view src/share/vm/gc_implementation/g1/g1CollectedHeap.cpp @ 5761:b86041bd7b99

8010722: assert: failed: heap size is too big for compressed oops Summary: Use conservative assumptions of required alignment for the various garbage collector components into account when determining the maximum heap size that supports compressed oops. Using this conservative value avoids several circular dependencies in the calculation. Reviewed-by: stefank, dholmes
author tschatzl
date Tue, 18 Apr 2017 06:37:32 +0100
parents 682dd189a958
children 935f879e4eb0
line wrap: on
line source
/*
 * Copyright (c) 2001, 2014, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
 *
 * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
 * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
 * published by the Free Software Foundation.
 *
 * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
 * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
 * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
 * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
 * accompanied this code).
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
 * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
 * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
 *
 * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
 * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
 * questions.
 *
 */

#include "precompiled.hpp"
#include "code/codeCache.hpp"
#include "code/icBuffer.hpp"
#include "gc_implementation/g1/bufferingOopClosure.hpp"
#include "gc_implementation/g1/concurrentG1Refine.hpp"
#include "gc_implementation/g1/concurrentG1RefineThread.hpp"
#include "gc_implementation/g1/concurrentMarkThread.inline.hpp"
#include "gc_implementation/g1/g1AllocRegion.inline.hpp"
#include "gc_implementation/g1/g1CollectedHeap.inline.hpp"
#include "gc_implementation/g1/g1CollectorPolicy.hpp"
#include "gc_implementation/g1/g1ErgoVerbose.hpp"
#include "gc_implementation/g1/g1EvacFailure.hpp"
#include "gc_implementation/g1/g1GCPhaseTimes.hpp"
#include "gc_implementation/g1/g1Log.hpp"
#include "gc_implementation/g1/g1MarkSweep.hpp"
#include "gc_implementation/g1/g1OopClosures.inline.hpp"
#include "gc_implementation/g1/g1RemSet.inline.hpp"
#include "gc_implementation/g1/g1YCTypes.hpp"
#include "gc_implementation/g1/heapRegion.inline.hpp"
#include "gc_implementation/g1/heapRegionRemSet.hpp"
#include "gc_implementation/g1/heapRegionSeq.inline.hpp"
#include "gc_implementation/g1/vm_operations_g1.hpp"
#include "gc_implementation/shared/gcHeapSummary.hpp"
#include "gc_implementation/shared/gcTimer.hpp"
#include "gc_implementation/shared/gcTrace.hpp"
#include "gc_implementation/shared/gcTraceTime.hpp"
#include "gc_implementation/shared/isGCActiveMark.hpp"
#include "memory/gcLocker.inline.hpp"
#include "memory/genOopClosures.inline.hpp"
#include "memory/generationSpec.hpp"
#include "memory/referenceProcessor.hpp"
#include "oops/oop.inline.hpp"
#include "oops/oop.pcgc.inline.hpp"
#include "runtime/aprofiler.hpp"
#include "runtime/vmThread.hpp"
#include "utilities/ticks.hpp"

size_t G1CollectedHeap::_humongous_object_threshold_in_words = 0;

// turn it on so that the contents of the young list (scan-only /
// to-be-collected) are printed at "strategic" points before / during
// / after the collection --- this is useful for debugging
#define YOUNG_LIST_VERBOSE 0
// CURRENT STATUS
// This file is under construction.  Search for "FIXME".

// INVARIANTS/NOTES
//
// All allocation activity covered by the G1CollectedHeap interface is
// serialized by acquiring the HeapLock.  This happens in mem_allocate
// and allocate_new_tlab, which are the "entry" points to the
// allocation code from the rest of the JVM.  (Note that this does not
// apply to TLAB allocation, which is not part of this interface: it
// is done by clients of this interface.)

// Notes on implementation of parallelism in different tasks.
//
// G1ParVerifyTask uses heap_region_par_iterate_chunked() for parallelism.
// The number of GC workers is passed to heap_region_par_iterate_chunked().
// It does use run_task() which sets _n_workers in the task.
// G1ParTask executes g1_process_strong_roots() ->
// SharedHeap::process_strong_roots() which calls eventually to
// CardTableModRefBS::par_non_clean_card_iterate_work() which uses
// SequentialSubTasksDone.  SharedHeap::process_strong_roots() also
// directly uses SubTasksDone (_process_strong_tasks field in SharedHeap).
//

// Local to this file.

class RefineCardTableEntryClosure: public CardTableEntryClosure {
  SuspendibleThreadSet* _sts;
  G1RemSet* _g1rs;
  ConcurrentG1Refine* _cg1r;
  bool _concurrent;
public:
  RefineCardTableEntryClosure(SuspendibleThreadSet* sts,
                              G1RemSet* g1rs,
                              ConcurrentG1Refine* cg1r) :
    _sts(sts), _g1rs(g1rs), _cg1r(cg1r), _concurrent(true)
  {}
  bool do_card_ptr(jbyte* card_ptr, int worker_i) {
    bool oops_into_cset = _g1rs->refine_card(card_ptr, worker_i, false);
    // This path is executed by the concurrent refine or mutator threads,
    // concurrently, and so we do not care if card_ptr contains references
    // that point into the collection set.
    assert(!oops_into_cset, "should be");

    if (_concurrent && _sts->should_yield()) {
      // Caller will actually yield.
      return false;
    }
    // Otherwise, we finished successfully; return true.
    return true;
  }
  void set_concurrent(bool b) { _concurrent = b; }
};


class ClearLoggedCardTableEntryClosure: public CardTableEntryClosure {
  int _calls;
  G1CollectedHeap* _g1h;
  CardTableModRefBS* _ctbs;
  int _histo[256];
public:
  ClearLoggedCardTableEntryClosure() :
    _calls(0), _g1h(G1CollectedHeap::heap()), _ctbs(_g1h->g1_barrier_set())
  {
    for (int i = 0; i < 256; i++) _histo[i] = 0;
  }
  bool do_card_ptr(jbyte* card_ptr, int worker_i) {
    if (_g1h->is_in_reserved(_ctbs->addr_for(card_ptr))) {
      _calls++;
      unsigned char* ujb = (unsigned char*)card_ptr;
      int ind = (int)(*ujb);
      _histo[ind]++;
      *card_ptr = -1;
    }
    return true;
  }
  int calls() { return _calls; }
  void print_histo() {
    gclog_or_tty->print_cr("Card table value histogram:");
    for (int i = 0; i < 256; i++) {
      if (_histo[i] != 0) {
        gclog_or_tty->print_cr("  %d: %d", i, _histo[i]);
      }
    }
  }
};

class RedirtyLoggedCardTableEntryClosure: public CardTableEntryClosure {
  int _calls;
  G1CollectedHeap* _g1h;
  CardTableModRefBS* _ctbs;
public:
  RedirtyLoggedCardTableEntryClosure() :
    _calls(0), _g1h(G1CollectedHeap::heap()), _ctbs(_g1h->g1_barrier_set()) {}

  bool do_card_ptr(jbyte* card_ptr, int worker_i) {
    if (_g1h->is_in_reserved(_ctbs->addr_for(card_ptr))) {
      _calls++;
      *card_ptr = 0;
    }
    return true;
  }
  int calls() { return _calls; }
};

class RedirtyLoggedCardTableEntryFastClosure : public CardTableEntryClosure {
public:
  bool do_card_ptr(jbyte* card_ptr, int worker_i) {
    *card_ptr = CardTableModRefBS::dirty_card_val();
    return true;
  }
};

YoungList::YoungList(G1CollectedHeap* g1h) :
    _g1h(g1h), _head(NULL), _length(0), _last_sampled_rs_lengths(0),
    _survivor_head(NULL), _survivor_tail(NULL), _survivor_length(0) {
  guarantee(check_list_empty(false), "just making sure...");
}

void YoungList::push_region(HeapRegion *hr) {
  assert(!hr->is_young(), "should not already be young");
  assert(hr->get_next_young_region() == NULL, "cause it should!");

  hr->set_next_young_region(_head);
  _head = hr;

  _g1h->g1_policy()->set_region_eden(hr, (int) _length);
  ++_length;
}

void YoungList::add_survivor_region(HeapRegion* hr) {
  assert(hr->is_survivor(), "should be flagged as survivor region");
  assert(hr->get_next_young_region() == NULL, "cause it should!");

  hr->set_next_young_region(_survivor_head);
  if (_survivor_head == NULL) {
    _survivor_tail = hr;
  }
  _survivor_head = hr;
  ++_survivor_length;
}

void YoungList::empty_list(HeapRegion* list) {
  while (list != NULL) {
    HeapRegion* next = list->get_next_young_region();
    list->set_next_young_region(NULL);
    list->uninstall_surv_rate_group();
    list->set_not_young();
    list = next;
  }
}

void YoungList::empty_list() {
  assert(check_list_well_formed(), "young list should be well formed");

  empty_list(_head);
  _head = NULL;
  _length = 0;

  empty_list(_survivor_head);
  _survivor_head = NULL;
  _survivor_tail = NULL;
  _survivor_length = 0;

  _last_sampled_rs_lengths = 0;

  assert(check_list_empty(false), "just making sure...");
}

bool YoungList::check_list_well_formed() {
  bool ret = true;

  uint length = 0;
  HeapRegion* curr = _head;
  HeapRegion* last = NULL;
  while (curr != NULL) {
    if (!curr->is_young()) {
      gclog_or_tty->print_cr("### YOUNG REGION "PTR_FORMAT"-"PTR_FORMAT" "
                             "incorrectly tagged (y: %d, surv: %d)",
                             curr->bottom(), curr->end(),
                             curr->is_young(), curr->is_survivor());
      ret = false;
    }
    ++length;
    last = curr;
    curr = curr->get_next_young_region();
  }
  ret = ret && (length == _length);

  if (!ret) {
    gclog_or_tty->print_cr("### YOUNG LIST seems not well formed!");
    gclog_or_tty->print_cr("###   list has %u entries, _length is %u",
                           length, _length);
  }

  return ret;
}

bool YoungList::check_list_empty(bool check_sample) {
  bool ret = true;

  if (_length != 0) {
    gclog_or_tty->print_cr("### YOUNG LIST should have 0 length, not %u",
                  _length);
    ret = false;
  }
  if (check_sample && _last_sampled_rs_lengths != 0) {
    gclog_or_tty->print_cr("### YOUNG LIST has non-zero last sampled RS lengths");
    ret = false;
  }
  if (_head != NULL) {
    gclog_or_tty->print_cr("### YOUNG LIST does not have a NULL head");
    ret = false;
  }
  if (!ret) {
    gclog_or_tty->print_cr("### YOUNG LIST does not seem empty");
  }

  return ret;
}

void
YoungList::rs_length_sampling_init() {
  _sampled_rs_lengths = 0;
  _curr               = _head;
}

bool
YoungList::rs_length_sampling_more() {
  return _curr != NULL;
}

void
YoungList::rs_length_sampling_next() {
  assert( _curr != NULL, "invariant" );
  size_t rs_length = _curr->rem_set()->occupied();

  _sampled_rs_lengths += rs_length;

  // The current region may not yet have been added to the
  // incremental collection set (it gets added when it is
  // retired as the current allocation region).
  if (_curr->in_collection_set()) {
    // Update the collection set policy information for this region
    _g1h->g1_policy()->update_incremental_cset_info(_curr, rs_length);
  }

  _curr = _curr->get_next_young_region();
  if (_curr == NULL) {
    _last_sampled_rs_lengths = _sampled_rs_lengths;
    // gclog_or_tty->print_cr("last sampled RS lengths = %d", _last_sampled_rs_lengths);
  }
}

void
YoungList::reset_auxilary_lists() {
  guarantee( is_empty(), "young list should be empty" );
  assert(check_list_well_formed(), "young list should be well formed");

  // Add survivor regions to SurvRateGroup.
  _g1h->g1_policy()->note_start_adding_survivor_regions();
  _g1h->g1_policy()->finished_recalculating_age_indexes(true /* is_survivors */);

  int young_index_in_cset = 0;
  for (HeapRegion* curr = _survivor_head;
       curr != NULL;
       curr = curr->get_next_young_region()) {
    _g1h->g1_policy()->set_region_survivor(curr, young_index_in_cset);

    // The region is a non-empty survivor so let's add it to
    // the incremental collection set for the next evacuation
    // pause.
    _g1h->g1_policy()->add_region_to_incremental_cset_rhs(curr);
    young_index_in_cset += 1;
  }
  assert((uint) young_index_in_cset == _survivor_length, "post-condition");
  _g1h->g1_policy()->note_stop_adding_survivor_regions();

  _head   = _survivor_head;
  _length = _survivor_length;
  if (_survivor_head != NULL) {
    assert(_survivor_tail != NULL, "cause it shouldn't be");
    assert(_survivor_length > 0, "invariant");
    _survivor_tail->set_next_young_region(NULL);
  }

  // Don't clear the survivor list handles until the start of
  // the next evacuation pause - we need it in order to re-tag
  // the survivor regions from this evacuation pause as 'young'
  // at the start of the next.

  _g1h->g1_policy()->finished_recalculating_age_indexes(false /* is_survivors */);

  assert(check_list_well_formed(), "young list should be well formed");
}

void YoungList::print() {
  HeapRegion* lists[] = {_head,   _survivor_head};
  const char* names[] = {"YOUNG", "SURVIVOR"};

  for (unsigned int list = 0; list < ARRAY_SIZE(lists); ++list) {
    gclog_or_tty->print_cr("%s LIST CONTENTS", names[list]);
    HeapRegion *curr = lists[list];
    if (curr == NULL)
      gclog_or_tty->print_cr("  empty");
    while (curr != NULL) {
      gclog_or_tty->print_cr("  "HR_FORMAT", P: "PTR_FORMAT "N: "PTR_FORMAT", age: %4d",
                             HR_FORMAT_PARAMS(curr),
                             curr->prev_top_at_mark_start(),
                             curr->next_top_at_mark_start(),
                             curr->age_in_surv_rate_group_cond());
      curr = curr->get_next_young_region();
    }
  }

  gclog_or_tty->print_cr("");
}

void G1CollectedHeap::push_dirty_cards_region(HeapRegion* hr)
{
  // Claim the right to put the region on the dirty cards region list
  // by installing a self pointer.
  HeapRegion* next = hr->get_next_dirty_cards_region();
  if (next == NULL) {
    HeapRegion* res = (HeapRegion*)
      Atomic::cmpxchg_ptr(hr, hr->next_dirty_cards_region_addr(),
                          NULL);
    if (res == NULL) {
      HeapRegion* head;
      do {
        // Put the region to the dirty cards region list.
        head = _dirty_cards_region_list;
        next = (HeapRegion*)
          Atomic::cmpxchg_ptr(hr, &_dirty_cards_region_list, head);
        if (next == head) {
          assert(hr->get_next_dirty_cards_region() == hr,
                 "hr->get_next_dirty_cards_region() != hr");
          if (next == NULL) {
            // The last region in the list points to itself.
            hr->set_next_dirty_cards_region(hr);
          } else {
            hr->set_next_dirty_cards_region(next);
          }
        }
      } while (next != head);
    }
  }
}

HeapRegion* G1CollectedHeap::pop_dirty_cards_region()
{
  HeapRegion* head;
  HeapRegion* hr;
  do {
    head = _dirty_cards_region_list;
    if (head == NULL) {
      return NULL;
    }
    HeapRegion* new_head = head->get_next_dirty_cards_region();
    if (head == new_head) {
      // The last region.
      new_head = NULL;
    }
    hr = (HeapRegion*)Atomic::cmpxchg_ptr(new_head, &_dirty_cards_region_list,
                                          head);
  } while (hr != head);
  assert(hr != NULL, "invariant");
  hr->set_next_dirty_cards_region(NULL);
  return hr;
}

void G1CollectedHeap::stop_conc_gc_threads() {
  _cg1r->stop();
  _cmThread->stop();
}

#ifdef ASSERT
// A region is added to the collection set as it is retired
// so an address p can point to a region which will be in the
// collection set but has not yet been retired.  This method
// therefore is only accurate during a GC pause after all
// regions have been retired.  It is used for debugging
// to check if an nmethod has references to objects that can
// be move during a partial collection.  Though it can be
// inaccurate, it is sufficient for G1 because the conservative
// implementation of is_scavengable() for G1 will indicate that
// all nmethods must be scanned during a partial collection.
bool G1CollectedHeap::is_in_partial_collection(const void* p) {
  HeapRegion* hr = heap_region_containing(p);
  return hr != NULL && hr->in_collection_set();
}
#endif

// Returns true if the reference points to an object that
// can move in an incremental collection.
bool G1CollectedHeap::is_scavengable(const void* p) {
  G1CollectedHeap* g1h = G1CollectedHeap::heap();
  G1CollectorPolicy* g1p = g1h->g1_policy();
  HeapRegion* hr = heap_region_containing(p);
  if (hr == NULL) {
     // perm gen (or null)
     return false;
  } else {
    return !hr->isHumongous();
  }
}

void G1CollectedHeap::check_ct_logs_at_safepoint() {
  DirtyCardQueueSet& dcqs = JavaThread::dirty_card_queue_set();
  CardTableModRefBS* ct_bs = g1_barrier_set();

  // Count the dirty cards at the start.
  CountNonCleanMemRegionClosure count1(this);
  ct_bs->mod_card_iterate(&count1);
  int orig_count = count1.n();

  // First clear the logged cards.
  ClearLoggedCardTableEntryClosure clear;
  dcqs.set_closure(&clear);
  dcqs.apply_closure_to_all_completed_buffers();
  dcqs.iterate_closure_all_threads(false);
  clear.print_histo();

  // Now ensure that there's no dirty cards.
  CountNonCleanMemRegionClosure count2(this);
  ct_bs->mod_card_iterate(&count2);
  if (count2.n() != 0) {
    gclog_or_tty->print_cr("Card table has %d entries; %d originally",
                           count2.n(), orig_count);
  }
  guarantee(count2.n() == 0, "Card table should be clean.");

  RedirtyLoggedCardTableEntryClosure redirty;
  JavaThread::dirty_card_queue_set().set_closure(&redirty);
  dcqs.apply_closure_to_all_completed_buffers();
  dcqs.iterate_closure_all_threads(false);
  gclog_or_tty->print_cr("Log entries = %d, dirty cards = %d.",
                         clear.calls(), orig_count);
  guarantee(redirty.calls() == clear.calls(),
            "Or else mechanism is broken.");

  CountNonCleanMemRegionClosure count3(this);
  ct_bs->mod_card_iterate(&count3);
  if (count3.n() != orig_count) {
    gclog_or_tty->print_cr("Should have restored them all: orig = %d, final = %d.",
                           orig_count, count3.n());
    guarantee(count3.n() >= orig_count, "Should have restored them all.");
  }

  JavaThread::dirty_card_queue_set().set_closure(_refine_cte_cl);
}

// Private class members.

G1CollectedHeap* G1CollectedHeap::_g1h;

// Private methods.

HeapRegion*
G1CollectedHeap::new_region_try_secondary_free_list() {
  MutexLockerEx x(SecondaryFreeList_lock, Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
  while (!_secondary_free_list.is_empty() || free_regions_coming()) {
    if (!_secondary_free_list.is_empty()) {
      if (G1ConcRegionFreeingVerbose) {
        gclog_or_tty->print_cr("G1ConcRegionFreeing [region alloc] : "
                               "secondary_free_list has %u entries",
                               _secondary_free_list.length());
      }
      // It looks as if there are free regions available on the
      // secondary_free_list. Let's move them to the free_list and try
      // again to allocate from it.
      append_secondary_free_list();

      assert(!_free_list.is_empty(), "if the secondary_free_list was not "
             "empty we should have moved at least one entry to the free_list");
      HeapRegion* res = _free_list.remove_head();
      if (G1ConcRegionFreeingVerbose) {
        gclog_or_tty->print_cr("G1ConcRegionFreeing [region alloc] : "
                               "allocated "HR_FORMAT" from secondary_free_list",
                               HR_FORMAT_PARAMS(res));
      }
      return res;
    }

    // Wait here until we get notified either when (a) there are no
    // more free regions coming or (b) some regions have been moved on
    // the secondary_free_list.
    SecondaryFreeList_lock->wait(Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
  }

  if (G1ConcRegionFreeingVerbose) {
    gclog_or_tty->print_cr("G1ConcRegionFreeing [region alloc] : "
                           "could not allocate from secondary_free_list");
  }
  return NULL;
}

HeapRegion* G1CollectedHeap::new_region(size_t word_size, bool do_expand) {
  assert(!isHumongous(word_size) || word_size <= HeapRegion::GrainWords,
         "the only time we use this to allocate a humongous region is "
         "when we are allocating a single humongous region");

  HeapRegion* res;
  if (G1StressConcRegionFreeing) {
    if (!_secondary_free_list.is_empty()) {
      if (G1ConcRegionFreeingVerbose) {
        gclog_or_tty->print_cr("G1ConcRegionFreeing [region alloc] : "
                               "forced to look at the secondary_free_list");
      }
      res = new_region_try_secondary_free_list();
      if (res != NULL) {
        return res;
      }
    }
  }
  res = _free_list.remove_head_or_null();
  if (res == NULL) {
    if (G1ConcRegionFreeingVerbose) {
      gclog_or_tty->print_cr("G1ConcRegionFreeing [region alloc] : "
                             "res == NULL, trying the secondary_free_list");
    }
    res = new_region_try_secondary_free_list();
  }
  if (res == NULL && do_expand && _expand_heap_after_alloc_failure) {
    // Currently, only attempts to allocate GC alloc regions set
    // do_expand to true. So, we should only reach here during a
    // safepoint. If this assumption changes we might have to
    // reconsider the use of _expand_heap_after_alloc_failure.
    assert(SafepointSynchronize::is_at_safepoint(), "invariant");

    ergo_verbose1(ErgoHeapSizing,
                  "attempt heap expansion",
                  ergo_format_reason("region allocation request failed")
                  ergo_format_byte("allocation request"),
                  word_size * HeapWordSize);
    if (expand(word_size * HeapWordSize)) {
      // Given that expand() succeeded in expanding the heap, and we
      // always expand the heap by an amount aligned to the heap
      // region size, the free list should in theory not be empty. So
      // it would probably be OK to use remove_head(). But the extra
      // check for NULL is unlikely to be a performance issue here (we
      // just expanded the heap!) so let's just be conservative and
      // use remove_head_or_null().
      res = _free_list.remove_head_or_null();
    } else {
      _expand_heap_after_alloc_failure = false;
    }
  }
  return res;
}

uint G1CollectedHeap::humongous_obj_allocate_find_first(uint num_regions,
                                                        size_t word_size) {
  assert(isHumongous(word_size), "word_size should be humongous");
  assert(num_regions * HeapRegion::GrainWords >= word_size, "pre-condition");

  uint first = G1_NULL_HRS_INDEX;
  if (num_regions == 1) {
    // Only one region to allocate, no need to go through the slower
    // path. The caller will attempt the expansion if this fails, so
    // let's not try to expand here too.
    HeapRegion* hr = new_region(word_size, false /* do_expand */);
    if (hr != NULL) {
      first = hr->hrs_index();
    } else {
      first = G1_NULL_HRS_INDEX;
    }
  } else {
    // We can't allocate humongous regions while cleanupComplete() is
    // running, since some of the regions we find to be empty might not
    // yet be added to the free list and it is not straightforward to
    // know which list they are on so that we can remove them. Note
    // that we only need to do this if we need to allocate more than
    // one region to satisfy the current humongous allocation
    // request. If we are only allocating one region we use the common
    // region allocation code (see above).
    wait_while_free_regions_coming();
    append_secondary_free_list_if_not_empty_with_lock();

    if (free_regions() >= num_regions) {
      first = _hrs.find_contiguous(num_regions);
      if (first != G1_NULL_HRS_INDEX) {
        for (uint i = first; i < first + num_regions; ++i) {
          HeapRegion* hr = region_at(i);
          assert(hr->is_empty(), "sanity");
          assert(is_on_master_free_list(hr), "sanity");
          hr->set_pending_removal(true);
        }
        _free_list.remove_all_pending(num_regions);
      }
    }
  }
  return first;
}

HeapWord*
G1CollectedHeap::humongous_obj_allocate_initialize_regions(uint first,
                                                           uint num_regions,
                                                           size_t word_size) {
  assert(first != G1_NULL_HRS_INDEX, "pre-condition");
  assert(isHumongous(word_size), "word_size should be humongous");
  assert(num_regions * HeapRegion::GrainWords >= word_size, "pre-condition");

  // Index of last region in the series + 1.
  uint last = first + num_regions;

  // We need to initialize the region(s) we just discovered. This is
  // a bit tricky given that it can happen concurrently with
  // refinement threads refining cards on these regions and
  // potentially wanting to refine the BOT as they are scanning
  // those cards (this can happen shortly after a cleanup; see CR
  // 6991377). So we have to set up the region(s) carefully and in
  // a specific order.

  // The word size sum of all the regions we will allocate.
  size_t word_size_sum = (size_t) num_regions * HeapRegion::GrainWords;
  assert(word_size <= word_size_sum, "sanity");

  // This will be the "starts humongous" region.
  HeapRegion* first_hr = region_at(first);
  // The header of the new object will be placed at the bottom of
  // the first region.
  HeapWord* new_obj = first_hr->bottom();
  // This will be the new end of the first region in the series that
  // should also match the end of the last region in the series.
  HeapWord* new_end = new_obj + word_size_sum;
  // This will be the new top of the first region that will reflect
  // this allocation.
  HeapWord* new_top = new_obj + word_size;

  // First, we need to zero the header of the space that we will be
  // allocating. When we update top further down, some refinement
  // threads might try to scan the region. By zeroing the header we
  // ensure that any thread that will try to scan the region will
  // come across the zero klass word and bail out.
  //
  // NOTE: It would not have been correct to have used
  // CollectedHeap::fill_with_object() and make the space look like
  // an int array. The thread that is doing the allocation will
  // later update the object header to a potentially different array
  // type and, for a very short period of time, the klass and length
  // fields will be inconsistent. This could cause a refinement
  // thread to calculate the object size incorrectly.
  Copy::fill_to_words(new_obj, oopDesc::header_size(), 0);

  // We will set up the first region as "starts humongous". This
  // will also update the BOT covering all the regions to reflect
  // that there is a single object that starts at the bottom of the
  // first region.
  first_hr->set_startsHumongous(new_top, new_end);

  // Then, if there are any, we will set up the "continues
  // humongous" regions.
  HeapRegion* hr = NULL;
  for (uint i = first + 1; i < last; ++i) {
    hr = region_at(i);
    hr->set_continuesHumongous(first_hr);
  }
  // If we have "continues humongous" regions (hr != NULL), then the
  // end of the last one should match new_end.
  assert(hr == NULL || hr->end() == new_end, "sanity");

  // Up to this point no concurrent thread would have been able to
  // do any scanning on any region in this series. All the top
  // fields still point to bottom, so the intersection between
  // [bottom,top] and [card_start,card_end] will be empty. Before we
  // update the top fields, we'll do a storestore to make sure that
  // no thread sees the update to top before the zeroing of the
  // object header and the BOT initialization.
  OrderAccess::storestore();

  // Now that the BOT and the object header have been initialized,
  // we can update top of the "starts humongous" region.
  assert(first_hr->bottom() < new_top && new_top <= first_hr->end(),
         "new_top should be in this region");
  first_hr->set_top(new_top);
  if (_hr_printer.is_active()) {
    HeapWord* bottom = first_hr->bottom();
    HeapWord* end = first_hr->orig_end();
    if ((first + 1) == last) {
      // the series has a single humongous region
      _hr_printer.alloc(G1HRPrinter::SingleHumongous, first_hr, new_top);
    } else {
      // the series has more than one humongous regions
      _hr_printer.alloc(G1HRPrinter::StartsHumongous, first_hr, end);
    }
  }

  // Now, we will update the top fields of the "continues humongous"
  // regions. The reason we need to do this is that, otherwise,
  // these regions would look empty and this will confuse parts of
  // G1. For example, the code that looks for a consecutive number
  // of empty regions will consider them empty and try to
  // re-allocate them. We can extend is_empty() to also include
  // !continuesHumongous(), but it is easier to just update the top
  // fields here. The way we set top for all regions (i.e., top ==
  // end for all regions but the last one, top == new_top for the
  // last one) is actually used when we will free up the humongous
  // region in free_humongous_region().
  hr = NULL;
  for (uint i = first + 1; i < last; ++i) {
    hr = region_at(i);
    if ((i + 1) == last) {
      // last continues humongous region
      assert(hr->bottom() < new_top && new_top <= hr->end(),
             "new_top should fall on this region");
      hr->set_top(new_top);
      _hr_printer.alloc(G1HRPrinter::ContinuesHumongous, hr, new_top);
    } else {
      // not last one
      assert(new_top > hr->end(), "new_top should be above this region");
      hr->set_top(hr->end());
      _hr_printer.alloc(G1HRPrinter::ContinuesHumongous, hr, hr->end());
    }
  }
  // If we have continues humongous regions (hr != NULL), then the
  // end of the last one should match new_end and its top should
  // match new_top.
  assert(hr == NULL ||
         (hr->end() == new_end && hr->top() == new_top), "sanity");

  assert(first_hr->used() == word_size * HeapWordSize, "invariant");
  _summary_bytes_used += first_hr->used();
  _humongous_set.add(first_hr);

  return new_obj;
}

// If could fit into free regions w/o expansion, try.
// Otherwise, if can expand, do so.
// Otherwise, if using ex regions might help, try with ex given back.
HeapWord* G1CollectedHeap::humongous_obj_allocate(size_t word_size) {
  assert_heap_locked_or_at_safepoint(true /* should_be_vm_thread */);

  verify_region_sets_optional();

  size_t word_size_rounded = round_to(word_size, HeapRegion::GrainWords);
  uint num_regions = (uint) (word_size_rounded / HeapRegion::GrainWords);
  uint x_num = expansion_regions();
  uint fs = _hrs.free_suffix();
  uint first = humongous_obj_allocate_find_first(num_regions, word_size);
  if (first == G1_NULL_HRS_INDEX) {
    // The only thing we can do now is attempt expansion.
    if (fs + x_num >= num_regions) {
      // If the number of regions we're trying to allocate for this
      // object is at most the number of regions in the free suffix,
      // then the call to humongous_obj_allocate_find_first() above
      // should have succeeded and we wouldn't be here.
      //
      // We should only be trying to expand when the free suffix is
      // not sufficient for the object _and_ we have some expansion
      // room available.
      assert(num_regions > fs, "earlier allocation should have succeeded");

      ergo_verbose1(ErgoHeapSizing,
                    "attempt heap expansion",
                    ergo_format_reason("humongous allocation request failed")
                    ergo_format_byte("allocation request"),
                    word_size * HeapWordSize);
      if (expand((num_regions - fs) * HeapRegion::GrainBytes)) {
        // Even though the heap was expanded, it might not have
        // reached the desired size. So, we cannot assume that the
        // allocation will succeed.
        first = humongous_obj_allocate_find_first(num_regions, word_size);
      }
    }
  }

  HeapWord* result = NULL;
  if (first != G1_NULL_HRS_INDEX) {
    result =
      humongous_obj_allocate_initialize_regions(first, num_regions, word_size);
    assert(result != NULL, "it should always return a valid result");

    // A successful humongous object allocation changes the used space
    // information of the old generation so we need to recalculate the
    // sizes and update the jstat counters here.
    g1mm()->update_sizes();
  }

  verify_region_sets_optional();

  return result;
}

HeapWord* G1CollectedHeap::allocate_new_tlab(size_t word_size) {
  assert_heap_not_locked_and_not_at_safepoint();
  assert(!isHumongous(word_size), "we do not allow humongous TLABs");

  unsigned int dummy_gc_count_before;
  return attempt_allocation(word_size, &dummy_gc_count_before);
}

HeapWord*
G1CollectedHeap::mem_allocate(size_t word_size,
                              bool*  gc_overhead_limit_was_exceeded) {
  assert_heap_not_locked_and_not_at_safepoint();

  // Loop until the allocation is satisfied, or unsatisfied after GC.
  for (int try_count = 1; /* we'll return */; try_count += 1) {
    unsigned int gc_count_before;

    HeapWord* result = NULL;
    if (!isHumongous(word_size)) {
      result = attempt_allocation(word_size, &gc_count_before);
    } else {
      result = attempt_allocation_humongous(word_size, &gc_count_before);
    }
    if (result != NULL) {
      return result;
    }

    // Create the garbage collection operation...
    VM_G1CollectForAllocation op(gc_count_before, word_size);
    // ...and get the VM thread to execute it.
    VMThread::execute(&op);

    if (op.prologue_succeeded() && op.pause_succeeded()) {
      // If the operation was successful we'll return the result even
      // if it is NULL. If the allocation attempt failed immediately
      // after a Full GC, it's unlikely we'll be able to allocate now.
      HeapWord* result = op.result();
      if (result != NULL && !isHumongous(word_size)) {
        // Allocations that take place on VM operations do not do any
        // card dirtying and we have to do it here. We only have to do
        // this for non-humongous allocations, though.
        dirty_young_block(result, word_size);
      }
      return result;
    } else {
      assert(op.result() == NULL,
             "the result should be NULL if the VM op did not succeed");
    }

    // Give a warning if we seem to be looping forever.
    if ((QueuedAllocationWarningCount > 0) &&
        (try_count % QueuedAllocationWarningCount == 0)) {
      warning("G1CollectedHeap::mem_allocate retries %d times", try_count);
    }
  }

  ShouldNotReachHere();
  return NULL;
}

HeapWord* G1CollectedHeap::attempt_allocation_slow(size_t word_size,
                                           unsigned int *gc_count_before_ret) {
  // Make sure you read the note in attempt_allocation_humongous().

  assert_heap_not_locked_and_not_at_safepoint();
  assert(!isHumongous(word_size), "attempt_allocation_slow() should not "
         "be called for humongous allocation requests");

  // We should only get here after the first-level allocation attempt
  // (attempt_allocation()) failed to allocate.

  // We will loop until a) we manage to successfully perform the
  // allocation or b) we successfully schedule a collection which
  // fails to perform the allocation. b) is the only case when we'll
  // return NULL.
  HeapWord* result = NULL;
  for (int try_count = 1; /* we'll return */; try_count += 1) {
    bool should_try_gc;
    unsigned int gc_count_before;

    {
      MutexLockerEx x(Heap_lock);

      result = _mutator_alloc_region.attempt_allocation_locked(word_size,
                                                      false /* bot_updates */);
      if (result != NULL) {
        return result;
      }

      // If we reach here, attempt_allocation_locked() above failed to
      // allocate a new region. So the mutator alloc region should be NULL.
      assert(_mutator_alloc_region.get() == NULL, "only way to get here");

      if (GC_locker::is_active_and_needs_gc()) {
        if (g1_policy()->can_expand_young_list()) {
          // No need for an ergo verbose message here,
          // can_expand_young_list() does this when it returns true.
          result = _mutator_alloc_region.attempt_allocation_force(word_size,
                                                      false /* bot_updates */);
          if (result != NULL) {
            return result;
          }
        }
        should_try_gc = false;
      } else {
        // The GCLocker may not be active but the GCLocker initiated
        // GC may not yet have been performed (GCLocker::needs_gc()
        // returns true). In this case we do not try this GC and
        // wait until the GCLocker initiated GC is performed, and
        // then retry the allocation.
        if (GC_locker::needs_gc()) {
          should_try_gc = false;
        } else {
          // Read the GC count while still holding the Heap_lock.
          gc_count_before = total_collections();
          should_try_gc = true;
        }
      }
    }

    if (should_try_gc) {
      bool succeeded;
      result = do_collection_pause(word_size, gc_count_before, &succeeded);
      if (result != NULL) {
        assert(succeeded, "only way to get back a non-NULL result");
        return result;
      }

      if (succeeded) {
        // If we get here we successfully scheduled a collection which
        // failed to allocate. No point in trying to allocate
        // further. We'll just return NULL.
        MutexLockerEx x(Heap_lock);
        *gc_count_before_ret = total_collections();
        return NULL;
      }
    } else {
      // The GCLocker is either active or the GCLocker initiated
      // GC has not yet been performed. Stall until it is and
      // then retry the allocation.
      GC_locker::stall_until_clear();
    }

    // We can reach here if we were unsuccessful in scheduling a
    // collection (because another thread beat us to it) or if we were
    // stalled due to the GC locker. In either can we should retry the
    // allocation attempt in case another thread successfully
    // performed a collection and reclaimed enough space. We do the
    // first attempt (without holding the Heap_lock) here and the
    // follow-on attempt will be at the start of the next loop
    // iteration (after taking the Heap_lock).
    result = _mutator_alloc_region.attempt_allocation(word_size,
                                                      false /* bot_updates */);
    if (result != NULL) {
      return result;
    }

    // Give a warning if we seem to be looping forever.
    if ((QueuedAllocationWarningCount > 0) &&
        (try_count % QueuedAllocationWarningCount == 0)) {
      warning("G1CollectedHeap::attempt_allocation_slow() "
              "retries %d times", try_count);
    }
  }

  ShouldNotReachHere();
  return NULL;
}

HeapWord* G1CollectedHeap::attempt_allocation_humongous(size_t word_size,
                                          unsigned int * gc_count_before_ret) {
  // The structure of this method has a lot of similarities to
  // attempt_allocation_slow(). The reason these two were not merged
  // into a single one is that such a method would require several "if
  // allocation is not humongous do this, otherwise do that"
  // conditional paths which would obscure its flow. In fact, an early
  // version of this code did use a unified method which was harder to
  // follow and, as a result, it had subtle bugs that were hard to
  // track down. So keeping these two methods separate allows each to
  // be more readable. It will be good to keep these two in sync as
  // much as possible.

  assert_heap_not_locked_and_not_at_safepoint();
  assert(isHumongous(word_size), "attempt_allocation_humongous() "
         "should only be called for humongous allocations");

  // Humongous objects can exhaust the heap quickly, so we should check if we
  // need to start a marking cycle at each humongous object allocation. We do
  // the check before we do the actual allocation. The reason for doing it
  // before the allocation is that we avoid having to keep track of the newly
  // allocated memory while we do a GC.
  if (g1_policy()->need_to_start_conc_mark("concurrent humongous allocation",
                                           word_size)) {
    collect(GCCause::_g1_humongous_allocation);
  }

  // We will loop until a) we manage to successfully perform the
  // allocation or b) we successfully schedule a collection which
  // fails to perform the allocation. b) is the only case when we'll
  // return NULL.
  HeapWord* result = NULL;
  for (int try_count = 1; /* we'll return */; try_count += 1) {
    bool should_try_gc;
    unsigned int gc_count_before;

    {
      MutexLockerEx x(Heap_lock);

      // Given that humongous objects are not allocated in young
      // regions, we'll first try to do the allocation without doing a
      // collection hoping that there's enough space in the heap.
      result = humongous_obj_allocate(word_size);
      if (result != NULL) {
        return result;
      }

      if (GC_locker::is_active_and_needs_gc()) {
        should_try_gc = false;
      } else {
         // The GCLocker may not be active but the GCLocker initiated
        // GC may not yet have been performed (GCLocker::needs_gc()
        // returns true). In this case we do not try this GC and
        // wait until the GCLocker initiated GC is performed, and
        // then retry the allocation.
        if (GC_locker::needs_gc()) {
          should_try_gc = false;
        } else {
          // Read the GC count while still holding the Heap_lock.
          gc_count_before = total_collections();
          should_try_gc = true;
        }
      }
    }

    if (should_try_gc) {
      // If we failed to allocate the humongous object, we should try to
      // do a collection pause (if we're allowed) in case it reclaims
      // enough space for the allocation to succeed after the pause.

      bool succeeded;
      result = do_collection_pause(word_size, gc_count_before, &succeeded);
      if (result != NULL) {
        assert(succeeded, "only way to get back a non-NULL result");
        return result;
      }

      if (succeeded) {
        // If we get here we successfully scheduled a collection which
        // failed to allocate. No point in trying to allocate
        // further. We'll just return NULL.
        MutexLockerEx x(Heap_lock);
        *gc_count_before_ret = total_collections();
        return NULL;
      }
    } else {
      // The GCLocker is either active or the GCLocker initiated
      // GC has not yet been performed. Stall until it is and
      // then retry the allocation.
      GC_locker::stall_until_clear();
    }

    // We can reach here if we were unsuccessful in scheduling a
    // collection (because another thread beat us to it) or if we were
    // stalled due to the GC locker. In either can we should retry the
    // allocation attempt in case another thread successfully
    // performed a collection and reclaimed enough space.  Give a
    // warning if we seem to be looping forever.

    if ((QueuedAllocationWarningCount > 0) &&
        (try_count % QueuedAllocationWarningCount == 0)) {
      warning("G1CollectedHeap::attempt_allocation_humongous() "
              "retries %d times", try_count);
    }
  }

  ShouldNotReachHere();
  return NULL;
}

HeapWord* G1CollectedHeap::attempt_allocation_at_safepoint(size_t word_size,
                                       bool expect_null_mutator_alloc_region) {
  assert_at_safepoint(true /* should_be_vm_thread */);
  assert(_mutator_alloc_region.get() == NULL ||
                                             !expect_null_mutator_alloc_region,
         "the current alloc region was unexpectedly found to be non-NULL");

  if (!isHumongous(word_size)) {
    return _mutator_alloc_region.attempt_allocation_locked(word_size,
                                                      false /* bot_updates */);
  } else {
    HeapWord* result = humongous_obj_allocate(word_size);
    if (result != NULL && g1_policy()->need_to_start_conc_mark("STW humongous allocation")) {
      g1_policy()->set_initiate_conc_mark_if_possible();
    }
    return result;
  }

  ShouldNotReachHere();
}

class PostMCRemSetClearClosure: public HeapRegionClosure {
  G1CollectedHeap* _g1h;
  ModRefBarrierSet* _mr_bs;
public:
  PostMCRemSetClearClosure(G1CollectedHeap* g1h, ModRefBarrierSet* mr_bs) :
    _g1h(g1h), _mr_bs(mr_bs) {}

  bool doHeapRegion(HeapRegion* r) {
    HeapRegionRemSet* hrrs = r->rem_set();

    if (r->continuesHumongous()) {
      // We'll assert that the strong code root list and RSet is empty
      assert(hrrs->strong_code_roots_list_length() == 0, "sanity");
      assert(hrrs->occupied() == 0, "RSet should be empty");
      return false;
    }

    _g1h->reset_gc_time_stamps(r);
    hrrs->clear();
    // You might think here that we could clear just the cards
    // corresponding to the used region.  But no: if we leave a dirty card
    // in a region we might allocate into, then it would prevent that card
    // from being enqueued, and cause it to be missed.
    // Re: the performance cost: we shouldn't be doing full GC anyway!
    _mr_bs->clear(MemRegion(r->bottom(), r->end()));

    return false;
  }
};

void G1CollectedHeap::clear_rsets_post_compaction() {
  PostMCRemSetClearClosure rs_clear(this, g1_barrier_set());
  heap_region_iterate(&rs_clear);
}

class RebuildRSOutOfRegionClosure: public HeapRegionClosure {
  G1CollectedHeap*   _g1h;
  UpdateRSOopClosure _cl;
  int                _worker_i;
public:
  RebuildRSOutOfRegionClosure(G1CollectedHeap* g1, int worker_i = 0) :
    _cl(g1->g1_rem_set(), worker_i),
    _worker_i(worker_i),
    _g1h(g1)
  { }

  bool doHeapRegion(HeapRegion* r) {
    if (!r->continuesHumongous()) {
      _cl.set_from(r);
      r->oop_iterate(&_cl);
    }
    return false;
  }
};

class ParRebuildRSTask: public AbstractGangTask {
  G1CollectedHeap* _g1;
public:
  ParRebuildRSTask(G1CollectedHeap* g1)
    : AbstractGangTask("ParRebuildRSTask"),
      _g1(g1)
  { }

  void work(uint worker_id) {
    RebuildRSOutOfRegionClosure rebuild_rs(_g1, worker_id);
    _g1->heap_region_par_iterate_chunked(&rebuild_rs, worker_id,
                                          _g1->workers()->active_workers(),
                                         HeapRegion::RebuildRSClaimValue);
  }
};

class PostCompactionPrinterClosure: public HeapRegionClosure {
private:
  G1HRPrinter* _hr_printer;
public:
  bool doHeapRegion(HeapRegion* hr) {
    assert(!hr->is_young(), "not expecting to find young regions");
    // We only generate output for non-empty regions.
    if (!hr->is_empty()) {
      if (!hr->isHumongous()) {
        _hr_printer->post_compaction(hr, G1HRPrinter::Old);
      } else if (hr->startsHumongous()) {
        if (hr->region_num() == 1) {
          // single humongous region
          _hr_printer->post_compaction(hr, G1HRPrinter::SingleHumongous);
        } else {
          _hr_printer->post_compaction(hr, G1HRPrinter::StartsHumongous);
        }
      } else {
        assert(hr->continuesHumongous(), "only way to get here");
        _hr_printer->post_compaction(hr, G1HRPrinter::ContinuesHumongous);
      }
    }
    return false;
  }

  PostCompactionPrinterClosure(G1HRPrinter* hr_printer)
    : _hr_printer(hr_printer) { }
};

void G1CollectedHeap::print_hrs_post_compaction() {
  PostCompactionPrinterClosure cl(hr_printer());
  heap_region_iterate(&cl);
}

bool G1CollectedHeap::do_collection(bool explicit_gc,
                                    bool clear_all_soft_refs,
                                    size_t word_size) {
  assert_at_safepoint(true /* should_be_vm_thread */);

  if (GC_locker::check_active_before_gc()) {
    return false;
  }

  STWGCTimer* gc_timer = G1MarkSweep::gc_timer();
  gc_timer->register_gc_start();

  SerialOldTracer* gc_tracer = G1MarkSweep::gc_tracer();
  gc_tracer->report_gc_start(gc_cause(), gc_timer->gc_start());

  SvcGCMarker sgcm(SvcGCMarker::FULL);
  ResourceMark rm;

  print_heap_before_gc();
  trace_heap_before_gc(gc_tracer);

  HRSPhaseSetter x(HRSPhaseFullGC);
  verify_region_sets_optional();

  const bool do_clear_all_soft_refs = clear_all_soft_refs ||
                           collector_policy()->should_clear_all_soft_refs();

  ClearedAllSoftRefs casr(do_clear_all_soft_refs, collector_policy());

  {
    IsGCActiveMark x;

    // Timing
    assert(gc_cause() != GCCause::_java_lang_system_gc || explicit_gc, "invariant");
    TraceCPUTime tcpu(G1Log::finer(), true, gclog_or_tty);

    {
      GCTraceTime t(GCCauseString("Full GC", gc_cause()), G1Log::fine(), true, NULL);
      TraceCollectorStats tcs(g1mm()->full_collection_counters());
      TraceMemoryManagerStats tms(true /* fullGC */, gc_cause());

      double start = os::elapsedTime();
      g1_policy()->record_full_collection_start();

      // Note: When we have a more flexible GC logging framework that
      // allows us to add optional attributes to a GC log record we
      // could consider timing and reporting how long we wait in the
      // following two methods.
      wait_while_free_regions_coming();
      // If we start the compaction before the CM threads finish
      // scanning the root regions we might trip them over as we'll
      // be moving objects / updating references. So let's wait until
      // they are done. By telling them to abort, they should complete
      // early.
      _cm->root_regions()->abort();
      _cm->root_regions()->wait_until_scan_finished();
      append_secondary_free_list_if_not_empty_with_lock();

      gc_prologue(true);
      increment_total_collections(true /* full gc */);
      increment_old_marking_cycles_started();

      assert(used() == recalculate_used(), "Should be equal");

      verify_before_gc();

      pre_full_gc_dump(gc_timer);

      COMPILER2_PRESENT(DerivedPointerTable::clear());

      // Disable discovery and empty the discovered lists
      // for the CM ref processor.
      ref_processor_cm()->disable_discovery();
      ref_processor_cm()->abandon_partial_discovery();
      ref_processor_cm()->verify_no_references_recorded();

      // Abandon current iterations of concurrent marking and concurrent
      // refinement, if any are in progress. We have to do this before
      // wait_until_scan_finished() below.
      concurrent_mark()->abort();

      // Make sure we'll choose a new allocation region afterwards.
      release_mutator_alloc_region();
      abandon_gc_alloc_regions();
      g1_rem_set()->cleanupHRRS();

      // We should call this after we retire any currently active alloc
      // regions so that all the ALLOC / RETIRE events are generated
      // before the start GC event.
      _hr_printer.start_gc(true /* full */, (size_t) total_collections());

      // We may have added regions to the current incremental collection
      // set between the last GC or pause and now. We need to clear the
      // incremental collection set and then start rebuilding it afresh
      // after this full GC.
      abandon_collection_set(g1_policy()->inc_cset_head());
      g1_policy()->clear_incremental_cset();
      g1_policy()->stop_incremental_cset_building();

      tear_down_region_sets(false /* free_list_only */);
      g1_policy()->set_gcs_are_young(true);

      // See the comments in g1CollectedHeap.hpp and
      // G1CollectedHeap::ref_processing_init() about
      // how reference processing currently works in G1.

      // Temporarily make discovery by the STW ref processor single threaded (non-MT).
      ReferenceProcessorMTDiscoveryMutator stw_rp_disc_ser(ref_processor_stw(), false);

      // Temporarily clear the STW ref processor's _is_alive_non_header field.
      ReferenceProcessorIsAliveMutator stw_rp_is_alive_null(ref_processor_stw(), NULL);

      ref_processor_stw()->enable_discovery(true /*verify_disabled*/, true /*verify_no_refs*/);
      ref_processor_stw()->setup_policy(do_clear_all_soft_refs);

      // Do collection work
      {
        HandleMark hm;  // Discard invalid handles created during gc
        G1MarkSweep::invoke_at_safepoint(ref_processor_stw(), do_clear_all_soft_refs);
      }

      assert(free_regions() == 0, "we should not have added any free regions");
      rebuild_region_sets(false /* free_list_only */);

      // Enqueue any discovered reference objects that have
      // not been removed from the discovered lists.
      ref_processor_stw()->enqueue_discovered_references();

      COMPILER2_PRESENT(DerivedPointerTable::update_pointers());

      MemoryService::track_memory_usage();

      assert(!ref_processor_stw()->discovery_enabled(), "Postcondition");
      ref_processor_stw()->verify_no_references_recorded();

      // Note: since we've just done a full GC, concurrent
      // marking is no longer active. Therefore we need not
      // re-enable reference discovery for the CM ref processor.
      // That will be done at the start of the next marking cycle.
      assert(!ref_processor_cm()->discovery_enabled(), "Postcondition");
      ref_processor_cm()->verify_no_references_recorded();

      reset_gc_time_stamp();
      // Since everything potentially moved, we will clear all remembered
      // sets, and clear all cards.  Later we will rebuild remembered
      // sets. We will also reset the GC time stamps of the regions.
      clear_rsets_post_compaction();
      check_gc_time_stamps();

      // Resize the heap if necessary.
      resize_if_necessary_after_full_collection(explicit_gc ? 0 : word_size);

      if (_hr_printer.is_active()) {
        // We should do this after we potentially resize the heap so
        // that all the COMMIT / UNCOMMIT events are generated before
        // the end GC event.

        print_hrs_post_compaction();
        _hr_printer.end_gc(true /* full */, (size_t) total_collections());
      }

      G1HotCardCache* hot_card_cache = _cg1r->hot_card_cache();
      if (hot_card_cache->use_cache()) {
        hot_card_cache->reset_card_counts();
        hot_card_cache->reset_hot_cache();
      }

      // Rebuild remembered sets of all regions.
      if (G1CollectedHeap::use_parallel_gc_threads()) {
        uint n_workers =
          AdaptiveSizePolicy::calc_active_workers(workers()->total_workers(),
                                                  workers()->active_workers(),
                                                  Threads::number_of_non_daemon_threads());
        assert(UseDynamicNumberOfGCThreads ||
               n_workers == workers()->total_workers(),
               "If not dynamic should be using all the  workers");
        workers()->set_active_workers(n_workers);
        // Set parallel threads in the heap (_n_par_threads) only
        // before a parallel phase and always reset it to 0 after
        // the phase so that the number of parallel threads does
        // no get carried forward to a serial phase where there
        // may be code that is "possibly_parallel".
        set_par_threads(n_workers);

        ParRebuildRSTask rebuild_rs_task(this);
        assert(check_heap_region_claim_values(
               HeapRegion::InitialClaimValue), "sanity check");
        assert(UseDynamicNumberOfGCThreads ||
               workers()->active_workers() == workers()->total_workers(),
               "Unless dynamic should use total workers");
        // Use the most recent number of  active workers
        assert(workers()->active_workers() > 0,
               "Active workers not properly set");
        set_par_threads(workers()->active_workers());
        workers()->run_task(&rebuild_rs_task);
        set_par_threads(0);
        assert(check_heap_region_claim_values(
               HeapRegion::RebuildRSClaimValue), "sanity check");
        reset_heap_region_claim_values();
      } else {
        RebuildRSOutOfRegionClosure rebuild_rs(this);
        heap_region_iterate(&rebuild_rs);
      }

      // Rebuild the strong code root lists for each region
      rebuild_strong_code_roots();

      if (true) { // FIXME
        // Ask the permanent generation to adjust size for full collections
        perm()->compute_new_size();
      }

#ifdef TRACESPINNING
      ParallelTaskTerminator::print_termination_counts();
#endif

      // Discard all rset updates
      JavaThread::dirty_card_queue_set().abandon_logs();
      assert(!G1DeferredRSUpdate
             || (G1DeferredRSUpdate &&
                (dirty_card_queue_set().completed_buffers_num() == 0)), "Should not be any");

      _young_list->reset_sampled_info();
      // At this point there should be no regions in the
      // entire heap tagged as young.
      assert(check_young_list_empty(true /* check_heap */),
             "young list should be empty at this point");

      // Update the number of full collections that have been completed.
      increment_old_marking_cycles_completed(false /* concurrent */);

      _hrs.verify_optional();
      verify_region_sets_optional();

      verify_after_gc();

      // Start a new incremental collection set for the next pause
      assert(g1_policy()->collection_set() == NULL, "must be");
      g1_policy()->start_incremental_cset_building();

      // Clear the _cset_fast_test bitmap in anticipation of adding
      // regions to the incremental collection set for the next
      // evacuation pause.
      clear_cset_fast_test();

      init_mutator_alloc_region();

      double end = os::elapsedTime();
      g1_policy()->record_full_collection_end();

      if (G1Log::fine()) {
        g1_policy()->print_heap_transition();
      }

      // We must call G1MonitoringSupport::update_sizes() in the same scoping level
      // as an active TraceMemoryManagerStats object (i.e. before the destructor for the
      // TraceMemoryManagerStats is called) so that the G1 memory pools are updated
      // before any GC notifications are raised.
      g1mm()->update_sizes();

      gc_epilogue(true);
    }

    if (G1Log::finer()) {
      g1_policy()->print_detailed_heap_transition(true /* full */);
    }

    print_heap_after_gc();
    trace_heap_after_gc(gc_tracer);

    post_full_gc_dump(gc_timer);
  }

  gc_timer->register_gc_end();
  gc_tracer->report_gc_end(gc_timer->gc_end(), gc_timer->time_partitions());

  return true;
}

void G1CollectedHeap::do_full_collection(bool clear_all_soft_refs) {
  // do_collection() will return whether it succeeded in performing
  // the GC. Currently, there is no facility on the
  // do_full_collection() API to notify the caller than the collection
  // did not succeed (e.g., because it was locked out by the GC
  // locker). So, right now, we'll ignore the return value.
  bool dummy = do_collection(true,                /* explicit_gc */
                             clear_all_soft_refs,
                             0                    /* word_size */);
}

// This code is mostly copied from TenuredGeneration.
void
G1CollectedHeap::
resize_if_necessary_after_full_collection(size_t word_size) {
  // Include the current allocation, if any, and bytes that will be
  // pre-allocated to support collections, as "used".
  const size_t used_after_gc = used();
  const size_t capacity_after_gc = capacity();
  const size_t free_after_gc = capacity_after_gc - used_after_gc;

  // This is enforced in arguments.cpp.
  assert(MinHeapFreeRatio <= MaxHeapFreeRatio,
         "otherwise the code below doesn't make sense");

  // We don't have floating point command-line arguments
  const double minimum_free_percentage = (double) MinHeapFreeRatio / 100.0;
  const double maximum_used_percentage = 1.0 - minimum_free_percentage;
  const double maximum_free_percentage = (double) MaxHeapFreeRatio / 100.0;
  const double minimum_used_percentage = 1.0 - maximum_free_percentage;

  const size_t min_heap_size = collector_policy()->min_heap_byte_size();
  const size_t max_heap_size = collector_policy()->max_heap_byte_size();

  // We have to be careful here as these two calculations can overflow
  // 32-bit size_t's.
  double used_after_gc_d = (double) used_after_gc;
  double minimum_desired_capacity_d = used_after_gc_d / maximum_used_percentage;
  double maximum_desired_capacity_d = used_after_gc_d / minimum_used_percentage;

  // Let's make sure that they are both under the max heap size, which
  // by default will make them fit into a size_t.
  double desired_capacity_upper_bound = (double) max_heap_size;
  minimum_desired_capacity_d = MIN2(minimum_desired_capacity_d,
                                    desired_capacity_upper_bound);
  maximum_desired_capacity_d = MIN2(maximum_desired_capacity_d,
                                    desired_capacity_upper_bound);

  // We can now safely turn them into size_t's.
  size_t minimum_desired_capacity = (size_t) minimum_desired_capacity_d;
  size_t maximum_desired_capacity = (size_t) maximum_desired_capacity_d;

  // This assert only makes sense here, before we adjust them
  // with respect to the min and max heap size.
  assert(minimum_desired_capacity <= maximum_desired_capacity,
         err_msg("minimum_desired_capacity = "SIZE_FORMAT", "
                 "maximum_desired_capacity = "SIZE_FORMAT,
                 minimum_desired_capacity, maximum_desired_capacity));

  // Should not be greater than the heap max size. No need to adjust
  // it with respect to the heap min size as it's a lower bound (i.e.,
  // we'll try to make the capacity larger than it, not smaller).
  minimum_desired_capacity = MIN2(minimum_desired_capacity, max_heap_size);
  // Should not be less than the heap min size. No need to adjust it
  // with respect to the heap max size as it's an upper bound (i.e.,
  // we'll try to make the capacity smaller than it, not greater).
  maximum_desired_capacity =  MAX2(maximum_desired_capacity, min_heap_size);

  if (capacity_after_gc < minimum_desired_capacity) {
    // Don't expand unless it's significant
    size_t expand_bytes = minimum_desired_capacity - capacity_after_gc;
    ergo_verbose4(ErgoHeapSizing,
                  "attempt heap expansion",
                  ergo_format_reason("capacity lower than "
                                     "min desired capacity after Full GC")
                  ergo_format_byte("capacity")
                  ergo_format_byte("occupancy")
                  ergo_format_byte_perc("min desired capacity"),
                  capacity_after_gc, used_after_gc,
                  minimum_desired_capacity, (double) MinHeapFreeRatio);
    expand(expand_bytes);

    // No expansion, now see if we want to shrink
  } else if (capacity_after_gc > maximum_desired_capacity) {
    // Capacity too large, compute shrinking size
    size_t shrink_bytes = capacity_after_gc - maximum_desired_capacity;
    ergo_verbose4(ErgoHeapSizing,
                  "attempt heap shrinking",
                  ergo_format_reason("capacity higher than "
                                     "max desired capacity after Full GC")
                  ergo_format_byte("capacity")
                  ergo_format_byte("occupancy")
                  ergo_format_byte_perc("max desired capacity"),
                  capacity_after_gc, used_after_gc,
                  maximum_desired_capacity, (double) MaxHeapFreeRatio);
    shrink(shrink_bytes);
  }
}


HeapWord*
G1CollectedHeap::satisfy_failed_allocation(size_t word_size,
                                           bool* succeeded) {
  assert_at_safepoint(true /* should_be_vm_thread */);

  *succeeded = true;
  // Let's attempt the allocation first.
  HeapWord* result =
    attempt_allocation_at_safepoint(word_size,
                                 false /* expect_null_mutator_alloc_region */);
  if (result != NULL) {
    assert(*succeeded, "sanity");
    return result;
  }

  // In a G1 heap, we're supposed to keep allocation from failing by
  // incremental pauses.  Therefore, at least for now, we'll favor
  // expansion over collection.  (This might change in the future if we can
  // do something smarter than full collection to satisfy a failed alloc.)
  result = expand_and_allocate(word_size);
  if (result != NULL) {
    assert(*succeeded, "sanity");
    return result;
  }

  // Expansion didn't work, we'll try to do a Full GC.
  bool gc_succeeded = do_collection(false, /* explicit_gc */
                                    false, /* clear_all_soft_refs */
                                    word_size);
  if (!gc_succeeded) {
    *succeeded = false;
    return NULL;
  }

  // Retry the allocation
  result = attempt_allocation_at_safepoint(word_size,
                                  true /* expect_null_mutator_alloc_region */);
  if (result != NULL) {
    assert(*succeeded, "sanity");
    return result;
  }

  // Then, try a Full GC that will collect all soft references.
  gc_succeeded = do_collection(false, /* explicit_gc */
                               true,  /* clear_all_soft_refs */
                               word_size);
  if (!gc_succeeded) {
    *succeeded = false;
    return NULL;
  }

  // Retry the allocation once more
  result = attempt_allocation_at_safepoint(word_size,
                                  true /* expect_null_mutator_alloc_region */);
  if (result != NULL) {
    assert(*succeeded, "sanity");
    return result;
  }

  assert(!collector_policy()->should_clear_all_soft_refs(),
         "Flag should have been handled and cleared prior to this point");

  // What else?  We might try synchronous finalization later.  If the total
  // space available is large enough for the allocation, then a more
  // complete compaction phase than we've tried so far might be
  // appropriate.
  assert(*succeeded, "sanity");
  return NULL;
}

// Attempting to expand the heap sufficiently
// to support an allocation of the given "word_size".  If
// successful, perform the allocation and return the address of the
// allocated block, or else "NULL".

HeapWord* G1CollectedHeap::expand_and_allocate(size_t word_size) {
  assert_at_safepoint(true /* should_be_vm_thread */);

  verify_region_sets_optional();

  size_t expand_bytes = MAX2(word_size * HeapWordSize, MinHeapDeltaBytes);
  ergo_verbose1(ErgoHeapSizing,
                "attempt heap expansion",
                ergo_format_reason("allocation request failed")
                ergo_format_byte("allocation request"),
                word_size * HeapWordSize);
  if (expand(expand_bytes)) {
    _hrs.verify_optional();
    verify_region_sets_optional();
    return attempt_allocation_at_safepoint(word_size,
                                 false /* expect_null_mutator_alloc_region */);
  }
  return NULL;
}

void G1CollectedHeap::update_committed_space(HeapWord* old_end,
                                             HeapWord* new_end) {
  assert(old_end != new_end, "don't call this otherwise");
  assert((HeapWord*) _g1_storage.high() == new_end, "invariant");

  // Update the committed mem region.
  _g1_committed.set_end(new_end);
  // Tell the card table about the update.
  Universe::heap()->barrier_set()->resize_covered_region(_g1_committed);
  // Tell the BOT about the update.
  _bot_shared->resize(_g1_committed.word_size());
  // Tell the hot card cache about the update
  _cg1r->hot_card_cache()->resize_card_counts(capacity());
}

bool G1CollectedHeap::expand(size_t expand_bytes) {
  size_t old_mem_size = _g1_storage.committed_size();
  size_t aligned_expand_bytes = ReservedSpace::page_align_size_up(expand_bytes);
  aligned_expand_bytes = align_size_up(aligned_expand_bytes,
                                       HeapRegion::GrainBytes);
  ergo_verbose2(ErgoHeapSizing,
                "expand the heap",
                ergo_format_byte("requested expansion amount")
                ergo_format_byte("attempted expansion amount"),
                expand_bytes, aligned_expand_bytes);

  // First commit the memory.
  HeapWord* old_end = (HeapWord*) _g1_storage.high();
  bool successful = _g1_storage.expand_by(aligned_expand_bytes);
  if (successful) {
    // Then propagate this update to the necessary data structures.
    HeapWord* new_end = (HeapWord*) _g1_storage.high();
    update_committed_space(old_end, new_end);

    FreeRegionList expansion_list("Local Expansion List");
    MemRegion mr = _hrs.expand_by(old_end, new_end, &expansion_list);
    assert(mr.start() == old_end, "post-condition");
    // mr might be a smaller region than what was requested if
    // expand_by() was unable to allocate the HeapRegion instances
    assert(mr.end() <= new_end, "post-condition");

    size_t actual_expand_bytes = mr.byte_size();
    assert(actual_expand_bytes <= aligned_expand_bytes, "post-condition");
    assert(actual_expand_bytes == expansion_list.total_capacity_bytes(),
           "post-condition");
    if (actual_expand_bytes < aligned_expand_bytes) {
      // We could not expand _hrs to the desired size. In this case we
      // need to shrink the committed space accordingly.
      assert(mr.end() < new_end, "invariant");

      size_t diff_bytes = aligned_expand_bytes - actual_expand_bytes;
      // First uncommit the memory.
      _g1_storage.shrink_by(diff_bytes);
      // Then propagate this update to the necessary data structures.
      update_committed_space(new_end, mr.end());
    }
    _free_list.add_as_tail(&expansion_list);

    if (_hr_printer.is_active()) {
      HeapWord* curr = mr.start();
      while (curr < mr.end()) {
        HeapWord* curr_end = curr + HeapRegion::GrainWords;
        _hr_printer.commit(curr, curr_end);
        curr = curr_end;
      }
      assert(curr == mr.end(), "post-condition");
    }
    g1_policy()->record_new_heap_size(n_regions());
  } else {
    ergo_verbose0(ErgoHeapSizing,
                  "did not expand the heap",
                  ergo_format_reason("heap expansion operation failed"));
    // The expansion of the virtual storage space was unsuccessful.
    // Let's see if it was because we ran out of swap.
    if (G1ExitOnExpansionFailure &&
        _g1_storage.uncommitted_size() >= aligned_expand_bytes) {
      // We had head room...
      vm_exit_out_of_memory(aligned_expand_bytes, "G1 heap expansion");
    }
  }
  return successful;
}

void G1CollectedHeap::shrink_helper(size_t shrink_bytes) {
  size_t old_mem_size = _g1_storage.committed_size();
  size_t aligned_shrink_bytes =
    ReservedSpace::page_align_size_down(shrink_bytes);
  aligned_shrink_bytes = align_size_down(aligned_shrink_bytes,
                                         HeapRegion::GrainBytes);
  uint num_regions_deleted = 0;
  MemRegion mr = _hrs.shrink_by(aligned_shrink_bytes, &num_regions_deleted);
  HeapWord* old_end = (HeapWord*) _g1_storage.high();
  assert(mr.end() == old_end, "post-condition");

  ergo_verbose3(ErgoHeapSizing,
                "shrink the heap",
                ergo_format_byte("requested shrinking amount")
                ergo_format_byte("aligned shrinking amount")
                ergo_format_byte("attempted shrinking amount"),
                shrink_bytes, aligned_shrink_bytes, mr.byte_size());
  if (mr.byte_size() > 0) {
    if (_hr_printer.is_active()) {
      HeapWord* curr = mr.end();
      while (curr > mr.start()) {
        HeapWord* curr_end = curr;
        curr -= HeapRegion::GrainWords;
        _hr_printer.uncommit(curr, curr_end);
      }
      assert(curr == mr.start(), "post-condition");
    }

    _g1_storage.shrink_by(mr.byte_size());
    HeapWord* new_end = (HeapWord*) _g1_storage.high();
    assert(mr.start() == new_end, "post-condition");

    _expansion_regions += num_regions_deleted;
    update_committed_space(old_end, new_end);
    HeapRegionRemSet::shrink_heap(n_regions());
    g1_policy()->record_new_heap_size(n_regions());
  } else {
    ergo_verbose0(ErgoHeapSizing,
                  "did not shrink the heap",
                  ergo_format_reason("heap shrinking operation failed"));
  }
}

void G1CollectedHeap::shrink(size_t shrink_bytes) {
  verify_region_sets_optional();

  // We should only reach here at the end of a Full GC which means we
  // should not not be holding to any GC alloc regions. The method
  // below will make sure of that and do any remaining clean up.
  abandon_gc_alloc_regions();

  // Instead of tearing down / rebuilding the free lists here, we
  // could instead use the remove_all_pending() method on free_list to
  // remove only the ones that we need to remove.
  tear_down_region_sets(true /* free_list_only */);
  shrink_helper(shrink_bytes);
  rebuild_region_sets(true /* free_list_only */);

  _hrs.verify_optional();
  verify_region_sets_optional();
}

// Public methods.

#ifdef _MSC_VER // the use of 'this' below gets a warning, make it go away
#pragma warning( disable:4355 ) // 'this' : used in base member initializer list
#endif // _MSC_VER


G1CollectedHeap::G1CollectedHeap(G1CollectorPolicy* policy_) :
  SharedHeap(policy_),
  _g1_policy(policy_),
  _dirty_card_queue_set(false),
  _into_cset_dirty_card_queue_set(false),
  _is_alive_closure_cm(this),
  _is_alive_closure_stw(this),
  _ref_processor_cm(NULL),
  _ref_processor_stw(NULL),
  _process_strong_tasks(new SubTasksDone(G1H_PS_NumElements)),
  _bot_shared(NULL),
  _evac_failure_scan_stack(NULL),
  _mark_in_progress(false),
  _cg1r(NULL), _summary_bytes_used(0),
  _g1mm(NULL),
  _refine_cte_cl(NULL),
  _full_collection(false),
  _free_list("Master Free List"),
  _secondary_free_list("Secondary Free List"),
  _old_set("Old Set"),
  _humongous_set("Master Humongous Set"),
  _free_regions_coming(false),
  _young_list(new YoungList(this)),
  _gc_time_stamp(0),
  _retained_old_gc_alloc_region(NULL),
  _survivor_plab_stats(YoungPLABSize, PLABWeight),
  _old_plab_stats(OldPLABSize, PLABWeight),
  _expand_heap_after_alloc_failure(true),
  _surviving_young_words(NULL),
  _old_marking_cycles_started(0),
  _old_marking_cycles_completed(0),
  _concurrent_cycle_started(false),
  _in_cset_fast_test(NULL),
  _in_cset_fast_test_base(NULL),
  _dirty_cards_region_list(NULL),
  _worker_cset_start_region(NULL),
  _worker_cset_start_region_time_stamp(NULL),
  _gc_timer_stw(new (ResourceObj::C_HEAP, mtGC) STWGCTimer()),
  _gc_timer_cm(new (ResourceObj::C_HEAP, mtGC) ConcurrentGCTimer()),
  _gc_tracer_stw(new (ResourceObj::C_HEAP, mtGC) G1NewTracer()),
  _gc_tracer_cm(new (ResourceObj::C_HEAP, mtGC) G1OldTracer()) {

  _g1h = this;
  if (_process_strong_tasks == NULL || !_process_strong_tasks->valid()) {
    vm_exit_during_initialization("Failed necessary allocation.");
  }

  _humongous_object_threshold_in_words = HeapRegion::GrainWords / 2;

  int n_queues = MAX2((int)ParallelGCThreads, 1);
  _task_queues = new RefToScanQueueSet(n_queues);

  int n_rem_sets = HeapRegionRemSet::num_par_rem_sets();
  assert(n_rem_sets > 0, "Invariant.");

  HeapRegionRemSetIterator** iter_arr = NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(HeapRegionRemSetIterator*, n_queues, mtGC);
  _worker_cset_start_region = NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(HeapRegion*, n_queues, mtGC);
  _worker_cset_start_region_time_stamp = NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(unsigned int, n_queues, mtGC);
  _evacuation_failed_info_array = NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(EvacuationFailedInfo, n_queues, mtGC);

  for (int i = 0; i < n_queues; i++) {
    RefToScanQueue* q = new RefToScanQueue();
    q->initialize();
    _task_queues->register_queue(i, q);
    iter_arr[i] = new HeapRegionRemSetIterator();
    ::new (&_evacuation_failed_info_array[i]) EvacuationFailedInfo();
  }
  _rem_set_iterator = iter_arr;

  clear_cset_start_regions();

  // Initialize the G1EvacuationFailureALot counters and flags.
  NOT_PRODUCT(reset_evacuation_should_fail();)

  guarantee(_task_queues != NULL, "task_queues allocation failure.");
}

jint G1CollectedHeap::initialize() {
  CollectedHeap::pre_initialize();
  os::enable_vtime();

  G1Log::init();

  // Necessary to satisfy locking discipline assertions.

  MutexLocker x(Heap_lock);

  // We have to initialize the printer before committing the heap, as
  // it will be used then.
  _hr_printer.set_active(G1PrintHeapRegions);

  // While there are no constraints in the GC code that HeapWordSize
  // be any particular value, there are multiple other areas in the
  // system which believe this to be true (e.g. oop->object_size in some
  // cases incorrectly returns the size in wordSize units rather than
  // HeapWordSize).
  guarantee(HeapWordSize == wordSize, "HeapWordSize must equal wordSize");

  size_t init_byte_size = collector_policy()->initial_heap_byte_size();
  size_t max_byte_size = collector_policy()->max_heap_byte_size();
  size_t heap_alignment = collector_policy()->max_alignment();

  // Ensure that the sizes are properly aligned.
  Universe::check_alignment(init_byte_size, HeapRegion::GrainBytes, "g1 heap");
  Universe::check_alignment(max_byte_size, HeapRegion::GrainBytes, "g1 heap");
  Universe::check_alignment(max_byte_size, heap_alignment, "g1 heap");

  _cg1r = new ConcurrentG1Refine(this);

  // Reserve the maximum.
  PermanentGenerationSpec* pgs = collector_policy()->permanent_generation();
  // Includes the perm-gen.

  // When compressed oops are enabled, the preferred heap base
  // is calculated by subtracting the requested size from the
  // 32Gb boundary and using the result as the base address for
  // heap reservation. If the requested size is not aligned to
  // HeapRegion::GrainBytes (i.e. the alignment that is passed
  // into the ReservedHeapSpace constructor) then the actual
  // base of the reserved heap may end up differing from the
  // address that was requested (i.e. the preferred heap base).
  // If this happens then we could end up using a non-optimal
  // compressed oops mode.

  // Since max_byte_size is aligned to the size of a heap region (checked
  // above), we also need to align the perm gen size as it might not be.
  size_t total_reserved = 0;

  total_reserved = add_and_check_overflow(total_reserved, max_byte_size);
  size_t pg_max_size = (size_t) align_size_up(pgs->max_size(), heap_alignment);
  total_reserved = add_and_check_overflow(total_reserved, pg_max_size);

  Universe::check_alignment(total_reserved, HeapRegion::GrainBytes, "g1 heap and perm");

  char* addr = Universe::preferred_heap_base(total_reserved, heap_alignment, Universe::UnscaledNarrowOop);

  ReservedHeapSpace heap_rs(total_reserved, heap_alignment,
                            UseLargePages, addr);

  if (UseCompressedOops) {
    if (addr != NULL && !heap_rs.is_reserved()) {
      // Failed to reserve at specified address - the requested memory
      // region is taken already, for example, by 'java' launcher.
      // Try again to reserver heap higher.
      addr = Universe::preferred_heap_base(total_reserved, heap_alignment, Universe::ZeroBasedNarrowOop);

      ReservedHeapSpace heap_rs0(total_reserved, heap_alignment,
                                 UseLargePages, addr);

      if (addr != NULL && !heap_rs0.is_reserved()) {
        // Failed to reserve at specified address again - give up.
        addr = Universe::preferred_heap_base(total_reserved, heap_alignment, Universe::HeapBasedNarrowOop);
        assert(addr == NULL, "");

        ReservedHeapSpace heap_rs1(total_reserved, heap_alignment,
                                   UseLargePages, addr);
        heap_rs = heap_rs1;
      } else {
        heap_rs = heap_rs0;
      }
    }
  }

  if (!heap_rs.is_reserved()) {
    vm_exit_during_initialization("Could not reserve enough space for object heap");
    return JNI_ENOMEM;
  }

  // It is important to do this in a way such that concurrent readers can't
  // temporarily think something is in the heap.  (I've actually seen this
  // happen in asserts: DLD.)
  _reserved.set_word_size(0);
  _reserved.set_start((HeapWord*)heap_rs.base());
  _reserved.set_end((HeapWord*)(heap_rs.base() + heap_rs.size()));

  _expansion_regions = (uint) (max_byte_size / HeapRegion::GrainBytes);

  // Create the gen rem set (and barrier set) for the entire reserved region.
  _rem_set = collector_policy()->create_rem_set(_reserved, 2);
  set_barrier_set(rem_set()->bs());
  if (!barrier_set()->is_a(BarrierSet::G1SATBCTLogging)) {
    vm_exit_during_initialization("G1 requires a G1SATBLoggingCardTableModRefBS");
    return JNI_ENOMEM;
  }

  // Also create a G1 rem set.
  _g1_rem_set = new G1RemSet(this, g1_barrier_set());

  // Carve out the G1 part of the heap.

  ReservedSpace g1_rs   = heap_rs.first_part(max_byte_size);
  _g1_reserved = MemRegion((HeapWord*)g1_rs.base(),
                           g1_rs.size()/HeapWordSize);
  ReservedSpace perm_gen_rs = heap_rs.last_part(max_byte_size);

  _perm_gen = pgs->init(perm_gen_rs, pgs->init_size(), rem_set());

  _g1_storage.initialize(g1_rs, 0);
  _g1_committed = MemRegion((HeapWord*)_g1_storage.low(), (size_t) 0);
  _hrs.initialize((HeapWord*) _g1_reserved.start(),
                  (HeapWord*) _g1_reserved.end(),
                  _expansion_regions);

  // Do later initialization work for concurrent refinement.
  _cg1r->init();

  // 6843694 - ensure that the maximum region index can fit
  // in the remembered set structures.
  const uint max_region_idx = (1U << (sizeof(RegionIdx_t)*BitsPerByte-1)) - 1;
  guarantee((max_regions() - 1) <= max_region_idx, "too many regions");

  size_t max_cards_per_region = ((size_t)1 << (sizeof(CardIdx_t)*BitsPerByte-1)) - 1;
  guarantee(HeapRegion::CardsPerRegion > 0, "make sure it's initialized");
  guarantee(HeapRegion::CardsPerRegion < max_cards_per_region,
            "too many cards per region");

  HeapRegionSet::set_unrealistically_long_length(max_regions() + 1);

  _bot_shared = new G1BlockOffsetSharedArray(_reserved,
                                             heap_word_size(init_byte_size));

  _g1h = this;

  _in_cset_fast_test_length = max_regions();
  _in_cset_fast_test_base =
                   NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(bool, (size_t) _in_cset_fast_test_length, mtGC);

  // We're biasing _in_cset_fast_test to avoid subtracting the
  // beginning of the heap every time we want to index; basically
  // it's the same with what we do with the card table.
  _in_cset_fast_test = _in_cset_fast_test_base -
               ((uintx) _g1_reserved.start() >> HeapRegion::LogOfHRGrainBytes);

  // Clear the _cset_fast_test bitmap in anticipation of adding
  // regions to the incremental collection set for the first
  // evacuation pause.
  clear_cset_fast_test();

  // Create the ConcurrentMark data structure and thread.
  // (Must do this late, so that "max_regions" is defined.)
  _cm       = new ConcurrentMark(heap_rs, max_regions());
  _cmThread = _cm->cmThread();

  // Initialize the from_card cache structure of HeapRegionRemSet.
  HeapRegionRemSet::init_heap(max_regions());

  // Now expand into the initial heap size.
  if (!expand(init_byte_size)) {
    vm_exit_during_initialization("Failed to allocate initial heap.");
    return JNI_ENOMEM;
  }

  // Perform any initialization actions delegated to the policy.
  g1_policy()->init();

  _refine_cte_cl =
    new RefineCardTableEntryClosure(ConcurrentG1RefineThread::sts(),
                                    g1_rem_set(),
                                    concurrent_g1_refine());
  JavaThread::dirty_card_queue_set().set_closure(_refine_cte_cl);

  JavaThread::satb_mark_queue_set().initialize(SATB_Q_CBL_mon,
                                               SATB_Q_FL_lock,
                                               G1SATBProcessCompletedThreshold,
                                               Shared_SATB_Q_lock);

  JavaThread::dirty_card_queue_set().initialize(DirtyCardQ_CBL_mon,
                                                DirtyCardQ_FL_lock,
                                                concurrent_g1_refine()->yellow_zone(),
                                                concurrent_g1_refine()->red_zone(),
                                                Shared_DirtyCardQ_lock);

  if (G1DeferredRSUpdate) {
    dirty_card_queue_set().initialize(DirtyCardQ_CBL_mon,
                                      DirtyCardQ_FL_lock,
                                      -1, // never trigger processing
                                      -1, // no limit on length
                                      Shared_DirtyCardQ_lock,
                                      &JavaThread::dirty_card_queue_set());
  }

  // Initialize the card queue set used to hold cards containing
  // references into the collection set.
  _into_cset_dirty_card_queue_set.initialize(DirtyCardQ_CBL_mon,
                                             DirtyCardQ_FL_lock,
                                             -1, // never trigger processing
                                             -1, // no limit on length
                                             Shared_DirtyCardQ_lock,
                                             &JavaThread::dirty_card_queue_set());

  // In case we're keeping closure specialization stats, initialize those
  // counts and that mechanism.
  SpecializationStats::clear();

  // Here we allocate the dummy full region that is required by the
  // G1AllocRegion class. If we don't pass an address in the reserved
  // space here, lots of asserts fire.

  HeapRegion* dummy_region = new_heap_region(0 /* index of bottom region */,
                                             _g1_reserved.start());
  // We'll re-use the same region whether the alloc region will
  // require BOT updates or not and, if it doesn't, then a non-young
  // region will complain that it cannot support allocations without
  // BOT updates. So we'll tag the dummy region as young to avoid that.
  dummy_region->set_young();
  // Make sure it's full.
  dummy_region->set_top(dummy_region->end());
  G1AllocRegion::setup(this, dummy_region);

  init_mutator_alloc_region();

  // Do create of the monitoring and management support so that
  // values in the heap have been properly initialized.
  _g1mm = new G1MonitoringSupport(this);

  return JNI_OK;
}

size_t G1CollectedHeap::conservative_max_heap_alignment() {
  return HeapRegion::max_region_size();
}

void G1CollectedHeap::ref_processing_init() {
  // Reference processing in G1 currently works as follows:
  //
  // * There are two reference processor instances. One is
  //   used to record and process discovered references
  //   during concurrent marking; the other is used to
  //   record and process references during STW pauses
  //   (both full and incremental).
  // * Both ref processors need to 'span' the entire heap as
  //   the regions in the collection set may be dotted around.
  //
  // * For the concurrent marking ref processor:
  //   * Reference discovery is enabled at initial marking.
  //   * Reference discovery is disabled and the discovered
  //     references processed etc during remarking.
  //   * Reference discovery is MT (see below).
  //   * Reference discovery requires a barrier (see below).
  //   * Reference processing may or may not be MT
  //     (depending on the value of ParallelRefProcEnabled
  //     and ParallelGCThreads).
  //   * A full GC disables reference discovery by the CM
  //     ref processor and abandons any entries on it's
  //     discovered lists.
  //
  // * For the STW processor:
  //   * Non MT discovery is enabled at the start of a full GC.
  //   * Processing and enqueueing during a full GC is non-MT.
  //   * During a full GC, references are processed after marking.
  //
  //   * Discovery (may or may not be MT) is enabled at the start
  //     of an incremental evacuation pause.
  //   * References are processed near the end of a STW evacuation pause.
  //   * For both types of GC:
  //     * Discovery is atomic - i.e. not concurrent.
  //     * Reference discovery will not need a barrier.

  SharedHeap::ref_processing_init();
  MemRegion mr = reserved_region();

  // Concurrent Mark ref processor
  _ref_processor_cm =
    new ReferenceProcessor(mr,    // span
                           ParallelRefProcEnabled && (ParallelGCThreads > 1),
                                // mt processing
                           (int) ParallelGCThreads,
                                // degree of mt processing
                           (ParallelGCThreads > 1) || (ConcGCThreads > 1),
                                // mt discovery
                           (int) MAX2(ParallelGCThreads, ConcGCThreads),
                                // degree of mt discovery
                           false,
                                // Reference discovery is not atomic
                           &_is_alive_closure_cm,
                                // is alive closure
                                // (for efficiency/performance)
                           true);
                                // Setting next fields of discovered
                                // lists requires a barrier.

  // STW ref processor
  _ref_processor_stw =
    new ReferenceProcessor(mr,    // span
                           ParallelRefProcEnabled && (ParallelGCThreads > 1),
                                // mt processing
                           MAX2((int)ParallelGCThreads, 1),
                                // degree of mt processing
                           (ParallelGCThreads > 1),
                                // mt discovery
                           MAX2((int)ParallelGCThreads, 1),
                                // degree of mt discovery
                           true,
                                // Reference discovery is atomic
                           &_is_alive_closure_stw,
                                // is alive closure
                                // (for efficiency/performance)
                           false);
                                // Setting next fields of discovered
                                // lists requires a barrier.
}

size_t G1CollectedHeap::capacity() const {
  return _g1_committed.byte_size();
}

void G1CollectedHeap::reset_gc_time_stamps(HeapRegion* hr) {
  assert(!hr->continuesHumongous(), "pre-condition");
  hr->reset_gc_time_stamp();
  if (hr->startsHumongous()) {
    uint first_index = hr->hrs_index() + 1;
    uint last_index = hr->last_hc_index();
    for (uint i = first_index; i < last_index; i += 1) {
      HeapRegion* chr = region_at(i);
      assert(chr->continuesHumongous(), "sanity");
      chr->reset_gc_time_stamp();
    }
  }
}

#ifndef PRODUCT
class CheckGCTimeStampsHRClosure : public HeapRegionClosure {
private:
  unsigned _gc_time_stamp;
  bool _failures;

public:
  CheckGCTimeStampsHRClosure(unsigned gc_time_stamp) :
    _gc_time_stamp(gc_time_stamp), _failures(false) { }

  virtual bool doHeapRegion(HeapRegion* hr) {
    unsigned region_gc_time_stamp = hr->get_gc_time_stamp();
    if (_gc_time_stamp != region_gc_time_stamp) {
      gclog_or_tty->print_cr("Region "HR_FORMAT" has GC time stamp = %d, "
                             "expected %d", HR_FORMAT_PARAMS(hr),
                             region_gc_time_stamp, _gc_time_stamp);
      _failures = true;
    }
    return false;
  }

  bool failures() { return _failures; }
};

void G1CollectedHeap::check_gc_time_stamps() {
  CheckGCTimeStampsHRClosure cl(_gc_time_stamp);
  heap_region_iterate(&cl);
  guarantee(!cl.failures(), "all GC time stamps should have been reset");
}
#endif // PRODUCT

void G1CollectedHeap::iterate_dirty_card_closure(CardTableEntryClosure* cl,
                                                 DirtyCardQueue* into_cset_dcq,
                                                 bool concurrent,
                                                 int worker_i) {
  // Clean cards in the hot card cache
  G1HotCardCache* hot_card_cache = _cg1r->hot_card_cache();
  hot_card_cache->drain(worker_i, g1_rem_set(), into_cset_dcq);

  DirtyCardQueueSet& dcqs = JavaThread::dirty_card_queue_set();
  int n_completed_buffers = 0;
  while (dcqs.apply_closure_to_completed_buffer(cl, worker_i, 0, true)) {
    n_completed_buffers++;
  }
  g1_policy()->phase_times()->record_update_rs_processed_buffers(worker_i, n_completed_buffers);
  dcqs.clear_n_completed_buffers();
  assert(!dcqs.completed_buffers_exist_dirty(), "Completed buffers exist!");
}


// Computes the sum of the storage used by the various regions.

size_t G1CollectedHeap::used() const {
  assert(Heap_lock->owner() != NULL,
         "Should be owned on this thread's behalf.");
  size_t result = _summary_bytes_used;
  // Read only once in case it is set to NULL concurrently
  HeapRegion* hr = _mutator_alloc_region.get();
  if (hr != NULL)
    result += hr->used();
  return result;
}

size_t G1CollectedHeap::used_unlocked() const {
  size_t result = _summary_bytes_used;
  return result;
}

class SumUsedClosure: public HeapRegionClosure {
  size_t _used;
public:
  SumUsedClosure() : _used(0) {}
  bool doHeapRegion(HeapRegion* r) {
    if (!r->continuesHumongous()) {
      _used += r->used();
    }
    return false;
  }
  size_t result() { return _used; }
};

size_t G1CollectedHeap::recalculate_used() const {
  SumUsedClosure blk;
  heap_region_iterate(&blk);
  return blk.result();
}

size_t G1CollectedHeap::unsafe_max_alloc() {
  if (free_regions() > 0) return HeapRegion::GrainBytes;
  // otherwise, is there space in the current allocation region?

  // We need to store the current allocation region in a local variable
  // here. The problem is that this method doesn't take any locks and
  // there may be other threads which overwrite the current allocation
  // region field. attempt_allocation(), for example, sets it to NULL
  // and this can happen *after* the NULL check here but before the call
  // to free(), resulting in a SIGSEGV. Note that this doesn't appear
  // to be a problem in the optimized build, since the two loads of the
  // current allocation region field are optimized away.
  HeapRegion* hr = _mutator_alloc_region.get();
  if (hr == NULL) {
    return 0;
  }
  return hr->free();
}

bool G1CollectedHeap::should_do_concurrent_full_gc(GCCause::Cause cause) {
  switch (cause) {
    case GCCause::_gc_locker:               return GCLockerInvokesConcurrent;
    case GCCause::_java_lang_system_gc:     return ExplicitGCInvokesConcurrent;
    case GCCause::_g1_humongous_allocation: return true;
    default:                                return false;
  }
}

#ifndef PRODUCT
void G1CollectedHeap::allocate_dummy_regions() {
  // Let's fill up most of the region
  size_t word_size = HeapRegion::GrainWords - 1024;
  // And as a result the region we'll allocate will be humongous.
  guarantee(isHumongous(word_size), "sanity");

  for (uintx i = 0; i < G1DummyRegionsPerGC; ++i) {
    // Let's use the existing mechanism for the allocation
    HeapWord* dummy_obj = humongous_obj_allocate(word_size);
    if (dummy_obj != NULL) {
      MemRegion mr(dummy_obj, word_size);
      CollectedHeap::fill_with_object(mr);
    } else {
      // If we can't allocate once, we probably cannot allocate
      // again. Let's get out of the loop.
      break;
    }
  }
}
#endif // !PRODUCT

void G1CollectedHeap::increment_old_marking_cycles_started() {
  assert(_old_marking_cycles_started == _old_marking_cycles_completed ||
    _old_marking_cycles_started == _old_marking_cycles_completed + 1,
    err_msg("Wrong marking cycle count (started: %d, completed: %d)",
    _old_marking_cycles_started, _old_marking_cycles_completed));

  _old_marking_cycles_started++;
}

void G1CollectedHeap::increment_old_marking_cycles_completed(bool concurrent) {
  MonitorLockerEx x(FullGCCount_lock, Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);

  // We assume that if concurrent == true, then the caller is a
  // concurrent thread that was joined the Suspendible Thread
  // Set. If there's ever a cheap way to check this, we should add an
  // assert here.

  // Given that this method is called at the end of a Full GC or of a
  // concurrent cycle, and those can be nested (i.e., a Full GC can
  // interrupt a concurrent cycle), the number of full collections
  // completed should be either one (in the case where there was no
  // nesting) or two (when a Full GC interrupted a concurrent cycle)
  // behind the number of full collections started.

  // This is the case for the inner caller, i.e. a Full GC.
  assert(concurrent ||
         (_old_marking_cycles_started == _old_marking_cycles_completed + 1) ||
         (_old_marking_cycles_started == _old_marking_cycles_completed + 2),
         err_msg("for inner caller (Full GC): _old_marking_cycles_started = %u "
                 "is inconsistent with _old_marking_cycles_completed = %u",
                 _old_marking_cycles_started, _old_marking_cycles_completed));

  // This is the case for the outer caller, i.e. the concurrent cycle.
  assert(!concurrent ||
         (_old_marking_cycles_started == _old_marking_cycles_completed + 1),
         err_msg("for outer caller (concurrent cycle): "
                 "_old_marking_cycles_started = %u "
                 "is inconsistent with _old_marking_cycles_completed = %u",
                 _old_marking_cycles_started, _old_marking_cycles_completed));

  _old_marking_cycles_completed += 1;

  // We need to clear the "in_progress" flag in the CM thread before
  // we wake up any waiters (especially when ExplicitInvokesConcurrent
  // is set) so that if a waiter requests another System.gc() it doesn't
  // incorrectly see that a marking cycle is still in progress.
  if (concurrent) {
    _cmThread->clear_in_progress();
  }

  // This notify_all() will ensure that a thread that called
  // System.gc() with (with ExplicitGCInvokesConcurrent set or not)
  // and it's waiting for a full GC to finish will be woken up. It is
  // waiting in VM_G1IncCollectionPause::doit_epilogue().
  FullGCCount_lock->notify_all();
}

void G1CollectedHeap::register_concurrent_cycle_start(const Ticks& start_time) {
  _concurrent_cycle_started = true;
  _gc_timer_cm->register_gc_start(start_time);

  _gc_tracer_cm->report_gc_start(gc_cause(), _gc_timer_cm->gc_start());
  trace_heap_before_gc(_gc_tracer_cm);
}

void G1CollectedHeap::register_concurrent_cycle_end() {
  if (_concurrent_cycle_started) {
    _gc_timer_cm->register_gc_end();

    if (_cm->has_aborted()) {
      _gc_tracer_cm->report_concurrent_mode_failure();
    }
    _gc_tracer_cm->report_gc_end(_gc_timer_cm->gc_end(), _gc_timer_cm->time_partitions());

    _concurrent_cycle_started = false;
  }
}

void G1CollectedHeap::trace_heap_after_concurrent_cycle() {
  if (_concurrent_cycle_started) {
    trace_heap_after_gc(_gc_tracer_cm);
  }
}

G1YCType G1CollectedHeap::yc_type() {
  bool is_young = g1_policy()->gcs_are_young();
  bool is_initial_mark = g1_policy()->during_initial_mark_pause();
  bool is_during_mark = mark_in_progress();

  if (is_initial_mark) {
    return InitialMark;
  } else if (is_during_mark) {
    return DuringMark;
  } else if (is_young) {
    return Normal;
  } else {
    return Mixed;
  }
}

void G1CollectedHeap::collect_as_vm_thread(GCCause::Cause cause) {
  assert_at_safepoint(true /* should_be_vm_thread */);
  GCCauseSetter gcs(this, cause);
  switch (cause) {
    case GCCause::_heap_inspection:
    case GCCause::_heap_dump: {
      HandleMark hm;
      do_full_collection(false);         // don't clear all soft refs
      break;
    }
    default: // XXX FIX ME
      ShouldNotReachHere(); // Unexpected use of this function
  }
}

void G1CollectedHeap::collect(GCCause::Cause cause) {
  assert_heap_not_locked();

  unsigned int gc_count_before;
  unsigned int old_marking_count_before;
  bool retry_gc;

  do {
    retry_gc = false;

    {
      MutexLocker ml(Heap_lock);

      // Read the GC count while holding the Heap_lock
      gc_count_before = total_collections();
      old_marking_count_before = _old_marking_cycles_started;
    }

    if (should_do_concurrent_full_gc(cause)) {
      // Schedule an initial-mark evacuation pause that will start a
      // concurrent cycle. We're setting word_size to 0 which means that
      // we are not requesting a post-GC allocation.
      VM_G1IncCollectionPause op(gc_count_before,
                                 0,     /* word_size */
                                 true,  /* should_initiate_conc_mark */
                                 g1_policy()->max_pause_time_ms(),
                                 cause);

      VMThread::execute(&op);
      if (!op.pause_succeeded()) {
        if (old_marking_count_before == _old_marking_cycles_started) {
          retry_gc = op.should_retry_gc();
        } else {
          // A Full GC happened while we were trying to schedule the
          // initial-mark GC. No point in starting a new cycle given
          // that the whole heap was collected anyway.
        }

        if (retry_gc) {
          if (GC_locker::is_active_and_needs_gc()) {
            GC_locker::stall_until_clear();
          }
        }
      }
    } else {
      if (cause == GCCause::_gc_locker
          DEBUG_ONLY(|| cause == GCCause::_scavenge_alot)) {

        // Schedule a standard evacuation pause. We're setting word_size
        // to 0 which means that we are not requesting a post-GC allocation.
        VM_G1IncCollectionPause op(gc_count_before,
                                   0,     /* word_size */
                                   false, /* should_initiate_conc_mark */
                                   g1_policy()->max_pause_time_ms(),
                                   cause);
        VMThread::execute(&op);
      } else {
        // Schedule a Full GC.
        VM_G1CollectFull op(gc_count_before, old_marking_count_before, cause);
        VMThread::execute(&op);
      }
    }
  } while (retry_gc);
}

bool G1CollectedHeap::is_in(const void* p) const {
  if (_g1_committed.contains(p)) {
    // Given that we know that p is in the committed space,
    // heap_region_containing_raw() should successfully
    // return the containing region.
    HeapRegion* hr = heap_region_containing_raw(p);
    return hr->is_in(p);
  } else {
    return _perm_gen->as_gen()->is_in(p);
  }
}

// Iteration functions.

// Iterates an OopClosure over all ref-containing fields of objects
// within a HeapRegion.

class IterateOopClosureRegionClosure: public HeapRegionClosure {
  MemRegion _mr;
  OopClosure* _cl;
public:
  IterateOopClosureRegionClosure(MemRegion mr, OopClosure* cl)
    : _mr(mr), _cl(cl) {}
  bool doHeapRegion(HeapRegion* r) {
    if (!r->continuesHumongous()) {
      r->oop_iterate(_cl);
    }
    return false;
  }
};

void G1CollectedHeap::oop_iterate(OopClosure* cl, bool do_perm) {
  IterateOopClosureRegionClosure blk(_g1_committed, cl);
  heap_region_iterate(&blk);
  if (do_perm) {
    perm_gen()->oop_iterate(cl);
  }
}

void G1CollectedHeap::oop_iterate(MemRegion mr, OopClosure* cl, bool do_perm) {
  IterateOopClosureRegionClosure blk(mr, cl);
  heap_region_iterate(&blk);
  if (do_perm) {
    perm_gen()->oop_iterate(cl);
  }
}

// Iterates an ObjectClosure over all objects within a HeapRegion.

class IterateObjectClosureRegionClosure: public HeapRegionClosure {
  ObjectClosure* _cl;
public:
  IterateObjectClosureRegionClosure(ObjectClosure* cl) : _cl(cl) {}
  bool doHeapRegion(HeapRegion* r) {
    if (! r->continuesHumongous()) {
      r->object_iterate(_cl);
    }
    return false;
  }
};

void G1CollectedHeap::object_iterate(ObjectClosure* cl, bool do_perm) {
  IterateObjectClosureRegionClosure blk(cl);
  heap_region_iterate(&blk);
  if (do_perm) {
    perm_gen()->object_iterate(cl);
  }
}

void G1CollectedHeap::object_iterate_since_last_GC(ObjectClosure* cl) {
  // FIXME: is this right?
  guarantee(false, "object_iterate_since_last_GC not supported by G1 heap");
}

// Calls a SpaceClosure on a HeapRegion.

class SpaceClosureRegionClosure: public HeapRegionClosure {
  SpaceClosure* _cl;
public:
  SpaceClosureRegionClosure(SpaceClosure* cl) : _cl(cl) {}
  bool doHeapRegion(HeapRegion* r) {
    _cl->do_space(r);
    return false;
  }
};

void G1CollectedHeap::space_iterate(SpaceClosure* cl) {
  SpaceClosureRegionClosure blk(cl);
  heap_region_iterate(&blk);
}

void G1CollectedHeap::heap_region_iterate(HeapRegionClosure* cl) const {
  _hrs.iterate(cl);
}

void
G1CollectedHeap::heap_region_par_iterate_chunked(HeapRegionClosure* cl,
                                                 uint worker_id,
                                                 uint no_of_par_workers,
                                                 jint claim_value) {
  const uint regions = n_regions();
  const uint max_workers = (G1CollectedHeap::use_parallel_gc_threads() ?
                             no_of_par_workers :
                             1);
  assert(UseDynamicNumberOfGCThreads ||
         no_of_par_workers == workers()->total_workers(),
         "Non dynamic should use fixed number of workers");
  // try to spread out the starting points of the workers
  const HeapRegion* start_hr =
                        start_region_for_worker(worker_id, no_of_par_workers);
  const uint start_index = start_hr->hrs_index();

  // each worker will actually look at all regions
  for (uint count = 0; count < regions; ++count) {
    const uint index = (start_index + count) % regions;
    assert(0 <= index && index < regions, "sanity");
    HeapRegion* r = region_at(index);
    // we'll ignore "continues humongous" regions (we'll process them
    // when we come across their corresponding "start humongous"
    // region) and regions already claimed
    if (r->claim_value() == claim_value || r->continuesHumongous()) {
      continue;
    }
    // OK, try to claim it
    if (r->claimHeapRegion(claim_value)) {
      // success!
      assert(!r->continuesHumongous(), "sanity");
      if (r->startsHumongous()) {
        // If the region is "starts humongous" we'll iterate over its
        // "continues humongous" first; in fact we'll do them
        // first. The order is important. In on case, calling the
        // closure on the "starts humongous" region might de-allocate
        // and clear all its "continues humongous" regions and, as a
        // result, we might end up processing them twice. So, we'll do
        // them first (notice: most closures will ignore them anyway) and
        // then we'll do the "starts humongous" region.
        for (uint ch_index = index + 1; ch_index < regions; ++ch_index) {
          HeapRegion* chr = region_at(ch_index);

          // if the region has already been claimed or it's not
          // "continues humongous" we're done
          if (chr->claim_value() == claim_value ||
              !chr->continuesHumongous()) {
            break;
          }

          // Noone should have claimed it directly. We can given
          // that we claimed its "starts humongous" region.
          assert(chr->claim_value() != claim_value, "sanity");
          assert(chr->humongous_start_region() == r, "sanity");

          if (chr->claimHeapRegion(claim_value)) {
            // we should always be able to claim it; noone else should
            // be trying to claim this region

            bool res2 = cl->doHeapRegion(chr);
            assert(!res2, "Should not abort");

            // Right now, this holds (i.e., no closure that actually
            // does something with "continues humongous" regions
            // clears them). We might have to weaken it in the future,
            // but let's leave these two asserts here for extra safety.
            assert(chr->continuesHumongous(), "should still be the case");
            assert(chr->humongous_start_region() == r, "sanity");
          } else {
            guarantee(false, "we should not reach here");
          }
        }
      }

      assert(!r->continuesHumongous(), "sanity");
      bool res = cl->doHeapRegion(r);
      assert(!res, "Should not abort");
    }
  }
}

class ResetClaimValuesClosure: public HeapRegionClosure {
public:
  bool doHeapRegion(HeapRegion* r) {
    r->set_claim_value(HeapRegion::InitialClaimValue);
    return false;
  }
};

void G1CollectedHeap::reset_heap_region_claim_values() {
  ResetClaimValuesClosure blk;
  heap_region_iterate(&blk);
}

void G1CollectedHeap::reset_cset_heap_region_claim_values() {
  ResetClaimValuesClosure blk;
  collection_set_iterate(&blk);
}

#ifdef ASSERT
// This checks whether all regions in the heap have the correct claim
// value. I also piggy-backed on this a check to ensure that the
// humongous_start_region() information on "continues humongous"
// regions is correct.

class CheckClaimValuesClosure : public HeapRegionClosure {
private:
  jint _claim_value;
  uint _failures;
  HeapRegion* _sh_region;

public:
  CheckClaimValuesClosure(jint claim_value) :
    _claim_value(claim_value), _failures(0), _sh_region(NULL) { }
  bool doHeapRegion(HeapRegion* r) {
    if (r->claim_value() != _claim_value) {
      gclog_or_tty->print_cr("Region " HR_FORMAT ", "
                             "claim value = %d, should be %d",
                             HR_FORMAT_PARAMS(r),
                             r->claim_value(), _claim_value);
      ++_failures;
    }
    if (!r->isHumongous()) {
      _sh_region = NULL;
    } else if (r->startsHumongous()) {
      _sh_region = r;
    } else if (r->continuesHumongous()) {
      if (r->humongous_start_region() != _sh_region) {
        gclog_or_tty->print_cr("Region " HR_FORMAT ", "
                               "HS = "PTR_FORMAT", should be "PTR_FORMAT,
                               HR_FORMAT_PARAMS(r),
                               r->humongous_start_region(),
                               _sh_region);
        ++_failures;
      }
    }
    return false;
  }
  uint failures() { return _failures; }
};

bool G1CollectedHeap::check_heap_region_claim_values(jint claim_value) {
  CheckClaimValuesClosure cl(claim_value);
  heap_region_iterate(&cl);
  return cl.failures() == 0;
}

class CheckClaimValuesInCSetHRClosure: public HeapRegionClosure {
private:
  jint _claim_value;
  uint _failures;

public:
  CheckClaimValuesInCSetHRClosure(jint claim_value) :
    _claim_value(claim_value), _failures(0) { }

  uint failures() { return _failures; }

  bool doHeapRegion(HeapRegion* hr) {
    assert(hr->in_collection_set(), "how?");
    assert(!hr->isHumongous(), "H-region in CSet");
    if (hr->claim_value() != _claim_value) {
      gclog_or_tty->print_cr("CSet Region " HR_FORMAT ", "
                             "claim value = %d, should be %d",
                             HR_FORMAT_PARAMS(hr),
                             hr->claim_value(), _claim_value);
      _failures += 1;
    }
    return false;
  }
};

bool G1CollectedHeap::check_cset_heap_region_claim_values(jint claim_value) {
  CheckClaimValuesInCSetHRClosure cl(claim_value);
  collection_set_iterate(&cl);
  return cl.failures() == 0;
}
#endif // ASSERT

// Clear the cached CSet starting regions and (more importantly)
// the time stamps. Called when we reset the GC time stamp.
void G1CollectedHeap::clear_cset_start_regions() {
  assert(_worker_cset_start_region != NULL, "sanity");
  assert(_worker_cset_start_region_time_stamp != NULL, "sanity");

  int n_queues = MAX2((int)ParallelGCThreads, 1);
  for (int i = 0; i < n_queues; i++) {
    _worker_cset_start_region[i] = NULL;
    _worker_cset_start_region_time_stamp[i] = 0;
  }
}

// Given the id of a worker, obtain or calculate a suitable
// starting region for iterating over the current collection set.
HeapRegion* G1CollectedHeap::start_cset_region_for_worker(int worker_i) {
  assert(get_gc_time_stamp() > 0, "should have been updated by now");

  HeapRegion* result = NULL;
  unsigned gc_time_stamp = get_gc_time_stamp();

  if (_worker_cset_start_region_time_stamp[worker_i] == gc_time_stamp) {
    // Cached starting region for current worker was set
    // during the current pause - so it's valid.
    // Note: the cached starting heap region may be NULL
    // (when the collection set is empty).
    result = _worker_cset_start_region[worker_i];
    assert(result == NULL || result->in_collection_set(), "sanity");
    return result;
  }

  // The cached entry was not valid so let's calculate
  // a suitable starting heap region for this worker.

  // We want the parallel threads to start their collection
  // set iteration at different collection set regions to
  // avoid contention.
  // If we have:
  //          n collection set regions
  //          p threads
  // Then thread t will start at region floor ((t * n) / p)

  result = g1_policy()->collection_set();
  if (G1CollectedHeap::use_parallel_gc_threads()) {
    uint cs_size = g1_policy()->cset_region_length();
    uint active_workers = workers()->active_workers();
    assert(UseDynamicNumberOfGCThreads ||
             active_workers == workers()->total_workers(),
             "Unless dynamic should use total workers");

    uint end_ind   = (cs_size * worker_i) / active_workers;
    uint start_ind = 0;

    if (worker_i > 0 &&
        _worker_cset_start_region_time_stamp[worker_i - 1] == gc_time_stamp) {
      // Previous workers starting region is valid
      // so let's iterate from there
      start_ind = (cs_size * (worker_i - 1)) / active_workers;
      result = _worker_cset_start_region[worker_i - 1];
    }

    for (uint i = start_ind; i < end_ind; i++) {
      result = result->next_in_collection_set();
    }
  }

  // Note: the calculated starting heap region may be NULL
  // (when the collection set is empty).
  assert(result == NULL || result->in_collection_set(), "sanity");
  assert(_worker_cset_start_region_time_stamp[worker_i] != gc_time_stamp,
         "should be updated only once per pause");
  _worker_cset_start_region[worker_i] = result;
  OrderAccess::storestore();
  _worker_cset_start_region_time_stamp[worker_i] = gc_time_stamp;
  return result;
}

HeapRegion* G1CollectedHeap::start_region_for_worker(uint worker_i,
                                                     uint no_of_par_workers) {
  uint worker_num =
           G1CollectedHeap::use_parallel_gc_threads() ? no_of_par_workers : 1U;
  assert(UseDynamicNumberOfGCThreads ||
         no_of_par_workers == workers()->total_workers(),
         "Non dynamic should use fixed number of workers");
  const uint start_index = n_regions() * worker_i / worker_num;
  return region_at(start_index);
}

void G1CollectedHeap::collection_set_iterate(HeapRegionClosure* cl) {
  HeapRegion* r = g1_policy()->collection_set();
  while (r != NULL) {
    HeapRegion* next = r->next_in_collection_set();
    if (cl->doHeapRegion(r)) {
      cl->incomplete();
      return;
    }
    r = next;
  }
}

void G1CollectedHeap::collection_set_iterate_from(HeapRegion* r,
                                                  HeapRegionClosure *cl) {
  if (r == NULL) {
    // The CSet is empty so there's nothing to do.
    return;
  }

  assert(r->in_collection_set(),
         "Start region must be a member of the collection set.");
  HeapRegion* cur = r;
  while (cur != NULL) {
    HeapRegion* next = cur->next_in_collection_set();
    if (cl->doHeapRegion(cur) && false) {
      cl->incomplete();
      return;
    }
    cur = next;
  }
  cur = g1_policy()->collection_set();
  while (cur != r) {
    HeapRegion* next = cur->next_in_collection_set();
    if (cl->doHeapRegion(cur) && false) {
      cl->incomplete();
      return;
    }
    cur = next;
  }
}

CompactibleSpace* G1CollectedHeap::first_compactible_space() {
  return n_regions() > 0 ? region_at(0) : NULL;
}


Space* G1CollectedHeap::space_containing(const void* addr) const {
  Space* res = heap_region_containing(addr);
  if (res == NULL)
    res = perm_gen()->space_containing(addr);
  return res;
}

HeapWord* G1CollectedHeap::block_start(const void* addr) const {
  Space* sp = space_containing(addr);
  if (sp != NULL) {
    return sp->block_start(addr);
  }
  return NULL;
}

size_t G1CollectedHeap::block_size(const HeapWord* addr) const {
  Space* sp = space_containing(addr);
  assert(sp != NULL, "block_size of address outside of heap");
  return sp->block_size(addr);
}

bool G1CollectedHeap::block_is_obj(const HeapWord* addr) const {
  Space* sp = space_containing(addr);
  return sp->block_is_obj(addr);
}

bool G1CollectedHeap::supports_tlab_allocation() const {
  return true;
}

size_t G1CollectedHeap::tlab_capacity(Thread* ignored) const {
  return HeapRegion::GrainBytes;
}

size_t G1CollectedHeap::unsafe_max_tlab_alloc(Thread* ignored) const {
  // Return the remaining space in the cur alloc region, but not less than
  // the min TLAB size.

  // Also, this value can be at most the humongous object threshold,
  // since we can't allow tlabs to grow big enough to accommodate
  // humongous objects.

  HeapRegion* hr = _mutator_alloc_region.get();
  size_t max_tlab_size = _humongous_object_threshold_in_words * wordSize;
  if (hr == NULL) {
    return max_tlab_size;
  } else {
    return MIN2(MAX2(hr->free(), (size_t) MinTLABSize), max_tlab_size);
  }
}

size_t G1CollectedHeap::max_capacity() const {
  return _g1_reserved.byte_size();
}

jlong G1CollectedHeap::millis_since_last_gc() {
  // assert(false, "NYI");
  return 0;
}

void G1CollectedHeap::prepare_for_verify() {
  if (SafepointSynchronize::is_at_safepoint() || ! UseTLAB) {
    ensure_parsability(false);
  }
  g1_rem_set()->prepare_for_verify();
}

bool G1CollectedHeap::allocated_since_marking(oop obj, HeapRegion* hr,
                                              VerifyOption vo) {
  switch (vo) {
  case VerifyOption_G1UsePrevMarking:
    return hr->obj_allocated_since_prev_marking(obj);
  case VerifyOption_G1UseNextMarking:
    return hr->obj_allocated_since_next_marking(obj);
  case VerifyOption_G1UseMarkWord:
    return false;
  default:
    ShouldNotReachHere();
  }
  return false; // keep some compilers happy
}

HeapWord* G1CollectedHeap::top_at_mark_start(HeapRegion* hr, VerifyOption vo) {
  switch (vo) {
  case VerifyOption_G1UsePrevMarking: return hr->prev_top_at_mark_start();
  case VerifyOption_G1UseNextMarking: return hr->next_top_at_mark_start();
  case VerifyOption_G1UseMarkWord:    return NULL;
  default:                            ShouldNotReachHere();
  }
  return NULL; // keep some compilers happy
}

bool G1CollectedHeap::is_marked(oop obj, VerifyOption vo) {
  switch (vo) {
  case VerifyOption_G1UsePrevMarking: return isMarkedPrev(obj);
  case VerifyOption_G1UseNextMarking: return isMarkedNext(obj);
  case VerifyOption_G1UseMarkWord:    return obj->is_gc_marked();
  default:                            ShouldNotReachHere();
  }
  return false; // keep some compilers happy
}

const char* G1CollectedHeap::top_at_mark_start_str(VerifyOption vo) {
  switch (vo) {
  case VerifyOption_G1UsePrevMarking: return "PTAMS";
  case VerifyOption_G1UseNextMarking: return "NTAMS";
  case VerifyOption_G1UseMarkWord:    return "NONE";
  default:                            ShouldNotReachHere();
  }
  return NULL; // keep some compilers happy
}

// TODO: VerifyRootsClosure extends OopsInGenClosure so that we can
//       pass it as the perm_blk to SharedHeap::process_strong_roots.
//       When process_strong_roots stop calling perm_blk->younger_refs_iterate
//       we can change this closure to extend the simpler OopClosure.
class VerifyRootsClosure: public OopsInGenClosure {
private:
  G1CollectedHeap* _g1h;
  VerifyOption     _vo;
  bool             _failures;
public:
  // _vo == UsePrevMarking -> use "prev" marking information,
  // _vo == UseNextMarking -> use "next" marking information,
  // _vo == UseMarkWord    -> use mark word from object header.
  VerifyRootsClosure(VerifyOption vo) :
    _g1h(G1CollectedHeap::heap()),
    _vo(vo),
    _failures(false) { }

  bool failures() { return _failures; }

  template <class T> void do_oop_nv(T* p) {
    T heap_oop = oopDesc::load_heap_oop(p);
    if (!oopDesc::is_null(heap_oop)) {
      oop obj = oopDesc::decode_heap_oop_not_null(heap_oop);
      if (_g1h->is_obj_dead_cond(obj, _vo)) {
        gclog_or_tty->print_cr("Root location "PTR_FORMAT" "
                              "points to dead obj "PTR_FORMAT, p, (void*) obj);
        if (_vo == VerifyOption_G1UseMarkWord) {
          gclog_or_tty->print_cr("  Mark word: "PTR_FORMAT, (void*)(obj->mark()));
        }
        obj->print_on(gclog_or_tty);
        _failures = true;
      }
    }
  }

  void do_oop(oop* p)       { do_oop_nv(p); }
  void do_oop(narrowOop* p) { do_oop_nv(p); }
};

class G1VerifyCodeRootOopClosure: public OopsInGenClosure {
  G1CollectedHeap* _g1h;
  OopClosure* _root_cl;
  nmethod* _nm;
  VerifyOption _vo;
  bool _failures;

  template <class T> void do_oop_work(T* p) {
    // First verify that this root is live
    _root_cl->do_oop(p);

    if (!G1VerifyHeapRegionCodeRoots) {
      // We're not verifying the code roots attached to heap region.
      return;
    }

    // Don't check the code roots during marking verification in a full GC
    if (_vo == VerifyOption_G1UseMarkWord) {
      return;
    }

    // Now verify that the current nmethod (which contains p) is
    // in the code root list of the heap region containing the
    // object referenced by p.

    T heap_oop = oopDesc::load_heap_oop(p);
    if (!oopDesc::is_null(heap_oop)) {
      oop obj = oopDesc::decode_heap_oop_not_null(heap_oop);

      if (_g1h->is_in_g1_reserved(obj)) {
        // Now fetch the region containing the object
        HeapRegion* hr = _g1h->heap_region_containing(obj);
        HeapRegionRemSet* hrrs = hr->rem_set();
        // Verify that the strong code root list for this region
        // contains the nmethod
        if (!hrrs->strong_code_roots_list_contains(_nm)) {
          gclog_or_tty->print_cr("Code root location "PTR_FORMAT" "
                                "from nmethod "PTR_FORMAT" not in strong "
                                "code roots for region ["PTR_FORMAT","PTR_FORMAT")",
                                p, _nm, hr->bottom(), hr->end());
          _failures = true;
        }
      }
    }
  }

public:
  G1VerifyCodeRootOopClosure(G1CollectedHeap* g1h, OopClosure* root_cl, VerifyOption vo):
    _g1h(g1h), _root_cl(root_cl), _vo(vo), _nm(NULL), _failures(false) {}

  void do_oop(oop* p) { do_oop_work(p); }
  void do_oop(narrowOop* p) { do_oop_work(p); }

  void set_nmethod(nmethod* nm) { _nm = nm; }
  bool failures() { return _failures; }
};

class G1VerifyCodeRootBlobClosure: public CodeBlobClosure {
  G1VerifyCodeRootOopClosure* _oop_cl;

public:
  G1VerifyCodeRootBlobClosure(G1VerifyCodeRootOopClosure* oop_cl):
    _oop_cl(oop_cl) {}

  void do_code_blob(CodeBlob* cb) {
    nmethod* nm = cb->as_nmethod_or_null();
    if (nm != NULL) {
      _oop_cl->set_nmethod(nm);
      nm->oops_do(_oop_cl);
    }
  }
};

class VerifyLivenessOopClosure: public OopClosure {
  G1CollectedHeap* _g1h;
  VerifyOption _vo;
public:
  VerifyLivenessOopClosure(G1CollectedHeap* g1h, VerifyOption vo):
    _g1h(g1h), _vo(vo)
  { }
  void do_oop(narrowOop *p) { do_oop_work(p); }
  void do_oop(      oop *p) { do_oop_work(p); }

  template <class T> void do_oop_work(T *p) {
    oop obj = oopDesc::load_decode_heap_oop(p);
    guarantee(obj == NULL || !_g1h->is_obj_dead_cond(obj, _vo),
              "Dead object referenced by a not dead object");
  }
};

class VerifyObjsInRegionClosure: public ObjectClosure {
private:
  G1CollectedHeap* _g1h;
  size_t _live_bytes;
  HeapRegion *_hr;
  VerifyOption _vo;
public:
  // _vo == UsePrevMarking -> use "prev" marking information,
  // _vo == UseNextMarking -> use "next" marking information,
  // _vo == UseMarkWord    -> use mark word from object header.
  VerifyObjsInRegionClosure(HeapRegion *hr, VerifyOption vo)
    : _live_bytes(0), _hr(hr), _vo(vo) {
    _g1h = G1CollectedHeap::heap();
  }
  void do_object(oop o) {
    VerifyLivenessOopClosure isLive(_g1h, _vo);
    assert(o != NULL, "Huh?");
    if (!_g1h->is_obj_dead_cond(o, _vo)) {
      // If the object is alive according to the mark word,
      // then verify that the marking information agrees.
      // Note we can't verify the contra-positive of the
      // above: if the object is dead (according to the mark
      // word), it may not be marked, or may have been marked
      // but has since became dead, or may have been allocated
      // since the last marking.
      if (_vo == VerifyOption_G1UseMarkWord) {
        guarantee(!_g1h->is_obj_dead(o), "mark word and concurrent mark mismatch");
      }

      o->oop_iterate(&isLive);
      if (!_hr->obj_allocated_since_prev_marking(o)) {
        size_t obj_size = o->size();    // Make sure we don't overflow
        _live_bytes += (obj_size * HeapWordSize);
      }
    }
  }
  size_t live_bytes() { return _live_bytes; }
};

class PrintObjsInRegionClosure : public ObjectClosure {
  HeapRegion *_hr;
  G1CollectedHeap *_g1;
public:
  PrintObjsInRegionClosure(HeapRegion *hr) : _hr(hr) {
    _g1 = G1CollectedHeap::heap();
  };

  void do_object(oop o) {
    if (o != NULL) {
      HeapWord *start = (HeapWord *) o;
      size_t word_sz = o->size();
      gclog_or_tty->print("\nPrinting obj "PTR_FORMAT" of size " SIZE_FORMAT
                          " isMarkedPrev %d isMarkedNext %d isAllocSince %d\n",
                          (void*) o, word_sz,
                          _g1->isMarkedPrev(o),
                          _g1->isMarkedNext(o),
                          _hr->obj_allocated_since_prev_marking(o));
      HeapWord *end = start + word_sz;
      HeapWord *cur;
      int *val;
      for (cur = start; cur < end; cur++) {
        val = (int *) cur;
        gclog_or_tty->print("\t "PTR_FORMAT":"PTR_FORMAT"\n", val, *val);
      }
    }
  }
};

class VerifyRegionClosure: public HeapRegionClosure {
private:
  bool             _par;
  VerifyOption     _vo;
  bool             _failures;
public:
  // _vo == UsePrevMarking -> use "prev" marking information,
  // _vo == UseNextMarking -> use "next" marking information,
  // _vo == UseMarkWord    -> use mark word from object header.
  VerifyRegionClosure(bool par, VerifyOption vo)
    : _par(par),
      _vo(vo),
      _failures(false) {}

  bool failures() {
    return _failures;
  }

  bool doHeapRegion(HeapRegion* r) {
    if (!r->continuesHumongous()) {
      bool failures = false;
      r->verify(_vo, &failures);
      if (failures) {
        _failures = true;
      } else {
        VerifyObjsInRegionClosure not_dead_yet_cl(r, _vo);
        r->object_iterate(&not_dead_yet_cl);
        if (_vo != VerifyOption_G1UseNextMarking) {
          if (r->max_live_bytes() < not_dead_yet_cl.live_bytes()) {
            gclog_or_tty->print_cr("["PTR_FORMAT","PTR_FORMAT"] "
                                   "max_live_bytes "SIZE_FORMAT" "
                                   "< calculated "SIZE_FORMAT,
                                   r->bottom(), r->end(),
                                   r->max_live_bytes(),
                                 not_dead_yet_cl.live_bytes());
            _failures = true;
          }
        } else {
          // When vo == UseNextMarking we cannot currently do a sanity
          // check on the live bytes as the calculation has not been
          // finalized yet.
        }
      }
    }
    return false; // stop the region iteration if we hit a failure
  }
};

// This is the task used for parallel heap verification.

class G1ParVerifyTask: public AbstractGangTask {
private:
  G1CollectedHeap* _g1h;
  VerifyOption     _vo;
  bool             _failures;

public:
  // _vo == UsePrevMarking -> use "prev" marking information,
  // _vo == UseNextMarking -> use "next" marking information,
  // _vo == UseMarkWord    -> use mark word from object header.
  G1ParVerifyTask(G1CollectedHeap* g1h, VerifyOption vo) :
    AbstractGangTask("Parallel verify task"),
    _g1h(g1h),
    _vo(vo),
    _failures(false) { }

  bool failures() {
    return _failures;
  }

  void work(uint worker_id) {
    HandleMark hm;
    VerifyRegionClosure blk(true, _vo);
    _g1h->heap_region_par_iterate_chunked(&blk, worker_id,
                                          _g1h->workers()->active_workers(),
                                          HeapRegion::ParVerifyClaimValue);
    if (blk.failures()) {
      _failures = true;
    }
  }
};

void G1CollectedHeap::verify(bool silent, VerifyOption vo) {
  if (SafepointSynchronize::is_at_safepoint()) {
    assert(Thread::current()->is_VM_thread(),
           "Expected to be executed serially by the VM thread at this point");

    if (!silent) { gclog_or_tty->print("Roots (excluding permgen) "); }
    VerifyRootsClosure rootsCl(vo);

    G1VerifyCodeRootOopClosure codeRootsCl(this, &rootsCl, vo);
    G1VerifyCodeRootBlobClosure blobsCl(&codeRootsCl);
    // We apply the relevant closures to all the oops in the
    // system dictionary, the string table and the code cache.
    const int so = SO_AllClasses | SO_Strings | SO_CodeCache;

    process_strong_roots(true,      // activate StrongRootsScope
                         true,      // we set "collecting perm gen" to true,
                                    // so we don't reset the dirty cards in the perm gen.
                         ScanningOption(so),  // roots scanning options
                         &rootsCl,
                         &blobsCl,
                         &rootsCl);

    // If we're verifying after the marking phase of a Full GC then we can't
    // treat the perm gen as roots into the G1 heap. Some of the objects in
    // the perm gen may be dead and hence not marked. If one of these dead
    // objects is considered to be a root then we may end up with a false
    // "Root location <x> points to dead ob <y>" failure.
    if (vo != VerifyOption_G1UseMarkWord) {
      // Since we used "collecting_perm_gen" == true above, we will not have
      // checked the refs from perm into the G1-collected heap. We check those
      // references explicitly below. Whether the relevant cards are dirty
      // is checked further below in the rem set verification.
      if (!silent) { gclog_or_tty->print("Permgen roots "); }
      perm_gen()->oop_iterate(&rootsCl);
    }
    bool failures = rootsCl.failures();

    if (vo != VerifyOption_G1UseMarkWord) {
      // If we're verifying during a full GC then the region sets
      // will have been torn down at the start of the GC. Therefore
      // verifying the region sets will fail. So we only verify
      // the region sets when not in a full GC.
      if (!silent) { gclog_or_tty->print("HeapRegionSets "); }
      verify_region_sets();
    }

    if (!silent) { gclog_or_tty->print("HeapRegions "); }
    if (GCParallelVerificationEnabled && ParallelGCThreads > 1) {
      assert(check_heap_region_claim_values(HeapRegion::InitialClaimValue),
             "sanity check");

      G1ParVerifyTask task(this, vo);
      assert(UseDynamicNumberOfGCThreads ||
        workers()->active_workers() == workers()->total_workers(),
        "If not dynamic should be using all the workers");
      int n_workers = workers()->active_workers();
      set_par_threads(n_workers);
      workers()->run_task(&task);
      set_par_threads(0);
      if (task.failures()) {
        failures = true;
      }

      // Checks that the expected amount of parallel work was done.
      // The implication is that n_workers is > 0.
      assert(check_heap_region_claim_values(HeapRegion::ParVerifyClaimValue),
             "sanity check");

      reset_heap_region_claim_values();

      assert(check_heap_region_claim_values(HeapRegion::InitialClaimValue),
             "sanity check");
    } else {
      VerifyRegionClosure blk(false, vo);
      heap_region_iterate(&blk);
      if (blk.failures()) {
        failures = true;
      }
    }
    if (!silent) gclog_or_tty->print("RemSet ");
    rem_set()->verify();

    if (failures) {
      gclog_or_tty->print_cr("Heap:");
      // It helps to have the per-region information in the output to
      // help us track down what went wrong. This is why we call
      // print_extended_on() instead of print_on().
      print_extended_on(gclog_or_tty);
      gclog_or_tty->print_cr("");
#ifndef PRODUCT
      if (VerifyDuringGC && G1VerifyDuringGCPrintReachable) {
        concurrent_mark()->print_reachable("at-verification-failure",
                                           vo, false /* all */);
      }
#endif
      gclog_or_tty->flush();
    }
    guarantee(!failures, "there should not have been any failures");
  } else {
    if (!silent)
      gclog_or_tty->print("(SKIPPING roots, heapRegionSets, heapRegions, remset) ");
  }
}

void G1CollectedHeap::verify(bool silent) {
  verify(silent, VerifyOption_G1UsePrevMarking);
}

double G1CollectedHeap::verify(bool guard, const char* msg) {
  double verify_time_ms = 0.0;

  if (guard && total_collections() >= VerifyGCStartAt) {
    double verify_start = os::elapsedTime();
    HandleMark hm;  // Discard invalid handles created during verification
    prepare_for_verify();
    Universe::verify(VerifyOption_G1UsePrevMarking, msg);
    verify_time_ms = (os::elapsedTime() - verify_start) * 1000;
  }

  return verify_time_ms;
}

void G1CollectedHeap::verify_before_gc() {
  double verify_time_ms = verify(VerifyBeforeGC, " VerifyBeforeGC:");
  g1_policy()->phase_times()->record_verify_before_time_ms(verify_time_ms);
}

void G1CollectedHeap::verify_after_gc() {
  double verify_time_ms = verify(VerifyAfterGC, " VerifyAfterGC:");
  g1_policy()->phase_times()->record_verify_after_time_ms(verify_time_ms);
}

class PrintRegionClosure: public HeapRegionClosure {
  outputStream* _st;
public:
  PrintRegionClosure(outputStream* st) : _st(st) {}
  bool doHeapRegion(HeapRegion* r) {
    r->print_on(_st);
    return false;
  }
};

void G1CollectedHeap::print_on(outputStream* st) const {
  st->print(" %-20s", "garbage-first heap");
  st->print(" total " SIZE_FORMAT "K, used " SIZE_FORMAT "K",
            capacity()/K, used_unlocked()/K);
  st->print(" [" INTPTR_FORMAT ", " INTPTR_FORMAT ", " INTPTR_FORMAT ")",
            _g1_storage.low_boundary(),
            _g1_storage.high(),
            _g1_storage.high_boundary());
  st->cr();
  st->print("  region size " SIZE_FORMAT "K, ", HeapRegion::GrainBytes / K);
  uint young_regions = _young_list->length();
  st->print("%u young (" SIZE_FORMAT "K), ", young_regions,
            (size_t) young_regions * HeapRegion::GrainBytes / K);
  uint survivor_regions = g1_policy()->recorded_survivor_regions();
  st->print("%u survivors (" SIZE_FORMAT "K)", survivor_regions,
            (size_t) survivor_regions * HeapRegion::GrainBytes / K);
  st->cr();
  perm()->as_gen()->print_on(st);
}

void G1CollectedHeap::print_extended_on(outputStream* st) const {
  print_on(st);

  // Print the per-region information.
  st->cr();
  st->print_cr("Heap Regions: (Y=young(eden), SU=young(survivor), "
               "HS=humongous(starts), HC=humongous(continues), "
               "CS=collection set, F=free, TS=gc time stamp, "
               "PTAMS=previous top-at-mark-start, "
               "NTAMS=next top-at-mark-start)");
  PrintRegionClosure blk(st);
  heap_region_iterate(&blk);
}

void G1CollectedHeap::print_gc_threads_on(outputStream* st) const {
  if (G1CollectedHeap::use_parallel_gc_threads()) {
    workers()->print_worker_threads_on(st);
  }
  _cmThread->print_on(st);
  st->cr();
  _cm->print_worker_threads_on(st);
  _cg1r->print_worker_threads_on(st);
  st->cr();
}

void G1CollectedHeap::gc_threads_do(ThreadClosure* tc) const {
  if (G1CollectedHeap::use_parallel_gc_threads()) {
    workers()->threads_do(tc);
  }
  tc->do_thread(_cmThread);
  _cg1r->threads_do(tc);
}

void G1CollectedHeap::print_tracing_info() const {
  // We'll overload this to mean "trace GC pause statistics."
  if (TraceGen0Time || TraceGen1Time) {
    // The "G1CollectorPolicy" is keeping track of these stats, so delegate
    // to that.
    g1_policy()->print_tracing_info();
  }
  if (G1SummarizeRSetStats) {
    g1_rem_set()->print_summary_info();
  }
  if (G1SummarizeConcMark) {
    concurrent_mark()->print_summary_info();
  }
  g1_policy()->print_yg_surv_rate_info();
  SpecializationStats::print();
}

#ifndef PRODUCT
// Helpful for debugging RSet issues.

class PrintRSetsClosure : public HeapRegionClosure {
private:
  const char* _msg;
  size_t _occupied_sum;

public:
  bool doHeapRegion(HeapRegion* r) {
    HeapRegionRemSet* hrrs = r->rem_set();
    size_t occupied = hrrs->occupied();
    _occupied_sum += occupied;

    gclog_or_tty->print_cr("Printing RSet for region "HR_FORMAT,
                           HR_FORMAT_PARAMS(r));
    if (occupied == 0) {
      gclog_or_tty->print_cr("  RSet is empty");
    } else {
      hrrs->print();
    }
    gclog_or_tty->print_cr("----------");
    return false;
  }

  PrintRSetsClosure(const char* msg) : _msg(msg), _occupied_sum(0) {
    gclog_or_tty->cr();
    gclog_or_tty->print_cr("========================================");
    gclog_or_tty->print_cr(msg);
    gclog_or_tty->cr();
  }

  ~PrintRSetsClosure() {
    gclog_or_tty->print_cr("Occupied Sum: "SIZE_FORMAT, _occupied_sum);
    gclog_or_tty->print_cr("========================================");
    gclog_or_tty->cr();
  }
};

void G1CollectedHeap::print_cset_rsets() {
  PrintRSetsClosure cl("Printing CSet RSets");
  collection_set_iterate(&cl);
}

void G1CollectedHeap::print_all_rsets() {
  PrintRSetsClosure cl("Printing All RSets");;
  heap_region_iterate(&cl);
}
#endif // PRODUCT

G1CollectedHeap* G1CollectedHeap::heap() {
  assert(_sh->kind() == CollectedHeap::G1CollectedHeap,
         "not a garbage-first heap");
  return _g1h;
}

void G1CollectedHeap::gc_prologue(bool full /* Ignored */) {
  // always_do_update_barrier = false;
  assert(InlineCacheBuffer::is_empty(), "should have cleaned up ICBuffer");
  // Call allocation profiler
  AllocationProfiler::iterate_since_last_gc();
  // Fill TLAB's and such
  ensure_parsability(true);

  if (G1SummarizeRSetStats && (G1SummarizeRSetStatsPeriod > 0) &&
      (total_collections() % G1SummarizeRSetStatsPeriod == 0)) {
    g1_rem_set()->print_periodic_summary_info("Before GC RS summary");
  }
}

void G1CollectedHeap::gc_epilogue(bool full /* Ignored */) {

  if (G1SummarizeRSetStats &&
      (G1SummarizeRSetStatsPeriod > 0) &&
      // we are at the end of the GC. Total collections has already been increased.
      ((total_collections() - 1) % G1SummarizeRSetStatsPeriod == 0)) {
    g1_rem_set()->print_periodic_summary_info("After GC RS summary");
  }

  // FIXME: what is this about?
  // I'm ignoring the "fill_newgen()" call if "alloc_event_enabled"
  // is set.
  COMPILER2_PRESENT(assert(DerivedPointerTable::is_empty(),
                        "derived pointer present"));
  // always_do_update_barrier = true;

  // We have just completed a GC. Update the soft reference
  // policy with the new heap occupancy
  Universe::update_heap_info_at_gc();
}

HeapWord* G1CollectedHeap::do_collection_pause(size_t word_size,
                                               unsigned int gc_count_before,
                                               bool* succeeded) {
  assert_heap_not_locked_and_not_at_safepoint();
  g1_policy()->record_stop_world_start();
  VM_G1IncCollectionPause op(gc_count_before,
                             word_size,
                             false, /* should_initiate_conc_mark */
                             g1_policy()->max_pause_time_ms(),
                             GCCause::_g1_inc_collection_pause);
  VMThread::execute(&op);

  HeapWord* result = op.result();
  bool ret_succeeded = op.prologue_succeeded() && op.pause_succeeded();
  assert(result == NULL || ret_succeeded,
         "the result should be NULL if the VM did not succeed");
  *succeeded = ret_succeeded;

  assert_heap_not_locked();
  return result;
}

void
G1CollectedHeap::doConcurrentMark() {
  MutexLockerEx x(CGC_lock, Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
  if (!_cmThread->in_progress()) {
    _cmThread->set_started();
    CGC_lock->notify();
  }
}

size_t G1CollectedHeap::pending_card_num() {
  size_t extra_cards = 0;
  JavaThread *curr = Threads::first();
  while (curr != NULL) {
    DirtyCardQueue& dcq = curr->dirty_card_queue();
    extra_cards += dcq.size();
    curr = curr->next();
  }
  DirtyCardQueueSet& dcqs = JavaThread::dirty_card_queue_set();
  size_t buffer_size = dcqs.buffer_size();
  size_t buffer_num = dcqs.completed_buffers_num();

  // PtrQueueSet::buffer_size() and PtrQueue:size() return sizes
  // in bytes - not the number of 'entries'. We need to convert
  // into a number of cards.
  return (buffer_size * buffer_num + extra_cards) / oopSize;
}

size_t G1CollectedHeap::cards_scanned() {
  return g1_rem_set()->cardsScanned();
}

void
G1CollectedHeap::setup_surviving_young_words() {
  assert(_surviving_young_words == NULL, "pre-condition");
  uint array_length = g1_policy()->young_cset_region_length();
  _surviving_young_words = NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(size_t, (size_t) array_length, mtGC);
  if (_surviving_young_words == NULL) {
    vm_exit_out_of_memory(sizeof(size_t) * array_length,
                          "Not enough space for young surv words summary.");
  }
  memset(_surviving_young_words, 0, (size_t) array_length * sizeof(size_t));
#ifdef ASSERT
  for (uint i = 0;  i < array_length; ++i) {
    assert( _surviving_young_words[i] == 0, "memset above" );
  }
#endif // !ASSERT
}

void
G1CollectedHeap::update_surviving_young_words(size_t* surv_young_words) {
  MutexLockerEx x(ParGCRareEvent_lock, Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
  uint array_length = g1_policy()->young_cset_region_length();
  for (uint i = 0; i < array_length; ++i) {
    _surviving_young_words[i] += surv_young_words[i];
  }
}

void
G1CollectedHeap::cleanup_surviving_young_words() {
  guarantee( _surviving_young_words != NULL, "pre-condition" );
  FREE_C_HEAP_ARRAY(size_t, _surviving_young_words, mtGC);
  _surviving_young_words = NULL;
}

#ifdef ASSERT
class VerifyCSetClosure: public HeapRegionClosure {
public:
  bool doHeapRegion(HeapRegion* hr) {
    // Here we check that the CSet region's RSet is ready for parallel
    // iteration. The fields that we'll verify are only manipulated
    // when the region is part of a CSet and is collected. Afterwards,
    // we reset these fields when we clear the region's RSet (when the
    // region is freed) so they are ready when the region is
    // re-allocated. The only exception to this is if there's an
    // evacuation failure and instead of freeing the region we leave
    // it in the heap. In that case, we reset these fields during
    // evacuation failure handling.
    guarantee(hr->rem_set()->verify_ready_for_par_iteration(), "verification");

    // Here's a good place to add any other checks we'd like to
    // perform on CSet regions.
    return false;
  }
};
#endif // ASSERT

#if TASKQUEUE_STATS
void G1CollectedHeap::print_taskqueue_stats_hdr(outputStream* const st) {
  st->print_raw_cr("GC Task Stats");
  st->print_raw("thr "); TaskQueueStats::print_header(1, st); st->cr();
  st->print_raw("--- "); TaskQueueStats::print_header(2, st); st->cr();
}

void G1CollectedHeap::print_taskqueue_stats(outputStream* const st) const {
  print_taskqueue_stats_hdr(st);

  TaskQueueStats totals;
  const int n = workers() != NULL ? workers()->total_workers() : 1;
  for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
    st->print("%3d ", i); task_queue(i)->stats.print(st); st->cr();
    totals += task_queue(i)->stats;
  }
  st->print_raw("tot "); totals.print(st); st->cr();

  DEBUG_ONLY(totals.verify());
}

void G1CollectedHeap::reset_taskqueue_stats() {
  const int n = workers() != NULL ? workers()->total_workers() : 1;
  for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
    task_queue(i)->stats.reset();
  }
}
#endif // TASKQUEUE_STATS

void G1CollectedHeap::log_gc_header() {
  if (!G1Log::fine()) {
    return;
  }

  gclog_or_tty->date_stamp(PrintGCDateStamps);
  gclog_or_tty->stamp(PrintGCTimeStamps);

  GCCauseString gc_cause_str = GCCauseString("GC pause", gc_cause())
    .append(g1_policy()->gcs_are_young() ? " (young)" : " (mixed)")
    .append(g1_policy()->during_initial_mark_pause() ? " (initial-mark)" : "");

  gclog_or_tty->print("[%s", (const char*)gc_cause_str);
}

void G1CollectedHeap::log_gc_footer(double pause_time_sec) {
  if (!G1Log::fine()) {
    return;
  }

  if (G1Log::finer()) {
    if (evacuation_failed()) {
      gclog_or_tty->print(" (to-space exhausted)");
    }
    gclog_or_tty->print_cr(", %3.7f secs]", pause_time_sec);
    g1_policy()->phase_times()->note_gc_end();
    g1_policy()->phase_times()->print(pause_time_sec);
    g1_policy()->print_detailed_heap_transition();
  } else {
    if (evacuation_failed()) {
      gclog_or_tty->print("--");
    }
    g1_policy()->print_heap_transition();
    gclog_or_tty->print_cr(", %3.7f secs]", pause_time_sec);
  }
  gclog_or_tty->flush();
}

bool
G1CollectedHeap::do_collection_pause_at_safepoint(double target_pause_time_ms) {
  assert_at_safepoint(true /* should_be_vm_thread */);
  guarantee(!is_gc_active(), "collection is not reentrant");

  if (GC_locker::check_active_before_gc()) {
    return false;
  }

  _gc_timer_stw->register_gc_start();

  _gc_tracer_stw->report_gc_start(gc_cause(), _gc_timer_stw->gc_start());

  SvcGCMarker sgcm(SvcGCMarker::MINOR);
  ResourceMark rm;

  print_heap_before_gc();
  trace_heap_before_gc(_gc_tracer_stw);

  HRSPhaseSetter x(HRSPhaseEvacuation);
  verify_region_sets_optional();
  verify_dirty_young_regions();

  // This call will decide whether this pause is an initial-mark
  // pause. If it is, during_initial_mark_pause() will return true
  // for the duration of this pause.
  g1_policy()->decide_on_conc_mark_initiation();

  // We do not allow initial-mark to be piggy-backed on a mixed GC.
  assert(!g1_policy()->during_initial_mark_pause() ||
          g1_policy()->gcs_are_young(), "sanity");

  // We also do not allow mixed GCs during marking.
  assert(!mark_in_progress() || g1_policy()->gcs_are_young(), "sanity");

  // Record whether this pause is an initial mark. When the current
  // thread has completed its logging output and it's safe to signal
  // the CM thread, the flag's value in the policy has been reset.
  bool should_start_conc_mark = g1_policy()->during_initial_mark_pause();

  // Inner scope for scope based logging, timers, and stats collection
  {
    EvacuationInfo evacuation_info;

    if (g1_policy()->during_initial_mark_pause()) {
      // We are about to start a marking cycle, so we increment the
      // full collection counter.
      increment_old_marking_cycles_started();
      register_concurrent_cycle_start(_gc_timer_stw->gc_start());
    }

    _gc_tracer_stw->report_yc_type(yc_type());

    TraceCPUTime tcpu(G1Log::finer(), true, gclog_or_tty);

    int active_workers = (G1CollectedHeap::use_parallel_gc_threads() ?
                                workers()->active_workers() : 1);
    double pause_start_sec = os::elapsedTime();
    g1_policy()->phase_times()->note_gc_start(active_workers);
    log_gc_header();

    TraceCollectorStats tcs(g1mm()->incremental_collection_counters());
    TraceMemoryManagerStats tms(false /* fullGC */, gc_cause());

    // If the secondary_free_list is not empty, append it to the
    // free_list. No need to wait for the cleanup operation to finish;
    // the region allocation code will check the secondary_free_list
    // and wait if necessary. If the G1StressConcRegionFreeing flag is
    // set, skip this step so that the region allocation code has to
    // get entries from the secondary_free_list.
    if (!G1StressConcRegionFreeing) {
      append_secondary_free_list_if_not_empty_with_lock();
    }

    assert(check_young_list_well_formed(), "young list should be well formed");
    assert(check_heap_region_claim_values(HeapRegion::InitialClaimValue),
           "sanity check");

    // Don't dynamically change the number of GC threads this early.  A value of
    // 0 is used to indicate serial work.  When parallel work is done,
    // it will be set.

    { // Call to jvmpi::post_class_unload_events must occur outside of active GC
      IsGCActiveMark x;

      gc_prologue(false);
      increment_total_collections(false /* full gc */);
      increment_gc_time_stamp();

      verify_before_gc();

      COMPILER2_PRESENT(DerivedPointerTable::clear());

      // Please see comment in g1CollectedHeap.hpp and
      // G1CollectedHeap::ref_processing_init() to see how
      // reference processing currently works in G1.

      // Enable discovery in the STW reference processor
      ref_processor_stw()->enable_discovery(true /*verify_disabled*/,
                                            true /*verify_no_refs*/);

      {
        // We want to temporarily turn off discovery by the
        // CM ref processor, if necessary, and turn it back on
        // on again later if we do. Using a scoped
        // NoRefDiscovery object will do this.
        NoRefDiscovery no_cm_discovery(ref_processor_cm());

        // Forget the current alloc region (we might even choose it to be part
        // of the collection set!).
        release_mutator_alloc_region();

        // We should call this after we retire the mutator alloc
        // region(s) so that all the ALLOC / RETIRE events are generated
        // before the start GC event.
        _hr_printer.start_gc(false /* full */, (size_t) total_collections());

        // This timing is only used by the ergonomics to handle our pause target.
        // It is unclear why this should not include the full pause. We will
        // investigate this in CR 7178365.
        //
        // Preserving the old comment here if that helps the investigation:
        //
        // The elapsed time induced by the start time below deliberately elides
        // the possible verification above.
        double sample_start_time_sec = os::elapsedTime();

#if YOUNG_LIST_VERBOSE
        gclog_or_tty->print_cr("\nBefore recording pause start.\nYoung_list:");
        _young_list->print();
        g1_policy()->print_collection_set(g1_policy()->inc_cset_head(), gclog_or_tty);
#endif // YOUNG_LIST_VERBOSE

        g1_policy()->record_collection_pause_start(sample_start_time_sec);

        double scan_wait_start = os::elapsedTime();
        // We have to wait until the CM threads finish scanning the
        // root regions as it's the only way to ensure that all the
        // objects on them have been correctly scanned before we start
        // moving them during the GC.
        bool waited = _cm->root_regions()->wait_until_scan_finished();
        double wait_time_ms = 0.0;
        if (waited) {
          double scan_wait_end = os::elapsedTime();
          wait_time_ms = (scan_wait_end - scan_wait_start) * 1000.0;
        }
        g1_policy()->phase_times()->record_root_region_scan_wait_time(wait_time_ms);

#if YOUNG_LIST_VERBOSE
        gclog_or_tty->print_cr("\nAfter recording pause start.\nYoung_list:");
        _young_list->print();
#endif // YOUNG_LIST_VERBOSE

        if (g1_policy()->during_initial_mark_pause()) {
          concurrent_mark()->checkpointRootsInitialPre();
        }
        perm_gen()->save_marks();

#if YOUNG_LIST_VERBOSE
        gclog_or_tty->print_cr("\nBefore choosing collection set.\nYoung_list:");
        _young_list->print();
        g1_policy()->print_collection_set(g1_policy()->inc_cset_head(), gclog_or_tty);
#endif // YOUNG_LIST_VERBOSE

        g1_policy()->finalize_cset(target_pause_time_ms, evacuation_info);

        _cm->note_start_of_gc();
        // We should not verify the per-thread SATB buffers given that
        // we have not filtered them yet (we'll do so during the
        // GC). We also call this after finalize_cset() to
        // ensure that the CSet has been finalized.
        _cm->verify_no_cset_oops(true  /* verify_stacks */,
                                 true  /* verify_enqueued_buffers */,
                                 false /* verify_thread_buffers */,
                                 true  /* verify_fingers */);

        if (_hr_printer.is_active()) {
          HeapRegion* hr = g1_policy()->collection_set();
          while (hr != NULL) {
            G1HRPrinter::RegionType type;
            if (!hr->is_young()) {
              type = G1HRPrinter::Old;
            } else if (hr->is_survivor()) {
              type = G1HRPrinter::Survivor;
            } else {
              type = G1HRPrinter::Eden;
            }
            _hr_printer.cset(hr);
            hr = hr->next_in_collection_set();
          }
        }

#ifdef ASSERT
        VerifyCSetClosure cl;
        collection_set_iterate(&cl);
#endif // ASSERT

        setup_surviving_young_words();

        // Initialize the GC alloc regions.
        init_gc_alloc_regions(evacuation_info);

        // Actually do the work...
        evacuate_collection_set(evacuation_info);

        // We do this to mainly verify the per-thread SATB buffers
        // (which have been filtered by now) since we didn't verify
        // them earlier. No point in re-checking the stacks / enqueued
        // buffers given that the CSet has not changed since last time
        // we checked.
        _cm->verify_no_cset_oops(false /* verify_stacks */,
                                 false /* verify_enqueued_buffers */,
                                 true  /* verify_thread_buffers */,
                                 true  /* verify_fingers */);

        free_collection_set(g1_policy()->collection_set(), evacuation_info);
        g1_policy()->clear_collection_set();

        cleanup_surviving_young_words();

        // Start a new incremental collection set for the next pause.
        g1_policy()->start_incremental_cset_building();

        // Clear the _cset_fast_test bitmap in anticipation of adding
        // regions to the incremental collection set for the next
        // evacuation pause.
        clear_cset_fast_test();

        _young_list->reset_sampled_info();

        // Don't check the whole heap at this point as the
        // GC alloc regions from this pause have been tagged
        // as survivors and moved on to the survivor list.
        // Survivor regions will fail the !is_young() check.
        assert(check_young_list_empty(false /* check_heap */),
          "young list should be empty");

#if YOUNG_LIST_VERBOSE
        gclog_or_tty->print_cr("Before recording survivors.\nYoung List:");
        _young_list->print();
#endif // YOUNG_LIST_VERBOSE

        g1_policy()->record_survivor_regions(_young_list->survivor_length(),
                                             _young_list->first_survivor_region(),
                                             _young_list->last_survivor_region());

        _young_list->reset_auxilary_lists();

        if (evacuation_failed()) {
          _summary_bytes_used = recalculate_used();
          uint n_queues = MAX2((int)ParallelGCThreads, 1);
          for (uint i = 0; i < n_queues; i++) {
            if (_evacuation_failed_info_array[i].has_failed()) {
              _gc_tracer_stw->report_evacuation_failed(_evacuation_failed_info_array[i]);
            }
          }
        } else {
          // The "used" of the the collection set have already been subtracted
          // when they were freed.  Add in the bytes evacuated.
          _summary_bytes_used += g1_policy()->bytes_copied_during_gc();
        }

        if (g1_policy()->during_initial_mark_pause()) {
          // We have to do this before we notify the CM threads that
          // they can start working to make sure that all the
          // appropriate initialization is done on the CM object.
          concurrent_mark()->checkpointRootsInitialPost();
          set_marking_started();
          // Note that we don't actually trigger the CM thread at
          // this point. We do that later when we're sure that
          // the current thread has completed its logging output.
        }

        allocate_dummy_regions();

#if YOUNG_LIST_VERBOSE
        gclog_or_tty->print_cr("\nEnd of the pause.\nYoung_list:");
        _young_list->print();
        g1_policy()->print_collection_set(g1_policy()->inc_cset_head(), gclog_or_tty);
#endif // YOUNG_LIST_VERBOSE

        init_mutator_alloc_region();

        {
          size_t expand_bytes = g1_policy()->expansion_amount();
          if (expand_bytes > 0) {
            size_t bytes_before = capacity();
            // No need for an ergo verbose message here,
            // expansion_amount() does this when it returns a value > 0.
            if (!expand(expand_bytes)) {
              // We failed to expand the heap so let's verify that
              // committed/uncommitted amount match the backing store
              assert(capacity() == _g1_storage.committed_size(), "committed size mismatch");
              assert(max_capacity() == _g1_storage.reserved_size(), "reserved size mismatch");
            }
          }
        }

        // We redo the verification but now wrt to the new CSet which
        // has just got initialized after the previous CSet was freed.
        _cm->verify_no_cset_oops(true  /* verify_stacks */,
                                 true  /* verify_enqueued_buffers */,
                                 true  /* verify_thread_buffers */,
                                 true  /* verify_fingers */);
        _cm->note_end_of_gc();

        // This timing is only used by the ergonomics to handle our pause target.
        // It is unclear why this should not include the full pause. We will
        // investigate this in CR 7178365.
        double sample_end_time_sec = os::elapsedTime();
        double pause_time_ms = (sample_end_time_sec - sample_start_time_sec) * MILLIUNITS;
        g1_policy()->record_collection_pause_end(pause_time_ms, evacuation_info);

        MemoryService::track_memory_usage();

        // In prepare_for_verify() below we'll need to scan the deferred
        // update buffers to bring the RSets up-to-date if
        // G1HRRSFlushLogBuffersOnVerify has been set. While scanning
        // the update buffers we'll probably need to scan cards on the
        // regions we just allocated to (i.e., the GC alloc
        // regions). However, during the last GC we called
        // set_saved_mark() on all the GC alloc regions, so card
        // scanning might skip the [saved_mark_word()...top()] area of
        // those regions (i.e., the area we allocated objects into
        // during the last GC). But it shouldn't. Given that
        // saved_mark_word() is conditional on whether the GC time stamp
        // on the region is current or not, by incrementing the GC time
        // stamp here we invalidate all the GC time stamps on all the
        // regions and saved_mark_word() will simply return top() for
        // all the regions. This is a nicer way of ensuring this rather
        // than iterating over the regions and fixing them. In fact, the
        // GC time stamp increment here also ensures that
        // saved_mark_word() will return top() between pauses, i.e.,
        // during concurrent refinement. So we don't need the
        // is_gc_active() check to decided which top to use when
        // scanning cards (see CR 7039627).
        increment_gc_time_stamp();

        verify_after_gc();

        assert(!ref_processor_stw()->discovery_enabled(), "Postcondition");
        ref_processor_stw()->verify_no_references_recorded();

        // CM reference discovery will be re-enabled if necessary.
      }

      // We should do this after we potentially expand the heap so
      // that all the COMMIT events are generated before the end GC
      // event, and after we retire the GC alloc regions so that all
      // RETIRE events are generated before the end GC event.
      _hr_printer.end_gc(false /* full */, (size_t) total_collections());

      if (mark_in_progress()) {
        concurrent_mark()->update_g1_committed();
      }

#ifdef TRACESPINNING
      ParallelTaskTerminator::print_termination_counts();
#endif

      gc_epilogue(false);
    }

    // Print the remainder of the GC log output.
    log_gc_footer(os::elapsedTime() - pause_start_sec);

    // It is not yet to safe to tell the concurrent mark to
    // start as we have some optional output below. We don't want the
    // output from the concurrent mark thread interfering with this
    // logging output either.

    _hrs.verify_optional();
    verify_region_sets_optional();

    TASKQUEUE_STATS_ONLY(if (ParallelGCVerbose) print_taskqueue_stats());
    TASKQUEUE_STATS_ONLY(reset_taskqueue_stats());

    print_heap_after_gc();
    trace_heap_after_gc(_gc_tracer_stw);

    // We must call G1MonitoringSupport::update_sizes() in the same scoping level
    // as an active TraceMemoryManagerStats object (i.e. before the destructor for the
    // TraceMemoryManagerStats is called) so that the G1 memory pools are updated
    // before any GC notifications are raised.
    g1mm()->update_sizes();

    _gc_tracer_stw->report_evacuation_info(&evacuation_info);
    _gc_tracer_stw->report_tenuring_threshold(_g1_policy->tenuring_threshold());
    _gc_timer_stw->register_gc_end();
    _gc_tracer_stw->report_gc_end(_gc_timer_stw->gc_end(), _gc_timer_stw->time_partitions());
  }

  // It should now be safe to tell the concurrent mark thread to start
  // without its logging output interfering with the logging output
  // that came from the pause.

  if (should_start_conc_mark) {
    // CAUTION: after the doConcurrentMark() call below,
    // the concurrent marking thread(s) could be running
    // concurrently with us. Make sure that anything after
    // this point does not assume that we are the only GC thread
    // running. Note: of course, the actual marking work will
    // not start until the safepoint itself is released in
    // ConcurrentGCThread::safepoint_desynchronize().
    doConcurrentMark();
  }

  return true;
}

size_t G1CollectedHeap::desired_plab_sz(GCAllocPurpose purpose)
{
  size_t gclab_word_size;
  switch (purpose) {
    case GCAllocForSurvived:
      gclab_word_size = _survivor_plab_stats.desired_plab_sz();
      break;
    case GCAllocForTenured:
      gclab_word_size = _old_plab_stats.desired_plab_sz();
      break;
    default:
      assert(false, "unknown GCAllocPurpose");
      gclab_word_size = _old_plab_stats.desired_plab_sz();
      break;
  }

  // Prevent humongous PLAB sizes for two reasons:
  // * PLABs are allocated using a similar paths as oops, but should
  //   never be in a humongous region
  // * Allowing humongous PLABs needlessly churns the region free lists
  return MIN2(_humongous_object_threshold_in_words, gclab_word_size);
}

void G1CollectedHeap::init_mutator_alloc_region() {
  assert(_mutator_alloc_region.get() == NULL, "pre-condition");
  _mutator_alloc_region.init();
}

void G1CollectedHeap::release_mutator_alloc_region() {
  _mutator_alloc_region.release();
  assert(_mutator_alloc_region.get() == NULL, "post-condition");
}

void G1CollectedHeap::init_gc_alloc_regions(EvacuationInfo& evacuation_info) {
  assert_at_safepoint(true /* should_be_vm_thread */);

  _survivor_gc_alloc_region.init();
  _old_gc_alloc_region.init();
  HeapRegion* retained_region = _retained_old_gc_alloc_region;
  _retained_old_gc_alloc_region = NULL;

  // We will discard the current GC alloc region if:
  // a) it's in the collection set (it can happen!),
  // b) it's already full (no point in using it),
  // c) it's empty (this means that it was emptied during
  // a cleanup and it should be on the free list now), or
  // d) it's humongous (this means that it was emptied
  // during a cleanup and was added to the free list, but
  // has been subsequently used to allocate a humongous
  // object that may be less than the region size).
  if (retained_region != NULL &&
      !retained_region->in_collection_set() &&
      !(retained_region->top() == retained_region->end()) &&
      !retained_region->is_empty() &&
      !retained_region->isHumongous()) {
    retained_region->set_saved_mark();
    // The retained region was added to the old region set when it was
    // retired. We have to remove it now, since we don't allow regions
    // we allocate to in the region sets. We'll re-add it later, when
    // it's retired again.
    _old_set.remove(retained_region);
    bool during_im = g1_policy()->during_initial_mark_pause();
    retained_region->note_start_of_copying(during_im);
    _old_gc_alloc_region.set(retained_region);
    _hr_printer.reuse(retained_region);
    evacuation_info.set_alloc_regions_used_before(retained_region->used());
  }
}

void G1CollectedHeap::release_gc_alloc_regions(uint no_of_gc_workers, EvacuationInfo& evacuation_info) {
  evacuation_info.set_allocation_regions(_survivor_gc_alloc_region.count() +
                                         _old_gc_alloc_region.count());
  _survivor_gc_alloc_region.release();
  // If we have an old GC alloc region to release, we'll save it in
  // _retained_old_gc_alloc_region. If we don't
  // _retained_old_gc_alloc_region will become NULL. This is what we
  // want either way so no reason to check explicitly for either
  // condition.
  _retained_old_gc_alloc_region = _old_gc_alloc_region.release();

  if (ResizePLAB) {
    _survivor_plab_stats.adjust_desired_plab_sz(no_of_gc_workers);
    _old_plab_stats.adjust_desired_plab_sz(no_of_gc_workers);
  }
}

void G1CollectedHeap::abandon_gc_alloc_regions() {
  assert(_survivor_gc_alloc_region.get() == NULL, "pre-condition");
  assert(_old_gc_alloc_region.get() == NULL, "pre-condition");
  _retained_old_gc_alloc_region = NULL;
}

void G1CollectedHeap::init_for_evac_failure(OopsInHeapRegionClosure* cl) {
  _drain_in_progress = false;
  set_evac_failure_closure(cl);
  _evac_failure_scan_stack = new (ResourceObj::C_HEAP, mtGC) GrowableArray<oop>(40, true);
}

void G1CollectedHeap::finalize_for_evac_failure() {
  assert(_evac_failure_scan_stack != NULL &&
         _evac_failure_scan_stack->length() == 0,
         "Postcondition");
  assert(!_drain_in_progress, "Postcondition");
  delete _evac_failure_scan_stack;
  _evac_failure_scan_stack = NULL;
}

void G1CollectedHeap::remove_self_forwarding_pointers() {
  assert(check_cset_heap_region_claim_values(HeapRegion::InitialClaimValue), "sanity");

  G1ParRemoveSelfForwardPtrsTask rsfp_task(this);

  if (G1CollectedHeap::use_parallel_gc_threads()) {
    set_par_threads();
    workers()->run_task(&rsfp_task);
    set_par_threads(0);
  } else {
    rsfp_task.work(0);
  }

  assert(check_cset_heap_region_claim_values(HeapRegion::ParEvacFailureClaimValue), "sanity");

  // Reset the claim values in the regions in the collection set.
  reset_cset_heap_region_claim_values();

  assert(check_cset_heap_region_claim_values(HeapRegion::InitialClaimValue), "sanity");

  // Now restore saved marks, if any.
  assert(_objs_with_preserved_marks.size() ==
            _preserved_marks_of_objs.size(), "Both or none.");
  while (!_objs_with_preserved_marks.is_empty()) {
    oop obj = _objs_with_preserved_marks.pop();
    markOop m = _preserved_marks_of_objs.pop();
    obj->set_mark(m);
  }
  _objs_with_preserved_marks.clear(true);
  _preserved_marks_of_objs.clear(true);
}

void G1CollectedHeap::push_on_evac_failure_scan_stack(oop obj) {
  _evac_failure_scan_stack->push(obj);
}

void G1CollectedHeap::drain_evac_failure_scan_stack() {
  assert(_evac_failure_scan_stack != NULL, "precondition");

  while (_evac_failure_scan_stack->length() > 0) {
     oop obj = _evac_failure_scan_stack->pop();
     _evac_failure_closure->set_region(heap_region_containing(obj));
     obj->oop_iterate_backwards(_evac_failure_closure);
  }
}

oop
G1CollectedHeap::handle_evacuation_failure_par(G1ParScanThreadState* _par_scan_state,
                                               oop old) {
  assert(obj_in_cs(old),
         err_msg("obj: "PTR_FORMAT" should still be in the CSet",
                 (HeapWord*) old));
  markOop m = old->mark();
  oop forward_ptr = old->forward_to_atomic(old);
  if (forward_ptr == NULL) {
    // Forward-to-self succeeded.
    assert(_par_scan_state != NULL, "par scan state");
    OopsInHeapRegionClosure* cl = _par_scan_state->evac_failure_closure();
    uint queue_num = _par_scan_state->queue_num();

    _evacuation_failed = true;
    _evacuation_failed_info_array[queue_num].register_copy_failure(old->size());
    if (_evac_failure_closure != cl) {
      MutexLockerEx x(EvacFailureStack_lock, Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
      assert(!_drain_in_progress,
             "Should only be true while someone holds the lock.");
      // Set the global evac-failure closure to the current thread's.
      assert(_evac_failure_closure == NULL, "Or locking has failed.");
      set_evac_failure_closure(cl);
      // Now do the common part.
      handle_evacuation_failure_common(old, m);
      // Reset to NULL.
      set_evac_failure_closure(NULL);
    } else {
      // The lock is already held, and this is recursive.
      assert(_drain_in_progress, "This should only be the recursive case.");
      handle_evacuation_failure_common(old, m);
    }
    return old;
  } else {
    // Forward-to-self failed. Either someone else managed to allocate
    // space for this object (old != forward_ptr) or they beat us in
    // self-forwarding it (old == forward_ptr).
    assert(old == forward_ptr || !obj_in_cs(forward_ptr),
           err_msg("obj: "PTR_FORMAT" forwarded to: "PTR_FORMAT" "
                   "should not be in the CSet",
                   (HeapWord*) old, (HeapWord*) forward_ptr));
    return forward_ptr;
  }
}

void G1CollectedHeap::handle_evacuation_failure_common(oop old, markOop m) {
  preserve_mark_if_necessary(old, m);

  HeapRegion* r = heap_region_containing(old);
  if (!r->evacuation_failed()) {
    r->set_evacuation_failed(true);
    _hr_printer.evac_failure(r);
  }

  push_on_evac_failure_scan_stack(old);

  if (!_drain_in_progress) {
    // prevent recursion in copy_to_survivor_space()
    _drain_in_progress = true;
    drain_evac_failure_scan_stack();
    _drain_in_progress = false;
  }
}

void G1CollectedHeap::preserve_mark_if_necessary(oop obj, markOop m) {
  assert(evacuation_failed(), "Oversaving!");
  // We want to call the "for_promotion_failure" version only in the
  // case of a promotion failure.
  if (m->must_be_preserved_for_promotion_failure(obj)) {
    _objs_with_preserved_marks.push(obj);
    _preserved_marks_of_objs.push(m);
  }
}

HeapWord* G1CollectedHeap::par_allocate_during_gc(GCAllocPurpose purpose,
                                                  size_t word_size) {
  if (purpose == GCAllocForSurvived) {
    HeapWord* result = survivor_attempt_allocation(word_size);
    if (result != NULL) {
      return result;
    } else {
      // Let's try to allocate in the old gen in case we can fit the
      // object there.
      return old_attempt_allocation(word_size);
    }
  } else {
    assert(purpose ==  GCAllocForTenured, "sanity");
    HeapWord* result = old_attempt_allocation(word_size);
    if (result != NULL) {
      return result;
    } else {
      // Let's try to allocate in the survivors in case we can fit the
      // object there.
      return survivor_attempt_allocation(word_size);
    }
  }

  ShouldNotReachHere();
  // Trying to keep some compilers happy.
  return NULL;
}

G1ParGCAllocBuffer::G1ParGCAllocBuffer(size_t gclab_word_size) :
  ParGCAllocBuffer(gclab_word_size), _retired(false) { }

G1ParScanThreadState::G1ParScanThreadState(G1CollectedHeap* g1h, uint queue_num)
  : _g1h(g1h),
    _refs(g1h->task_queue(queue_num)),
    _dcq(&g1h->dirty_card_queue_set()),
    _ct_bs(g1h->g1_barrier_set()),
    _g1_rem(g1h->g1_rem_set()),
    _hash_seed(17), _queue_num(queue_num),
    _term_attempts(0),
    _surviving_alloc_buffer(g1h->desired_plab_sz(GCAllocForSurvived)),
    _tenured_alloc_buffer(g1h->desired_plab_sz(GCAllocForTenured)),
    _age_table(false),
    _strong_roots_time(0), _term_time(0),
    _alloc_buffer_waste(0), _undo_waste(0) {
  // we allocate G1YoungSurvRateNumRegions plus one entries, since
  // we "sacrifice" entry 0 to keep track of surviving bytes for
  // non-young regions (where the age is -1)
  // We also add a few elements at the beginning and at the end in
  // an attempt to eliminate cache contention
  uint real_length = 1 + _g1h->g1_policy()->young_cset_region_length();
  uint array_length = PADDING_ELEM_NUM +
                      real_length +
                      PADDING_ELEM_NUM;
  _surviving_young_words_base = NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(size_t, array_length, mtGC);
  if (_surviving_young_words_base == NULL)
    vm_exit_out_of_memory(array_length * sizeof(size_t),
                          "Not enough space for young surv histo.");
  _surviving_young_words = _surviving_young_words_base + PADDING_ELEM_NUM;
  memset(_surviving_young_words, 0, (size_t) real_length * sizeof(size_t));

  _alloc_buffers[GCAllocForSurvived] = &_surviving_alloc_buffer;
  _alloc_buffers[GCAllocForTenured]  = &_tenured_alloc_buffer;

  _start = os::elapsedTime();
}

void
G1ParScanThreadState::print_termination_stats_hdr(outputStream* const st)
{
  st->print_raw_cr("GC Termination Stats");
  st->print_raw_cr("     elapsed  --strong roots-- -------termination-------"
                   " ------waste (KiB)------");
  st->print_raw_cr("thr     ms        ms      %        ms      %    attempts"
                   "  total   alloc    undo");
  st->print_raw_cr("--- --------- --------- ------ --------- ------ --------"
                   " ------- ------- -------");
}

void
G1ParScanThreadState::print_termination_stats(int i,
                                              outputStream* const st) const
{
  const double elapsed_ms = elapsed_time() * 1000.0;
  const double s_roots_ms = strong_roots_time() * 1000.0;
  const double term_ms    = term_time() * 1000.0;
  st->print_cr("%3d %9.2f %9.2f %6.2f "
               "%9.2f %6.2f " SIZE_FORMAT_W(8) " "
               SIZE_FORMAT_W(7) " " SIZE_FORMAT_W(7) " " SIZE_FORMAT_W(7),
               i, elapsed_ms, s_roots_ms, s_roots_ms * 100 / elapsed_ms,
               term_ms, term_ms * 100 / elapsed_ms, term_attempts(),
               (alloc_buffer_waste() + undo_waste()) * HeapWordSize / K,
               alloc_buffer_waste() * HeapWordSize / K,
               undo_waste() * HeapWordSize / K);
}

#ifdef ASSERT
bool G1ParScanThreadState::verify_ref(narrowOop* ref) const {
  assert(ref != NULL, "invariant");
  assert(UseCompressedOops, "sanity");
  assert(!has_partial_array_mask(ref), err_msg("ref=" PTR_FORMAT, ref));
  oop p = oopDesc::load_decode_heap_oop(ref);
  assert(_g1h->is_in_g1_reserved(p),
         err_msg("ref=" PTR_FORMAT " p=" PTR_FORMAT, ref, intptr_t(p)));
  return true;
}

bool G1ParScanThreadState::verify_ref(oop* ref) const {
  assert(ref != NULL, "invariant");
  if (has_partial_array_mask(ref)) {
    // Must be in the collection set--it's already been copied.
    oop p = clear_partial_array_mask(ref);
    assert(_g1h->obj_in_cs(p),
           err_msg("ref=" PTR_FORMAT " p=" PTR_FORMAT, ref, intptr_t(p)));
  } else {
    oop p = oopDesc::load_decode_heap_oop(ref);
    assert(_g1h->is_in_g1_reserved(p),
           err_msg("ref=" PTR_FORMAT " p=" PTR_FORMAT, ref, intptr_t(p)));
  }
  return true;
}

bool G1ParScanThreadState::verify_task(StarTask ref) const {
  if (ref.is_narrow()) {
    return verify_ref((narrowOop*) ref);
  } else {
    return verify_ref((oop*) ref);
  }
}
#endif // ASSERT

void G1ParScanThreadState::trim_queue() {
  assert(_evac_cl != NULL, "not set");
  assert(_evac_failure_cl != NULL, "not set");
  assert(_partial_scan_cl != NULL, "not set");

  StarTask ref;
  do {
    // Drain the overflow stack first, so other threads can steal.
    while (refs()->pop_overflow(ref)) {
      deal_with_reference(ref);
    }

    while (refs()->pop_local(ref)) {
      deal_with_reference(ref);
    }
  } while (!refs()->is_empty());
}

G1ParClosureSuper::G1ParClosureSuper(G1CollectedHeap* g1,
                                     G1ParScanThreadState* par_scan_state) :
  _g1(g1), _g1_rem(_g1->g1_rem_set()), _cm(_g1->concurrent_mark()),
  _par_scan_state(par_scan_state),
  _worker_id(par_scan_state->queue_num()),
  _during_initial_mark(_g1->g1_policy()->during_initial_mark_pause()),
  _mark_in_progress(_g1->mark_in_progress()) { }

template <bool do_gen_barrier, G1Barrier barrier, bool do_mark_object>
void G1ParCopyClosure<do_gen_barrier, barrier, do_mark_object>::mark_object(oop obj) {
#ifdef ASSERT
  HeapRegion* hr = _g1->heap_region_containing(obj);
  assert(hr != NULL, "sanity");
  assert(!hr->in_collection_set(), "should not mark objects in the CSet");
#endif // ASSERT

  // We know that the object is not moving so it's safe to read its size.
  _cm->grayRoot(obj, (size_t) obj->size(), _worker_id);
}

template <bool do_gen_barrier, G1Barrier barrier, bool do_mark_object>
void G1ParCopyClosure<do_gen_barrier, barrier, do_mark_object>
  ::mark_forwarded_object(oop from_obj, oop to_obj) {
#ifdef ASSERT
  assert(from_obj->is_forwarded(), "from obj should be forwarded");
  assert(from_obj->forwardee() == to_obj, "to obj should be the forwardee");
  assert(from_obj != to_obj, "should not be self-forwarded");

  HeapRegion* from_hr = _g1->heap_region_containing(from_obj);
  assert(from_hr != NULL, "sanity");
  assert(from_hr->in_collection_set(), "from obj should be in the CSet");

  HeapRegion* to_hr = _g1->heap_region_containing(to_obj);
  assert(to_hr != NULL, "sanity");
  assert(!to_hr->in_collection_set(), "should not mark objects in the CSet");
#endif // ASSERT

  // The object might be in the process of being copied by another
  // worker so we cannot trust that its to-space image is
  // well-formed. So we have to read its size from its from-space
  // image which we know should not be changing.
  _cm->grayRoot(to_obj, (size_t) from_obj->size(), _worker_id);
}

template <bool do_gen_barrier, G1Barrier barrier, bool do_mark_object>
oop G1ParCopyClosure<do_gen_barrier, barrier, do_mark_object>
  ::copy_to_survivor_space(oop old) {
  size_t word_sz = old->size();
  HeapRegion* from_region = _g1->heap_region_containing_raw(old);
  // +1 to make the -1 indexes valid...
  int       young_index = from_region->young_index_in_cset()+1;
  assert( (from_region->is_young() && young_index >  0) ||
         (!from_region->is_young() && young_index == 0), "invariant" );
  G1CollectorPolicy* g1p = _g1->g1_policy();
  markOop m = old->mark();
  int age = m->has_displaced_mark_helper() ? m->displaced_mark_helper()->age()
                                           : m->age();
  GCAllocPurpose alloc_purpose = g1p->evacuation_destination(from_region, age,
                                                             word_sz);
  HeapWord* obj_ptr = _par_scan_state->allocate(alloc_purpose, word_sz);
#ifndef PRODUCT
  // Should this evacuation fail?
  if (_g1->evacuation_should_fail()) {
    if (obj_ptr != NULL) {
      _par_scan_state->undo_allocation(alloc_purpose, obj_ptr, word_sz);
      obj_ptr = NULL;
    }
  }
#endif // !PRODUCT

  if (obj_ptr == NULL) {
    // This will either forward-to-self, or detect that someone else has
    // installed a forwarding pointer.
    return _g1->handle_evacuation_failure_par(_par_scan_state, old);
  }

  oop obj = oop(obj_ptr);

  // We're going to allocate linearly, so might as well prefetch ahead.
  Prefetch::write(obj_ptr, PrefetchCopyIntervalInBytes);

  oop forward_ptr = old->forward_to_atomic(obj);
  if (forward_ptr == NULL) {
    Copy::aligned_disjoint_words((HeapWord*) old, obj_ptr, word_sz);
    if (g1p->track_object_age(alloc_purpose)) {
      // We could simply do obj->incr_age(). However, this causes a
      // performance issue. obj->incr_age() will first check whether
      // the object has a displaced mark by checking its mark word;
      // getting the mark word from the new location of the object
      // stalls. So, given that we already have the mark word and we
      // are about to install it anyway, it's better to increase the
      // age on the mark word, when the object does not have a
      // displaced mark word. We're not expecting many objects to have
      // a displaced marked word, so that case is not optimized
      // further (it could be...) and we simply call obj->incr_age().

      if (m->has_displaced_mark_helper()) {
        // in this case, we have to install the mark word first,
        // otherwise obj looks to be forwarded (the old mark word,
        // which contains the forward pointer, was copied)
        obj->set_mark(m);
        obj->incr_age();
      } else {
        m = m->incr_age();
        obj->set_mark(m);
      }
      _par_scan_state->age_table()->add(obj, word_sz);
    } else {
      obj->set_mark(m);
    }

    size_t* surv_young_words = _par_scan_state->surviving_young_words();
    surv_young_words[young_index] += word_sz;

    if (obj->is_objArray() && arrayOop(obj)->length() >= ParGCArrayScanChunk) {
      // We keep track of the next start index in the length field of
      // the to-space object. The actual length can be found in the
      // length field of the from-space object.
      arrayOop(obj)->set_length(0);
      oop* old_p = set_partial_array_mask(old);
      _par_scan_state->push_on_queue(old_p);
    } else {
      // No point in using the slower heap_region_containing() method,
      // given that we know obj is in the heap.
      _scanner.set_region(_g1->heap_region_containing_raw(obj));
      obj->oop_iterate_backwards(&_scanner);
    }
  } else {
    _par_scan_state->undo_allocation(alloc_purpose, obj_ptr, word_sz);
    obj = forward_ptr;
  }
  return obj;
}

template <bool do_gen_barrier, G1Barrier barrier, bool do_mark_object>
template <class T>
void G1ParCopyClosure<do_gen_barrier, barrier, do_mark_object>
::do_oop_work(T* p) {
  oop obj = oopDesc::load_decode_heap_oop(p);
  assert(barrier != G1BarrierRS || obj != NULL,
         "Precondition: G1BarrierRS implies obj is non-NULL");

  assert(_worker_id == _par_scan_state->queue_num(), "sanity");

  // here the null check is implicit in the cset_fast_test() test
  if (_g1->in_cset_fast_test(obj)) {
    oop forwardee;
    if (obj->is_forwarded()) {
      forwardee = obj->forwardee();
    } else {
      forwardee = copy_to_survivor_space(obj);
    }
    assert(forwardee != NULL, "forwardee should not be NULL");
    oopDesc::encode_store_heap_oop(p, forwardee);
    if (do_mark_object && forwardee != obj) {
      // If the object is self-forwarded we don't need to explicitly
      // mark it, the evacuation failure protocol will do so.
      mark_forwarded_object(obj, forwardee);
    }

    // When scanning the RS, we only care about objs in CS.
    if (barrier == G1BarrierRS) {
      _par_scan_state->update_rs(_from, p, _worker_id);
    }
  } else {
    // The object is not in collection set. If we're a root scanning
    // closure during an initial mark pause (i.e. do_mark_object will
    // be true) then attempt to mark the object.
    if (do_mark_object && _g1->is_in_g1_reserved(obj)) {
      mark_object(obj);
    }
  }

  if (barrier == G1BarrierEvac && obj != NULL) {
    _par_scan_state->update_rs(_from, p, _worker_id);
  }

  if (do_gen_barrier && obj != NULL) {
    par_do_barrier(p);
  }
}

template void G1ParCopyClosure<false, G1BarrierEvac, false>::do_oop_work(oop* p);
template void G1ParCopyClosure<false, G1BarrierEvac, false>::do_oop_work(narrowOop* p);

template <class T> void G1ParScanPartialArrayClosure::do_oop_nv(T* p) {
  assert(has_partial_array_mask(p), "invariant");
  oop from_obj = clear_partial_array_mask(p);

  assert(Universe::heap()->is_in_reserved(from_obj), "must be in heap.");
  assert(from_obj->is_objArray(), "must be obj array");
  objArrayOop from_obj_array = objArrayOop(from_obj);
  // The from-space object contains the real length.
  int length                 = from_obj_array->length();

  assert(from_obj->is_forwarded(), "must be forwarded");
  oop to_obj                 = from_obj->forwardee();
  assert(from_obj != to_obj, "should not be chunking self-forwarded objects");
  objArrayOop to_obj_array   = objArrayOop(to_obj);
  // We keep track of the next start index in the length field of the
  // to-space object.
  int next_index             = to_obj_array->length();
  assert(0 <= next_index && next_index < length,
         err_msg("invariant, next index: %d, length: %d", next_index, length));

  int start                  = next_index;
  int end                    = length;
  int remainder              = end - start;
  // We'll try not to push a range that's smaller than ParGCArrayScanChunk.
  if (remainder > 2 * ParGCArrayScanChunk) {
    end = start + ParGCArrayScanChunk;
    to_obj_array->set_length(end);
    // Push the remainder before we process the range in case another
    // worker has run out of things to do and can steal it.
    oop* from_obj_p = set_partial_array_mask(from_obj);
    _par_scan_state->push_on_queue(from_obj_p);
  } else {
    assert(length == end, "sanity");
    // We'll process the final range for this object. Restore the length
    // so that the heap remains parsable in case of evacuation failure.
    to_obj_array->set_length(end);
  }
  _scanner.set_region(_g1->heap_region_containing_raw(to_obj));
  // Process indexes [start,end). It will also process the header
  // along with the first chunk (i.e., the chunk with start == 0).
  // Note that at this point the length field of to_obj_array is not
  // correct given that we are using it to keep track of the next
  // start index. oop_iterate_range() (thankfully!) ignores the length
  // field and only relies on the start / end parameters.  It does
  // however return the size of the object which will be incorrect. So
  // we have to ignore it even if we wanted to use it.
  to_obj_array->oop_iterate_range(&_scanner, start, end);
}

class G1ParEvacuateFollowersClosure : public VoidClosure {
protected:
  G1CollectedHeap*              _g1h;
  G1ParScanThreadState*         _par_scan_state;
  RefToScanQueueSet*            _queues;
  ParallelTaskTerminator*       _terminator;

  G1ParScanThreadState*   par_scan_state() { return _par_scan_state; }
  RefToScanQueueSet*      queues()         { return _queues; }
  ParallelTaskTerminator* terminator()     { return _terminator; }

public:
  G1ParEvacuateFollowersClosure(G1CollectedHeap* g1h,
                                G1ParScanThreadState* par_scan_state,
                                RefToScanQueueSet* queues,
                                ParallelTaskTerminator* terminator)
    : _g1h(g1h), _par_scan_state(par_scan_state),
      _queues(queues), _terminator(terminator) {}

  void do_void();

private:
  inline bool offer_termination();
};

bool G1ParEvacuateFollowersClosure::offer_termination() {
  G1ParScanThreadState* const pss = par_scan_state();
  pss->start_term_time();
  const bool res = terminator()->offer_termination();
  pss->end_term_time();
  return res;
}

void G1ParEvacuateFollowersClosure::do_void() {
  StarTask stolen_task;
  G1ParScanThreadState* const pss = par_scan_state();
  pss->trim_queue();

  do {
    while (queues()->steal(pss->queue_num(), pss->hash_seed(), stolen_task)) {
      assert(pss->verify_task(stolen_task), "sanity");
      if (stolen_task.is_narrow()) {
        pss->deal_with_reference((narrowOop*) stolen_task);
      } else {
        pss->deal_with_reference((oop*) stolen_task);
      }

      // We've just processed a reference and we might have made
      // available new entries on the queues. So we have to make sure
      // we drain the queues as necessary.
      pss->trim_queue();
    }
  } while (!offer_termination());

  pss->retire_alloc_buffers();
}

class G1ParTask : public AbstractGangTask {
protected:
  G1CollectedHeap*       _g1h;
  RefToScanQueueSet      *_queues;
  ParallelTaskTerminator _terminator;
  uint _n_workers;

  Mutex _stats_lock;
  Mutex* stats_lock() { return &_stats_lock; }

  size_t getNCards() {
    return (_g1h->capacity() + G1BlockOffsetSharedArray::N_bytes - 1)
      / G1BlockOffsetSharedArray::N_bytes;
  }

public:
  G1ParTask(G1CollectedHeap* g1h,
            RefToScanQueueSet *task_queues)
    : AbstractGangTask("G1 collection"),
      _g1h(g1h),
      _queues(task_queues),
      _terminator(0, _queues),
      _stats_lock(Mutex::leaf, "parallel G1 stats lock", true)
  {}

  RefToScanQueueSet* queues() { return _queues; }

  RefToScanQueue *work_queue(int i) {
    return queues()->queue(i);
  }

  ParallelTaskTerminator* terminator() { return &_terminator; }

  virtual void set_for_termination(int active_workers) {
    // This task calls set_n_termination() in par_non_clean_card_iterate_work()
    // in the young space (_par_seq_tasks) in the G1 heap
    // for SequentialSubTasksDone.
    // This task also uses SubTasksDone in SharedHeap and G1CollectedHeap
    // both of which need setting by set_n_termination().
    _g1h->SharedHeap::set_n_termination(active_workers);
    _g1h->set_n_termination(active_workers);
    terminator()->reset_for_reuse(active_workers);
    _n_workers = active_workers;
  }

  void work(uint worker_id) {
    if (worker_id >= _n_workers) return;  // no work needed this round

    double start_time_ms = os::elapsedTime() * 1000.0;
    _g1h->g1_policy()->phase_times()->record_gc_worker_start_time(worker_id, start_time_ms);

    {
      ResourceMark rm;
      HandleMark   hm;

      ReferenceProcessor*             rp = _g1h->ref_processor_stw();

      G1ParScanThreadState            pss(_g1h, worker_id);
      G1ParScanHeapEvacClosure        scan_evac_cl(_g1h, &pss, rp);
      G1ParScanHeapEvacFailureClosure evac_failure_cl(_g1h, &pss, rp);
      G1ParScanPartialArrayClosure    partial_scan_cl(_g1h, &pss, rp);

      pss.set_evac_closure(&scan_evac_cl);
      pss.set_evac_failure_closure(&evac_failure_cl);
      pss.set_partial_scan_closure(&partial_scan_cl);

      G1ParScanExtRootClosure        only_scan_root_cl(_g1h, &pss, rp);
      G1ParScanPermClosure           only_scan_perm_cl(_g1h, &pss, rp);

      G1ParScanAndMarkExtRootClosure scan_mark_root_cl(_g1h, &pss, rp);
      G1ParScanAndMarkPermClosure    scan_mark_perm_cl(_g1h, &pss, rp);

      OopClosure*                    scan_root_cl = &only_scan_root_cl;
      OopsInHeapRegionClosure*       scan_perm_cl = &only_scan_perm_cl;

      if (_g1h->g1_policy()->during_initial_mark_pause()) {
        // We also need to mark copied objects.
        scan_root_cl = &scan_mark_root_cl;
        scan_perm_cl = &scan_mark_perm_cl;
      }

      G1ParPushHeapRSClosure          push_heap_rs_cl(_g1h, &pss);

      pss.start_strong_roots();
      _g1h->g1_process_strong_roots(/* not collecting perm */ false,
                                    SharedHeap::SO_AllClasses,
                                    scan_root_cl,
                                    &push_heap_rs_cl,
                                    scan_perm_cl,
                                    worker_id,
                                    /* manages_code_roots */ true);
      pss.end_strong_roots();

      {
        double start = os::elapsedTime();
        G1ParEvacuateFollowersClosure evac(_g1h, &pss, _queues, &_terminator);
        evac.do_void();
        double elapsed_ms = (os::elapsedTime()-start)*1000.0;
        double term_ms = pss.term_time()*1000.0;
        _g1h->g1_policy()->phase_times()->add_obj_copy_time(worker_id, elapsed_ms-term_ms);
        _g1h->g1_policy()->phase_times()->record_termination(worker_id, term_ms, pss.term_attempts());
      }
      _g1h->g1_policy()->record_thread_age_table(pss.age_table());
      _g1h->update_surviving_young_words(pss.surviving_young_words()+1);

      if (ParallelGCVerbose) {
        MutexLocker x(stats_lock());
        pss.print_termination_stats(worker_id);
      }

      assert(pss.refs()->is_empty(), "should be empty");

      // Close the inner scope so that the ResourceMark and HandleMark
      // destructors are executed here and are included as part of the
      // "GC Worker Time".
    }

    double end_time_ms = os::elapsedTime() * 1000.0;
    _g1h->g1_policy()->phase_times()->record_gc_worker_end_time(worker_id, end_time_ms);
  }
};

// *** Common G1 Evacuation Stuff

// This method is run in a GC worker.

void
G1CollectedHeap::
g1_process_strong_roots(bool collecting_perm_gen,
                        ScanningOption so,
                        OopClosure* scan_non_heap_roots,
                        OopsInHeapRegionClosure* scan_rs,
                        OopsInGenClosure* scan_perm,
                        int worker_i,
                        bool manages_code_roots) {

  // First scan the strong roots, including the perm gen.
  double ext_roots_start = os::elapsedTime();
  double closure_app_time_sec = 0.0;

  BufferingOopClosure buf_scan_non_heap_roots(scan_non_heap_roots);
  BufferingOopsInGenClosure buf_scan_perm(scan_perm);
  buf_scan_perm.set_generation(perm_gen());

  assert(so & SO_CodeCache || scan_rs != NULL, "must scan code roots somehow");
  // Walk the code cache/strong code roots w/o buffering, because StarTask
  // cannot handle unaligned oop locations.
  CodeBlobToOopClosure eager_scan_code_roots(scan_non_heap_roots, true /* do_marking */);

  process_strong_roots(false, // no scoping; this is parallel code
                       collecting_perm_gen, so,
                       &buf_scan_non_heap_roots,
                       &eager_scan_code_roots,
                       &buf_scan_perm,
                       manages_code_roots);

  // Now the CM ref_processor roots.
  if (!_process_strong_tasks->is_task_claimed(G1H_PS_refProcessor_oops_do)) {
    // We need to treat the discovered reference lists of the
    // concurrent mark ref processor as roots and keep entries
    // (which are added by the marking threads) on them live
    // until they can be processed at the end of marking.
    ref_processor_cm()->weak_oops_do(&buf_scan_non_heap_roots);
  }

  // Finish up any enqueued closure apps (attributed as object copy time).
  buf_scan_non_heap_roots.done();
  buf_scan_perm.done();

  double obj_copy_time_sec = buf_scan_perm.closure_app_seconds() +
                                buf_scan_non_heap_roots.closure_app_seconds();
  g1_policy()->phase_times()->record_obj_copy_time(worker_i, obj_copy_time_sec * 1000.0);

  double ext_root_time_ms =
    ((os::elapsedTime() - ext_roots_start) - obj_copy_time_sec) * 1000.0;

  g1_policy()->phase_times()->record_ext_root_scan_time(worker_i, ext_root_time_ms);

  // During conc marking we have to filter the per-thread SATB buffers
  // to make sure we remove any oops into the CSet (which will show up
  // as implicitly live).
  double satb_filtering_ms = 0.0;
  if (!_process_strong_tasks->is_task_claimed(G1H_PS_filter_satb_buffers)) {
    if (mark_in_progress()) {
      double satb_filter_start = os::elapsedTime();

      JavaThread::satb_mark_queue_set().filter_thread_buffers();

      satb_filtering_ms = (os::elapsedTime() - satb_filter_start) * 1000.0;
    }
  }
  g1_policy()->phase_times()->record_satb_filtering_time(worker_i, satb_filtering_ms);

  // If this is an initial mark pause, and we're not scanning
  // the entire code cache, we need to mark the oops in the
  // strong code root lists for the regions that are not in
  // the collection set.
  // Note all threads participate in this set of root tasks.
  double mark_strong_code_roots_ms = 0.0;
  if (g1_policy()->during_initial_mark_pause() && !(so & SO_CodeCache)) {
    double mark_strong_roots_start = os::elapsedTime();
    mark_strong_code_roots(worker_i);
    mark_strong_code_roots_ms = (os::elapsedTime() - mark_strong_roots_start) * 1000.0;
  }
  g1_policy()->phase_times()->record_strong_code_root_mark_time(worker_i, mark_strong_code_roots_ms);

  // Now scan the complement of the collection set.
  if (scan_rs != NULL) {
    g1_rem_set()->oops_into_collection_set_do(scan_rs, &eager_scan_code_roots, worker_i);
  }

  _process_strong_tasks->all_tasks_completed();
}

void
G1CollectedHeap::g1_process_weak_roots(OopClosure* root_closure,
                                       OopClosure* non_root_closure) {
  CodeBlobToOopClosure roots_in_blobs(root_closure, /*do_marking=*/ false);
  SharedHeap::process_weak_roots(root_closure, &roots_in_blobs, non_root_closure);
}

class G1StringSymbolTableUnlinkTask : public AbstractGangTask {
private:
  BoolObjectClosure* _is_alive;
  int _initial_string_table_size;
  int _initial_symbol_table_size;

  bool  _process_strings;
  int _strings_processed;
  int _strings_removed;

  bool  _process_symbols;
  int _symbols_processed;
  int _symbols_removed;

  bool _do_in_parallel;
public:
  G1StringSymbolTableUnlinkTask(BoolObjectClosure* is_alive, bool process_strings, bool process_symbols) :
    AbstractGangTask("Par String/Symbol table unlink"), _is_alive(is_alive),
    _do_in_parallel(G1CollectedHeap::use_parallel_gc_threads()),
    _process_strings(process_strings), _strings_processed(0), _strings_removed(0),
    _process_symbols(process_symbols), _symbols_processed(0), _symbols_removed(0) {

    _initial_string_table_size = StringTable::the_table()->table_size();
    _initial_symbol_table_size = SymbolTable::the_table()->table_size();
    if (process_strings) {
      StringTable::clear_parallel_claimed_index();
    }
    if (process_symbols) {
      SymbolTable::clear_parallel_claimed_index();
    }
  }

  ~G1StringSymbolTableUnlinkTask() {
    guarantee(!_process_strings || !_do_in_parallel || StringTable::parallel_claimed_index() >= _initial_string_table_size,
              err_msg("claim value "INT32_FORMAT" after unlink less than initial string table size "INT32_FORMAT,
                      StringTable::parallel_claimed_index(), _initial_string_table_size));
    guarantee(!_process_symbols || !_do_in_parallel || SymbolTable::parallel_claimed_index() >= _initial_symbol_table_size,
              err_msg("claim value "INT32_FORMAT" after unlink less than initial symbol table size "INT32_FORMAT,
                      SymbolTable::parallel_claimed_index(), _initial_symbol_table_size));
  }

  void work(uint worker_id) {
    if (_do_in_parallel) {
      int strings_processed = 0;
      int strings_removed = 0;
      int symbols_processed = 0;
      int symbols_removed = 0;
      if (_process_strings) {
        StringTable::possibly_parallel_unlink(_is_alive, &strings_processed, &strings_removed);
        Atomic::add(strings_processed, &_strings_processed);
        Atomic::add(strings_removed, &_strings_removed);
      }
      if (_process_symbols) {
        SymbolTable::possibly_parallel_unlink(&symbols_processed, &symbols_removed);
        Atomic::add(symbols_processed, &_symbols_processed);
        Atomic::add(symbols_removed, &_symbols_removed);
      }
    } else {
      if (_process_strings) {
        StringTable::unlink(_is_alive, &_strings_processed, &_strings_removed);
      }
      if (_process_symbols) {
        SymbolTable::unlink(&_symbols_processed, &_symbols_removed);
      }
    }
  }

  size_t strings_processed() const { return (size_t)_strings_processed; }
  size_t strings_removed()   const { return (size_t)_strings_removed; }

  size_t symbols_processed() const { return (size_t)_symbols_processed; }
  size_t symbols_removed()   const { return (size_t)_symbols_removed; }
};

void G1CollectedHeap::unlink_string_and_symbol_table(BoolObjectClosure* is_alive,
                                                     bool process_strings, bool process_symbols) {
  uint n_workers = (G1CollectedHeap::use_parallel_gc_threads() ?
                   _g1h->workers()->active_workers() : 1);

  G1StringSymbolTableUnlinkTask g1_unlink_task(is_alive, process_strings, process_symbols);
  if (G1CollectedHeap::use_parallel_gc_threads()) {
    set_par_threads(n_workers);
    workers()->run_task(&g1_unlink_task);
    set_par_threads(0);
  } else {
    g1_unlink_task.work(0);
  }
  if (G1TraceStringSymbolTableScrubbing) {
    gclog_or_tty->print_cr("Cleaned string and symbol table, "
                           "strings: "SIZE_FORMAT" processed, "SIZE_FORMAT" removed, "
                           "symbols: "SIZE_FORMAT" processed, "SIZE_FORMAT" removed",
                           g1_unlink_task.strings_processed(), g1_unlink_task.strings_removed(),
                           g1_unlink_task.symbols_processed(), g1_unlink_task.symbols_removed());
  }
}

// Weak Reference Processing support

// An always "is_alive" closure that is used to preserve referents.
// If the object is non-null then it's alive.  Used in the preservation
// of referent objects that are pointed to by reference objects
// discovered by the CM ref processor.
class G1AlwaysAliveClosure: public BoolObjectClosure {
  G1CollectedHeap* _g1;
public:
  G1AlwaysAliveClosure(G1CollectedHeap* g1) : _g1(g1) {}
  void do_object(oop p) { assert(false, "Do not call."); }
  bool do_object_b(oop p) {
    if (p != NULL) {
      return true;
    }
    return false;
  }
};

bool G1STWIsAliveClosure::do_object_b(oop p) {
  // An object is reachable if it is outside the collection set,
  // or is inside and copied.
  return !_g1->obj_in_cs(p) || p->is_forwarded();
}

// Non Copying Keep Alive closure
class G1KeepAliveClosure: public OopClosure {
  G1CollectedHeap* _g1;
public:
  G1KeepAliveClosure(G1CollectedHeap* g1) : _g1(g1) {}
  void do_oop(narrowOop* p) { guarantee(false, "Not needed"); }
  void do_oop(      oop* p) {
    oop obj = *p;

    if (_g1->obj_in_cs(obj)) {
      assert( obj->is_forwarded(), "invariant" );
      *p = obj->forwardee();
    }
  }
};

// Copying Keep Alive closure - can be called from both
// serial and parallel code as long as different worker
// threads utilize different G1ParScanThreadState instances
// and different queues.

class G1CopyingKeepAliveClosure: public OopClosure {
  G1CollectedHeap*         _g1h;
  OopClosure*              _copy_non_heap_obj_cl;
  OopsInHeapRegionClosure* _copy_perm_obj_cl;
  G1ParScanThreadState*    _par_scan_state;

public:
  G1CopyingKeepAliveClosure(G1CollectedHeap* g1h,
                            OopClosure* non_heap_obj_cl,
                            OopsInHeapRegionClosure* perm_obj_cl,
                            G1ParScanThreadState* pss):
    _g1h(g1h),
    _copy_non_heap_obj_cl(non_heap_obj_cl),
    _copy_perm_obj_cl(perm_obj_cl),
    _par_scan_state(pss)
  {}

  virtual void do_oop(narrowOop* p) { do_oop_work(p); }
  virtual void do_oop(      oop* p) { do_oop_work(p); }

  template <class T> void do_oop_work(T* p) {
    oop obj = oopDesc::load_decode_heap_oop(p);

    if (_g1h->obj_in_cs(obj)) {
      // If the referent object has been forwarded (either copied
      // to a new location or to itself in the event of an
      // evacuation failure) then we need to update the reference
      // field and, if both reference and referent are in the G1
      // heap, update the RSet for the referent.
      //
      // If the referent has not been forwarded then we have to keep
      // it alive by policy. Therefore we have copy the referent.
      //
      // If the reference field is in the G1 heap then we can push
      // on the PSS queue. When the queue is drained (after each
      // phase of reference processing) the object and it's followers
      // will be copied, the reference field set to point to the
      // new location, and the RSet updated. Otherwise we need to
      // use the the non-heap or perm closures directly to copy
      // the referent object and update the pointer, while avoiding
      // updating the RSet.

      if (_g1h->is_in_g1_reserved(p)) {
        _par_scan_state->push_on_queue(p);
      } else {
        // The reference field is not in the G1 heap.
        if (_g1h->perm_gen()->is_in(p)) {
          _copy_perm_obj_cl->do_oop(p);
        } else {
          _copy_non_heap_obj_cl->do_oop(p);
        }
      }
    }
  }
};

// Serial drain queue closure. Called as the 'complete_gc'
// closure for each discovered list in some of the
// reference processing phases.

class G1STWDrainQueueClosure: public VoidClosure {
protected:
  G1CollectedHeap* _g1h;
  G1ParScanThreadState* _par_scan_state;

  G1ParScanThreadState*   par_scan_state() { return _par_scan_state; }

public:
  G1STWDrainQueueClosure(G1CollectedHeap* g1h, G1ParScanThreadState* pss) :
    _g1h(g1h),
    _par_scan_state(pss)
  { }

  void do_void() {
    G1ParScanThreadState* const pss = par_scan_state();
    pss->trim_queue();
  }
};

// Parallel Reference Processing closures

// Implementation of AbstractRefProcTaskExecutor for parallel reference
// processing during G1 evacuation pauses.

class G1STWRefProcTaskExecutor: public AbstractRefProcTaskExecutor {
private:
  G1CollectedHeap*   _g1h;
  RefToScanQueueSet* _queues;
  FlexibleWorkGang*  _workers;
  int                _active_workers;

public:
  G1STWRefProcTaskExecutor(G1CollectedHeap* g1h,
                        FlexibleWorkGang* workers,
                        RefToScanQueueSet *task_queues,
                        int n_workers) :
    _g1h(g1h),
    _queues(task_queues),
    _workers(workers),
    _active_workers(n_workers)
  {
    assert(n_workers > 0, "shouldn't call this otherwise");
  }

  // Executes the given task using concurrent marking worker threads.
  virtual void execute(ProcessTask& task);
  virtual void execute(EnqueueTask& task);
};

// Gang task for possibly parallel reference processing

class G1STWRefProcTaskProxy: public AbstractGangTask {
  typedef AbstractRefProcTaskExecutor::ProcessTask ProcessTask;
  ProcessTask&     _proc_task;
  G1CollectedHeap* _g1h;
  RefToScanQueueSet *_task_queues;
  ParallelTaskTerminator* _terminator;

public:
  G1STWRefProcTaskProxy(ProcessTask& proc_task,
                     G1CollectedHeap* g1h,
                     RefToScanQueueSet *task_queues,
                     ParallelTaskTerminator* terminator) :
    AbstractGangTask("Process reference objects in parallel"),
    _proc_task(proc_task),
    _g1h(g1h),
    _task_queues(task_queues),
    _terminator(terminator)
  {}

  virtual void work(uint worker_id) {
    // The reference processing task executed by a single worker.
    ResourceMark rm;
    HandleMark   hm;

    G1STWIsAliveClosure is_alive(_g1h);

    G1ParScanThreadState pss(_g1h, worker_id);

    G1ParScanHeapEvacClosure        scan_evac_cl(_g1h, &pss, NULL);
    G1ParScanHeapEvacFailureClosure evac_failure_cl(_g1h, &pss, NULL);
    G1ParScanPartialArrayClosure    partial_scan_cl(_g1h, &pss, NULL);

    pss.set_evac_closure(&scan_evac_cl);
    pss.set_evac_failure_closure(&evac_failure_cl);
    pss.set_partial_scan_closure(&partial_scan_cl);

    G1ParScanExtRootClosure        only_copy_non_heap_cl(_g1h, &pss, NULL);
    G1ParScanPermClosure           only_copy_perm_cl(_g1h, &pss, NULL);

    G1ParScanAndMarkExtRootClosure copy_mark_non_heap_cl(_g1h, &pss, NULL);
    G1ParScanAndMarkPermClosure    copy_mark_perm_cl(_g1h, &pss, NULL);

    OopClosure*                    copy_non_heap_cl = &only_copy_non_heap_cl;
    OopsInHeapRegionClosure*       copy_perm_cl = &only_copy_perm_cl;

    if (_g1h->g1_policy()->during_initial_mark_pause()) {
      // We also need to mark copied objects.
      copy_non_heap_cl = &copy_mark_non_heap_cl;
      copy_perm_cl = &copy_mark_perm_cl;
    }

    // Keep alive closure.
    G1CopyingKeepAliveClosure keep_alive(_g1h, copy_non_heap_cl, copy_perm_cl, &pss);

    // Complete GC closure
    G1ParEvacuateFollowersClosure drain_queue(_g1h, &pss, _task_queues, _terminator);

    // Call the reference processing task's work routine.
    _proc_task.work(worker_id, is_alive, keep_alive, drain_queue);

    // Note we cannot assert that the refs array is empty here as not all
    // of the processing tasks (specifically phase2 - pp2_work) execute
    // the complete_gc closure (which ordinarily would drain the queue) so
    // the queue may not be empty.
  }
};

// Driver routine for parallel reference processing.
// Creates an instance of the ref processing gang
// task and has the worker threads execute it.
void G1STWRefProcTaskExecutor::execute(ProcessTask& proc_task) {
  assert(_workers != NULL, "Need parallel worker threads.");

  ParallelTaskTerminator terminator(_active_workers, _queues);
  G1STWRefProcTaskProxy proc_task_proxy(proc_task, _g1h, _queues, &terminator);

  _g1h->set_par_threads(_active_workers);
  _workers->run_task(&proc_task_proxy);
  _g1h->set_par_threads(0);
}

// Gang task for parallel reference enqueueing.

class G1STWRefEnqueueTaskProxy: public AbstractGangTask {
  typedef AbstractRefProcTaskExecutor::EnqueueTask EnqueueTask;
  EnqueueTask& _enq_task;

public:
  G1STWRefEnqueueTaskProxy(EnqueueTask& enq_task) :
    AbstractGangTask("Enqueue reference objects in parallel"),
    _enq_task(enq_task)
  { }

  virtual void work(uint worker_id) {
    _enq_task.work(worker_id);
  }
};

// Driver routine for parallel reference enqueueing.
// Creates an instance of the ref enqueueing gang
// task and has the worker threads execute it.

void G1STWRefProcTaskExecutor::execute(EnqueueTask& enq_task) {
  assert(_workers != NULL, "Need parallel worker threads.");

  G1STWRefEnqueueTaskProxy enq_task_proxy(enq_task);

  _g1h->set_par_threads(_active_workers);
  _workers->run_task(&enq_task_proxy);
  _g1h->set_par_threads(0);
}

// End of weak reference support closures

// Abstract task used to preserve (i.e. copy) any referent objects
// that are in the collection set and are pointed to by reference
// objects discovered by the CM ref processor.

class G1ParPreserveCMReferentsTask: public AbstractGangTask {
protected:
  G1CollectedHeap* _g1h;
  RefToScanQueueSet      *_queues;
  ParallelTaskTerminator _terminator;
  uint _n_workers;

public:
  G1ParPreserveCMReferentsTask(G1CollectedHeap* g1h,int workers, RefToScanQueueSet *task_queues) :
    AbstractGangTask("ParPreserveCMReferents"),
    _g1h(g1h),
    _queues(task_queues),
    _terminator(workers, _queues),
    _n_workers(workers)
  { }

  void work(uint worker_id) {
    ResourceMark rm;
    HandleMark   hm;

    G1ParScanThreadState            pss(_g1h, worker_id);
    G1ParScanHeapEvacClosure        scan_evac_cl(_g1h, &pss, NULL);
    G1ParScanHeapEvacFailureClosure evac_failure_cl(_g1h, &pss, NULL);
    G1ParScanPartialArrayClosure    partial_scan_cl(_g1h, &pss, NULL);

    pss.set_evac_closure(&scan_evac_cl);
    pss.set_evac_failure_closure(&evac_failure_cl);
    pss.set_partial_scan_closure(&partial_scan_cl);

    assert(pss.refs()->is_empty(), "both queue and overflow should be empty");


    G1ParScanExtRootClosure        only_copy_non_heap_cl(_g1h, &pss, NULL);
    G1ParScanPermClosure           only_copy_perm_cl(_g1h, &pss, NULL);

    G1ParScanAndMarkExtRootClosure copy_mark_non_heap_cl(_g1h, &pss, NULL);
    G1ParScanAndMarkPermClosure    copy_mark_perm_cl(_g1h, &pss, NULL);

    OopClosure*                    copy_non_heap_cl = &only_copy_non_heap_cl;
    OopsInHeapRegionClosure*       copy_perm_cl = &only_copy_perm_cl;

    if (_g1h->g1_policy()->during_initial_mark_pause()) {
      // We also need to mark copied objects.
      copy_non_heap_cl = &copy_mark_non_heap_cl;
      copy_perm_cl = &copy_mark_perm_cl;
    }

    // Is alive closure
    G1AlwaysAliveClosure always_alive(_g1h);

    // Copying keep alive closure. Applied to referent objects that need
    // to be copied.
    G1CopyingKeepAliveClosure keep_alive(_g1h, copy_non_heap_cl, copy_perm_cl, &pss);

    ReferenceProcessor* rp = _g1h->ref_processor_cm();

    uint limit = ReferenceProcessor::number_of_subclasses_of_ref() * rp->max_num_q();
    uint stride = MIN2(MAX2(_n_workers, 1U), limit);

    // limit is set using max_num_q() - which was set using ParallelGCThreads.
    // So this must be true - but assert just in case someone decides to
    // change the worker ids.
    assert(0 <= worker_id && worker_id < limit, "sanity");
    assert(!rp->discovery_is_atomic(), "check this code");

    // Select discovered lists [i, i+stride, i+2*stride,...,limit)
    for (uint idx = worker_id; idx < limit; idx += stride) {
      DiscoveredList& ref_list = rp->discovered_refs()[idx];

      DiscoveredListIterator iter(ref_list, &keep_alive, &always_alive);
      while (iter.has_next()) {
        // Since discovery is not atomic for the CM ref processor, we
        // can see some null referent objects.
        iter.load_ptrs(DEBUG_ONLY(true));
        oop ref = iter.obj();

        // This will filter nulls.
        if (iter.is_referent_alive()) {
          iter.make_referent_alive();
        }
        iter.move_to_next();
      }
    }

    // Drain the queue - which may cause stealing
    G1ParEvacuateFollowersClosure drain_queue(_g1h, &pss, _queues, &_terminator);
    drain_queue.do_void();
    // Allocation buffers were retired at the end of G1ParEvacuateFollowersClosure
    assert(pss.refs()->is_empty(), "should be");
  }
};

// Weak Reference processing during an evacuation pause (part 1).
void G1CollectedHeap::process_discovered_references(uint no_of_gc_workers) {
  double ref_proc_start = os::elapsedTime();

  ReferenceProcessor* rp = _ref_processor_stw;
  assert(rp->discovery_enabled(), "should have been enabled");

  // Any reference objects, in the collection set, that were 'discovered'
  // by the CM ref processor should have already been copied (either by
  // applying the external root copy closure to the discovered lists, or
  // by following an RSet entry).
  //
  // But some of the referents, that are in the collection set, that these
  // reference objects point to may not have been copied: the STW ref
  // processor would have seen that the reference object had already
  // been 'discovered' and would have skipped discovering the reference,
  // but would not have treated the reference object as a regular oop.
  // As a result the copy closure would not have been applied to the
  // referent object.
  //
  // We need to explicitly copy these referent objects - the references
  // will be processed at the end of remarking.
  //
  // We also need to do this copying before we process the reference
  // objects discovered by the STW ref processor in case one of these
  // referents points to another object which is also referenced by an
  // object discovered by the STW ref processor.

  assert(!G1CollectedHeap::use_parallel_gc_threads() ||
           no_of_gc_workers == workers()->active_workers(),
           "Need to reset active GC workers");

  set_par_threads(no_of_gc_workers);
  G1ParPreserveCMReferentsTask keep_cm_referents(this,
                                                 no_of_gc_workers,
                                                 _task_queues);

  if (G1CollectedHeap::use_parallel_gc_threads()) {
    workers()->run_task(&keep_cm_referents);
  } else {
    keep_cm_referents.work(0);
  }

  set_par_threads(0);

  // Closure to test whether a referent is alive.
  G1STWIsAliveClosure is_alive(this);

  // Even when parallel reference processing is enabled, the processing
  // of JNI refs is serial and performed serially by the current thread
  // rather than by a worker. The following PSS will be used for processing
  // JNI refs.

  // Use only a single queue for this PSS.
  G1ParScanThreadState pss(this, 0);

  // We do not embed a reference processor in the copying/scanning
  // closures while we're actually processing the discovered
  // reference objects.
  G1ParScanHeapEvacClosure        scan_evac_cl(this, &pss, NULL);
  G1ParScanHeapEvacFailureClosure evac_failure_cl(this, &pss, NULL);
  G1ParScanPartialArrayClosure    partial_scan_cl(this, &pss, NULL);

  pss.set_evac_closure(&scan_evac_cl);
  pss.set_evac_failure_closure(&evac_failure_cl);
  pss.set_partial_scan_closure(&partial_scan_cl);

  assert(pss.refs()->is_empty(), "pre-condition");

  G1ParScanExtRootClosure        only_copy_non_heap_cl(this, &pss, NULL);
  G1ParScanPermClosure           only_copy_perm_cl(this, &pss, NULL);

  G1ParScanAndMarkExtRootClosure copy_mark_non_heap_cl(this, &pss, NULL);
  G1ParScanAndMarkPermClosure    copy_mark_perm_cl(this, &pss, NULL);

  OopClosure*                    copy_non_heap_cl = &only_copy_non_heap_cl;
  OopsInHeapRegionClosure*       copy_perm_cl = &only_copy_perm_cl;

  if (_g1h->g1_policy()->during_initial_mark_pause()) {
    // We also need to mark copied objects.
    copy_non_heap_cl = &copy_mark_non_heap_cl;
    copy_perm_cl = &copy_mark_perm_cl;
  }

  // Keep alive closure.
  G1CopyingKeepAliveClosure keep_alive(this, copy_non_heap_cl, copy_perm_cl, &pss);

  // Serial Complete GC closure
  G1STWDrainQueueClosure drain_queue(this, &pss);

  // Setup the soft refs policy...
  rp->setup_policy(false);

  ReferenceProcessorStats stats;
  if (!rp->processing_is_mt()) {
    // Serial reference processing...
    stats = rp->process_discovered_references(&is_alive,
                                              &keep_alive,
                                              &drain_queue,
                                              NULL,
                                              _gc_timer_stw);
  } else {
    // Parallel reference processing
    assert(rp->num_q() == no_of_gc_workers, "sanity");
    assert(no_of_gc_workers <= rp->max_num_q(), "sanity");

    G1STWRefProcTaskExecutor par_task_executor(this, workers(), _task_queues, no_of_gc_workers);
    stats = rp->process_discovered_references(&is_alive,
                                              &keep_alive,
                                              &drain_queue,
                                              &par_task_executor,
                                              _gc_timer_stw);
  }

  _gc_tracer_stw->report_gc_reference_stats(stats);
  // We have completed copying any necessary live referent objects
  // (that were not copied during the actual pause) so we can
  // retire any active alloc buffers
  pss.retire_alloc_buffers();
  assert(pss.refs()->is_empty(), "both queue and overflow should be empty");

  double ref_proc_time = os::elapsedTime() - ref_proc_start;
  g1_policy()->phase_times()->record_ref_proc_time(ref_proc_time * 1000.0);
}

// Weak Reference processing during an evacuation pause (part 2).
void G1CollectedHeap::enqueue_discovered_references(uint no_of_gc_workers) {
  double ref_enq_start = os::elapsedTime();

  ReferenceProcessor* rp = _ref_processor_stw;
  assert(!rp->discovery_enabled(), "should have been disabled as part of processing");

  // Now enqueue any remaining on the discovered lists on to
  // the pending list.
  if (!rp->processing_is_mt()) {
    // Serial reference processing...
    rp->enqueue_discovered_references();
  } else {
    // Parallel reference enqueueing

    assert(no_of_gc_workers == workers()->active_workers(),
           "Need to reset active workers");
    assert(rp->num_q() == no_of_gc_workers, "sanity");
    assert(no_of_gc_workers <= rp->max_num_q(), "sanity");

    G1STWRefProcTaskExecutor par_task_executor(this, workers(), _task_queues, no_of_gc_workers);
    rp->enqueue_discovered_references(&par_task_executor);
  }

  rp->verify_no_references_recorded();
  assert(!rp->discovery_enabled(), "should have been disabled");

  // FIXME
  // CM's reference processing also cleans up the string and symbol tables.
  // Should we do that here also? We could, but it is a serial operation
  // and could significantly increase the pause time.

  double ref_enq_time = os::elapsedTime() - ref_enq_start;
  g1_policy()->phase_times()->record_ref_enq_time(ref_enq_time * 1000.0);
}

void G1CollectedHeap::evacuate_collection_set(EvacuationInfo& evacuation_info) {
  _expand_heap_after_alloc_failure = true;
  _evacuation_failed = false;

  // Should G1EvacuationFailureALot be in effect for this GC?
  NOT_PRODUCT(set_evacuation_failure_alot_for_current_gc();)

  g1_rem_set()->prepare_for_oops_into_collection_set_do();

  // Disable the hot card cache.
  G1HotCardCache* hot_card_cache = _cg1r->hot_card_cache();
  hot_card_cache->reset_hot_cache_claimed_index();
  hot_card_cache->set_use_cache(false);

  uint n_workers;
  if (G1CollectedHeap::use_parallel_gc_threads()) {
    n_workers =
      AdaptiveSizePolicy::calc_active_workers(workers()->total_workers(),
                                     workers()->active_workers(),
                                     Threads::number_of_non_daemon_threads());
    assert(UseDynamicNumberOfGCThreads ||
           n_workers == workers()->total_workers(),
           "If not dynamic should be using all the  workers");
    workers()->set_active_workers(n_workers);
    set_par_threads(n_workers);
  } else {
    assert(n_par_threads() == 0,
           "Should be the original non-parallel value");
    n_workers = 1;
  }

  G1ParTask g1_par_task(this, _task_queues);

  init_for_evac_failure(NULL);

  rem_set()->prepare_for_younger_refs_iterate(true);

  assert(dirty_card_queue_set().completed_buffers_num() == 0, "Should be empty");
  double start_par_time_sec = os::elapsedTime();
  double end_par_time_sec;

  {
    StrongRootsScope srs(this);

    if (G1CollectedHeap::use_parallel_gc_threads()) {
      // The individual threads will set their evac-failure closures.
      if (ParallelGCVerbose) G1ParScanThreadState::print_termination_stats_hdr();
      // These tasks use ShareHeap::_process_strong_tasks
      assert(UseDynamicNumberOfGCThreads ||
             workers()->active_workers() == workers()->total_workers(),
             "If not dynamic should be using all the  workers");
      workers()->run_task(&g1_par_task);
    } else {
      g1_par_task.set_for_termination(n_workers);
      g1_par_task.work(0);
    }
    end_par_time_sec = os::elapsedTime();

    // Closing the inner scope will execute the destructor
    // for the StrongRootsScope object. We record the current
    // elapsed time before closing the scope so that time
    // taken for the SRS destructor is NOT included in the
    // reported parallel time.
  }

  double par_time_ms = (end_par_time_sec - start_par_time_sec) * 1000.0;
  g1_policy()->phase_times()->record_par_time(par_time_ms);

  double code_root_fixup_time_ms =
        (os::elapsedTime() - end_par_time_sec) * 1000.0;
  g1_policy()->phase_times()->record_code_root_fixup_time(code_root_fixup_time_ms);

  set_par_threads(0);

  // Process any discovered reference objects - we have
  // to do this _before_ we retire the GC alloc regions
  // as we may have to copy some 'reachable' referent
  // objects (and their reachable sub-graphs) that were
  // not copied during the pause.
  process_discovered_references(n_workers);

  // Weak root processing.
  {
    G1STWIsAliveClosure is_alive(this);
    G1KeepAliveClosure keep_alive(this);
    JNIHandles::weak_oops_do(&is_alive, &keep_alive);
  }

  release_gc_alloc_regions(n_workers, evacuation_info);
  g1_rem_set()->cleanup_after_oops_into_collection_set_do();

  // Reset and re-enable the hot card cache.
  // Note the counts for the cards in the regions in the
  // collection set are reset when the collection set is freed.
  hot_card_cache->reset_hot_cache();
  hot_card_cache->set_use_cache(true);

  // Migrate the strong code roots attached to each region in
  // the collection set. Ideally we would like to do this
  // after we have finished the scanning/evacuation of the
  // strong code roots for a particular heap region.
  migrate_strong_code_roots();

  if (g1_policy()->during_initial_mark_pause()) {
    // Reset the claim values set during marking the strong code roots
    reset_heap_region_claim_values();
  }

  finalize_for_evac_failure();

  if (evacuation_failed()) {
    remove_self_forwarding_pointers();

    // Reset the G1EvacuationFailureALot counters and flags
    // Note: the values are reset only when an actual
    // evacuation failure occurs.
    NOT_PRODUCT(reset_evacuation_should_fail();)
  }

  // Enqueue any remaining references remaining on the STW
  // reference processor's discovered lists. We need to do
  // this after the card table is cleaned (and verified) as
  // the act of enqueueing entries on to the pending list
  // will log these updates (and dirty their associated
  // cards). We need these updates logged to update any
  // RSets.
  enqueue_discovered_references(n_workers);

  if (G1DeferredRSUpdate) {
    RedirtyLoggedCardTableEntryFastClosure redirty;
    dirty_card_queue_set().set_closure(&redirty);
    dirty_card_queue_set().apply_closure_to_all_completed_buffers();

    DirtyCardQueueSet& dcq = JavaThread::dirty_card_queue_set();
    dcq.merge_bufferlists(&dirty_card_queue_set());
    assert(dirty_card_queue_set().completed_buffers_num() == 0, "All should be consumed");
  }
  COMPILER2_PRESENT(DerivedPointerTable::update_pointers());
}

void G1CollectedHeap::free_region_if_empty(HeapRegion* hr,
                                     size_t* pre_used,
                                     FreeRegionList* free_list,
                                     OldRegionSet* old_proxy_set,
                                     HumongousRegionSet* humongous_proxy_set,
                                     HRRSCleanupTask* hrrs_cleanup_task,
                                     bool par) {
  if (hr->used() > 0 && hr->max_live_bytes() == 0 && !hr->is_young()) {
    if (hr->isHumongous()) {
      assert(hr->startsHumongous(), "we should only see starts humongous");
      free_humongous_region(hr, pre_used, free_list, humongous_proxy_set, par);
    } else {
      _old_set.remove_with_proxy(hr, old_proxy_set);
      free_region(hr, pre_used, free_list, par);
    }
  } else {
    hr->rem_set()->do_cleanup_work(hrrs_cleanup_task);
  }
}

void G1CollectedHeap::free_region(HeapRegion* hr,
                                  size_t* pre_used,
                                  FreeRegionList* free_list,
                                  bool par) {
  assert(!hr->isHumongous(), "this is only for non-humongous regions");
  assert(!hr->is_empty(), "the region should not be empty");
  assert(free_list != NULL, "pre-condition");

  // Clear the card counts for this region.
  // Note: we only need to do this if the region is not young
  // (since we don't refine cards in young regions).
  if (!hr->is_young()) {
    _cg1r->hot_card_cache()->reset_card_counts(hr);
  }
  *pre_used += hr->used();
  hr->hr_clear(par, true /* clear_space */);
  free_list->add_as_head(hr);
}

void G1CollectedHeap::free_humongous_region(HeapRegion* hr,
                                     size_t* pre_used,
                                     FreeRegionList* free_list,
                                     HumongousRegionSet* humongous_proxy_set,
                                     bool par) {
  assert(hr->startsHumongous(), "this is only for starts humongous regions");
  assert(free_list != NULL, "pre-condition");
  assert(humongous_proxy_set != NULL, "pre-condition");

  size_t hr_used = hr->used();
  size_t hr_capacity = hr->capacity();
  size_t hr_pre_used = 0;
  _humongous_set.remove_with_proxy(hr, humongous_proxy_set);
  // We need to read this before we make the region non-humongous,
  // otherwise the information will be gone.
  uint last_index = hr->last_hc_index();
  hr->set_notHumongous();
  free_region(hr, &hr_pre_used, free_list, par);

  uint i = hr->hrs_index() + 1;
  while (i < last_index) {
    HeapRegion* curr_hr = region_at(i);
    assert(curr_hr->continuesHumongous(), "invariant");
    curr_hr->set_notHumongous();
    free_region(curr_hr, &hr_pre_used, free_list, par);
    i += 1;
  }
  assert(hr_pre_used == hr_used,
         err_msg("hr_pre_used: "SIZE_FORMAT" and hr_used: "SIZE_FORMAT" "
                 "should be the same", hr_pre_used, hr_used));
  *pre_used += hr_pre_used;
}

void G1CollectedHeap::update_sets_after_freeing_regions(size_t pre_used,
                                       FreeRegionList* free_list,
                                       OldRegionSet* old_proxy_set,
                                       HumongousRegionSet* humongous_proxy_set,
                                       bool par) {
  if (pre_used > 0) {
    Mutex* lock = (par) ? ParGCRareEvent_lock : NULL;
    MutexLockerEx x(lock, Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
    assert(_summary_bytes_used >= pre_used,
           err_msg("invariant: _summary_bytes_used: "SIZE_FORMAT" "
                   "should be >= pre_used: "SIZE_FORMAT,
                   _summary_bytes_used, pre_used));
    _summary_bytes_used -= pre_used;
  }
  if (free_list != NULL && !free_list->is_empty()) {
    MutexLockerEx x(FreeList_lock, Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
    _free_list.add_as_head(free_list);
  }
  if (old_proxy_set != NULL && !old_proxy_set->is_empty()) {
    MutexLockerEx x(OldSets_lock, Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
    _old_set.update_from_proxy(old_proxy_set);
  }
  if (humongous_proxy_set != NULL && !humongous_proxy_set->is_empty()) {
    MutexLockerEx x(OldSets_lock, Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
    _humongous_set.update_from_proxy(humongous_proxy_set);
  }
}

class G1ParCleanupCTTask : public AbstractGangTask {
  G1SATBCardTableModRefBS* _ct_bs;
  G1CollectedHeap* _g1h;
  HeapRegion* volatile _su_head;
public:
  G1ParCleanupCTTask(G1SATBCardTableModRefBS* ct_bs,
                     G1CollectedHeap* g1h) :
    AbstractGangTask("G1 Par Cleanup CT Task"),
    _ct_bs(ct_bs), _g1h(g1h) { }

  void work(uint worker_id) {
    HeapRegion* r;
    while (r = _g1h->pop_dirty_cards_region()) {
      clear_cards(r);
    }
  }

  void clear_cards(HeapRegion* r) {
    // Cards of the survivors should have already been dirtied.
    if (!r->is_survivor()) {
      _ct_bs->clear(MemRegion(r->bottom(), r->end()));
    }
  }
};

#ifndef PRODUCT
class G1VerifyCardTableCleanup: public HeapRegionClosure {
  G1CollectedHeap* _g1h;
  G1SATBCardTableModRefBS* _ct_bs;
public:
  G1VerifyCardTableCleanup(G1CollectedHeap* g1h, G1SATBCardTableModRefBS* ct_bs)
    : _g1h(g1h), _ct_bs(ct_bs) { }
  virtual bool doHeapRegion(HeapRegion* r) {
    if (r->is_survivor()) {
      _g1h->verify_dirty_region(r);
    } else {
      _g1h->verify_not_dirty_region(r);
    }
    return false;
  }
};

void G1CollectedHeap::verify_not_dirty_region(HeapRegion* hr) {
  // All of the region should be clean.
  G1SATBCardTableModRefBS* ct_bs = g1_barrier_set();
  MemRegion mr(hr->bottom(), hr->end());
  ct_bs->verify_not_dirty_region(mr);
}

void G1CollectedHeap::verify_dirty_region(HeapRegion* hr) {
  // We cannot guarantee that [bottom(),end()] is dirty.  Threads
  // dirty allocated blocks as they allocate them. The thread that
  // retires each region and replaces it with a new one will do a
  // maximal allocation to fill in [pre_dummy_top(),end()] but will
  // not dirty that area (one less thing to have to do while holding
  // a lock). So we can only verify that [bottom(),pre_dummy_top()]
  // is dirty.
  G1SATBCardTableModRefBS* ct_bs = g1_barrier_set();
  MemRegion mr(hr->bottom(), hr->pre_dummy_top());
  if (hr->is_young()) {
    ct_bs->verify_g1_young_region(mr);
  } else {
    ct_bs->verify_dirty_region(mr);
  }
}

void G1CollectedHeap::verify_dirty_young_list(HeapRegion* head) {
  G1SATBCardTableModRefBS* ct_bs = g1_barrier_set();
  for (HeapRegion* hr = head; hr != NULL; hr = hr->get_next_young_region()) {
    verify_dirty_region(hr);
  }
}

void G1CollectedHeap::verify_dirty_young_regions() {
  verify_dirty_young_list(_young_list->first_region());
}
#endif

void G1CollectedHeap::cleanUpCardTable() {
  G1SATBCardTableModRefBS* ct_bs = g1_barrier_set();
  double start = os::elapsedTime();

  {
    // Iterate over the dirty cards region list.
    G1ParCleanupCTTask cleanup_task(ct_bs, this);

    if (G1CollectedHeap::use_parallel_gc_threads()) {
      set_par_threads();
      workers()->run_task(&cleanup_task);
      set_par_threads(0);
    } else {
      while (_dirty_cards_region_list) {
        HeapRegion* r = _dirty_cards_region_list;
        cleanup_task.clear_cards(r);
        _dirty_cards_region_list = r->get_next_dirty_cards_region();
        if (_dirty_cards_region_list == r) {
          // The last region.
          _dirty_cards_region_list = NULL;
        }
        r->set_next_dirty_cards_region(NULL);
      }
    }
#ifndef PRODUCT
    if (G1VerifyCTCleanup || VerifyAfterGC) {
      G1VerifyCardTableCleanup cleanup_verifier(this, ct_bs);
      heap_region_iterate(&cleanup_verifier);
    }
#endif
  }

  double elapsed = os::elapsedTime() - start;
  g1_policy()->phase_times()->record_clear_ct_time(elapsed * 1000.0);
}

void G1CollectedHeap::free_collection_set(HeapRegion* cs_head, EvacuationInfo& evacuation_info) {
  size_t pre_used = 0;
  FreeRegionList local_free_list("Local List for CSet Freeing");

  double young_time_ms     = 0.0;
  double non_young_time_ms = 0.0;

  // Since the collection set is a superset of the the young list,
  // all we need to do to clear the young list is clear its
  // head and length, and unlink any young regions in the code below
  _young_list->clear();

  G1CollectorPolicy* policy = g1_policy();

  double start_sec = os::elapsedTime();
  bool non_young = true;

  HeapRegion* cur = cs_head;
  int age_bound = -1;
  size_t rs_lengths = 0;

  while (cur != NULL) {
    assert(!is_on_master_free_list(cur), "sanity");
    if (non_young) {
      if (cur->is_young()) {
        double end_sec = os::elapsedTime();
        double elapsed_ms = (end_sec - start_sec) * 1000.0;
        non_young_time_ms += elapsed_ms;

        start_sec = os::elapsedTime();
        non_young = false;
      }
    } else {
      if (!cur->is_young()) {
        double end_sec = os::elapsedTime();
        double elapsed_ms = (end_sec - start_sec) * 1000.0;
        young_time_ms += elapsed_ms;

        start_sec = os::elapsedTime();
        non_young = true;
      }
    }

    rs_lengths += cur->rem_set()->occupied();

    HeapRegion* next = cur->next_in_collection_set();
    assert(cur->in_collection_set(), "bad CS");
    cur->set_next_in_collection_set(NULL);
    cur->set_in_collection_set(false);

    if (cur->is_young()) {
      int index = cur->young_index_in_cset();
      assert(index != -1, "invariant");
      assert((uint) index < policy->young_cset_region_length(), "invariant");
      size_t words_survived = _surviving_young_words[index];
      cur->record_surv_words_in_group(words_survived);

      // At this point the we have 'popped' cur from the collection set
      // (linked via next_in_collection_set()) but it is still in the
      // young list (linked via next_young_region()). Clear the
      // _next_young_region field.
      cur->set_next_young_region(NULL);
    } else {
      int index = cur->young_index_in_cset();
      assert(index == -1, "invariant");
    }

    assert( (cur->is_young() && cur->young_index_in_cset() > -1) ||
            (!cur->is_young() && cur->young_index_in_cset() == -1),
            "invariant" );

    if (!cur->evacuation_failed()) {
      MemRegion used_mr = cur->used_region();

      // And the region is empty.
      assert(!used_mr.is_empty(), "Should not have empty regions in a CS.");
      free_region(cur, &pre_used, &local_free_list, false /* par */);
    } else {
      cur->uninstall_surv_rate_group();
      if (cur->is_young()) {
        cur->set_young_index_in_cset(-1);
      }
      cur->set_not_young();
      cur->set_evacuation_failed(false);
      // The region is now considered to be old.
      _old_set.add(cur);
      evacuation_info.increment_collectionset_used_after(cur->used());
    }
    cur = next;
  }

  evacuation_info.set_regions_freed(local_free_list.length());
  policy->record_max_rs_lengths(rs_lengths);
  policy->cset_regions_freed();

  double end_sec = os::elapsedTime();
  double elapsed_ms = (end_sec - start_sec) * 1000.0;

  if (non_young) {
    non_young_time_ms += elapsed_ms;
  } else {
    young_time_ms += elapsed_ms;
  }

  update_sets_after_freeing_regions(pre_used, &local_free_list,
                                    NULL /* old_proxy_set */,
                                    NULL /* humongous_proxy_set */,
                                    false /* par */);
  policy->phase_times()->record_young_free_cset_time_ms(young_time_ms);
  policy->phase_times()->record_non_young_free_cset_time_ms(non_young_time_ms);
}

// This routine is similar to the above but does not record
// any policy statistics or update free lists; we are abandoning
// the current incremental collection set in preparation of a
// full collection. After the full GC we will start to build up
// the incremental collection set again.
// This is only called when we're doing a full collection
// and is immediately followed by the tearing down of the young list.

void G1CollectedHeap::abandon_collection_set(HeapRegion* cs_head) {
  HeapRegion* cur = cs_head;

  while (cur != NULL) {
    HeapRegion* next = cur->next_in_collection_set();
    assert(cur->in_collection_set(), "bad CS");
    cur->set_next_in_collection_set(NULL);
    cur->set_in_collection_set(false);
    cur->set_young_index_in_cset(-1);
    cur = next;
  }
}

void G1CollectedHeap::set_free_regions_coming() {
  if (G1ConcRegionFreeingVerbose) {
    gclog_or_tty->print_cr("G1ConcRegionFreeing [cm thread] : "
                           "setting free regions coming");
  }

  assert(!free_regions_coming(), "pre-condition");
  _free_regions_coming = true;
}

void G1CollectedHeap::reset_free_regions_coming() {
  assert(free_regions_coming(), "pre-condition");

  {
    MutexLockerEx x(SecondaryFreeList_lock, Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
    _free_regions_coming = false;
    SecondaryFreeList_lock->notify_all();
  }

  if (G1ConcRegionFreeingVerbose) {
    gclog_or_tty->print_cr("G1ConcRegionFreeing [cm thread] : "
                           "reset free regions coming");
  }
}

void G1CollectedHeap::wait_while_free_regions_coming() {
  // Most of the time we won't have to wait, so let's do a quick test
  // first before we take the lock.
  if (!free_regions_coming()) {
    return;
  }

  if (G1ConcRegionFreeingVerbose) {
    gclog_or_tty->print_cr("G1ConcRegionFreeing [other] : "
                           "waiting for free regions");
  }

  {
    MutexLockerEx x(SecondaryFreeList_lock, Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
    while (free_regions_coming()) {
      SecondaryFreeList_lock->wait(Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
    }
  }

  if (G1ConcRegionFreeingVerbose) {
    gclog_or_tty->print_cr("G1ConcRegionFreeing [other] : "
                           "done waiting for free regions");
  }
}

void G1CollectedHeap::set_region_short_lived_locked(HeapRegion* hr) {
  assert(heap_lock_held_for_gc(),
              "the heap lock should already be held by or for this thread");
  _young_list->push_region(hr);
}

class NoYoungRegionsClosure: public HeapRegionClosure {
private:
  bool _success;
public:
  NoYoungRegionsClosure() : _success(true) { }
  bool doHeapRegion(HeapRegion* r) {
    if (r->is_young()) {
      gclog_or_tty->print_cr("Region ["PTR_FORMAT", "PTR_FORMAT") tagged as young",
                             r->bottom(), r->end());
      _success = false;
    }
    return false;
  }
  bool success() { return _success; }
};

bool G1CollectedHeap::check_young_list_empty(bool check_heap, bool check_sample) {
  bool ret = _young_list->check_list_empty(check_sample);

  if (check_heap) {
    NoYoungRegionsClosure closure;
    heap_region_iterate(&closure);
    ret = ret && closure.success();
  }

  return ret;
}

class TearDownRegionSetsClosure : public HeapRegionClosure {
private:
  OldRegionSet *_old_set;

public:
  TearDownRegionSetsClosure(OldRegionSet* old_set) : _old_set(old_set) { }

  bool doHeapRegion(HeapRegion* r) {
    if (r->is_empty()) {
      // We ignore empty regions, we'll empty the free list afterwards
    } else if (r->is_young()) {
      // We ignore young regions, we'll empty the young list afterwards
    } else if (r->isHumongous()) {
      // We ignore humongous regions, we're not tearing down the
      // humongous region set
    } else {
      // The rest should be old
      _old_set->remove(r);
    }
    return false;
  }

  ~TearDownRegionSetsClosure() {
    assert(_old_set->is_empty(), "post-condition");
  }
};

void G1CollectedHeap::tear_down_region_sets(bool free_list_only) {
  assert_at_safepoint(true /* should_be_vm_thread */);

  if (!free_list_only) {
    TearDownRegionSetsClosure cl(&_old_set);
    heap_region_iterate(&cl);

    // Need to do this after the heap iteration to be able to
    // recognize the young regions and ignore them during the iteration.
    _young_list->empty_list();
  }
  _free_list.remove_all();
}

class RebuildRegionSetsClosure : public HeapRegionClosure {
private:
  bool            _free_list_only;
  OldRegionSet*   _old_set;
  FreeRegionList* _free_list;
  size_t          _total_used;

public:
  RebuildRegionSetsClosure(bool free_list_only,
                           OldRegionSet* old_set, FreeRegionList* free_list) :
    _free_list_only(free_list_only),
    _old_set(old_set), _free_list(free_list), _total_used(0) {
    assert(_free_list->is_empty(), "pre-condition");
    if (!free_list_only) {
      assert(_old_set->is_empty(), "pre-condition");
    }
  }

  bool doHeapRegion(HeapRegion* r) {
    if (r->continuesHumongous()) {
      return false;
    }

    if (r->is_empty()) {
      // Add free regions to the free list
      _free_list->add_as_tail(r);
    } else if (!_free_list_only) {
      assert(!r->is_young(), "we should not come across young regions");

      if (r->isHumongous()) {
        // We ignore humongous regions, we left the humongous set unchanged
      } else {
        // The rest should be old, add them to the old set
        _old_set->add(r);
      }
      _total_used += r->used();
    }

    return false;
  }

  size_t total_used() {
    return _total_used;
  }
};

void G1CollectedHeap::rebuild_region_sets(bool free_list_only) {
  assert_at_safepoint(true /* should_be_vm_thread */);

  RebuildRegionSetsClosure cl(free_list_only, &_old_set, &_free_list);
  heap_region_iterate(&cl);

  if (!free_list_only) {
    _summary_bytes_used = cl.total_used();
  }
  assert(_summary_bytes_used == recalculate_used(),
         err_msg("inconsistent _summary_bytes_used, "
                 "value: "SIZE_FORMAT" recalculated: "SIZE_FORMAT,
                 _summary_bytes_used, recalculate_used()));
}

void G1CollectedHeap::set_refine_cte_cl_concurrency(bool concurrent) {
  _refine_cte_cl->set_concurrent(concurrent);
}

bool G1CollectedHeap::is_in_closed_subset(const void* p) const {
  HeapRegion* hr = heap_region_containing(p);
  if (hr == NULL) {
    return is_in_permanent(p);
  } else {
    return hr->is_in(p);
  }
}

// Methods for the mutator alloc region

HeapRegion* G1CollectedHeap::new_mutator_alloc_region(size_t word_size,
                                                      bool force) {
  assert_heap_locked_or_at_safepoint(true /* should_be_vm_thread */);
  assert(!force || g1_policy()->can_expand_young_list(),
         "if force is true we should be able to expand the young list");
  bool young_list_full = g1_policy()->is_young_list_full();
  if (force || !young_list_full) {
    HeapRegion* new_alloc_region = new_region(word_size,
                                              false /* do_expand */);
    if (new_alloc_region != NULL) {
      set_region_short_lived_locked(new_alloc_region);
      _hr_printer.alloc(new_alloc_region, G1HRPrinter::Eden, young_list_full);
      return new_alloc_region;
    }
  }
  return NULL;
}

void G1CollectedHeap::retire_mutator_alloc_region(HeapRegion* alloc_region,
                                                  size_t allocated_bytes) {
  assert_heap_locked_or_at_safepoint(true /* should_be_vm_thread */);
  assert(alloc_region->is_young(), "all mutator alloc regions should be young");

  g1_policy()->add_region_to_incremental_cset_lhs(alloc_region);
  _summary_bytes_used += allocated_bytes;
  _hr_printer.retire(alloc_region);
  // We update the eden sizes here, when the region is retired,
  // instead of when it's allocated, since this is the point that its
  // used space has been recored in _summary_bytes_used.
  g1mm()->update_eden_size();
}

HeapRegion* MutatorAllocRegion::allocate_new_region(size_t word_size,
                                                    bool force) {
  return _g1h->new_mutator_alloc_region(word_size, force);
}

void G1CollectedHeap::set_par_threads() {
  // Don't change the number of workers.  Use the value previously set
  // in the workgroup.
  assert(G1CollectedHeap::use_parallel_gc_threads(), "shouldn't be here otherwise");
  uint n_workers = workers()->active_workers();
  assert(UseDynamicNumberOfGCThreads ||
           n_workers == workers()->total_workers(),
      "Otherwise should be using the total number of workers");
  if (n_workers == 0) {
    assert(false, "Should have been set in prior evacuation pause.");
    n_workers = ParallelGCThreads;
    workers()->set_active_workers(n_workers);
  }
  set_par_threads(n_workers);
}

void MutatorAllocRegion::retire_region(HeapRegion* alloc_region,
                                       size_t allocated_bytes) {
  _g1h->retire_mutator_alloc_region(alloc_region, allocated_bytes);
}

// Methods for the GC alloc regions

HeapRegion* G1CollectedHeap::new_gc_alloc_region(size_t word_size,
                                                 uint count,
                                                 GCAllocPurpose ap) {
  assert(FreeList_lock->owned_by_self(), "pre-condition");

  if (count < g1_policy()->max_regions(ap)) {
    HeapRegion* new_alloc_region = new_region(word_size,
                                              true /* do_expand */);
    if (new_alloc_region != NULL) {
      // We really only need to do this for old regions given that we
      // should never scan survivors. But it doesn't hurt to do it
      // for survivors too.
      new_alloc_region->set_saved_mark();
      if (ap == GCAllocForSurvived) {
        new_alloc_region->set_survivor();
        _hr_printer.alloc(new_alloc_region, G1HRPrinter::Survivor);
      } else {
        _hr_printer.alloc(new_alloc_region, G1HRPrinter::Old);
      }
      bool during_im = g1_policy()->during_initial_mark_pause();
      new_alloc_region->note_start_of_copying(during_im);
      return new_alloc_region;
    } else {
      g1_policy()->note_alloc_region_limit_reached(ap);
    }
  }
  return NULL;
}

void G1CollectedHeap::retire_gc_alloc_region(HeapRegion* alloc_region,
                                             size_t allocated_bytes,
                                             GCAllocPurpose ap) {
  bool during_im = g1_policy()->during_initial_mark_pause();
  alloc_region->note_end_of_copying(during_im);
  g1_policy()->record_bytes_copied_during_gc(allocated_bytes);
  if (ap == GCAllocForSurvived) {
    young_list()->add_survivor_region(alloc_region);
  } else {
    _old_set.add(alloc_region);
  }
  _hr_printer.retire(alloc_region);
}

HeapRegion* SurvivorGCAllocRegion::allocate_new_region(size_t word_size,
                                                       bool force) {
  assert(!force, "not supported for GC alloc regions");
  return _g1h->new_gc_alloc_region(word_size, count(), GCAllocForSurvived);
}

void SurvivorGCAllocRegion::retire_region(HeapRegion* alloc_region,
                                          size_t allocated_bytes) {
  _g1h->retire_gc_alloc_region(alloc_region, allocated_bytes,
                               GCAllocForSurvived);
}

HeapRegion* OldGCAllocRegion::allocate_new_region(size_t word_size,
                                                  bool force) {
  assert(!force, "not supported for GC alloc regions");
  return _g1h->new_gc_alloc_region(word_size, count(), GCAllocForTenured);
}

void OldGCAllocRegion::retire_region(HeapRegion* alloc_region,
                                     size_t allocated_bytes) {
  _g1h->retire_gc_alloc_region(alloc_region, allocated_bytes,
                               GCAllocForTenured);
}

HeapRegion* OldGCAllocRegion::release() {
  HeapRegion* cur = get();
  if (cur != NULL) {
    // Determine how far we are from the next card boundary. If it is smaller than
    // the minimum object size we can allocate into, expand into the next card.
    HeapWord* top = cur->top();
    HeapWord* aligned_top = (HeapWord*)align_ptr_up(top, G1BlockOffsetSharedArray::N_bytes);

    size_t to_allocate_words = pointer_delta(aligned_top, top, HeapWordSize);

    if (to_allocate_words != 0) {
      // We are not at a card boundary. Fill up, possibly into the next, taking the
      // end of the region and the minimum object size into account.
      to_allocate_words = MIN2(pointer_delta(cur->end(), cur->top(), HeapWordSize),
                               MAX2(to_allocate_words, G1CollectedHeap::min_fill_size()));

      // Skip allocation if there is not enough space to allocate even the smallest
      // possible object. In this case this region will not be retained, so the
      // original problem cannot occur.
      if (to_allocate_words >= G1CollectedHeap::min_fill_size()) {
        HeapWord* dummy = attempt_allocation(to_allocate_words, true /* bot_updates */);
        CollectedHeap::fill_with_object(dummy, to_allocate_words);
      }
    }
  }
  return G1AllocRegion::release();
}

// Heap region set verification

class VerifyRegionListsClosure : public HeapRegionClosure {
private:
  FreeRegionList*     _free_list;
  OldRegionSet*       _old_set;
  HumongousRegionSet* _humongous_set;
  uint                _region_count;

public:
  VerifyRegionListsClosure(OldRegionSet* old_set,
                           HumongousRegionSet* humongous_set,
                           FreeRegionList* free_list) :
    _old_set(old_set), _humongous_set(humongous_set),
    _free_list(free_list), _region_count(0) { }

  uint region_count() { return _region_count; }

  bool doHeapRegion(HeapRegion* hr) {
    _region_count += 1;

    if (hr->continuesHumongous()) {
      return false;
    }

    if (hr->is_young()) {
      // TODO
    } else if (hr->startsHumongous()) {
      _humongous_set->verify_next_region(hr);
    } else if (hr->is_empty()) {
      _free_list->verify_next_region(hr);
    } else {
      _old_set->verify_next_region(hr);
    }
    return false;
  }
};

HeapRegion* G1CollectedHeap::new_heap_region(uint hrs_index,
                                             HeapWord* bottom) {
  HeapWord* end = bottom + HeapRegion::GrainWords;
  MemRegion mr(bottom, end);
  assert(_g1_reserved.contains(mr), "invariant");
  // This might return NULL if the allocation fails
  return new HeapRegion(hrs_index, _bot_shared, mr, true /* is_zeroed */);
}

void G1CollectedHeap::verify_region_sets() {
  assert_heap_locked_or_at_safepoint(true /* should_be_vm_thread */);

  // First, check the explicit lists.
  _free_list.verify();
  {
    // Given that a concurrent operation might be adding regions to
    // the secondary free list we have to take the lock before
    // verifying it.
    MutexLockerEx x(SecondaryFreeList_lock, Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
    _secondary_free_list.verify();
  }
  _old_set.verify();
  _humongous_set.verify();

  // If a concurrent region freeing operation is in progress it will
  // be difficult to correctly attributed any free regions we come
  // across to the correct free list given that they might belong to
  // one of several (free_list, secondary_free_list, any local lists,
  // etc.). So, if that's the case we will skip the rest of the
  // verification operation. Alternatively, waiting for the concurrent
  // operation to complete will have a non-trivial effect on the GC's
  // operation (no concurrent operation will last longer than the
  // interval between two calls to verification) and it might hide
  // any issues that we would like to catch during testing.
  if (free_regions_coming()) {
    return;
  }

  // Make sure we append the secondary_free_list on the free_list so
  // that all free regions we will come across can be safely
  // attributed to the free_list.
  append_secondary_free_list_if_not_empty_with_lock();

  // Finally, make sure that the region accounting in the lists is
  // consistent with what we see in the heap.
  _old_set.verify_start();
  _humongous_set.verify_start();
  _free_list.verify_start();

  VerifyRegionListsClosure cl(&_old_set, &_humongous_set, &_free_list);
  heap_region_iterate(&cl);

  _old_set.verify_end();
  _humongous_set.verify_end();
  _free_list.verify_end();
}

// Optimized nmethod scanning

class RegisterNMethodOopClosure: public OopClosure {
  G1CollectedHeap* _g1h;
  nmethod* _nm;

  template <class T> void do_oop_work(T* p) {
    T heap_oop = oopDesc::load_heap_oop(p);
    if (!oopDesc::is_null(heap_oop)) {
      oop obj = oopDesc::decode_heap_oop_not_null(heap_oop);
      HeapRegion* hr = _g1h->heap_region_containing(obj);
      if (hr == NULL) {
        // reference into perm gen - ignore.
        assert(_g1h->is_in_permanent(obj), "must be a reference into perm gen");
        return;
      }
      assert(!hr->continuesHumongous(),
             err_msg("trying to add code root "PTR_FORMAT" in continuation of humongous region "HR_FORMAT
                     " starting at "HR_FORMAT,
                     _nm, HR_FORMAT_PARAMS(hr), HR_FORMAT_PARAMS(hr->humongous_start_region())));

      // HeapRegion::add_strong_code_root() avoids adding duplicate
      // entries but having duplicates is  OK since we "mark" nmethods
      // as visited when we scan the strong code root lists during the GC.
      hr->add_strong_code_root(_nm);
      assert(hr->rem_set()->strong_code_roots_list_contains(_nm),
             err_msg("failed to add code root "PTR_FORMAT" to remembered set of region "HR_FORMAT,
                     _nm, HR_FORMAT_PARAMS(hr)));
    }
  }

public:
  RegisterNMethodOopClosure(G1CollectedHeap* g1h, nmethod* nm) :
    _g1h(g1h), _nm(nm) {}

  void do_oop(oop* p)       { do_oop_work(p); }
  void do_oop(narrowOop* p) { do_oop_work(p); }
};

class UnregisterNMethodOopClosure: public OopClosure {
  G1CollectedHeap* _g1h;
  nmethod* _nm;

  template <class T> void do_oop_work(T* p) {
    T heap_oop = oopDesc::load_heap_oop(p);
    if (!oopDesc::is_null(heap_oop)) {
      oop obj = oopDesc::decode_heap_oop_not_null(heap_oop);
      HeapRegion* hr = _g1h->heap_region_containing(obj);
      if (hr == NULL) {
        // reference into perm gen - ignore.
        assert(_g1h->is_in_permanent(obj), "must be a reference into perm gen");
        return;
      }
      assert(!hr->continuesHumongous(),
             err_msg("trying to remove code root "PTR_FORMAT" in continuation of humongous region "HR_FORMAT
                     " starting at "HR_FORMAT,
                     _nm, HR_FORMAT_PARAMS(hr), HR_FORMAT_PARAMS(hr->humongous_start_region())));

      hr->remove_strong_code_root(_nm);
      assert(!hr->rem_set()->strong_code_roots_list_contains(_nm),
             err_msg("failed to remove code root "PTR_FORMAT" of region "HR_FORMAT,
                     _nm, HR_FORMAT_PARAMS(hr)));    }
  }

public:
  UnregisterNMethodOopClosure(G1CollectedHeap* g1h, nmethod* nm) :
    _g1h(g1h), _nm(nm) {}

  void do_oop(oop* p)       { do_oop_work(p); }
  void do_oop(narrowOop* p) { do_oop_work(p); }
};

void G1CollectedHeap::register_nmethod(nmethod* nm) {
  CollectedHeap::register_nmethod(nm);

  guarantee(nm != NULL, "sanity");
  RegisterNMethodOopClosure reg_cl(this, nm);
  nm->oops_do(&reg_cl);
}

void G1CollectedHeap::unregister_nmethod(nmethod* nm) {
  CollectedHeap::unregister_nmethod(nm);

  guarantee(nm != NULL, "sanity");
  UnregisterNMethodOopClosure reg_cl(this, nm);
  nm->oops_do(&reg_cl, false, true);
}

class MigrateCodeRootsHeapRegionClosure: public HeapRegionClosure {
public:
  bool doHeapRegion(HeapRegion *hr) {
    assert(!hr->isHumongous(),
           err_msg("humongous region "HR_FORMAT" should not have been added to collection set",
                   HR_FORMAT_PARAMS(hr)));
    hr->migrate_strong_code_roots();
    return false;
  }
};

void G1CollectedHeap::migrate_strong_code_roots() {
  MigrateCodeRootsHeapRegionClosure cl;
  double migrate_start = os::elapsedTime();
  collection_set_iterate(&cl);
  double migration_time_ms = (os::elapsedTime() - migrate_start) * 1000.0;
  g1_policy()->phase_times()->record_strong_code_root_migration_time(migration_time_ms);
}

// Mark all the code roots that point into regions *not* in the
// collection set.
//
// Note we do not want to use a "marking" CodeBlobToOopClosure while
// walking the the code roots lists of regions not in the collection
// set. Suppose we have an nmethod (M) that points to objects in two
// separate regions - one in the collection set (R1) and one not (R2).
// Using a "marking" CodeBlobToOopClosure here would result in "marking"
// nmethod M when walking the code roots for R1. When we come to scan
// the code roots for R2, we would see that M is already marked and it
// would be skipped and the objects in R2 that are referenced from M
// would not be evacuated.

class MarkStrongCodeRootCodeBlobClosure: public CodeBlobClosure {

  class MarkStrongCodeRootOopClosure: public OopClosure {
    ConcurrentMark* _cm;
    HeapRegion* _hr;
    uint _worker_id;

    template <class T> void do_oop_work(T* p) {
      T heap_oop = oopDesc::load_heap_oop(p);
      if (!oopDesc::is_null(heap_oop)) {
        oop obj = oopDesc::decode_heap_oop_not_null(heap_oop);
        // Only mark objects in the region (which is assumed
        // to be not in the collection set).
        if (_hr->is_in(obj)) {
          _cm->grayRoot(obj, (size_t) obj->size(), _worker_id);
        }
      }
    }

  public:
    MarkStrongCodeRootOopClosure(ConcurrentMark* cm, HeapRegion* hr, uint worker_id) :
      _cm(cm), _hr(hr), _worker_id(worker_id) {
      assert(!_hr->in_collection_set(), "sanity");
    }

    void do_oop(narrowOop* p) { do_oop_work(p); }
    void do_oop(oop* p)       { do_oop_work(p); }
  };

  MarkStrongCodeRootOopClosure _oop_cl;

public:
  MarkStrongCodeRootCodeBlobClosure(ConcurrentMark* cm, HeapRegion* hr, uint worker_id):
    _oop_cl(cm, hr, worker_id) {}

  void do_code_blob(CodeBlob* cb) {
    nmethod* nm = (cb == NULL) ? NULL : cb->as_nmethod_or_null();
    if (nm != NULL) {
      nm->oops_do(&_oop_cl);
    }
  }
};

class MarkStrongCodeRootsHRClosure: public HeapRegionClosure {
  G1CollectedHeap* _g1h;
  uint _worker_id;

public:
  MarkStrongCodeRootsHRClosure(G1CollectedHeap* g1h, uint worker_id) :
    _g1h(g1h), _worker_id(worker_id) {}

  bool doHeapRegion(HeapRegion *hr) {
    HeapRegionRemSet* hrrs = hr->rem_set();
    if (hr->continuesHumongous()) {
      // Code roots should never be attached to a continuation of a humongous region
      assert(hrrs->strong_code_roots_list_length() == 0,
             err_msg("code roots should never be attached to continuations of humongous region "HR_FORMAT
                     " starting at "HR_FORMAT", but has "INT32_FORMAT,
                     HR_FORMAT_PARAMS(hr), HR_FORMAT_PARAMS(hr->humongous_start_region()),
                     hrrs->strong_code_roots_list_length()));
      return false;
    }

    if (hr->in_collection_set()) {
      // Don't mark code roots into regions in the collection set here.
      // They will be marked when we scan them.
      return false;
    }

    MarkStrongCodeRootCodeBlobClosure cb_cl(_g1h->concurrent_mark(), hr, _worker_id);
    hr->strong_code_roots_do(&cb_cl);
    return false;
  }
};

void G1CollectedHeap::mark_strong_code_roots(uint worker_id) {
  MarkStrongCodeRootsHRClosure cl(this, worker_id);
  if (G1CollectedHeap::use_parallel_gc_threads()) {
    heap_region_par_iterate_chunked(&cl,
                                    worker_id,
                                    workers()->active_workers(),
                                    HeapRegion::ParMarkRootClaimValue);
  } else {
    heap_region_iterate(&cl);
  }
}

class RebuildStrongCodeRootClosure: public CodeBlobClosure {
  G1CollectedHeap* _g1h;

public:
  RebuildStrongCodeRootClosure(G1CollectedHeap* g1h) :
    _g1h(g1h) {}

  void do_code_blob(CodeBlob* cb) {
    nmethod* nm = (cb != NULL) ? cb->as_nmethod_or_null() : NULL;
    if (nm == NULL) {
      return;
    }

    if (ScavengeRootsInCode && nm->detect_scavenge_root_oops()) {
      _g1h->register_nmethod(nm);
    }
  }
};

void G1CollectedHeap::rebuild_strong_code_roots() {
  RebuildStrongCodeRootClosure blob_cl(this);
  CodeCache::blobs_do(&blob_cl);
}