view src/share/classes/java/security/SecureRandom.java @ 4338:9b8c96f96a0f

Added tag jdk7-b147 for changeset f097ca2434b1
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date Mon, 27 Jun 2011 13:21:34 -0700
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/*
 * Copyright (c) 1996, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
 *
 * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
 * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
 * published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
 * particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
 * by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
 *
 * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
 * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
 * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
 * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
 * accompanied this code).
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
 * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
 * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
 *
 * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
 * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
 * questions.
 */

package java.security;

import java.util.*;

import java.security.Provider.Service;

import sun.security.jca.*;
import sun.security.jca.GetInstance.Instance;

/**
 * This class provides a cryptographically strong random number
 * generator (RNG).
 *
 * <p>A cryptographically strong random number
 * minimally complies with the statistical random number generator tests
 * specified in <a href="http://csrc.nist.gov/cryptval/140-2.htm">
 * <i>FIPS 140-2, Security Requirements for Cryptographic Modules</i></a>,
 * section 4.9.1.
 * Additionally, SecureRandom must produce non-deterministic output.
 * Therefore any seed material passed to a SecureRandom object must be
 * unpredictable, and all SecureRandom output sequences must be
 * cryptographically strong, as described in
 * <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1750.txt">
 * <i>RFC 1750: Randomness Recommendations for Security</i></a>.
 *
 * <p>A caller obtains a SecureRandom instance via the
 * no-argument constructor or one of the <code>getInstance</code> methods:
 *
 * <pre>
 *      SecureRandom random = new SecureRandom();
 * </pre>
 *
 * <p> Many SecureRandom implementations are in the form of a pseudo-random
 * number generator (PRNG), which means they use a deterministic algorithm
 * to produce a pseudo-random sequence from a true random seed.
 * Other implementations may produce true random numbers,
 * and yet others may use a combination of both techniques.
 *
 * <p> Typical callers of SecureRandom invoke the following methods
 * to retrieve random bytes:
 *
 * <pre>
 *      SecureRandom random = new SecureRandom();
 *      byte bytes[] = new byte[20];
 *      random.nextBytes(bytes);
 * </pre>
 *
 * <p> Callers may also invoke the <code>generateSeed</code> method
 * to generate a given number of seed bytes (to seed other random number
 * generators, for example):
 * <pre>
 *      byte seed[] = random.generateSeed(20);
 * </pre>
 *
 * Note: Depending on the implementation, the <code>generateSeed</code> and
 * <code>nextBytes</code> methods may block as entropy is being gathered,
 * for example, if they need to read from /dev/random on various unix-like
 * operating systems.
 *
 * @see java.security.SecureRandomSpi
 * @see java.util.Random
 *
 * @author Benjamin Renaud
 * @author Josh Bloch
 */

public class SecureRandom extends java.util.Random {

    /**
     * The provider.
     *
     * @serial
     * @since 1.2
     */
    private Provider provider = null;

    /**
     * The provider implementation.
     *
     * @serial
     * @since 1.2
     */
    private SecureRandomSpi secureRandomSpi = null;

    /*
     * The algorithm name of null if unknown.
     *
     * @serial
     * @since 1.5
     */
    private String algorithm;

    // Seed Generator
    private static volatile SecureRandom seedGenerator = null;

    /**
     * Constructs a secure random number generator (RNG) implementing the
     * default random number algorithm.
     *
     * <p> This constructor traverses the list of registered security Providers,
     * starting with the most preferred Provider.
     * A new SecureRandom object encapsulating the
     * SecureRandomSpi implementation from the first
     * Provider that supports a SecureRandom (RNG) algorithm is returned.
     * If none of the Providers support a RNG algorithm,
     * then an implementation-specific default is returned.
     *
     * <p> Note that the list of registered providers may be retrieved via
     * the {@link Security#getProviders() Security.getProviders()} method.
     *
     * <p> See the SecureRandom section in the <a href=
     * "{@docRoot}/../technotes/guides/security/StandardNames.html#SecureRandom">
     * Java Cryptography Architecture Standard Algorithm Name Documentation</a>
     * for information about standard RNG algorithm names.
     *
     * <p> The returned SecureRandom object has not been seeded.  To seed the
     * returned object, call the <code>setSeed</code> method.
     * If <code>setSeed</code> is not called, the first call to
     * <code>nextBytes</code> will force the SecureRandom object to seed itself.
     * This self-seeding will not occur if <code>setSeed</code> was
     * previously called.
     */
    public SecureRandom() {
        /*
         * This call to our superclass constructor will result in a call
         * to our own <code>setSeed</code> method, which will return
         * immediately when it is passed zero.
         */
        super(0);
        getDefaultPRNG(false, null);
    }

    /**
     * Constructs a secure random number generator (RNG) implementing the
     * default random number algorithm.
     * The SecureRandom instance is seeded with the specified seed bytes.
     *
     * <p> This constructor traverses the list of registered security Providers,
     * starting with the most preferred Provider.
     * A new SecureRandom object encapsulating the
     * SecureRandomSpi implementation from the first
     * Provider that supports a SecureRandom (RNG) algorithm is returned.
     * If none of the Providers support a RNG algorithm,
     * then an implementation-specific default is returned.
     *
     * <p> Note that the list of registered providers may be retrieved via
     * the {@link Security#getProviders() Security.getProviders()} method.
     *
     * <p> See the SecureRandom section in the <a href=
     * "{@docRoot}/../technotes/guides/security/StandardNames.html#SecureRandom">
     * Java Cryptography Architecture Standard Algorithm Name Documentation</a>
     * for information about standard RNG algorithm names.
     *
     * @param seed the seed.
     */
    public SecureRandom(byte seed[]) {
        super(0);
        getDefaultPRNG(true, seed);
    }

    private void getDefaultPRNG(boolean setSeed, byte[] seed) {
        String prng = getPrngAlgorithm();
        if (prng == null) {
            // bummer, get the SUN implementation
            prng = "SHA1PRNG";
            this.secureRandomSpi = new sun.security.provider.SecureRandom();
            this.provider = Providers.getSunProvider();
            if (setSeed) {
                this.secureRandomSpi.engineSetSeed(seed);
            }
        } else {
            try {
                SecureRandom random = SecureRandom.getInstance(prng);
                this.secureRandomSpi = random.getSecureRandomSpi();
                this.provider = random.getProvider();
                if (setSeed) {
                    this.secureRandomSpi.engineSetSeed(seed);
                }
            } catch (NoSuchAlgorithmException nsae) {
                // never happens, because we made sure the algorithm exists
                throw new RuntimeException(nsae);
            }
        }
        // JDK 1.1 based implementations subclass SecureRandom instead of
        // SecureRandomSpi. They will also go through this code path because
        // they must call a SecureRandom constructor as it is their superclass.
        // If we are dealing with such an implementation, do not set the
        // algorithm value as it would be inaccurate.
        if (getClass() == SecureRandom.class) {
            this.algorithm = prng;
        }
    }

    /**
     * Creates a SecureRandom object.
     *
     * @param secureRandomSpi the SecureRandom implementation.
     * @param provider the provider.
     */
    protected SecureRandom(SecureRandomSpi secureRandomSpi,
                           Provider provider) {
        this(secureRandomSpi, provider, null);
    }

    private SecureRandom(SecureRandomSpi secureRandomSpi, Provider provider,
            String algorithm) {
        super(0);
        this.secureRandomSpi = secureRandomSpi;
        this.provider = provider;
        this.algorithm = algorithm;
    }

    /**
     * Returns a SecureRandom object that implements the specified
     * Random Number Generator (RNG) algorithm.
     *
     * <p> This method traverses the list of registered security Providers,
     * starting with the most preferred Provider.
     * A new SecureRandom object encapsulating the
     * SecureRandomSpi implementation from the first
     * Provider that supports the specified algorithm is returned.
     *
     * <p> Note that the list of registered providers may be retrieved via
     * the {@link Security#getProviders() Security.getProviders()} method.
     *
     * <p> The returned SecureRandom object has not been seeded.  To seed the
     * returned object, call the <code>setSeed</code> method.
     * If <code>setSeed</code> is not called, the first call to
     * <code>nextBytes</code> will force the SecureRandom object to seed itself.
     * This self-seeding will not occur if <code>setSeed</code> was
     * previously called.
     *
     * @param algorithm the name of the RNG algorithm.
     * See the SecureRandom section in the <a href=
     * "{@docRoot}/../technotes/guides/security/StandardNames.html#SecureRandom">
     * Java Cryptography Architecture Standard Algorithm Name Documentation</a>
     * for information about standard RNG algorithm names.
     *
     * @return the new SecureRandom object.
     *
     * @exception NoSuchAlgorithmException if no Provider supports a
     *          SecureRandomSpi implementation for the
     *          specified algorithm.
     *
     * @see Provider
     *
     * @since 1.2
     */
    public static SecureRandom getInstance(String algorithm)
            throws NoSuchAlgorithmException {
        Instance instance = GetInstance.getInstance("SecureRandom",
            SecureRandomSpi.class, algorithm);
        return new SecureRandom((SecureRandomSpi)instance.impl,
            instance.provider, algorithm);
    }

    /**
     * Returns a SecureRandom object that implements the specified
     * Random Number Generator (RNG) algorithm.
     *
     * <p> A new SecureRandom object encapsulating the
     * SecureRandomSpi implementation from the specified provider
     * is returned.  The specified provider must be registered
     * in the security provider list.
     *
     * <p> Note that the list of registered providers may be retrieved via
     * the {@link Security#getProviders() Security.getProviders()} method.
     *
     * <p> The returned SecureRandom object has not been seeded.  To seed the
     * returned object, call the <code>setSeed</code> method.
     * If <code>setSeed</code> is not called, the first call to
     * <code>nextBytes</code> will force the SecureRandom object to seed itself.
     * This self-seeding will not occur if <code>setSeed</code> was
     * previously called.
     *
     * @param algorithm the name of the RNG algorithm.
     * See the SecureRandom section in the <a href=
     * "{@docRoot}/../technotes/guides/security/StandardNames.html#SecureRandom">
     * Java Cryptography Architecture Standard Algorithm Name Documentation</a>
     * for information about standard RNG algorithm names.
     *
     * @param provider the name of the provider.
     *
     * @return the new SecureRandom object.
     *
     * @exception NoSuchAlgorithmException if a SecureRandomSpi
     *          implementation for the specified algorithm is not
     *          available from the specified provider.
     *
     * @exception NoSuchProviderException if the specified provider is not
     *          registered in the security provider list.
     *
     * @exception IllegalArgumentException if the provider name is null
     *          or empty.
     *
     * @see Provider
     *
     * @since 1.2
     */
    public static SecureRandom getInstance(String algorithm, String provider)
            throws NoSuchAlgorithmException, NoSuchProviderException {
        Instance instance = GetInstance.getInstance("SecureRandom",
            SecureRandomSpi.class, algorithm, provider);
        return new SecureRandom((SecureRandomSpi)instance.impl,
            instance.provider, algorithm);
    }

    /**
     * Returns a SecureRandom object that implements the specified
     * Random Number Generator (RNG) algorithm.
     *
     * <p> A new SecureRandom object encapsulating the
     * SecureRandomSpi implementation from the specified Provider
     * object is returned.  Note that the specified Provider object
     * does not have to be registered in the provider list.
     *
     * <p> The returned SecureRandom object has not been seeded.  To seed the
     * returned object, call the <code>setSeed</code> method.
     * If <code>setSeed</code> is not called, the first call to
     * <code>nextBytes</code> will force the SecureRandom object to seed itself.
     * This self-seeding will not occur if <code>setSeed</code> was
     * previously called.
     *
     * @param algorithm the name of the RNG algorithm.
     * See the SecureRandom section in the <a href=
     * "{@docRoot}/../technotes/guides/security/StandardNames.html#SecureRandom">
     * Java Cryptography Architecture Standard Algorithm Name Documentation</a>
     * for information about standard RNG algorithm names.
     *
     * @param provider the provider.
     *
     * @return the new SecureRandom object.
     *
     * @exception NoSuchAlgorithmException if a SecureRandomSpi
     *          implementation for the specified algorithm is not available
     *          from the specified Provider object.
     *
     * @exception IllegalArgumentException if the specified provider is null.
     *
     * @see Provider
     *
     * @since 1.4
     */
    public static SecureRandom getInstance(String algorithm,
            Provider provider) throws NoSuchAlgorithmException {
        Instance instance = GetInstance.getInstance("SecureRandom",
            SecureRandomSpi.class, algorithm, provider);
        return new SecureRandom((SecureRandomSpi)instance.impl,
            instance.provider, algorithm);
    }

    /**
     * Returns the SecureRandomSpi of this SecureRandom object.
     */
    SecureRandomSpi getSecureRandomSpi() {
        return secureRandomSpi;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the provider of this SecureRandom object.
     *
     * @return the provider of this SecureRandom object.
     */
    public final Provider getProvider() {
        return provider;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the name of the algorithm implemented by this SecureRandom
     * object.
     *
     * @return the name of the algorithm or <code>unknown</code>
     *          if the algorithm name cannot be determined.
     * @since 1.5
     */
    public String getAlgorithm() {
        return (algorithm != null) ? algorithm : "unknown";
    }

    /**
     * Reseeds this random object. The given seed supplements, rather than
     * replaces, the existing seed. Thus, repeated calls are guaranteed
     * never to reduce randomness.
     *
     * @param seed the seed.
     *
     * @see #getSeed
     */
    synchronized public void setSeed(byte[] seed) {
        secureRandomSpi.engineSetSeed(seed);
    }

    /**
     * Reseeds this random object, using the eight bytes contained
     * in the given <code>long seed</code>. The given seed supplements,
     * rather than replaces, the existing seed. Thus, repeated calls
     * are guaranteed never to reduce randomness.
     *
     * <p>This method is defined for compatibility with
     * <code>java.util.Random</code>.
     *
     * @param seed the seed.
     *
     * @see #getSeed
     */
    public void setSeed(long seed) {
        /*
         * Ignore call from super constructor (as well as any other calls
         * unfortunate enough to be passing 0).  It's critical that we
         * ignore call from superclass constructor, as digest has not
         * yet been initialized at that point.
         */
        if (seed != 0) {
            secureRandomSpi.engineSetSeed(longToByteArray(seed));
        }
    }

    /**
     * Generates a user-specified number of random bytes.
     *
     * <p> If a call to <code>setSeed</code> had not occurred previously,
     * the first call to this method forces this SecureRandom object
     * to seed itself.  This self-seeding will not occur if
     * <code>setSeed</code> was previously called.
     *
     * @param bytes the array to be filled in with random bytes.
     */

    synchronized public void nextBytes(byte[] bytes) {
        secureRandomSpi.engineNextBytes(bytes);
    }

    /**
     * Generates an integer containing the user-specified number of
     * pseudo-random bits (right justified, with leading zeros).  This
     * method overrides a <code>java.util.Random</code> method, and serves
     * to provide a source of random bits to all of the methods inherited
     * from that class (for example, <code>nextInt</code>,
     * <code>nextLong</code>, and <code>nextFloat</code>).
     *
     * @param numBits number of pseudo-random bits to be generated, where
     * 0 <= <code>numBits</code> <= 32.
     *
     * @return an <code>int</code> containing the user-specified number
     * of pseudo-random bits (right justified, with leading zeros).
     */
    final protected int next(int numBits) {
        int numBytes = (numBits+7)/8;
        byte b[] = new byte[numBytes];
        int next = 0;

        nextBytes(b);
        for (int i = 0; i < numBytes; i++)
            next = (next << 8) + (b[i] & 0xFF);

        return next >>> (numBytes*8 - numBits);
    }

    /**
     * Returns the given number of seed bytes, computed using the seed
     * generation algorithm that this class uses to seed itself.  This
     * call may be used to seed other random number generators.
     *
     * <p>This method is only included for backwards compatibility.
     * The caller is encouraged to use one of the alternative
     * <code>getInstance</code> methods to obtain a SecureRandom object, and
     * then call the <code>generateSeed</code> method to obtain seed bytes
     * from that object.
     *
     * @param numBytes the number of seed bytes to generate.
     *
     * @return the seed bytes.
     *
     * @see #setSeed
     */
    public static byte[] getSeed(int numBytes) {
        if (seedGenerator == null)
            seedGenerator = new SecureRandom();
        return seedGenerator.generateSeed(numBytes);
    }

    /**
     * Returns the given number of seed bytes, computed using the seed
     * generation algorithm that this class uses to seed itself.  This
     * call may be used to seed other random number generators.
     *
     * @param numBytes the number of seed bytes to generate.
     *
     * @return the seed bytes.
     */
    public byte[] generateSeed(int numBytes) {
        return secureRandomSpi.engineGenerateSeed(numBytes);
    }

    /**
     * Helper function to convert a long into a byte array (least significant
     * byte first).
     */
    private static byte[] longToByteArray(long l) {
        byte[] retVal = new byte[8];

        for (int i = 0; i < 8; i++) {
            retVal[i] = (byte) l;
            l >>= 8;
        }

        return retVal;
    }

    /**
     * Gets a default PRNG algorithm by looking through all registered
     * providers. Returns the first PRNG algorithm of the first provider that
     * has registered a SecureRandom implementation, or null if none of the
     * registered providers supplies a SecureRandom implementation.
     */
    private static String getPrngAlgorithm() {
        for (Provider p : Providers.getProviderList().providers()) {
            for (Service s : p.getServices()) {
                if (s.getType().equals("SecureRandom")) {
                    return s.getAlgorithm();
                }
            }
        }
        return null;
    }

    // Declare serialVersionUID to be compatible with JDK1.1
    static final long serialVersionUID = 4940670005562187L;

    // Retain unused values serialized from JDK1.1
    /**
     * @serial
     */
    private byte[] state;
    /**
     * @serial
     */
    private MessageDigest digest = null;
    /**
     * @serial
     *
     * We know that the MessageDigest class does not implement
     * java.io.Serializable.  However, since this field is no longer
     * used, it will always be NULL and won't affect the serialization
     * of the SecureRandom class itself.
     */
    private byte[] randomBytes;
    /**
     * @serial
     */
    private int randomBytesUsed;
    /**
     * @serial
     */
    private long counter;
}