &quot;make time&quot; configuration, as opposed to the &quot;configure time&quot; configuration.</p>
 <h4 id="general-make-control-variables">General Make Control Variables</h4>
 <ul>
 <li><code>JOBS</code> - Specify the number of jobs to build with. See <a href="#build-performance">Build Performance</a>.</li>
@@ -559,7 +554,7 @@
 <li><code>JDK_FILTER</code></li>
 </ul>
 <h2 id="running-tests">Running Tests</h2>
-<p>Most of the JDK tests are using the <a href="http://openjdk.java.net/jtreg">JTReg</a> test framework. Make sure that your configuration knows where to find your installation of JTReg. If this is not picked up automatically, use the <code>--with-jtreg=&lt;path to jtreg home&gt;</code> option to point to the JTReg framework. Note that this option should point to the JTReg home, i.e. the top directory, containing <code>lib/jtreg.jar</code> etc.</p>
+<p>Most of the JDK tests are using the <a href="http://openjdk.java.net/jtreg">JTReg</a> test framework. Make sure that your configuration knows where to find your installation of JTReg. If this is not picked up automatically, use the <code>--with-jtreg=&lt;path to jtreg home&gt;</code> option to point to the JTReg framework. Note that this option should point to the JTReg home, i.e. the top directory, containing <code>lib/jtreg.jar</code> etc.</p>
 <p>The <a href="https://wiki.openjdk.java.net/display/Adoption">Adoption Group</a> provides recent builds of jtreg <a href="https://adopt-openjdk.ci.cloudbees.com/job/jtreg/lastSuccessfulBuild/artifact">here</a>. Download the latest <code>.tar.gz</code> file, unpack it, and point <code>--with-jtreg</code> to the <code>jtreg</code> directory that you just unpacked.</p>
 <p>To execute the most basic tests (tier 1), use:</p>
 <pre><code>make run-test-tier1</code></pre>
@@ -569,13 +564,13 @@
 <p>The typical reason for cross-compiling is that the build is performed on a more powerful desktop computer, but the resulting binaries will be able to run on a different, typically low-performing system. Most of the complications that arise when building for embedded is due to this separation of <em>build</em> and <em>target</em> systems.</p>
 <p>This requires a more complex setup and build procedure. This section assumes you are familiar with cross-compiling in general, and will only deal with the particularities of cross-compiling the JDK. If you are new to cross-compiling, please see the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross_compiler#External_links">external links at Wikipedia</a> for a good start on reading materials.</p>
 <p>Cross-compiling the JDK requires you to be able to build both for the build platform and for the target platform. The reason for the former is that we need to build and execute tools during the build process, both native tools and Java tools.</p>
-<p>If all you want to do is to compile a 32-bit version, for the same OS, on a 64-bit machine, consider using <code>--with-target-bits=32</code> instead of doing a full-blown cross-compilation. (While this surely is possible, it’s a lot more work and will take much longer to build.)</p>
+<p>If all you want to do is to compile a 32-bit version, for the same OS, on a 64-bit machine, consider using <code>--with-target-bits=32</code> instead of doing a full-blown cross-compilation. (While this surely is possible, it's a lot more work and will take much longer to build.)</p>
 <h3 id="boot-jdk-and-build-jdk">Boot JDK and Build JDK</h3>
 <p>When cross-compiling, make sure you use a boot JDK that runs on the <em>build</em> system, and not on the <em>target</em> system.</p>
-<p>To be able to build, we need a “Build JDK”, which is a JDK built from the current sources (that is, the same as the end result of the entire build process), but able to run on the <em>build</em> system, and not the <em>target</em> system. (In contrast, the Boot JDK should be from an older release, e.g. JDK 8 when building JDK 9.)</p>
+<p>To be able to build, we need a &quot;Build JDK&quot;, which is a JDK built from the current sources (that is, the same as the end result of the entire build process), but able to run on the <em>build</em> system, and not the <em>target</em> system. (In contrast, the Boot JDK should be from an older release, e.g. JDK 8 when building JDK 9.)</p>
 <p>The build process will create a minimal Build JDK for you, as part of building. To speed up the build, you can use <code>--with-build-jdk</code> to <code>configure</code> to point to a pre-built Build JDK. Please note that the build result is unpredictable, and can possibly break in subtle ways, if the Build JDK does not <strong>exactly</strong> match the current sources.</p>
 <h3 id="specifying-the-target-platform">Specifying the Target Platform</h3>
-<p>You <em>must</em> specify the target platform when cross-compiling. Doing so will also automatically turn the build into a cross-compiling mode. The simplest way to do this is to use the <code>--openjdk-target</code> argument, e.g. <code>--openjdk-target=arm-linux-gnueabihf</code>. or <code>--openjdk-target=aarch64-oe-linux</code>. This will automatically set the <code>--build</code>, <code>--host</code> and <code>--target</code> options for autoconf, which can otherwise be confusing. (In autoconf terminology, the “target” is known as “host”, and “target” is used for building a Canadian cross-compiler.)</p>
+<p>You <em>must</em> specify the target platform when cross-compiling. Doing so will also automatically turn the build into a cross-compiling mode. The simplest way to do this is to use the <code>--openjdk-target</code> argument, e.g. <code>--openjdk-target=arm-linux-gnueabihf</code>. or <code>--openjdk-target=aarch64-oe-linux</code>. This will automatically set the <code>--build</code>, <code>--host</code> and <code>--target</code> options for autoconf, which can otherwise be confusing. (In autoconf terminology, the &quot;target&quot; is known as &quot;host&quot;, and &quot;target&quot; is used for building a Canadian cross-compiler.)</p>
 <h3 id="toolchain-considerations">Toolchain Considerations</h3>
 <p>You will need two copies of your toolchain, one which generates output that can run on the target system (the normal, or <em>target</em>, toolchain), and one that generates output that can run on the build system (the <em>build</em> toolchain). Note that cross-compiling is only supported for gcc at the time being. The gcc standard is to prefix cross-compiling toolchains with the target denominator. If you follow this standard, <code>configure</code> is likely to pick up the toolchain correctly.</p>
 <p>The <em>build</em> toolchain will be autodetected just the same way the normal <em>build</em>/<em>target</em> toolchain will be autodetected when not cross-compiling. If this is not what you want, or if the autodetection fails, you can specify a devkit containing the <em>build</em> toolchain using <code>--with-build-devkit</code> to <code>configure</code>, or by giving <code>BUILD_CC</code> and <code>BUILD_CXX</code> arguments.</p>
@@ -587,23 +582,21 @@
 </ul>
 <h3 id="native-libraries">Native Libraries</h3>
 <p>You will need copies of external native libraries for the <em>target</em> system, present on the <em>build</em> machine while building.</p>
-<p>Take care not to replace the <em>build</em> system’s version of these libraries by mistake, since that can render the <em>build</em> machine unusable.</p>
+<p>Take care not to replace the <em>build</em> system's version of these libraries by mistake, since that can render the <em>build</em> machine unusable.</p>
 <p>Make sure that the libraries you point to (ALSA, X11, etc) are for the <em>target</em>, not the <em>build</em>, platform.</p>
 <h4 id="alsa-1">ALSA</h4>
-<p>You will need alsa libraries suitable for your <em>target</em> system. For most cases, using Debian’s pre-built libraries work fine.</p>
+<p>You will need alsa libraries suitable for your <em>target</em> system. For most cases, using Debian's pre-built libraries work fine.</p>
 <p>Note that alsa is needed even if you only want to build a headless JDK.</p>
 <ul>
 <li><p>Go to <a href="https://www.debian.org/distrib/packages">Debian Package Search</a> and search for the <code>libasound2</code> and <code>libasound2-dev</code> packages for your <em>target</em> system. Download them to /tmp.</p></li>
-<li>Install the libraries into the cross-compilation toolchain. For instance:</li>
-</ul>
+<li><p>Install the libraries into the cross-compilation toolchain. For instance:</p>
 <pre><code>cd /tools/gcc-linaro-arm-linux-gnueabihf-raspbian-2012.09-20120921_linux/arm-linux-gnueabihf/libc
 dpkg-deb -x /tmp/libasound2_1.0.25-4_armhf.deb .
-dpkg-deb -x /tmp/libasound2-dev_1.0.25-4_armhf.deb .</code></pre>
-<ul>
-<li>If alsa is not properly detected by <code>configure</code>, you can point it out by <code>--with-alsa</code>.</li>
+dpkg-deb -x /tmp/libasound2-dev_1.0.25-4_armhf.deb .</code></pre></li>
+<li><p>If alsa is not properly detected by <code>configure</code>, you can point it out by <code>--with-alsa</code>.</p></li>
 </ul>
 <h4 id="x11-1">X11</h4>
-<p>You will need X11 libraries suitable for your <em>target</em> system. For most cases, using Debian’s pre-built libraries work fine.</p>
+<p>You will need X11 libraries suitable for your <em>target</em> system. For most cases, using Debian's pre-built libraries work fine.</p>
 <p>Note that X11 is needed even if you only want to build a headless JDK.</p>
 <ul>
 <li>Go to <a href="https://www.debian.org/distrib/packages">Debian Package Search</a>, search for the following packages for your <em>target</em> system, and download them to /tmp/target-x11:
@@ -643,7 +636,7 @@
 </ul>
 <h3 id="building-for-armaarch64">Building for ARM/aarch64</h3>
 <p>A common cross-compilation target is the ARM CPU. When building for ARM, it is useful to set the ABI profile. A number of pre-defined ABI profiles are available using <code>--with-abi-profile</code>: arm-vfp-sflt, arm-vfp-hflt, arm-sflt, armv5-vfp-sflt, armv6-vfp-hflt. Note that soft-float ABIs are no longer properly supported by the JDK.</p>
-<p>The JDK contains two different ports for the aarch64 platform, one is the original aarch64 port from the <a href="http://openjdk.java.net/projects/aarch64-port">AArch64 Port Project</a> and one is a 64-bit version of the Oracle contributed ARM port. When targeting aarch64, by the default the original aarch64 port is used. To select the Oracle ARM 64 port, use <code>--with-cpu-port=arm64</code>. Also set the corresponding value (<code>aarch64</code> or <code>arm64</code>) to –with-abi-profile, to ensure a consistent build.</p>
+<p>The JDK contains two different ports for the aarch64 platform, one is the original aarch64 port from the <a href="http://openjdk.java.net/projects/aarch64-port">AArch64 Port Project</a> and one is a 64-bit version of the Oracle contributed ARM port. When targeting aarch64, by the default the original aarch64 port is used. To select the Oracle ARM 64 port, use <code>--with-cpu-port=arm64</code>. Also set the corresponding value (<code>aarch64</code> or <code>arm64</code>) to --with-abi-profile, to ensure a consistent build.</p>
 <h3 id="verifying-the-build">Verifying the Build</h3>
 <p>The build will end up in a directory named like <code>build/linux-arm-normal-server-release</code>.</p>
 <p>Inside this build output directory, the <code>images/jdk</code> will contain the newly built JDK, for your <em>target</em> system.</p>
@@ -651,21 +644,21 @@
 <h2 id="build-performance">Build Performance</h2>
 <p>Building the JDK requires a lot of horsepower. Some of the build tools can be adjusted to utilize more or less of resources such as parallel threads and memory. The <code>configure</code> script analyzes your system and selects reasonable values for such options based on your hardware. If you encounter resource problems, such as out of memory conditions, you can modify the detected values with:</p>
 <ul>
-<li><p><code>--with-num-cores</code> – number of cores in the build system, e.g. <code>--with-num-cores=8</code>.</p></li>
-<li><p><code>--with-memory-size</code> – memory (in MB) available in the build system, e.g. <code>--with-memory-size=1024</code></p></li>
+<li><p><code>--with-num-cores</code> -- number of cores in the build system, e.g. <code>--with-num-cores=8</code>.</p></li>
+<li><p><code>--with-memory-size</code> -- memory (in MB) available in the build system, e.g. <code>--with-memory-size=1024</code></p></li>
 </ul>
 <p>You can also specify directly the number of build jobs to use with <code>--with-jobs=N</code> to <code>configure</code>, or <code>JOBS=N</code> to <code>make</code>. Do not use the <code>-j</code> flag to <code>make</code>. In most cases it will be ignored by the makefiles, but it can cause problems for some make targets.</p>
 <p>It might also be necessary to specify the JVM arguments passed to the Boot JDK, using e.g. <code>--with-boot-jdk-jvmargs=&quot;-Xmx8G&quot;</code>. Doing so will override the default JVM arguments passed to the Boot JDK.</p>
 <p>At the end of a successful execution of <code>configure</code>, you will get a performance summary, indicating how well the build will perform. Here you will also get performance hints. If you want to build fast, pay attention to those!</p>
 <p>If you want to tweak build performance, run with <code>make LOG=info</code> to get a build time summary at the end of the build process.</p>
 <h3 id="disk-speed">Disk Speed</h3>
-<p>If you are using network shares, e.g. via NFS, for your source code, make sure the build directory is situated on local disk (e.g. by <code>ln -s /localdisk/jdk-build $JDK-SHARE/build</code>). The performance penalty is extremely high for building on a network share; close to unusable.</p>
+<p>If you are using network shares, e.g. via NFS, for your source code, make sure the build directory is situated on local disk (e.g. by <code>ln -s /localdisk/jdk-build $JDK-SHARE/build</code>). The performance penalty is extremely high for building on a network share; close to unusable.</p>
 <p>Also, make sure that your build tools (including Boot JDK and toolchain) is located on a local disk and not a network share.</p>
 <p>As has been stressed elsewhere, do use SSD for source code and build directory, as well as (if possible) the build tools.</p>
 <h3 id="virus-checking">Virus Checking</h3>
 <p>The use of virus checking software, especially on Windows, can <em>significantly</em> slow down building of the JDK. If possible, turn off such software, or exclude the directory containing the JDK source code from on-the-fly checking.</p>
 <h3 id="ccache">Ccache</h3>
-<p>The JDK build supports building with ccache when using gcc or clang. Using ccache can radically speed up compilation of native code if you often rebuild the same sources. Your milage may vary however, so we recommend evaluating it for yourself. To enable it, make sure it’s on the path and configure with <code>--enable-ccache</code>.</p>
+<p>The JDK build supports building with ccache when using gcc or clang. Using ccache can radically speed up compilation of native code if you often rebuild the same sources. Your milage may vary however, so we recommend evaluating it for yourself. To enable it, make sure it's on the path and configure with <code>--enable-ccache</code>.</p>
 <h3 id="precompiled-headers">Precompiled Headers</h3>
 <p>By default, the Hotspot build uses preccompiled headers (PCH) on the toolchains were it is properly supported (clang, gcc, and Visual Studio). Normally, this speeds up the build process, but in some circumstances, it can actually slow things down.</p>
 <p>You can experiment by disabling precompiled headers using <code>--disable-precompiled-headers</code>.</p>
@@ -700,11 +693,11 @@
 
 Hint: Try searching the build log for the name of the first failed target.
 Hint: If caused by a warning, try configure --disable-warnings-as-errors.</code></pre>
-<p>Let’s break it down! First, the selected configuration, and the top-level target you entered on the command line that caused the failure is printed.</p>
+<p>Let's break it down! First, the selected configuration, and the top-level target you entered on the command line that caused the failure is printed.</p>
 <p>Then, between the <code>Output from failing command(s) repeated here</code> and <code>End of repeated output</code> the first lines of output (stdout and stderr) from the actual failing command is repeated. In most cases, this is the error message that caused the build to fail. If multiple commands were failing (this can happen in a parallel build), output from all failed commands will be printed here.</p>
 <p>The path to the <code>failure-logs</code> directory is printed. In this file you will find a <code>&lt;target&gt;.log</code> file that contains the output from this command in its entirety, and also a <code>&lt;target&gt;.cmd</code>, which contain the complete command line used for running this command. You can re-run the failing command by executing <code>. &lt;path to failure-logs&gt;/&lt;target&gt;.cmd</code> in your shell.</p>
 <p>Another way to trace the failure is to follow the chain of make targets, from top-level targets to individual file targets. Between <code>Make failed targets repeated here</code> and <code>End of repeated output</code> the output from make showing this chain is repeated. The first failed recipe will typically contain the full path to the file in question that failed to compile. Following lines will show a trace of make targets why we ended up trying to compile that file.</p>
-<p>Finally, some hints are given on how to locate the error in the complete log. In this example, we would try searching the log file for “<code>psMemoryPool.o</code>”. Another way to quickly locate make errors in the log is to search for “<code>] Error</code>” or “<code>***</code>”.</p>
+<p>Finally, some hints are given on how to locate the error in the complete log. In this example, we would try searching the log file for &quot;<code>psMemoryPool.o</code>&quot;. Another way to quickly locate make errors in the log is to search for &quot;<code>] Error</code>&quot; or &quot;<code>***</code>&quot;.</p>
 <p>Note that the build failure summary will only help you if the issue was a compilation failure or similar. If the problem is more esoteric, or is due to errors in the build machinery, you will likely get empty output logs, and <code>No indication of failed target found</code> instead of the make target chain.</p>
 <h4 id="checking-the-build-log-file">Checking the Build Log File</h4>
 <p>The output (stdout and stderr) from the latest build is always stored in <code>$BUILD/build.log</code>. The previous build log is stored as <code>build.log.old</code>. This means that it is not necessary to redirect the build output yourself if you want to process it.</p>
@@ -725,13 +718,13 @@
 <li><p>Clean build results</p>
 <p>The simplest way to fix incremental rebuild issues is to run <code>make clean</code>. This will remove all build results, but not the configuration or any build system support artifacts. In most cases, this will solve build errors resulting from incremental build mismatches.</p></li>
 <li><p>Completely clean the build directory.</p>
-<p>If this does not work, the next step is to run <code>make dist-clean</code>, or removing the build output directory (<code>$BUILD</code>). This will clean all generated output, including your configuration. You will need to re-run <code>configure</code> after this step. A good idea is to run <code>make print-configuration</code> before running <code>make dist-clean</code>, as this will print your current <code>configure</code> command line. Here’s a way to do this:</p>
+<p>If this does not work, the next step is to run <code>make dist-clean</code>, or removing the build output directory (<code>$BUILD</code>). This will clean all generated output, including your configuration. You will need to re-run <code>configure</code> after this step. A good idea is to run <code>make print-configuration</code> before running <code>make dist-clean</code>, as this will print your current <code>configure</code> command line. Here's a way to do this:</p>
 <pre><code>make print-configuration &gt; current-configuration
 make dist-clean
 bash configure $(cat current-configuration)
 make</code></pre></li>
 <li><p>Re-clone the Mercurial forest</p>
-<p>Sometimes the Mercurial repositories themselves gets in a state that causes the product to be un-buildable. In such a case, the simplest solution is often the “sledgehammer approach”: delete the entire forest, and re-clone it. If you have local changes, save them first to a different location using <code>hg export</code>.</p></li>
+<p>Sometimes the Mercurial repositories themselves gets in a state that causes the product to be un-buildable. In such a case, the simplest solution is often the &quot;sledgehammer approach&quot;: delete the entire forest, and re-clone it. If you have local changes, save them first to a different location using <code>hg export</code>.</p></li>
 </ol>
 <h3 id="specific-build-issues">Specific Build Issues</h3>
 <h4 id="clock-skew">Clock Skew</h4>
@@ -755,7 +748,7 @@
 <h2 id="hints-and-suggestions-for-advanced-users">Hints and Suggestions for Advanced Users</h2>
 <h3 id="setting-up-a-forest-for-pushing-changes-defpath">Setting Up a Forest for Pushing Changes (defpath)</h3>
 <p>To help you prepare a proper push path for a Mercurial repository, there exists a useful tool known as <a href="http://openjdk.java.net/projects/code-tools/defpath">defpath</a>. It will help you setup a proper push path for pushing changes to the JDK.</p>
-<p>Install the extension by cloning <code>http://hg.openjdk.java.net/code-tools/defpath</code> and updating your <code>.hgrc</code> file. Here’s one way to do this:</p>
+<p>Install the extension by cloning <code>http://hg.openjdk.java.net/code-tools/defpath</code> and updating your <code>.hgrc</code> file. Here's one way to do this:</p>
 <pre><code>cd ~
 mkdir hg-ext
 cd hg-ext
@@ -789,7 +782,7 @@
 <h3 id="handling-reconfigurations">Handling Reconfigurations</h3>
 <p>If you update the forest and part of the configure script has changed, the build system will force you to re-run <code>configure</code>.</p>
 <p>Most of the time, you will be fine by running <code>configure</code> again with the same arguments as the last time, which can easily be performed by <code>make reconfigure</code>. To simplify this, you can use the <code>CONF_CHECK</code> make control variable, either as <code>make CONF_CHECK=auto</code>, or by setting an environment variable. For instance, if you add <code>export CONF_CHECK=auto</code> to your <code>.bashrc</code> file, <code>make</code> will always run <code>reconfigure</code> automatically whenever the configure script has changed.</p>
-<p>You can also use <code>CONF_CHECK=ignore</code> to skip the check for a needed configure update. This might speed up the build, but comes at the risk of an incorrect build result. This is only recommended if you know what you’re doing.</p>
+<p>You can also use <code>CONF_CHECK=ignore</code> to skip the check for a needed configure update. This might speed up the build, but comes at the risk of an incorrect build result. This is only recommended if you know what you're doing.</p>
 <p>From time to time, you will also need to modify the command line to <code>configure</code> due to changes. Use <code>make print-configure</code> to show the command line used for your current configuration.</p>
 <h3 id="using-fine-grained-make-targets">Using Fine-Grained Make Targets</h3>
 <p>The default behavior for make is to create consistent and correct output, at the expense of build speed, if necessary.</p>
@@ -847,9 +840,9 @@
 <p>This is what they are used for:</p>
 <ul>
 <li><p><code>images</code>: This is the directory were the output of the <code>*-image</code> make targets end up. For instance, <code>make jdk-image</code> ends up in <code>images/jdk</code>.</p></li>
-<li><p><code>jdk</code>: This is the “exploded image”. After <code>make jdk</code>, you will be able to launch the newly built JDK by running <code>$BUILD/jdk/bin/java</code>.</p></li>
+<li><p><code>jdk</code>: This is the &quot;exploded image&quot;. After <code>make jdk</code>, you will be able to launch the newly built JDK by running <code>$BUILD/jdk/bin/java</code>.</p></li>
 <li><p><code>test-results</code>: This directory contains the results from running tests.</p></li>
-<li><p><code>support</code>: This is an area for intermediate files needed during the build, e.g. generated source code, object files and class files. Some noteworthy directories in <code>support</code> is <code>gensrc</code>, which contains the generated source code, and the <code>modules_*</code> directories, which contains the files in a per-module hierarchy that will later be collapsed into the <code>jdk</code> directory of the exploded image.</p></li>
+<li><p><code>support</code>: This is an area for intermediate files needed during the build, e.g. generated source code, object files and class files. Some noteworthy directories in <code>support</code> is <code>gensrc</code>, which contains the generated source code, and the <code>modules_*</code> directories, which contains the files in a per-module hierarchy that will later be collapsed into the <code>jdk</code> directory of the exploded image.</p></li>
 <li><p><code>buildtools</code>: This is an area for tools compiled for the build platform that are used during the rest of the build.</p></li>
 <li><p><code>hotspot</code>: This is an area for intermediate files needed when building hotspot.</p></li>
 <li><p><code>configure-support</code>, <code>make-support</code> and <code>test-support</code>: These directories contain files that are needed by the build system for <code>configure</code>, <code>make</code> and for running tests.</p></li>
@@ -884,7 +877,7 @@
 ))</code></pre>
 <p>By encapsulating and expressing the high-level knowledge of <em>what</em> should be done, rather than <em>how</em> it should be done (as is normal in Makefiles), we can build a much more powerful and flexible build system.</p>
 <p>Correct dependency tracking is paramount. Sloppy dependency tracking will lead to improper parallelization, or worse, race conditions.</p>
-<p>To test for/debug race conditions, try running <code>make JOBS=1</code> and <code>make JOBS=100</code> and see if it makes any difference. (It shouldn’t).</p>
+<p>To test for/debug race conditions, try running <code>make JOBS=1</code> and <code>make JOBS=100</code> and see if it makes any difference. (It shouldn't).</p>
 <p>To compare the output of two different builds and see if, and how, they differ, run <code>$BUILD1/compare.sh -o $BUILD2</code>, where <code>$BUILD1</code> and <code>$BUILD2</code> are the two builds you want to compare.</p>
 <p>To automatically build two consecutive versions and compare them, use <code>COMPARE_BUILD</code>. The value of <code>COMPARE_BUILD</code> is a set of variable=value assignments, like this:</p>
 <pre><code>make COMPARE_BUILD=CONF=--enable-new-hotspot-feature:MAKE=hotspot</code></pre>
@@ -892,9 +885,9 @@
 <p>To analyze build performance, run with <code>LOG=trace</code> and check <code>$BUILD/build-trace-time.log</code>. Use <code>JOBS=1</code> to avoid parallelism.</p>
 <p>Please check that you adhere to the <a href="http://openjdk.java.net/groups/build/doc/code-conventions.html">Code Conventions for the Build System</a> before submitting patches.</p>
 <h2 id="contributing-to-the-jdk">Contributing to the JDK</h2>
-<p>So, now you’ve built your JDK, and made your first patch, and want to contribute it back to the OpenJDK Community.</p>
+<p>So, now you've built your JDK, and made your first patch, and want to contribute it back to the OpenJDK Community.</p>
 <p>First of all: Thank you! We gladly welcome your contribution. However, please bear in mind that the JDK is a massive project, and we must ask you to follow our rules and guidelines to be able to accept your contribution.</p>
-<p>The official place to start is the <a href="http://openjdk.java.net/contribute/">‘How to contribute’ page</a>. There is also an official (but somewhat outdated and skimpy on details) <a href="http://openjdk.java.net/guide/">Developer’s Guide</a>.</p>
-<p>If this seems overwhelming to you, the Adoption Group is there to help you! A good place to start is their <a href="https://wiki.openjdk.java.net/display/Adoption/New+Contributor">‘New Contributor’ page</a>, or start reading the comprehensive <a href="https://adoptopenjdk.gitbooks.io/adoptopenjdk-getting-started-kit/en/">Getting Started Kit</a>. The Adoption Group will also happily answer any questions you have about contributing. Contact them by <a href="http://mail.openjdk.java.net/mailman/listinfo/adoption-discuss">mail</a> or <a href="http://openjdk.java.net/irc/">IRC</a>.</p>
+<p>The official place to start is the <a href="http://openjdk.java.net/contribute/">'How to contribute' page</a>. There is also an official (but somewhat outdated and skimpy on details) <a href="http://openjdk.java.net/guide/">Developer's Guide</a>.</p>
+<p>If this seems overwhelming to you, the Adoption Group is there to help you! A good place to start is their <a href="https://wiki.openjdk.java.net/display/Adoption/New+Contributor">'New Contributor' page</a>, or start reading the comprehensive <a href="https://adoptopenjdk.gitbooks.io/adoptopenjdk-getting-started-kit/en/">Getting Started Kit</a>. The Adoption Group will also happily answer any questions you have about contributing. Contact them by <a href="http://mail.openjdk.java.net/mailman/listinfo/adoption-discuss">mail</a> or <a href="http://openjdk.java.net/irc/">IRC</a>.</p>
 </body>
 </html>
--- a/doc/building.md	Wed Jul 25 10:08:39 2018 +0100
+++ b/doc/building.md	Wed Jul 25 08:36:46 2018 -0700
@@ -233,9 +233,8 @@
 machine running macOS. See the section on [Apple Xcode](#apple-xcode) on some
 strategies to deal with this.
 
-It is recommended that you use at least Mac OS X 10.9 (Mavericks). At the time
-of writing, the JDK has been successfully compiled on macOS versions up to
-10.12.5 (Sierra), using XCode 8.3.2 and `--disable-warnings-as-errors`.
+It is recommended that you use at least Mac OS X 10.13 (High Sierra). At the time
+of writing, the JDK has been successfully compiled on macOS 10.12 (Sierra).
 
 The standard macOS environment contains the basic tooling needed to build, but
 for external libraries a package manager is recommended. The JDK uses
@@ -292,9 +291,9 @@
  Operating system   Toolchain version
  ------------------ -------------------------------------------------------
  Linux              gcc 7.3.0
- macOS              Apple Xcode 6.3 (using clang 6.1.0)
+ macOS              Apple Xcode 9.4 (using clang 9.1.0)
  Solaris            Oracle Solaris Studio 12.4 (with compiler version 5.13)
- Windows            Microsoft Visual Studio 2013 update 4
+ Windows            Microsoft Visual Studio 2017 update 15.5.5
 
 ### gcc
 
@@ -315,7 +314,7 @@
 
 ### Apple Xcode
 
-The oldest supported version of Xcode is 5.
+The oldest supported version of Xcode is 8.
 
 You will need the Xcode command lines developers tools to be able to build
 the JDK. (Actually, *only* the command lines tools are needed, not the IDE.)
@@ -330,7 +329,7 @@
 good suggestions on managing multiple Xcode versions. To use a specific version
 of Xcode, use `xcode-select -s` before running `configure`, or use
 `--with-toolchain-path` to point to the version of Xcode to use, e.g.
-`configure --with-toolchain-path=/Applications/Xcode5.app/Contents/Developer/usr/bin`
+`configure --with-toolchain-path=/Applications/Xcode8.app/Contents/Developer/usr/bin`
 
 If you have recently (inadvertently) updated your OS and/or Xcode version, and
 the JDK can no longer be built, please see the section on [Problems with the
@@ -372,11 +371,11 @@
 
 The minimum accepted version of Visual Studio is 2010. Older versions will not
 be accepted by `configure`. The maximum accepted version of Visual Studio is
-2013.
+2017. Versions older than 2017 are unlikely to continue working for long.
 
 If you have multiple versions of Visual Studio installed, `configure` will by
 default pick the latest. You can request a specific version to be used by
-setting `--with-toolchain-version`, e.g. `--with-toolchain-version=2010`.
+setting `--with-toolchain-version`, e.g. `--with-toolchain-version=2015`.
 
 If you get `LINK: fatal error LNK1123: failure during conversion to COFF: file
 invalid` when building using Visual Studio 2010, you have encountered