changeset 3398:29f2e311cce7

6728865: Provide a better heuristics for Collections.disjoint method Reviewed-by: alanb, dholmes, chegar, forax
author mduigou
date Thu, 13 Jan 2011 20:32:12 -0800
parents 3215b22cd90e
children 59e352561146
files src/share/classes/java/util/Collections.java
diffstat 1 files changed, 66 insertions(+), 20 deletions(-) [+]
line wrap: on
line diff
--- a/src/share/classes/java/util/Collections.java	Thu Jan 13 16:33:07 2011 +0000
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/util/Collections.java	Thu Jan 13 20:32:12 2011 -0800
@@ -3713,45 +3713,91 @@
     }
 
     /**
-     * Returns <tt>true</tt> if the two specified collections have no
+     * Returns {@code true} if the two specified collections have no
      * elements in common.
      *
      * <p>Care must be exercised if this method is used on collections that
-     * do not comply with the general contract for <tt>Collection</tt>.
+     * do not comply with the general contract for {@code Collection}.
      * Implementations may elect to iterate over either collection and test
      * for containment in the other collection (or to perform any equivalent
      * computation).  If either collection uses a nonstandard equality test
-     * (as does a {@link SortedSet} whose ordering is not <i>compatible with
-     * equals</i>, or the key set of an {@link IdentityHashMap}), both
+     * (as does a {@link SortedSet} whose ordering is not <em>compatible with
+     * equals</em>, or the key set of an {@link IdentityHashMap}), both
      * collections must use the same nonstandard equality test, or the
      * result of this method is undefined.
      *
+     * <p>Care must also be exercised when using collections that have
+     * restrictions on the elements that they may contain. Collection
+     * implementations are allowed to throw exceptions for any operation
+     * involving elements they deem ineligible. For absolute safety the
+     * specified collections should contain only elements which are
+     * eligible elements for both collections.
+     *
      * <p>Note that it is permissible to pass the same collection in both
-     * parameters, in which case the method will return true if and only if
-     * the collection is empty.
+     * parameters, in which case the method will return {@code true} if and
+     * only if the collection is empty.
      *
      * @param c1 a collection
      * @param c2 a collection
-     * @throws NullPointerException if either collection is null
+     * @return {@code true} if the two specified collections have no
+     * elements in common.
+     * @throws NullPointerException if either collection is {@code null}.
+     * @throws NullPointerException if one collection contains a {@code null}
+     * element and {@code null} is not an eligible element for the other collection.
+     * (optional)
+     * @throws ClassCastException if one collection contains an element that is
+     * of a type which is ineligible for the other collection. (optional)
      * @since 1.5
      */
     public static boolean disjoint(Collection<?> c1, Collection<?> c2) {
-        /*
-         * We're going to iterate through c1 and test for inclusion in c2.
-         * If c1 is a Set and c2 isn't, swap the collections.  Otherwise,
-         * place the shorter collection in c1.  Hopefully this heuristic
-         * will minimize the cost of the operation.
-         */
-        if ((c1 instanceof Set) && !(c2 instanceof Set) ||
-            (c1.size() > c2.size())) {
-            Collection<?> tmp = c1;
-            c1 = c2;
-            c2 = tmp;
+        // The collection to be used for contains(). Preference is given to
+        // the collection who's contains() has lower O() complexity.
+        Collection<?> contains = c2;
+        // The collection to be iterated. If the collections' contains() impl
+        // are of different O() complexity, the collection with slower
+        // contains() will be used for iteration. For collections who's
+        // contains() are of the same complexity then best performance is
+        // achieved by iterating the smaller collection.
+        Collection<?> iterate = c1;
+
+        // Performance optimization cases. The heuristics:
+        //   1. Generally iterate over c1.
+        //   2. If c1 is a Set then iterate over c2.
+        //   3. If either collection is empty then result is always true.
+        //   4. Iterate over the smaller Collection.
+        if (c1 instanceof Set) {
+            // Use c1 for contains as a Set's contains() is expected to perform
+            // better than O(N/2)
+            iterate = c2;
+            contains = c1;
+        } else if (!(c2 instanceof Set)) {
+            // Both are mere Collections. Iterate over smaller collection.
+            // Example: If c1 contains 3 elements and c2 contains 50 elements and
+            // assuming contains() requires ceiling(N/2) comparisons then
+            // checking for all c1 elements in c2 would require 75 comparisons
+            // (3 * ceiling(50/2)) vs. checking all c2 elements in c1 requiring
+            // 100 comparisons (50 * ceiling(3/2)).
+            int c1size = c1.size();
+            int c2size = c2.size();
+            if (c1size == 0 || c2size == 0) {
+                // At least one collection is empty. Nothing will match.
+                return true;
+            }
+
+            if (c1size > c2size) {
+                iterate = c2;
+                contains = c1;
+            }
         }
 
-        for (Object e : c1)
-            if (c2.contains(e))
+        for (Object e : iterate) {
+            if (contains.contains(e)) {
+               // Found a common element. Collections are not disjoint.
                 return false;
+            }
+        }
+
+        // No common elements were found.
         return true;
     }