This README file contains build instructions for the OpenJDK. Building the source code for the OpenJDK requires a certain degree of technical expertise.
- Minimum Build Environments
- Specific Developer Build Environments
- Source Directory Structure
- Build Information
- GNU Make (gmake)
- Basic Linux System Setup
- Basic Solaris System Setup
- Basic Windows System Setup
- Build Dependencies
- Creating the Build
- Testing the Build
- Environment/Make Variables
This file often describes specific requirements for what we call the "minimum build environments" (MBE) for the JDK. Building with the MBE will generate the most compatible bits that install on, and run correctly on, the most variations of the same base OS and hardware architecture. These usually represent what is often called the least common denominator platforms. It is understood that most developers will NOT be using these specific platforms, and in fact creating these specific platforms may be difficult due to the age of some of this software.
The minimum OS and C/C++ compiler versions needed for building the OpenJDK:
Base OS and Architecture OS Compiler Linux X86 (32bit) Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 gcc 4 Linux X64 (64bit) Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 gcc 4 Solaris SPARC (32bit) Solaris 10 + patches
See SunSolve for patch downloads.
Sun Studio 11 Solaris SPARCV9 (64bit) Solaris 10 + patches
See SunSolve for patch downloads.
Sun Studio 11 Solaris X86 (32bit) Solaris 10 + patches
See SunSolve for patch downloads.
Sun Studio 11 Solaris X64 (64bit) Solaris 10 + patches
See SunSolve for patch downloads.
Sun Studio 11 Windows X86 (32bit) Windows XP Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003 Professional Windows X64 (64bit) Windows Server 2003 - Enterprise x64 Edition Microsoft Platform SDK - April 2005
We won't be listing all the possible environments, but we will try to provide what information we have available to us.
In addition to needing the Bootstrap JDK and the Binary Plugs, when building on Ubuntu you will need to make sure certain packages are installed. In particular, certain X11 packages, make, m4, gawk, gcc 4, binutils, cups, freetype and alsa.
The following list of packages for Ubuntu 6.06 is a working set that does appear to work.
Note that it's quite possible that some of these packages are not required, so anyone discovering that some of the packages listed below are NOT required, please let the OpenJDK team know.
All the packages below can be installed with the Synaptic Package manager provided with the base Ubuntu 6.06 release.
- binutils (2.16.1cvs20060117-1ubuntu2.1)
- cpp (4:4.0.3-1)
- cpp-4.0 (4.0.3-1ubuntu5)
- g++ (4:4.0.3-1)
- g++-4.0 (4.0.3-1ubuntu5)
- gawk (1:3.1.5-2build1)
- gcc (4:4.0.3-1)
- gcc-4.0 (4.0.3-1ubuntu5)
- libasound2-dev (1.0.10-2ubuntu4)
- libc6 (2.3.6-0ubuntu20) to 2.3.6-0ubuntu20.4
- libc6-dev (2.3.6-0ubuntu20.4)
- libc6-i686 (2.3.6-0ubuntu20) to 2.3.6-0ubuntu20.4
- libcupsys2-dev (1.2.2-0ubuntu0.6.06)
- libgcrypt11-dev (1.2.2-1)
- libgnutls-dev (1.2.9-2ubuntu1.1)
- libgnutls12 (1.2.9-2ubuntu1) to 1.2.9-2ubuntu1.1
- libgpg-error-dev (1.1-4)
- libice-dev (2:1.0.0-0ubuntu2)
- liblockfile1 (1.06.1)
- libopencdk8-dev (0.5.7-2)
- libpopt-dev (1.7-5)
- libsm-dev (2:1.0.0-0ubuntu2)
- libstdc++6-4.0-dev (4.0.3-1ubuntu5)
- libtasn1-2-dev (0.2.17-1ubuntu1)
- libx11-dev (2:1.0.0-0ubuntu9)
- libxau-dev (1:1.0.0-0ubuntu4)
- libxaw-headers (2:1.0.1-0ubuntu3)
- libxaw7-dev (2:1.0.1-0ubuntu3)
- libxdmcp-dev (1:1.0.0-0ubuntu2)
- libxext-dev (2:1.0.0-0ubuntu4)
- libxi-dev (2:1.0.0-0ubuntu3)
- libxmu-dev (2:1.0.0-0ubuntu3)
- libxmu-headers (2:1.0.0-0ubuntu3)
- libxmuu-dev (2:1.0.0-0ubuntu3)
- libxp-dev (6.8.2-11ubuntu2)
- libxpm-dev (1:188.8.131.52-0ubuntu3)
- libxrandr-dev (1:184.108.40.206-0ubuntu4)
- libxt-dev (1:1.0.0-0ubuntu3)
- libxtrap-dev (2:1.0.0-0ubuntu2)
- libxtst-dev (2:1.0.1-0ubuntu2)
- libxv-dev (2:1.0.1-0ubuntu3)
- linux-kernel-headers (220.127.116.11-0ubuntu18)
- m4 (1.4.4-1)
- make (3.80+3.81.b4-1)
- ssl-cert (1.0.13)
- x-dev (7.0.4-0ubuntu2)
- x11proto-core-dev (7.0.4-0ubuntu2)
- x11proto-input-dev (1.3.2-0ubuntu2)
- x11proto-kb-dev (1.0.2-0ubuntu2)
- x11proto-randr-dev (1.1.2-0ubuntu2)
- x11proto-record-dev (1.13.2-0ubuntu2)
- x11proto-trap-dev (3.4.3-0ubuntu2)
- x11proto-video-dev (2.2.2-0ubuntu2)
- x11proto-xext-dev (7.0.2-0ubuntu2)
- xlibs-dev (7.0.0-0ubuntu45)
- zlib1g-dev (1:1.2.3-6ubuntu4)
Using the Synaptic Package Manager, download the following packages (double indented packages are automatically aquired due to package dependencies):
The source code for the OpenJDK is delivered in 3 sibling directories: hotspot, langtools, corba, jaxws, jaxp, jdk and The hotspot directory contains the source code and make files for building the OpenJDK Hotspot Virtual Machine. The jdk directory contains the source code and make files for building the OpenJDK runtime libraries, tools and demos. The top level Makefile is used to build the complete OpenJDK release including building the hotspot VM, staging the VM binaries, and building the OpenJDK runtime libraries, tools and demos.
Building the OpenJDK is done with a gmake command line and various environment or make variable settings that direct the make rules to where various components have been installed. Where possible the makefiles will attempt to located the various components in the default locations or any component specific variable settings. When the normal defaults fail or components cannot be found, the various ALT_* variables (alternates) can be used to help the makefiles locate components.
Refer to the bash/sh/ksh setup file jdk/make/jdk_generic_profile.sh if you need help in setting up your environment variables. A build could be as simple as:bash . jdk/make/jdk_generic_profile.sh gmake sanity && gmake
Of course ksh or sh would work too. But some customization will probably be necessary. The sanity rule will make some basic checks on build dependencies and generate appropriate warning messages regarding missing, out of date, or newer than expected components found on your system.
The Makefiles in the OpenJDK are only valid when used with the GNU version of the utility command make (gmake). A few notes about using GNU make:
- In general, you need GNU make version 3.78.1 or newer.
- Place the location of the GNU make binary in the PATH.
- Linux: The /usr/bin/make command should work fine for you.
- Solaris: Do NOT use /usr/bin/make on Solaris. If your Solaris system has the software from the Solaris Companion CD installed, you should use gmake which will be located in either the /opt/sfw/bin or /usr/sfw/bin directory.
- Windows: Make sure you start your build inside a bash/sh/ksh shell.
WARNING: Watch out for make version 3.81, it may not work due to a lack of support for drive letter paths like C:/. Use a 3.80 version, or find a newer version that has this problem fixed.
Information on GNU make, and access to ftp download sites, are available on the GNU make web site . The latest source to GNU make is available at ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/make/.
i586 only: The minimum recommended hardware for building the Linux version is a Pentium class processor or better, at least 256 MB of RAM, and approximately 1.5 GB of free disk space.
X64 only: The minimum recommended hardware for building the Linux version is an AMD Opteron class processor, at least 512 MB of RAM, and approximately 4 GB of free disk space.
The build will use the tools contained in /bin and /usr/bin of a standard installation of the Linux operating environment. You should ensure that these directories are in your PATH.
Note that some Linux systems have a habit of pre-populating your environment variables for you, for example JAVA_HOME might get pre-defined for you to refer to the JDK installed on your Linux system. You will need to unset JAVA_HOME. It's a good idea to run env and verify the environment variables you are getting from the default system settings make sense for building the OpenJDK.
- Install the Bootstrap JDK, set ALT_BOOTDIR.
- Install the Binary Plugs, set ALT_BINARY_PLUGS_PATH.
- Install or upgrade the FreeType development package.
The minimum recommended hardware for building the Solaris SPARC version is an UltraSPARC with 512 MB of RAM. For building the Solaris x86 version, a Pentium class processor or better and at least 128 MB of RAM are recommended. Approximately 1.4 GB of free disk space is needed for a 32-bit build.
If you are building the 64bit version, you should run the command "isainfo -v" to verify that you have a 64-bit installation. An additional 7 GB of free disk space is needed for a 64-bit build.
The build uses the tools contained in /usr/ccs/bin and /usr/bin of a standard developer or full installation of the Solaris operating environment.
- Install the Bootstrap JDK, set ALT_BOOTDIR.
- Install the Binary Plugs, set ALT_BINARY_PLUGS_PATH.
- Install the Sun Studio Compilers, set ALT_COMPILER_PATH.
- Install the CUPS Include files, set ALT_CUPS_HEADERS_PATH.
i586 only: The minimum recommended hardware for building the 32bit or X86 Windows version is an Pentium class processor or better, at least 512 MB of RAM, and approximately 600 MB of free disk space. NOTE: The Windows 2000 build machines need to use the file system NTFS. Build machines formatted to FAT32 will not work because FAT32 doesn't support case-sensitivity in file names.
X64 only: The minimum recommended hardware for building the Windows X64 version is an AMD Opteron class processor, at least 1 GB of RAM, and approximately 10 GB of free disk space.
Windows: Note that GNU make is a historic utility and is based very heavily on shell scripting, so it does not tolerate the Windows habit of having spaces in pathnames or the use of the \characters in pathnames. Luckily on most Windows systems, you can use /instead of \, and there is always a 'short' pathname without spaces for any path that contains spaces. Unfortunately, this short pathname can be somewhat dynamic and the formula is difficult to explain. You can use cygpath utility to map pathnames with spaces or the \character into the C:/ style of pathname (called 'mixed'), e.g. cygpath -s -m "path".
The makefiles will try to translate any pathnames supplied to it into the C:/ style automatically.
Note that use of CYGWIN creates a unique problem with regards to setting PATH. Normally on Windows the PATH variable contains directories separated with the ";" character (Solaris and Linux uses ":"). With CYGWIN, it uses ":", but that means that paths like "C:/path" cannot be placed in the CYGWIN version of PATH and instead CYGWIN uses something like /cygdrive/c/path which CYGWIN understands, but only CYGWIN understands. So be careful with paths on Windows.
- Install the CYGWIN product.
- Install the Bootstrap JDK, set ALT_BOOTDIR.
- Install the Binary Plugs, set ALT_BINARY_PLUGS_PATH..
- Install the Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003 Professional or the Microsoft Platform SDK.
- Setup all environment variables for compilers (see compilers).
- Install Microsoft DirectX SDK.
Depending on the platform, the OpenJDK build process has some basic dependencies on components not part of the OpenJDK sources. Some of these are specific to a platform, some even specific to an architecture. Each dependency will have a set of ALT variables that can be set to tell the makefiles where to locate the component. In most cases setting these ALT variables may not be necessary and the makefiles will find defaults on the system in standard install locations or through component specific variables.
All OpenJDK builds require access to the previously released JDK 6, this is often called a bootstrap JDK. The JDK 6 binaries can be downloaded from Sun's JDK 6 download site. For build performance reasons is very important that this bootstrap JDK be made available on the local disk of the machine doing the build. You should always set ALT_BOOTDIR to point to the location of the bootstrap JDK installation, this is the directory pathname that contains a bin, lib, and include It's also a good idea to also place its bin directory in the PATH environment variable, although it's not required.
Solaris: Some pre-installed JDK images may be available to you in the directory /usr/jdk/instances. If you don't set ALT_BOOTDIR the makefiles will look in that location for a JDK it can use.
Not all of the source code that makes up the JDK is available under an open-source license. In order to build an OpenJDK binary from source code, you must first download and install the appropriate binary plug bundles from the OpenJDK Download area. During the OpenJDK build process these "binary plugs" for the encumbered components will be copied into your resulting OpenJDK binary build image. These binary plug files are only for the purpose of building an OpenJDK binary. Download the Binary Plugs by selecting the Downloads link at the OpenJDK site, install the bundle, and make sure you set ALT_BINARY_PLUGS_PATH to the root of this installation.
Certificate Authority File (cacert)
See www.wikipedia.org/wiki/CAcert for a better understanding of the Certificate Authority (CA). A certificates file named "cacerts" represents a system-wide keystore with CA certificates. In JDK and JRE binary bundles, the "cacerts" file contains root CA certificates from several public CAs (e.g., VeriSign, Thawte, and Baltimore). The source contain a cacerts file without CA root certificates. Formal JDK builders will need to secure permission from each public CA and include the certificates into their own custom cacerts file. Failure to provide a populated cacerts file will result in verification errors of a certificate chain during runtime. The variable ALT_CACERTS_FILE can be used to override the default location of the cacerts file that will get placed in your build. By default an empty cacerts file is provided and that should be fine for most JDK developers.
CompilersLinux gcc/binutilsSolaris: Sun Studio
The GNU gcc compiler version should be 3.2.2 or newer. The binutils package should be 18.104.22.168.2-11 or newer. The compiler used should be the default compiler installed in /usr/bin.Windows i586: Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003 Professional
At a minimum, the Sun Studio 11 Compilers (containing version 5.8 of the C and C++ compilers) is required, with patches from the SunSolve web site.
Set ALT_COMPILER_PATH to point to the location of the compiler binaries, and place this location in the PATH.
The Sun Studio Express compilers at: Sun Studio Express Download site are also an option, although these compilers have not been extensively used yet.Windows X64: Microsoft Platform SDK April 2005
The 32-bit OpenJDK Windows build requires Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003 (VS2003) Professional Edition compiler. The compiler and other tools are expected to reside in the location defined by the variable VS71COMNTOOLS which is set by the Microsoft Visual Studio .NET installer.
Once the compiler is installed, it is recommended that you run VCVARS32.BAT to set the compiler environment variables MSVCDIR, INCLUDE, LIB, and PATH prior to building the OpenJDK. The above environment variables MUST be set.
The Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2005 (VS2005) compiler will not work at this time due to the new runtime dll and the manifest requirements.
On X64, the Microsoft Platform Software Development Kit (SDK), April 2005 Edition compiler, is required for building the OpenJDK because it contains the C/C++ compiler. You will need to minimally install the Core SDK and the MDAC SDK features of this compiler.
Once the Platform SDK is installed, it is recommended that you run SetEnv.Cmd /X64 to set the compiler environment variables MSSDK, MSTOOLS, INCLUDE, LIB, and PATH prior to building the OpenJDK. The above environment variables MUST be set.
Note that this compiler may say it's version is a Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2005 (VS2005), but be careful, it will not match the official VS2005 product. This Platform SDK compiler is only used on X64 builds.
Common UNIX Printing System (CUPS) Headers (Solaris & Linux)
Solaris: CUPS header files are required for building the OpenJDK on Solaris. The Solaris header files can be obtained by installing the package SFWcups from the Solaris Software Companion CD/DVD, these often will be installed into /opt/sfw/cups.
Linux: CUPS header files are required for building the OpenJDK on Linux. The Linux header files are usually available from a "cups" development package, it's recommended that you try and use the package provided by the particular version of Linux that you are using.
The CUPS header files can always be downloaded from www.cups.org. The variable ALT_CUPS_HEADERS_PATH can be used to override the default location of the CUPS Header files.
Version 2.3 or newer of FreeType is required for building the OpenJDK. On Unix systems required files can be available as part of your distribution (while you still may need to upgrade them). Note that you need development version of package that includes both FreeType library and header files.
You can always download latest FreeType version from the FreeType website.
Makefiles will try to pick FreeType from /usr/lib and /usr/include. In case it is installed elsewhere you will need to set environment variables ALT_FREETYPE_LIB_PATH and ALT_FREETYPE_HEADERS_PATH to refer to place where library and header files are installed.
Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) (Linux only)
Linux only: Version 0.9.1 or newer of the ALSA files are required for building the OpenJDK on Linux. These Linux files are usually available from an "alsa" of "libasound" development package, it's recommended that you try and use the package provided by the particular version of Linux that you are using. The makefiles will check this emit a sanity error if it is missing or the wrong version. As a last resort you can go to the Advanced Linux Sound Architecture Site.
Windows Specific DependenciesUnix Command Tools (CYGWIN)Microsoft DirectX 9.0 SDK header files and libraries
The OpenJDK requires access to a set of unix command tools on Windows which can be supplied by CYGWIN.
The OpenJDK build requires CYGWIN version 1.5.12 or newer. Information about CYGWIN can be obtained from the CYGWIN website at www.cygwin.com.
By default CYGWIN doesn't install all the tools required for building the OpenJDK. Along with the default installation, you need to install the following tools.
Binary Name Package Description ar.exe Devel binutils: The GNU assembler, linker and binary utilities make.exe Devel make: The GNU version of the 'make' utility m4.exe Interpreters m4: GNU implementation of the traditional Unix macro processor cpio.exe Utils cpio: A program to manage archives of files file.exe Utils file: Determines file type using 'magic' numbersMSVCRT.DLL
Microsoft DirectX 9.0 SDK (Summer 2004) headers are required for building OpenJDK. This SDK can be downloaded from Microsoft DirectX 9.0 SDK (Summer 2004). If the link above becomes obsolete, the SDK can be found from the Microsoft Download Site (search with "DirectX 9.0 SDK Update Summer 2004"). The location of this SDK can be set with ALT_DXSDK_PATH but it's normally found via the DirectX environment variable DXSDK_DIR.MSVCR71.DLL
i586 only: The OpenJDK 32bit build requires access to MSVCRT.DLL version 6.00.8337.0 or newer. If the MSVCRT.DLL is not installed in the system32 directory set the ALT_MSVCRT_DLL_PATH variable to the location.
X64 only: The OpenJDK 64bit build requires access to MSVCRT.DLL version 7.0.3790.0 or newer, which is usually supplied by the Platform SDK. If it is not available from the Platform SDK, set the ALT_MSVCRT_DLL_PATH variable to the location.
i586 only: The OpenJDK build requires access to MSVCR71.DLL version 7.10.3052.4 or newer which should be supplied by the Visual Studio product If the MSVCR71.DLL is not available from the Visual Studio product set the ALT_MSVCR71_DLL_PATH variable to the location.
Once a machine is setup to build the OpenJDK, the steps to create the build are fairly simple. The various ALT settings can either be made into variables or can be supplied on the gmake command.
- Use the sanity rule to double check all the ALT settings:gmake sanity [ARCH_DATA_MODEL=32 or 64] [other "ALT_" overrides]
- Start the build with the command:gmake [ARCH_DATA_MODEL=32 or 64] [ALT_OUTPUTDIR=output_directory] [other "ALT_" overrides]
Solaris: Note that ARCH_DATA_MODEL is really only needed on Solaris to indicate you want to built the 64-bit version. And before the Solaris 64-bit binaries can be used, they must be merged with the binaries from a separate 32-bit build. The merged binaries may then be used in either 32-bit or 64-bit mode, with the selection occurring at runtime with the -d32 or -d64 options.
When the build is completed, you should see the generated binaries and associated files in the j2sdk-image directory in the output directory. The default output directory is build/platform, where platform is one of
In particular, the build/platform/j2sdk-image/bin directory should contain executables for the OpenJDK tools and utilities.
You can test that the build completed properly by using the build to run the various demos that you will find in the build/platform/j2sdk-image/demo directory.
The provided regression tests can be run with the jtreg utility from the jtreg site.
Some of the environment or make variables (just called variables in this document) that can impact the build are:
- Typically you want to set the PATH to include:
- The ARCH_DATA_MODEL variable is used to specify whether the build is to generate 32-bit or 64-bit binaries. The Solaris build supports either 32-bit or 64-bit builds, but Windows and Linux will support only one, depending on the specific OS being used. Normally, setting this variable is only necessary on Solaris. Set ARCH_DATA_MODEL to 32 for generating 32-bit binaries, or to 64 for generating 64-bit binaries.
- The location of the bootstrap JDK installation. See Bootstrap JDK for more information. You should always install your own local Bootstrap JDK and always set ALT_BOOTDIR explicitly.
- An override for specifying the (absolute) path of where the build output is to go. The default output directory will be build/platform.
- The location of the C/C++ compiler. The default varies depending on the platform.
- The location of the cacerts file. The default will refer to jdk/src/share/lib/security/cacerts.
- The location of the binary plugs installation. See Binary Plugs for more information. You should always have a local copy of a recent Binary Plugs install image and set this variable to that location.
- The location of the CUPS header files. See CUPS information for more information. If this path does not exist the fallback path is /usr/include.
- The location of the FreeType shared library. See FreeType information for details.
- The location of the FreeType header files. See FreeType information for details.
- Windows specific:
- The location of the Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003 tools 'bin' directory. The default is usually derived from ALT_COMPILER_PATH.
- The location of the Microsoft DirectX 9 SDK. The default will be to try and use the DirectX environment variable DXSDK_DIR, failing that, look in C:/DXSDK.
- The location of the MSVCRT.DLL.
- i586 only: The location of the MSVCR71.DLL.
A build can fail for any number of reasons. Most failures are a result of trying to build in an environment in which all the pre-build requirements have not been met. The first step in troubleshooting a build failure is to recheck that you have satisfied all the pre-build requirements for your platform. Look for the check list of the platform you are building on in the Table of Contents.
You can validate your build environment by using the sanity target. Any errors listed will stop the build from starting, and any warnings may result in a flawed product build. We strongly encourage you to evaluate every sanity check warning and fix it if required, before you proceed further with your build.
Some of the more common problems with builds are briefly described below, with suggestions for remedies.
- Slow Builds:
If your build machine seems to be overloaded from too many simultaneous C++ compiles, try setting the HOTSPOT_BUILD_JOBS variable to 1 (if you're using a multiple CPU machine, setting it to more than the the number of CPUs is probably not a good idea).
Creating the javadocs can be very slow, if you are running javadoc, consider skipping that step.
Faster hardware and more RAM always helps too. The VM build tends to be CPU intensive (many C++ compiles), and the rest of the JDK will often be disk intensive.
Faster compiles are possible using a tool called ccache.
- File time issues:
If you see warnings that refer to file time stamps, e.g.Warning message: File `xxx' has modification time in the future.
Warning message: Clock skew detected. Your build may be incomplete.
These warnings can occur when the clock on the build machine is out of sync with the timestamps on the source files. Other errors, apparently unrelated but in fact caused by the clock skew, can occur along with the clock skew warnings. These secondary errors may tend to obscure the fact that the true root cause of the problem is an out-of-sync clock. For example, an out-of-sync clock has been known to cause an old version of javac to be used to compile some files, resulting in errors when the pre-1.4 compiler ran across the new assert keyword in the 1.4 source code.
If you see these warnings, reset the clock on the build machine, run "gmake clobber" or delete the directory containing the build output, and restart the build from the beginning.
- Error message: Trouble writing out table to disk
Increase the amount of swap space on your build machine.
- Error Message: libstdc++ not found:This is caused by a missing libstdc++.a library. This is installed as part of a specific package (e.g. libstdc++.so.devel.386). By default some 64bit Linux versions (e.g. Fedora) only install the 64bit version of the libstdc++ package. Various parts of the JDK build require a static link of the C++ runtime libraries to allow for maximum portability of the built images.
- Error Message: cannot restore segment prot after relocThis is probably an issue with SELinux (See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SELinux). Parts of the VM is built without the -fPIC for performance reasons.
To completely disable SELinux:
- $ su root
- # system-config-securitylevel
- In the window that appears, select the SELinux tab
- Disable SELinux
Alternatively, instead of completely disabling it you could disable just this one check.
- Select System->Administration->SELinux Management
- In the SELinux Management Tool which appears, select "Boolean" from the menu on the left
- Expand the "Memory Protection" group
- Check the first item, labeled "Allow all unconfined executables to use libraries requiring text relocation ..."