changeset 2063:ae4b185f2ed1 hs21-b01 jdk7-b129

Merge
author trims
date Thu, 03 Feb 2011 23:26:25 -0800
parents 6ecdca5709df 3582bf76420e
children 55b9f498dbce c6bf3ca2bb31
files .hgtags agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/oops/SymbolKlass.java src/share/vm/ci/ciSymbolKlass.cpp src/share/vm/ci/ciSymbolKlass.hpp src/share/vm/oops/symbolKlass.cpp src/share/vm/oops/symbolKlass.hpp src/share/vm/oops/symbolOop.cpp src/share/vm/oops/symbolOop.hpp
diffstat 257 files changed, 4572 insertions(+), 3973 deletions(-) [+]
line wrap: on
line diff
--- a/.hgtags	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/.hgtags	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -143,5 +143,6 @@
 e24ab3fa6aafad3efabbe7dba9918c5f461a20b1 jdk7-b125
 4c851c931d001a882cab809aaf3a55371b919244 jdk7-b126
 e24ab3fa6aafad3efabbe7dba9918c5f461a20b1 hs20-b06
+d535bf4c12355a2897e918da9f8910c0aceec4fb hs20-b07
 102466e70debc4b907afbd7624e34ddb1aafee9f jdk7-b127
 9a5762f448595794d449a8e17342abd81a3fadaf jdk7-b128
--- a/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/CommandProcessor.java	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/CommandProcessor.java	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -428,6 +428,36 @@
                 }
             }
         },
+        new Command("symbol", "symbol address", false) {
+            public void doit(Tokens t) {
+                if (t.countTokens() != 1) {
+                    usage();
+                } else {
+                    Address a = VM.getVM().getDebugger().parseAddress(t.nextToken());
+                    Symbol.create(a).printValueOn(out);
+                    out.println();
+                }
+            }
+        },
+        new Command("symboltable", "symboltable name", false) {
+            public void doit(Tokens t) {
+                if (t.countTokens() != 1) {
+                    usage();
+                } else {
+                    out.println(SymbolTable.getTheTable().probe(t.nextToken()));
+                }
+            }
+        },
+        new Command("symboldump", "symboldump", false) {
+            public void doit(Tokens t) {
+                SymbolTable.getTheTable().symbolsDo(new SymbolTable.SymbolVisitor() {
+                        public void visit(Symbol sym) {
+                            sym.printValueOn(out);
+                            out.println();
+                        }
+                    });
+            }
+        },
         new Command("flags", "flags [ flag ]", false) {
             public void doit(Tokens t) {
                 int tokens = t.countTokens();
@@ -629,17 +659,6 @@
                 }
             }
         },
-        new Command("symbol", "symbol name", false) {
-            public void doit(Tokens t) {
-                if (t.countTokens() != 1) {
-                    usage();
-                } else {
-                    String symbol = t.nextToken();
-                    Address a = lookup(symbol);
-                    out.println(symbol + " = " + a);
-                }
-            }
-        },
         new Command("printstatics", "printstatics [ type ]", false) {
             public void doit(Tokens t) {
                 if (t.countTokens() > 1) {
@@ -1262,6 +1281,9 @@
         this.err = err;
         for (int i = 0; i < commandList.length; i++) {
             Command c = commandList[i];
+            if (commands.get(c.name) != null) {
+                throw new InternalError(c.name + " has multiple definitions");
+            }
             commands.put(c.name, c);
         }
         if (debugger.isAttached()) {
--- a/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/HotSpotTypeDataBase.java	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/HotSpotTypeDataBase.java	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -89,6 +89,37 @@
     readVMLongConstants();
   }
 
+  public Type lookupType(String cTypeName, boolean throwException) {
+    Type fieldType = super.lookupType(cTypeName, false);
+    if (fieldType == null && cTypeName.startsWith("const ")) {
+      fieldType = (BasicType)lookupType(cTypeName.substring(6), false);
+    }
+    if (fieldType == null && cTypeName.endsWith(" const")) {
+        fieldType = (BasicType)lookupType(cTypeName.substring(0, cTypeName.length() - 6), false);
+    }
+    if (fieldType == null) {
+      if (cTypeName.startsWith("GrowableArray<") && cTypeName.endsWith(">*")) {
+        String ttype = cTypeName.substring("GrowableArray<".length(),
+                                            cTypeName.length() - 2);
+        Type templateType = lookupType(ttype, false);
+        if (templateType == null && typeNameIsPointerType(ttype)) {
+          templateType = recursiveCreateBasicPointerType(ttype);
+        }
+        if (templateType == null) {
+          lookupOrFail(ttype);
+        }
+        fieldType = recursiveCreateBasicPointerType(cTypeName);
+      }
+    }
+    if (fieldType == null && typeNameIsPointerType(cTypeName)) {
+      fieldType = recursiveCreateBasicPointerType(cTypeName);
+    }
+    if (fieldType == null && throwException) {
+      super.lookupType(cTypeName, true);
+    }
+    return fieldType;
+  }
+
   private void readVMTypes() {
     // Get the variables we need in order to traverse the VMTypeEntry[]
     long typeEntryTypeNameOffset;
@@ -250,7 +281,7 @@
         BasicType containingType = lookupOrFail(typeName);
 
         // The field's Type must already be in the database -- no exceptions
-        BasicType fieldType = lookupOrFail(typeString);
+        BasicType fieldType = (BasicType)lookupType(typeString);
 
         // Create field by type
         createField(containingType, fieldName, fieldType,
@@ -442,10 +473,17 @@
       workarounds due to incomplete information in the VMStructs
       database. */
   private BasicPointerType recursiveCreateBasicPointerType(String typeName) {
+    BasicPointerType result = (BasicPointerType)super.lookupType(typeName, false);
+    if (result != null) {
+      return result;
+    }
     String targetTypeName = typeName.substring(0, typeName.lastIndexOf('*')).trim();
     Type targetType = null;
     if (typeNameIsPointerType(targetTypeName)) {
-      targetType = recursiveCreateBasicPointerType(targetTypeName);
+      targetType = lookupType(targetTypeName, false);
+      if (targetType == null) {
+        targetType = recursiveCreateBasicPointerType(targetTypeName);
+      }
     } else {
       targetType = lookupType(targetTypeName, false);
       if (targetType == null) {
@@ -466,6 +504,20 @@
           BasicType basicTargetType = createBasicType(targetTypeName, false, true, true);
           basicTargetType.setSize(1);
           targetType = basicTargetType;
+        } else if (targetTypeName.startsWith("GrowableArray<")) {
+          BasicType basicTargetType = createBasicType(targetTypeName, false, false, false);
+
+          // transfer fields from GenericGrowableArray to template instance
+          BasicType generic = lookupOrFail("GenericGrowableArray");
+          basicTargetType.setSize(generic.getSize());
+          Iterator fields = generic.getFields();
+          while (fields.hasNext()) {
+              Field f = (Field)fields.next();
+              basicTargetType.addField(internalCreateField(basicTargetType, f.getName(),
+                                                           f.getType(), f.isStatic(),
+                                                           f.getOffset(), null));
+          }
+          targetType = basicTargetType;
         } else {
           if (DEBUG) {
             System.err.println("WARNING: missing target type \"" + targetTypeName + "\" for pointer type \"" + typeName + "\"");
@@ -474,7 +526,10 @@
         }
       }
     }
-    return new BasicPointerType(this, typeName, targetType);
+    result = new BasicPointerType(this, typeName, targetType);
+    result.setSize(UNINITIALIZED_SIZE);
+    addType(result);
+    return result;
   }
 
   private boolean typeNameIsPointerType(String typeName) {
--- a/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/interpreter/BytecodeLoadConstant.java	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/interpreter/BytecodeLoadConstant.java	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -112,7 +112,7 @@
   }
 
   // return Symbol (if unresolved) or Klass (if resolved)
-  public Oop getKlass() {
+  public Object getKlass() {
     if (Assert.ASSERTS_ENABLED) {
       Assert.that(isKlassConstant(), "not a klass literal");
     }
@@ -121,11 +121,11 @@
     // decide based on the oop type.
     ConstantPool cpool = method().getConstants();
     int cpIndex = index();
-    Oop oop = cpool.getObjAt(cpIndex);
-    if (oop.isKlass()) {
-       return (Klass) oop;
-    } else if (oop.isSymbol()) {
-       return (Symbol) oop;
+    ConstantPool.CPSlot oop = cpool.getSlotAt(cpIndex);
+    if (oop.isOop()) {
+      return (Klass) oop.getOop();
+    } else if (oop.isMetaData()) {
+      return oop.getSymbol();
     } else {
        throw new RuntimeException("should not reach here");
     }
@@ -165,12 +165,12 @@
        // tag change from 'unresolved' to 'string' does not happen atomically.
        // We just look at the object at the corresponding index and
        // decide based on the oop type.
-       Oop obj = cpool.getObjAt(cpIndex);
-       if (obj.isSymbol()) {
-          Symbol sym = (Symbol) obj;
-          return "<String \"" + sym.asString() + "\">";
-       } else if (obj.isInstance()) {
-          return "<String \"" + OopUtilities.stringOopToString(obj) + "\">";
+       ConstantPool.CPSlot obj = cpool.getSlotAt(cpIndex);
+       if (obj.isMetaData()) {
+         Symbol sym = obj.getSymbol();
+         return "<String \"" + sym.asString() + "\">";
+       } else if (obj.isOop()) {
+         return "<String \"" + OopUtilities.stringOopToString(obj.getOop()) + "\">";
        } else {
           throw new RuntimeException("should not reach here");
        }
@@ -178,13 +178,13 @@
        // tag change from 'unresolved' to 'klass' does not happen atomically.
        // We just look at the object at the corresponding index and
        // decide based on the oop type.
-       Oop obj = cpool.getObjAt(cpIndex);
-       if (obj.isKlass()) {
-          Klass k = (Klass) obj;
-          return "<Class " + k.getName().asString() + "@" + k.getHandle() + ">";
-       } else if (obj.isSymbol()) {
-          Symbol sym = (Symbol) obj;
-          return "<Class " + sym.asString() + ">";
+       ConstantPool.CPSlot obj = cpool.getSlotAt(cpIndex);
+       if (obj.isOop()) {
+         Klass k = (Klass) obj.getOop();
+         return "<Class " + k.getName().asString() + "@" + k.getHandle() + ">";
+       } else if (obj.isMetaData()) {
+         Symbol sym = obj.getSymbol();
+         return "<Class " + sym.asString() + ">";
        } else {
           throw new RuntimeException("should not reach here");
        }
--- a/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/interpreter/BytecodeWithKlass.java	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/interpreter/BytecodeWithKlass.java	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -37,11 +37,11 @@
   }
 
   public Symbol getClassName() {
-    Oop obj = method().getConstants().getObjAt(index());
-    if (obj instanceof Symbol) {
-       return (Symbol)obj;
+    ConstantPool.CPSlot obj = method().getConstants().getSlotAt(index());
+    if (obj.isMetaData()) {
+      return obj.getSymbol();
     } else {
-       return ((Klass)obj).getName();
+      return ((Klass)obj.getOop()).getName();
     }
   }
 
--- a/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/memory/DictionaryEntry.java	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/memory/DictionaryEntry.java	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -63,7 +63,7 @@
   }
 
   public Klass klass() {
-    return (Klass) literal();
+    return (Klass)VM.getVM().getObjectHeap().newOop(literalValue().addOffsetToAsOopHandle(0));
   }
 
   public DictionaryEntry(Address addr) {
--- a/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/memory/LoaderConstraintEntry.java	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/memory/LoaderConstraintEntry.java	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -42,14 +42,14 @@
 
   private static synchronized void initialize(TypeDataBase db) {
     Type type = db.lookupType("LoaderConstraintEntry");
-    nameField = type.getOopField("_name");
+    nameField = type.getAddressField("_name");
     numLoadersField = type.getCIntegerField("_num_loaders");
     maxLoadersField = type.getCIntegerField("_max_loaders");
     loadersField = type.getAddressField("_loaders");
   }
 
   // Fields
-  private static sun.jvm.hotspot.types.OopField nameField;
+  private static AddressField nameField;
   private static CIntegerField numLoadersField;
   private static CIntegerField maxLoadersField;
   private static AddressField loadersField;
@@ -57,7 +57,7 @@
   // Accessors
 
   public Symbol name() {
-    return (Symbol) VM.getVM().getObjectHeap().newOop(nameField.getValue(addr));
+    return Symbol.create(nameField.getValue(addr));
   }
 
   public int numLoaders() {
--- a/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/memory/PlaceholderEntry.java	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/memory/PlaceholderEntry.java	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -58,7 +58,7 @@
   }
 
   public Symbol klass() {
-    return (Symbol) literal();
+    return Symbol.create(literalValue());
   }
 
   /* covariant return type :-(
--- a/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/memory/StringTable.java	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/memory/StringTable.java	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -70,11 +70,13 @@
   }
 
   public void stringsDo(StringVisitor visitor) {
+    ObjectHeap oh = VM.getVM().getObjectHeap();
     int numBuckets = tableSize();
     for (int i = 0; i < numBuckets; i++) {
       for (HashtableEntry e = (HashtableEntry) bucket(i); e != null;
            e = (HashtableEntry) e.next()) {
-        visitor.visit((Instance) e.literal());
+        Instance s = (Instance)oh.newOop(e.literalValue().addOffsetToAsOopHandle(0));
+        visitor.visit(s);
       }
     }
   }
--- a/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/memory/SymbolTable.java	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/memory/SymbolTable.java	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -85,7 +85,7 @@
     long hashValue = hashSymbol(name);
     for (HashtableEntry e = (HashtableEntry) bucket(hashToIndex(hashValue)); e != null; e = (HashtableEntry) e.next()) {
       if (e.hash() == hashValue) {
-         Symbol sym = (Symbol) e.literal();
+         Symbol sym = Symbol.create(e.literalValue());
          if (sym.equals(name)) {
            return sym;
          }
@@ -103,7 +103,7 @@
     for (int i = 0; i < numBuckets; i++) {
       for (HashtableEntry e = (HashtableEntry) bucket(i); e != null;
            e = (HashtableEntry) e.next()) {
-        visitor.visit((Symbol) e.literal());
+        visitor.visit(Symbol.create(e.literalValue()));
       }
     }
   }
--- a/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/oops/ConstantPool.java	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/oops/ConstantPool.java	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -35,6 +35,38 @@
 // as described in the class file
 
 public class ConstantPool extends Oop implements ClassConstants {
+
+  public class CPSlot {
+    private Address ptr;
+
+    CPSlot(Address ptr) {
+      this.ptr = ptr;
+    }
+    CPSlot(Symbol sym) {
+      this.ptr = sym.getAddress().orWithMask(1);
+    }
+
+    public boolean isOop() {
+      return (ptr.minus(null) & 1) == 0;
+    }
+    public boolean isMetaData() {
+      return (ptr.minus(null) & 1) == 1;
+    }
+
+    public Symbol getSymbol() {
+      if (isMetaData()) {
+        return Symbol.create(ptr.xorWithMask(1));
+      }
+      throw new InternalError("not a symbol");
+    }
+    public Oop getOop() {
+      if (isOop()) {
+        return VM.getVM().getObjectHeap().newOop(ptr.addOffsetToAsOopHandle(0));
+      }
+      throw new InternalError("not an oop");
+    }
+  }
+
   // Used for debugging this code
   private static final boolean DEBUG = false;
 
@@ -110,12 +142,17 @@
     return new ConstantTag(getTags().getByteAt((int) index));
   }
 
-  public Oop getObjAt(long index){
+  public CPSlot getSlotAt(long index) {
+    return new CPSlot(getHandle().getAddressAt(indexOffset(index)));
+  }
+
+  public Oop getObjAtRaw(long index){
     return getHeap().newOop(getHandle().getOopHandleAt(indexOffset(index)));
   }
 
   public Symbol getSymbolAt(long index) {
-    return (Symbol) getObjAt(index);
+    CPSlot slot = getSlotAt(index);
+    return slot.getSymbol();
   }
 
   public int getIntAt(long index){
@@ -187,7 +224,7 @@
   // returns null, if not resolved.
   public Klass getKlassRefAt(int which) {
     if( ! getTagAt(which).isKlass()) return null;
-    return (Klass) getObjAt(which);
+    return (Klass) getObjAtRaw(which);
   }
 
   // returns null, if not resolved.
@@ -477,7 +514,7 @@
               case JVM_CONSTANT_Class: {
                   dos.writeByte(cpConstType);
                   // Klass already resolved. ConstantPool constains klassOop.
-                  Klass refKls = (Klass) getObjAt(ci);
+                  Klass refKls = (Klass) getObjAtRaw(ci);
                   String klassName = refKls.getName().asString();
                   Short s = (Short) utf8ToIndex.get(klassName);
                   dos.writeShort(s.shortValue());
@@ -498,7 +535,7 @@
 
               case JVM_CONSTANT_String: {
                   dos.writeByte(cpConstType);
-                  String str = OopUtilities.stringOopToString(getObjAt(ci));
+                  String str = OopUtilities.stringOopToString(getObjAtRaw(ci));
                   Short s = (Short) utf8ToIndex.get(str);
                   dos.writeShort(s.shortValue());
                   if (DEBUG) debugMessage("CP[" + ci + "] = string " + s);
--- a/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/oops/GenerateOopMap.java	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/oops/GenerateOopMap.java	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -576,7 +576,7 @@
           ConstantPool cp       = method().getConstants();
           int nameAndTypeIdx    = cp.name_and_type_ref_index_at(idx);
           int signatureIdx      = cp.signature_ref_index_at(nameAndTypeIdx);
-          symbolOop signature   = cp.symbol_at(signatureIdx);
+          Symbol* signature     = cp.symbol_at(signatureIdx);
           tty.print("%s", signature.as_C_string());
         */
       }
@@ -616,7 +616,7 @@
           constantPoolOop cp    = method().constants();
           int nameAndTypeIdx    = cp.name_and_type_ref_index_at(idx);
           int signatureIdx      = cp.signature_ref_index_at(nameAndTypeIdx);
-          symbolOop signature   = cp.symbol_at(signatureIdx);
+          Symbol* signature     = cp.symbol_at(signatureIdx);
           tty.print("%s", signature.as_C_string());
         */
       }
--- a/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/oops/InstanceKlass.java	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/oops/InstanceKlass.java	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -82,8 +82,8 @@
     classLoader          = new OopField(type.getOopField("_class_loader"), Oop.getHeaderSize());
     protectionDomain     = new OopField(type.getOopField("_protection_domain"), Oop.getHeaderSize());
     signers              = new OopField(type.getOopField("_signers"), Oop.getHeaderSize());
-    sourceFileName       = new OopField(type.getOopField("_source_file_name"), Oop.getHeaderSize());
-    sourceDebugExtension = new OopField(type.getOopField("_source_debug_extension"), Oop.getHeaderSize());
+    sourceFileName       = type.getAddressField("_source_file_name");
+    sourceDebugExtension = type.getAddressField("_source_debug_extension");
     innerClasses         = new OopField(type.getOopField("_inner_classes"), Oop.getHeaderSize());
     nonstaticFieldSize   = new CIntField(type.getCIntegerField("_nonstatic_field_size"), Oop.getHeaderSize());
     staticFieldSize      = new CIntField(type.getCIntegerField("_static_field_size"), Oop.getHeaderSize());
@@ -94,7 +94,7 @@
     vtableLen            = new CIntField(type.getCIntegerField("_vtable_len"), Oop.getHeaderSize());
     itableLen            = new CIntField(type.getCIntegerField("_itable_len"), Oop.getHeaderSize());
     breakpoints          = type.getAddressField("_breakpoints");
-    genericSignature     = new OopField(type.getOopField("_generic_signature"), Oop.getHeaderSize());
+    genericSignature     = type.getAddressField("_generic_signature");
     majorVersion         = new CIntField(type.getCIntegerField("_major_version"), Oop.getHeaderSize());
     minorVersion         = new CIntField(type.getCIntegerField("_minor_version"), Oop.getHeaderSize());
     headerSize           = alignObjectOffset(Oop.getHeaderSize() + type.getSize());
@@ -135,8 +135,8 @@
   private static OopField  classLoader;
   private static OopField  protectionDomain;
   private static OopField  signers;
-  private static OopField  sourceFileName;
-  private static OopField  sourceDebugExtension;
+  private static AddressField  sourceFileName;
+  private static AddressField  sourceDebugExtension;
   private static OopField  innerClasses;
   private static CIntField nonstaticFieldSize;
   private static CIntField staticFieldSize;
@@ -147,7 +147,7 @@
   private static CIntField vtableLen;
   private static CIntField itableLen;
   private static AddressField breakpoints;
-  private static OopField  genericSignature;
+  private static AddressField  genericSignature;
   private static CIntField majorVersion;
   private static CIntField minorVersion;
 
@@ -257,8 +257,8 @@
   public Oop       getClassLoader()         { return                classLoader.getValue(this); }
   public Oop       getProtectionDomain()    { return                protectionDomain.getValue(this); }
   public ObjArray  getSigners()             { return (ObjArray)     signers.getValue(this); }
-  public Symbol    getSourceFileName()      { return (Symbol)       sourceFileName.getValue(this); }
-  public Symbol    getSourceDebugExtension(){ return (Symbol)       sourceDebugExtension.getValue(this); }
+  public Symbol    getSourceFileName()      { return getSymbol(sourceFileName); }
+  public Symbol    getSourceDebugExtension(){ return getSymbol(sourceDebugExtension); }
   public TypeArray getInnerClasses()        { return (TypeArray)    innerClasses.getValue(this); }
   public long      getNonstaticFieldSize()  { return                nonstaticFieldSize.getValue(this); }
   public long      getStaticFieldSize()     { return                staticFieldSize.getValue(this); }
@@ -267,7 +267,7 @@
   public boolean   getIsMarkedDependent()   { return                isMarkedDependent.getValue(this) != 0; }
   public long      getVtableLen()           { return                vtableLen.getValue(this); }
   public long      getItableLen()           { return                itableLen.getValue(this); }
-  public Symbol    getGenericSignature()    { return (Symbol)       genericSignature.getValue(this); }
+  public Symbol    getGenericSignature()    { return getSymbol(genericSignature); }
   public long      majorVersion()           { return                majorVersion.getValue(this); }
   public long      minorVersion()           { return                minorVersion.getValue(this); }
 
@@ -308,12 +308,12 @@
           if (ioff != 0) {
              // only look at classes that are already loaded
              // since we are looking for the flags for our self.
-             Oop classInfo = getConstants().getObjAt(ioff);
+             ConstantPool.CPSlot classInfo = getConstants().getSlotAt(ioff);
              Symbol name = null;
-             if (classInfo instanceof Klass) {
-                name = ((Klass) classInfo).getName();
-             } else if (classInfo instanceof Symbol) {
-                name = (Symbol) classInfo;
+             if (classInfo.isOop()) {
+               name = ((Klass) classInfo.getOop()).getName();
+             } else if (classInfo.isMetaData()) {
+               name = classInfo.getSymbol();
              } else {
                 throw new RuntimeException("should not reach here");
              }
@@ -358,12 +358,12 @@
          // 'ioff' can be zero.
          // refer to JVM spec. section 4.7.5.
          if (ioff != 0) {
-            Oop iclassInfo = getConstants().getObjAt(ioff);
+            ConstantPool.CPSlot iclassInfo = getConstants().getSlotAt(ioff);
             Symbol innerName = null;
-            if (iclassInfo instanceof Klass) {
-               innerName = ((Klass) iclassInfo).getName();
-            } else if (iclassInfo instanceof Symbol) {
-               innerName = (Symbol) iclassInfo;
+            if (iclassInfo.isOop()) {
+              innerName = ((Klass) iclassInfo.getOop()).getName();
+            } else if (iclassInfo.isMetaData()) {
+              innerName = iclassInfo.getSymbol();
             } else {
                throw new RuntimeException("should not reach here");
             }
@@ -387,12 +387,12 @@
                   }
                }
             } else {
-               Oop oclassInfo = getConstants().getObjAt(ooff);
+               ConstantPool.CPSlot oclassInfo = getConstants().getSlotAt(ooff);
                Symbol outerName = null;
-               if (oclassInfo instanceof Klass) {
-                  outerName = ((Klass) oclassInfo).getName();
-               } else if (oclassInfo instanceof Symbol) {
-                  outerName = (Symbol) oclassInfo;
+               if (oclassInfo.isOop()) {
+                 outerName = ((Klass) oclassInfo.getOop()).getName();
+               } else if (oclassInfo.isMetaData()) {
+                 outerName = oclassInfo.getSymbol();
                } else {
                   throw new RuntimeException("should not reach here");
                }
@@ -450,7 +450,6 @@
       visitor.doOop(classLoader, true);
       visitor.doOop(protectionDomain, true);
       visitor.doOop(signers, true);
-      visitor.doOop(sourceFileName, true);
       visitor.doOop(innerClasses, true);
       visitor.doCInt(nonstaticFieldSize, true);
       visitor.doCInt(staticFieldSize, true);
@@ -467,7 +466,7 @@
     for (int index = 0; index < length; index += NEXT_OFFSET) {
       short accessFlags    = fields.getShortAt(index + ACCESS_FLAGS_OFFSET);
       short signatureIndex = fields.getShortAt(index + SIGNATURE_INDEX_OFFSET);
-      FieldType   type   = new FieldType((Symbol) getConstants().getObjAt(signatureIndex));
+      FieldType   type   = new FieldType(getConstants().getSymbolAt(signatureIndex));
       AccessFlags access = new AccessFlags(accessFlags);
       if (access.isStatic()) {
         visitField(visitor, type, index);
@@ -490,7 +489,7 @@
       short accessFlags    = fields.getShortAt(index + ACCESS_FLAGS_OFFSET);
       short signatureIndex = fields.getShortAt(index + SIGNATURE_INDEX_OFFSET);
 
-      FieldType   type   = new FieldType((Symbol) getConstants().getObjAt(signatureIndex));
+      FieldType   type   = new FieldType(getConstants().getSymbolAt(signatureIndex));
       AccessFlags access = new AccessFlags(accessFlags);
       if (!access.isStatic()) {
         visitField(visitor, type, index);
@@ -787,7 +786,7 @@
   private Field newField(int index) {
     TypeArray fields = getFields();
     short signatureIndex = fields.getShortAt(index + SIGNATURE_INDEX_OFFSET);
-    FieldType type = new FieldType((Symbol) getConstants().getObjAt(signatureIndex));
+    FieldType type = new FieldType(getConstants().getSymbolAt(signatureIndex));
     if (type.isOop()) {
      if (VM.getVM().isCompressedOopsEnabled()) {
         return new NarrowOopField(this, index);
--- a/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/oops/Klass.java	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/oops/Klass.java	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -53,7 +53,7 @@
     javaMirror   = new OopField(type.getOopField("_java_mirror"), Oop.getHeaderSize());
     superField   = new OopField(type.getOopField("_super"), Oop.getHeaderSize());
     layoutHelper = new IntField(type.getJIntField("_layout_helper"), Oop.getHeaderSize());
-    name         = new OopField(type.getOopField("_name"), Oop.getHeaderSize());
+    name         = type.getAddressField("_name");
     accessFlags  = new CIntField(type.getCIntegerField("_access_flags"), Oop.getHeaderSize());
     subklass     = new OopField(type.getOopField("_subklass"), Oop.getHeaderSize());
     nextSibling  = new OopField(type.getOopField("_next_sibling"), Oop.getHeaderSize());
@@ -83,18 +83,26 @@
   private static OopField  javaMirror;
   private static OopField  superField;
   private static IntField layoutHelper;
-  private static OopField  name;
+  private static AddressField  name;
   private static CIntField accessFlags;
   private static OopField  subklass;
   private static OopField  nextSibling;
   private static CIntField allocCount;
 
+  private Address getValue(AddressField field) {
+    return getHandle().getAddressAt(field.getOffset() + Oop.getHeaderSize());
+  }
+
+  protected Symbol getSymbol(AddressField field) {
+    return Symbol.create(getHandle().getAddressAt(field.getOffset() + Oop.getHeaderSize()));
+  }
+
   // Accessors for declared fields
   public Instance getJavaMirror()       { return (Instance) javaMirror.getValue(this);   }
   public Klass    getSuper()            { return (Klass)    superField.getValue(this);   }
   public Klass    getJavaSuper()        { return null;  }
   public int      getLayoutHelper()     { return (int)           layoutHelper.getValue(this); }
-  public Symbol   getName()             { return (Symbol)   name.getValue(this);         }
+  public Symbol   getName()             { return getSymbol(name); }
   public long     getAccessFlags()      { return            accessFlags.getValue(this);  }
   // Convenience routine
   public AccessFlags getAccessFlagsObj(){ return new AccessFlags(getAccessFlags());      }
@@ -162,7 +170,7 @@
       visitor.doOop(javaMirror, true);
       visitor.doOop(superField, true);
       visitor.doInt(layoutHelper, true);
-      visitor.doOop(name, true);
+      // visitor.doOop(name, true);
       visitor.doCInt(accessFlags, true);
       visitor.doOop(subklass, true);
       visitor.doOop(nextSibling, true);
--- a/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/oops/Method.java	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/oops/Method.java	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -196,11 +196,11 @@
   public Address      getFromCompiledCodeEntryPoint() { return fromCompiledCodeEntryPointField.getValue(this); }
   */
   // Accessors
-  public Symbol  getName()          { return (Symbol) getConstants().getObjAt(getNameIndex());         }
-  public Symbol  getSignature()     { return (Symbol) getConstants().getObjAt(getSignatureIndex());    }
+  public Symbol  getName()          { return getConstants().getSymbolAt(getNameIndex());         }
+  public Symbol  getSignature()     { return getConstants().getSymbolAt(getSignatureIndex());    }
   public Symbol  getGenericSignature() {
      long index = getGenericSignatureIndex();
-     return (index != 0L) ? (Symbol) getConstants().getObjAt(index) : null;
+     return (index != 0L) ? getConstants().getSymbolAt(index) : null;
   }
 
   // Method holder (the Klass holding this method)
--- a/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/oops/ObjectHeap.java	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/oops/ObjectHeap.java	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -47,7 +47,6 @@
     DEBUG = System.getProperty("sun.jvm.hotspot.oops.ObjectHeap.DEBUG") != null;
   }
 
-  private OopHandle              symbolKlassHandle;
   private OopHandle              methodKlassHandle;
   private OopHandle              constMethodKlassHandle;
   private OopHandle              methodDataKlassHandle;
@@ -68,7 +67,6 @@
   private OopHandle              arrayKlassKlassHandle;
   private OopHandle              compiledICHolderKlassHandle;
 
-  private SymbolKlass            symbolKlassObj;
   private MethodKlass            methodKlassObj;
   private ConstMethodKlass       constMethodKlassObj;
   private MethodDataKlass        methodDataKlassObj;
@@ -93,9 +91,6 @@
     // Lookup the roots in the object hierarchy.
     Type universeType = db.lookupType("Universe");
 
-    symbolKlassHandle         = universeType.getOopField("_symbolKlassObj").getValue();
-    symbolKlassObj            = new SymbolKlass(symbolKlassHandle, this);
-
     methodKlassHandle         = universeType.getOopField("_methodKlassObj").getValue();
     methodKlassObj            = new MethodKlass(methodKlassHandle, this);
 
@@ -199,7 +194,6 @@
   public long getDoubleSize()  { return doubleSize;  }
 
   // Accessors for well-known system classes (from Universe)
-  public SymbolKlass            getSymbolKlassObj()            { return symbolKlassObj; }
   public MethodKlass            getMethodKlassObj()            { return methodKlassObj; }
   public ConstMethodKlass       getConstMethodKlassObj()       { return constMethodKlassObj; }
   public MethodDataKlass        getMethodDataKlassObj()        { return methodDataKlassObj; }
@@ -337,7 +331,6 @@
     // First check if handle is one of the root objects
     if (handle.equals(methodKlassHandle))              return getMethodKlassObj();
     if (handle.equals(constMethodKlassHandle))         return getConstMethodKlassObj();
-    if (handle.equals(symbolKlassHandle))              return getSymbolKlassObj();
     if (handle.equals(constantPoolKlassHandle))        return getConstantPoolKlassObj();
     if (handle.equals(constantPoolCacheKlassHandle))   return getConstantPoolCacheKlassObj();
     if (handle.equals(instanceKlassKlassHandle))       return getInstanceKlassKlassObj();
@@ -363,7 +356,6 @@
     if (klass != null) {
       if (klass.equals(methodKlassHandle))              return new Method(handle, this);
       if (klass.equals(constMethodKlassHandle))         return new ConstMethod(handle, this);
-      if (klass.equals(symbolKlassHandle))              return new Symbol(handle, this);
       if (klass.equals(constantPoolKlassHandle))        return new ConstantPool(handle, this);
       if (klass.equals(constantPoolCacheKlassHandle))   return new ConstantPoolCache(handle, this);
       if (!VM.getVM().isCore()) {
--- a/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/oops/Symbol.java	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/oops/Symbol.java	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -34,7 +34,7 @@
 // A Symbol is a canonicalized string.
 // All Symbols reside in global symbolTable.
 
-public class Symbol extends Oop {
+public class Symbol extends VMObject {
   static {
     VM.registerVMInitializedObserver(new Observer() {
         public void update(Observable o, Object data) {
@@ -44,9 +44,10 @@
   }
 
   private static synchronized void initialize(TypeDataBase db) throws WrongTypeException {
-    Type type  = db.lookupType("symbolOopDesc");
-    length     = new CIntField(type.getCIntegerField("_length"), 0);
+    Type type  = db.lookupType("Symbol");
+    length     = type.getCIntegerField("_length");
     baseOffset = type.getField("_body").getOffset();
+    idHash = type.getCIntegerField("_identity_hash");
   }
 
   // Format:
@@ -55,8 +56,15 @@
   //   [length] byte size of uft8 string
   //   ..body..
 
-  Symbol(OopHandle handle, ObjectHeap heap) {
-    super(handle, heap);
+  public static Symbol create(Address addr) {
+    if (addr == null) {
+      return null;
+    }
+    return new Symbol(addr);
+  }
+
+  Symbol(Address addr) {
+    super(addr);
   }
 
   public boolean isSymbol()            { return true; }
@@ -64,15 +72,19 @@
   private static long baseOffset; // tells where the array part starts
 
   // Fields
-  private static CIntField length;
+  private static CIntegerField length;
 
   // Accessors for declared fields
-  public long   getLength() { return          length.getValue(this); }
+  public long   getLength() { return          length.getValue(this.addr); }
 
   public byte getByteAt(long index) {
-    return getHandle().getJByteAt(baseOffset + index);
+    return addr.getJByteAt(baseOffset + index);
   }
 
+  private static CIntegerField idHash;
+
+  public int identityHash() { return     (int)idHash.getValue(this.addr); }
+
   public boolean equals(byte[] modUTF8Chars) {
     int l = (int) getLength();
     if (l != modUTF8Chars.length) return false;
@@ -98,7 +110,9 @@
     // Decode the byte array and return the string.
     try {
       return readModifiedUTF8(asByteArray());
-    } catch(IOException e) {
+    } catch(Exception e) {
+      System.err.println(addr);
+      e.printStackTrace();
       return null;
     }
   }
@@ -111,28 +125,13 @@
     tty.print("#" + asString());
   }
 
-  public long getObjectSize() {
-    return alignObjectSize(baseOffset + getLength());
-  }
-
-  void iterateFields(OopVisitor visitor, boolean doVMFields) {
-    super.iterateFields(visitor, doVMFields);
-    if (doVMFields) {
-      visitor.doCInt(length, true);
-      int length = (int) getLength();
-      for (int index = 0; index < length; index++) {
-        visitor.doByte(new ByteField(new IndexableFieldIdentifier(index), baseOffset + index, false), true);
-      }
-    }
-  }
-
   /** Note: this comparison is used for vtable sorting only; it
       doesn't matter what order it defines, as long as it is a total,
-      time-invariant order Since symbolOops are in permSpace, their
+      time-invariant order Since Symbol* are in C_HEAP, their
       relative order in memory never changes, so use address
       comparison for speed. */
   public int fastCompare(Symbol other) {
-    return (int) getHandle().minus(other.getHandle());
+    return (int) addr.minus(other.addr);
   }
 
   private static String readModifiedUTF8(byte[] buf) throws IOException {
--- a/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/oops/SymbolKlass.java	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,60 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Copyright (c) 2000, 2001, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
- * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
- *
- * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
- * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
- * published by the Free Software Foundation.
- *
- * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
- * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
- * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
- * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
- * accompanied this code).
- *
- * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
- * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
- * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
- *
- * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
- * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
- * questions.
- *
- */
-
-package sun.jvm.hotspot.oops;
-
-import java.io.*;
-import java.util.*;
-import sun.jvm.hotspot.debugger.*;
-import sun.jvm.hotspot.runtime.*;
-import sun.jvm.hotspot.types.*;
-
-// A SymbolKlass is the klass for all Symbols
-
-public class SymbolKlass extends Klass {
-  static {
-    VM.registerVMInitializedObserver(new Observer() {
-        public void update(Observable o, Object data) {
-          initialize(VM.getVM().getTypeDataBase());
-        }
-      });
-  }
-
-  private static synchronized void initialize(TypeDataBase db) throws WrongTypeException {
-    Type type  = db.lookupType("symbolKlass");
-    headerSize = type.getSize() + Oop.getHeaderSize();
-  }
-
-  SymbolKlass(OopHandle handle, ObjectHeap heap) {
-    super(handle, heap);
-  }
-
-  private static long headerSize;
-
-  public long getObjectSize() { return alignObjectSize(headerSize); }
-
-  public void printValueOn(PrintStream tty) {
-    tty.print("SymbolKlass");
-  }
-}
--- a/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/tools/jcore/ClassWriter.java	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/tools/jcore/ClassWriter.java	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -229,7 +229,7 @@
                 case JVM_CONSTANT_Class: {
                      dos.writeByte(cpConstType);
                      // Klass already resolved. ConstantPool constains klassOop.
-                     Klass refKls = (Klass) cpool.getObjAt(ci);
+                     Klass refKls = (Klass) cpool.getObjAtRaw(ci);
                      String klassName = refKls.getName().asString();
 
                      Short s = (Short) utf8ToIndex.get(klassName);
@@ -255,7 +255,7 @@
 
                 case JVM_CONSTANT_String: {
                      dos.writeByte(cpConstType);
-                     String str = OopUtilities.stringOopToString(cpool.getObjAt(ci));
+                     String str = OopUtilities.stringOopToString(cpool.getObjAtRaw(ci));
                      Short s = (Short) utf8ToIndex.get(str);
                      dos.writeShort(s.shortValue());
                      if (DEBUG) debugMessage("CP[" + ci + "] = string " + s);
--- a/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/types/Field.java	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/types/Field.java	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -56,7 +56,7 @@
     </PRE>
 
     FIXME: among other things, this interface is not sufficient to
-    describe fields which are themselves arrays (like symbolOop's
+    describe fields which are themselves arrays (like Symbol's
     jbyte _body[1]).  */
 public interface Field {
   /** Get the name of this field */
--- a/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/ui/classbrowser/HTMLGenerator.java	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/ui/classbrowser/HTMLGenerator.java	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -530,7 +530,7 @@
 
             case JVM_CONSTANT_Class:
                buf.cell("JVM_CONSTANT_Class");
-               Klass klass = (Klass) cpool.getObjAt(index);
+               Klass klass = (Klass) cpool.getObjAtRaw(index);
                if (klass instanceof InstanceKlass) {
                   buf.cell(genKlassLink((InstanceKlass) klass));
                } else {
@@ -555,7 +555,7 @@
             case JVM_CONSTANT_String:
                buf.cell("JVM_CONSTANT_String");
                buf.cell("\"" +
-                 escapeHTMLSpecialChars(OopUtilities.stringOopToString(cpool.getObjAt(index))) + "\"");
+                 escapeHTMLSpecialChars(OopUtilities.stringOopToString(cpool.getObjAtRaw(index))) + "\"");
                break;
 
             case JVM_CONSTANT_Fieldref:
@@ -672,11 +672,11 @@
             buf.beginTag("ul");
             for (int exp = 0; exp < exceptions.length; exp++) {
                short cpIndex = (short) exceptions[exp].getClassCPIndex();
-               Oop obj = cpool.getObjAt(cpIndex);
-               if (obj instanceof Symbol) {
-                  buf.li(((Symbol)obj).asString().replace('/', '.'));
+               ConstantPool.CPSlot obj = cpool.getSlotAt(cpIndex);
+               if (obj.isMetaData()) {
+                 buf.li((obj.getSymbol()).asString().replace('/', '.'));
                } else {
-                  buf.li(genKlassLink((InstanceKlass)obj));
+                 buf.li(genKlassLink((InstanceKlass)obj.getOop()));
                }
             }
             buf.endTag("ul");
@@ -756,7 +756,7 @@
                              } else if (instr instanceof BytecodeLoadConstant) {
                                 BytecodeLoadConstant ldc = (BytecodeLoadConstant) instr;
                                 if (ldc.isKlassConstant()) {
-                                   Oop oop = ldc.getKlass();
+                                   Object oop = ldc.getKlass();
                                    if (oop instanceof Klass) {
                                       buf.append("<a href='");
                                       buf.append(genKlassHref((InstanceKlass) oop));
@@ -803,13 +803,13 @@
                buf.cell(Integer.toString(exceptionTable.getIntAt(e + 1)));
                buf.cell(Integer.toString(exceptionTable.getIntAt(e + 2)));
                short cpIndex = (short) exceptionTable.getIntAt(e + 3);
-               Oop obj = cpIndex == 0? null : cpool.getObjAt(cpIndex);
+               ConstantPool.CPSlot obj = cpIndex == 0? null : cpool.getSlotAt(cpIndex);
                if (obj == null) {
                   buf.cell("Any");
-               } else if (obj instanceof Symbol) {
-                  buf.cell(((Symbol)obj).asString().replace('/', '.'));
+               } else if (obj.isMetaData()) {
+                 buf.cell(obj.getSymbol().asString().replace('/', '.'));
                } else {
-                  buf.cell(genKlassLink((InstanceKlass)obj));
+                 buf.cell(genKlassLink((InstanceKlass)obj.getOop()));
                }
                buf.endTag("tr");
             }
--- a/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/utilities/Hashtable.java	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/utilities/Hashtable.java	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -40,7 +40,7 @@
 
   private static synchronized void initialize(TypeDataBase db) {
     // just to confirm that type exists
-    Type type = db.lookupType("Hashtable");
+    Type type = db.lookupType("Hashtable<intptr_t>");
   }
 
   // derived class may return Class<? extends HashtableEntry>
--- a/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/utilities/HashtableEntry.java	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/utilities/HashtableEntry.java	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -41,16 +41,16 @@
   }
 
   private static synchronized void initialize(TypeDataBase db) {
-    Type type = db.lookupType("HashtableEntry");
-    literalField   = type.getOopField("_literal");
+    Type type = db.lookupType("HashtableEntry<intptr_t>");
+    literalField   = type.getAddressField("_literal");
   }
 
   // Fields
-  private static OopField      literalField;
+  private static AddressField      literalField;
 
   // Accessors
-  public Oop literal() {
-    return VM.getVM().getObjectHeap().newOop(literalField.getValue(addr));
+  public Address literalValue() {
+    return literalField.getValue(addr);
   }
 
   public HashtableEntry(Address addr) {
--- a/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/utilities/HeapHprofBinWriter.java	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/agent/src/share/classes/sun/jvm/hotspot/utilities/HeapHprofBinWriter.java	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -740,7 +740,7 @@
         for (Iterator itr = fields.iterator(); itr.hasNext();) {
             Field field = (Field) itr.next();
             Symbol name = symTbl.probe(field.getID().getName());
-            writeObjectID(name);
+            writeSymbolID(name);
             char typeCode = (char) field.getSignature().getByteAt(0);
             int kind = signatureToHprofKind(typeCode);
             out.writeByte((byte)kind);
@@ -852,7 +852,7 @@
     private void writeSymbol(Symbol sym) throws IOException {
         byte[] buf = sym.asString().getBytes("UTF-8");
         writeHeader(HPROF_UTF8, buf.length + OBJ_ID_SIZE);
-        writeObjectID(sym);
+        writeSymbolID(sym);
         out.write(buf);
     }
 
@@ -869,7 +869,7 @@
                         out.writeInt(serialNum);
                         writeObjectID(clazz);
                         out.writeInt(DUMMY_STACK_TRACE_ID);
-                        writeObjectID(k.getName());
+                        writeSymbolID(k.getName());
                         serialNum++;
                     } catch (IOException exp) {
                         throw new RuntimeException(exp);
@@ -901,6 +901,10 @@
         writeObjectID(address);
     }
 
+    private void writeSymbolID(Symbol sym) throws IOException {
+        writeObjectID(getAddressValue(sym.getAddress()));
+    }
+
     private void writeObjectID(long address) throws IOException {
         if (OBJ_ID_SIZE == 4) {
             out.writeInt((int) address);
--- a/make/hotspot_version	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/make/hotspot_version	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -33,9 +33,9 @@
 # Don't put quotes (fail windows build).
 HOTSPOT_VM_COPYRIGHT=Copyright 2011
 
-HS_MAJOR_VER=20
+HS_MAJOR_VER=21
 HS_MINOR_VER=0
-HS_BUILD_NUMBER=07
+HS_BUILD_NUMBER=01
 
 JDK_MAJOR_VER=1
 JDK_MINOR_VER=7
--- a/src/cpu/sparc/vm/c1_CodeStubs_sparc.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/cpu/sparc/vm/c1_CodeStubs_sparc.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 1999, 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1999, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -129,27 +129,6 @@
 }
 
 
-// Implementation of ArrayStoreExceptionStub
-
-ArrayStoreExceptionStub::ArrayStoreExceptionStub(CodeEmitInfo* info):
-  _info(info) {
-}
-
-
-void ArrayStoreExceptionStub::emit_code(LIR_Assembler* ce) {
-  __ bind(_entry);
-  __ call(Runtime1::entry_for(Runtime1::throw_array_store_exception_id), relocInfo::runtime_call_type);
-  __ delayed()->nop();
-  ce->add_call_info_here(_info);
-  ce->verify_oop_map(_info);
-#ifdef ASSERT
-  __ should_not_reach_here();
-#endif
-}
-
-
-
-
 // Implementation of NewInstanceStub
 
 NewInstanceStub::NewInstanceStub(LIR_Opr klass_reg, LIR_Opr result, ciInstanceKlass* klass, CodeEmitInfo* info, Runtime1::StubID stub_id) {
--- a/src/cpu/sparc/vm/c1_Runtime1_sparc.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/cpu/sparc/vm/c1_Runtime1_sparc.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -710,7 +710,7 @@
     case throw_array_store_exception_id:
       {
         __ set_info("throw_array_store_exception", dont_gc_arguments);
-        oop_maps = generate_exception_throw(sasm, CAST_FROM_FN_PTR(address, throw_array_store_exception), false);
+        oop_maps = generate_exception_throw(sasm, CAST_FROM_FN_PTR(address, throw_array_store_exception), true);
       }
       break;
 
--- a/src/cpu/sparc/vm/sharedRuntime_sparc.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/cpu/sparc/vm/sharedRuntime_sparc.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -2541,7 +2541,7 @@
     in_sig_bt[i++] = bt;  // Collect remaining bits of signature
     out_sig_bt[total_c_args++] = bt;
     if( bt == T_OBJECT) {
-      symbolOop s = ss.as_symbol_or_null();
+      Symbol* s = ss.as_symbol_or_null();
       if (s == vmSymbols::java_lang_String()) {
         total_strings++;
         out_sig_bt[total_c_args-1] = T_ADDRESS;
--- a/src/cpu/x86/vm/c1_CodeStubs_x86.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/cpu/x86/vm/c1_CodeStubs_x86.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 1999, 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1999, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -411,20 +411,6 @@
 }
 
 
-ArrayStoreExceptionStub::ArrayStoreExceptionStub(CodeEmitInfo* info):
-  _info(info) {
-}
-
-
-void ArrayStoreExceptionStub::emit_code(LIR_Assembler* ce) {
-  assert(__ rsp_offset() == 0, "frame size should be fixed");
-  __ bind(_entry);
-  __ call(RuntimeAddress(Runtime1::entry_for(Runtime1::throw_array_store_exception_id)));
-  ce->add_call_info_here(_info);
-  debug_only(__ should_not_reach_here());
-}
-
-
 void ArrayCopyStub::emit_code(LIR_Assembler* ce) {
   //---------------slow case: call to native-----------------
   __ bind(_entry);
--- a/src/cpu/x86/vm/c1_LIRGenerator_x86.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/cpu/x86/vm/c1_LIRGenerator_x86.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 2005, 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 2005, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -733,8 +733,8 @@
 
   // generate compare-and-swap; produces zero condition if swap occurs
   int value_offset = sun_misc_AtomicLongCSImpl::value_offset();
-  LIR_Opr addr = obj.result();
-  __ add(addr, LIR_OprFact::intConst(value_offset), addr);
+  LIR_Opr addr = new_pointer_register();
+  __ leal(LIR_OprFact::address(new LIR_Address(obj.result(), value_offset, T_LONG)), addr);
   LIR_Opr t1 = LIR_OprFact::illegalOpr;  // no temp needed
   LIR_Opr t2 = LIR_OprFact::illegalOpr;  // no temp needed
   __ cas_long(addr, cmp_value.result(), new_value.result(), t1, t2);
--- a/src/cpu/x86/vm/c1_Runtime1_x86.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/cpu/x86/vm/c1_Runtime1_x86.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -1337,7 +1337,7 @@
       { StubFrame f(sasm, "throw_array_store_exception", dont_gc_arguments);
         // tos + 0: link
         //     + 1: return address
-        oop_maps = generate_exception_throw(sasm, CAST_FROM_FN_PTR(address, throw_array_store_exception), false);
+        oop_maps = generate_exception_throw(sasm, CAST_FROM_FN_PTR(address, throw_array_store_exception), true);
       }
       break;
 
--- a/src/cpu/x86/vm/sharedRuntime_x86_32.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/cpu/x86/vm/sharedRuntime_x86_32.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -1974,7 +1974,7 @@
     in_sig_bt[i++] = bt;  // Collect remaining bits of signature
     out_sig_bt[total_c_args++] = bt;
     if( bt == T_OBJECT) {
-      symbolOop s = ss.as_symbol_or_null();
+      Symbol* s = ss.as_symbol_or_null();   // symbol is created
       if (s == vmSymbols::java_lang_String()) {
         total_strings++;
         out_sig_bt[total_c_args-1] = T_ADDRESS;
--- a/src/cpu/x86/vm/sharedRuntime_x86_64.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/cpu/x86/vm/sharedRuntime_x86_64.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -1980,7 +1980,7 @@
     in_sig_bt[i++] = bt;  // Collect remaining bits of signature
     out_sig_bt[total_c_args++] = bt;
     if( bt == T_OBJECT) {
-      symbolOop s = ss.as_symbol_or_null();
+      Symbol* s = ss.as_symbol_or_null();   // symbol is created
       if (s == vmSymbols::java_lang_String()) {
         total_strings++;
         out_sig_bt[total_c_args-1] = T_ADDRESS;
--- a/src/os/solaris/dtrace/generateJvmOffsets.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/os/solaris/dtrace/generateJvmOffsets.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -49,7 +49,7 @@
 #include "oops/klass.hpp"
 #include "oops/methodOop.hpp"
 #include "oops/oop.hpp"
-#include "oops/symbolOop.hpp"
+#include "oops/symbol.hpp"
 #include "runtime/virtualspace.hpp"
 #include "runtime/vmStructs.hpp"
 #include "utilities/accessFlags.hpp"
@@ -215,8 +215,8 @@
   GEN_VALUE(AccessFlags_NATIVE, JVM_ACC_NATIVE);
   GEN_VALUE(constMethodOopDesc_has_linenumber_table, constMethodOopDesc::_has_linenumber_table);
   GEN_OFFS(AccessFlags, _flags);
-  GEN_OFFS(symbolOopDesc, _length);
-  GEN_OFFS(symbolOopDesc, _body);
+  GEN_OFFS(Symbol, _length);
+  GEN_OFFS(Symbol, _body);
   printf("\n");
 
   GEN_OFFS(methodOopDesc, _constMethod);
--- a/src/os/solaris/dtrace/jhelper.d	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/os/solaris/dtrace/jhelper.d	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -114,8 +114,8 @@
   copyin_offset(OFFSET_HeapBlockHeader_used);
   copyin_offset(OFFSET_oopDesc_metadata);
 
-  copyin_offset(OFFSET_symbolOopDesc_length);
-  copyin_offset(OFFSET_symbolOopDesc_body);
+  copyin_offset(OFFSET_Symbol_length);
+  copyin_offset(OFFSET_Symbol_body);
 
   copyin_offset(OFFSET_methodOopDesc_constMethod);
   copyin_offset(OFFSET_methodOopDesc_constants);
@@ -366,13 +366,13 @@
       this->nameIndex * sizeof (pointer) + SIZE_constantPoolOopDesc);
 
   this->nameSymbolLength = copyin_uint16(this->nameSymbol +
-      OFFSET_symbolOopDesc_length);
+      OFFSET_Symbol_length);
 
   this->signatureSymbol = copyin_ptr(this->constantPool +
       this->signatureIndex * sizeof (pointer) + SIZE_constantPoolOopDesc);
 
   this->signatureSymbolLength = copyin_uint16(this->signatureSymbol +
-      OFFSET_symbolOopDesc_length);
+      OFFSET_Symbol_length);
 
   this->klassPtr = copyin_ptr(this->constantPool +
       OFFSET_constantPoolOopDesc_pool_holder);
@@ -381,7 +381,7 @@
       OFFSET_Klass_name + SIZE_oopDesc);
 
   this->klassSymbolLength = copyin_uint16(this->klassSymbol +
-      OFFSET_symbolOopDesc_length);
+      OFFSET_Symbol_length);
 
   /*
    * Enough for three strings, plus the '.', plus the trailing '\0'.
@@ -390,7 +390,7 @@
       this->nameSymbolLength +
       this->signatureSymbolLength + 2 + 1);
 
-  copyinto(this->klassSymbol + OFFSET_symbolOopDesc_body,
+  copyinto(this->klassSymbol + OFFSET_Symbol_body,
       this->klassSymbolLength, this->result);
 
   /*
@@ -398,11 +398,11 @@
    */
   this->result[this->klassSymbolLength] = '.';
 
-  copyinto(this->nameSymbol + OFFSET_symbolOopDesc_body,
+  copyinto(this->nameSymbol + OFFSET_Symbol_body,
       this->nameSymbolLength,
       this->result + this->klassSymbolLength + 1);
 
-  copyinto(this->signatureSymbol + OFFSET_symbolOopDesc_body,
+  copyinto(this->signatureSymbol + OFFSET_Symbol_body,
       this->signatureSymbolLength,
       this->result + this->klassSymbolLength +
       this->nameSymbolLength + 1);
--- a/src/os/solaris/dtrace/libjvm_db.c	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/os/solaris/dtrace/libjvm_db.c	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -524,10 +524,10 @@
   CHECK_FAIL(err);
   err = read_pointer(J, constantPool + nameIndex * POINTER_SIZE + SIZE_constantPoolOopDesc, &nameSymbol);
   CHECK_FAIL(err);
-  err = ps_pread(J->P, nameSymbol + OFFSET_symbolOopDesc_length, &nameSymbolLength, 2);
+  err = ps_pread(J->P, nameSymbol + OFFSET_Symbol_length, &nameSymbolLength, 2);
   CHECK_FAIL(err);
   nameString = (char*)calloc(nameSymbolLength + 1, 1);
-  err = ps_pread(J->P, nameSymbol + OFFSET_symbolOopDesc_body, nameString, nameSymbolLength);
+  err = ps_pread(J->P, nameSymbol + OFFSET_Symbol_body, nameString, nameSymbolLength);
   CHECK_FAIL(err);
 
   /* To get signature string */
@@ -535,10 +535,10 @@
   CHECK_FAIL(err);
   err = read_pointer(J, constantPool + signatureIndex * POINTER_SIZE + SIZE_constantPoolOopDesc, &signatureSymbol);
   CHECK_FAIL(err);
-  err = ps_pread(J->P, signatureSymbol + OFFSET_symbolOopDesc_length, &signatureSymbolLength, 2);
+  err = ps_pread(J->P, signatureSymbol + OFFSET_Symbol_length, &signatureSymbolLength, 2);
   CHECK_FAIL(err);
   signatureString = (char*)calloc(signatureSymbolLength + 1, 1);
-  err = ps_pread(J->P, signatureSymbol + OFFSET_symbolOopDesc_body, signatureString, signatureSymbolLength);
+  err = ps_pread(J->P, signatureSymbol + OFFSET_Symbol_body, signatureString, signatureSymbolLength);
   CHECK_FAIL(err);
 
   /* To get klass string */
@@ -546,10 +546,10 @@
   CHECK_FAIL(err);
   err = read_pointer(J, klassPtr + OFFSET_Klass_name + SIZE_oopDesc, &klassSymbol);
   CHECK_FAIL(err);
-  err = ps_pread(J->P, klassSymbol + OFFSET_symbolOopDesc_length, &klassSymbolLength, 2);
+  err = ps_pread(J->P, klassSymbol + OFFSET_Symbol_length, &klassSymbolLength, 2);
   CHECK_FAIL(err);
   klassString = (char*)calloc(klassSymbolLength + 1, 1);
-  err = ps_pread(J->P, klassSymbol + OFFSET_symbolOopDesc_body, klassString, klassSymbolLength);
+  err = ps_pread(J->P, klassSymbol + OFFSET_Symbol_body, klassString, klassSymbolLength);
   CHECK_FAIL(err);
 
   result[0] = '\0';
--- a/src/os/solaris/vm/dtraceJSDT_solaris.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/os/solaris/vm/dtraceJSDT_solaris.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -142,7 +142,7 @@
     ++strcount;
     for(int prbc = 0; prbc < provider->probe_count; ++prbc) {
       JVM_DTraceProbe* p = &(provider->probes[prbc]);
-      symbolOop sig = JNIHandles::resolve_jmethod_id(p->method)->signature();
+      Symbol* sig = JNIHandles::resolve_jmethod_id(p->method)->signature();
       // function + name + one per argument
       strcount += 2 + ArgumentCount(sig).size();
     }
@@ -178,7 +178,7 @@
       stroffs[curstr++] = string_index;
       string_index += strlen(name) + 1;
 
-      symbolOop sig = JNIHandles::resolve_jmethod_id(p->method)->signature();
+      Symbol* sig = JNIHandles::resolve_jmethod_id(p->method)->signature();
       SignatureStream ss(sig);
       for ( ; !ss.at_return_type(); ss.next()) {
         BasicType bt = ss.type();
@@ -227,7 +227,7 @@
     uint32_t argscount = 0;
     for(int prbc = 0; prbc < provider->probe_count; ++prbc) {
        JVM_DTraceProbe* p = &(provider->probes[prbc]);
-       symbolOop sig = JNIHandles::resolve_jmethod_id(p->method)->signature();
+       Symbol* sig = JNIHandles::resolve_jmethod_id(p->method)->signature();
        argscount += ArgumentCount(sig).size();
     }
     secoffs[argoffs_sec] = align_size_up(offset, alignment_for[ARG_OFFSETS]);
@@ -298,7 +298,7 @@
       strcpy(str, name);
       str += strlen(name) + 1;
 
-      symbolOop sig = JNIHandles::resolve_jmethod_id(p->method)->signature();
+      Symbol* sig = JNIHandles::resolve_jmethod_id(p->method)->signature();
       SignatureStream ss(sig);
       for ( ; !ss.at_return_type(); ss.next()) {
         BasicType bt = ss.type();
@@ -433,7 +433,7 @@
     uint8_t* par = (uint8_t*)(dof + sec->dofs_offset);
     for (int prbc = 0; prbc < provider->probe_count; ++prbc) {
       JVM_DTraceProbe* p = &(provider->probes[prbc]);
-      symbolOop sig = JNIHandles::resolve_jmethod_id(p->method)->signature();
+      Symbol* sig = JNIHandles::resolve_jmethod_id(p->method)->signature();
       uint8_t count = (uint8_t)ArgumentCount(sig).size();
       for (uint8_t i = 0; i < count; ++i) {
         *par++ = i;
--- a/src/share/vm/c1/c1_Canonicalizer.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/c1/c1_Canonicalizer.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 1999, 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1999, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -898,4 +898,4 @@
 void Canonicalizer::do_UnsafePrefetchWrite(UnsafePrefetchWrite* x) {}
 void Canonicalizer::do_ProfileCall(ProfileCall* x) {}
 void Canonicalizer::do_ProfileInvoke(ProfileInvoke* x) {}
-
+void Canonicalizer::do_RuntimeCall(RuntimeCall* x) {}
--- a/src/share/vm/c1/c1_Canonicalizer.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/c1/c1_Canonicalizer.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 1999, 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1999, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -102,6 +102,7 @@
   virtual void do_UnsafePrefetchWrite(UnsafePrefetchWrite* x);
   virtual void do_ProfileCall    (ProfileCall*     x);
   virtual void do_ProfileInvoke  (ProfileInvoke*   x);
+  virtual void do_RuntimeCall    (RuntimeCall*     x);
 };
 
 #endif // SHARE_VM_C1_C1_CANONICALIZER_HPP
--- a/src/share/vm/c1/c1_CodeStubs.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/c1/c1_CodeStubs.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 1999, 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1999, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -476,18 +476,12 @@
 
 
 
-class ArrayStoreExceptionStub: public CodeStub {
+class ArrayStoreExceptionStub: public SimpleExceptionStub {
  private:
   CodeEmitInfo* _info;
 
  public:
-  ArrayStoreExceptionStub(CodeEmitInfo* info);
-  virtual void emit_code(LIR_Assembler* emit);
-  virtual CodeEmitInfo* info() const             { return _info; }
-  virtual bool is_exception_throw_stub() const   { return true; }
-  virtual void visit(LIR_OpVisitState* visitor) {
-    visitor->do_slow_case(_info);
-  }
+  ArrayStoreExceptionStub(LIR_Opr obj, CodeEmitInfo* info): SimpleExceptionStub(Runtime1::throw_array_store_exception_id, obj, info) {}
 #ifndef PRODUCT
   virtual void print_name(outputStream* out) const { out->print("ArrayStoreExceptionStub"); }
 #endif // PRODUCT
--- a/src/share/vm/c1/c1_GraphBuilder.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/c1/c1_GraphBuilder.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -1396,6 +1396,13 @@
   if (continuation() != NULL) {
     assert(!method()->is_synchronized() || InlineSynchronizedMethods, "can not inline synchronized methods yet");
 
+    if (compilation()->env()->dtrace_method_probes()) {
+      // Report exit from inline methods
+      Values* args = new Values(1);
+      args->push(append(new Constant(new ObjectConstant(method()))));
+      append(new RuntimeCall(voidType, "dtrace_method_exit", CAST_FROM_FN_PTR(address, SharedRuntime::dtrace_method_exit), args));
+    }
+
     // If the inlined method is synchronized, the monitor must be
     // released before we jump to the continuation block.
     if (method()->is_synchronized()) {
@@ -3301,6 +3308,13 @@
   Value exception = append_with_bci(new ExceptionObject(), SynchronizationEntryBCI);
   assert(exception->is_pinned(), "must be");
 
+  if (compilation()->env()->dtrace_method_probes()) {
+    // Report exit from inline methods
+    Values* args = new Values(1);
+    args->push(append(new Constant(new ObjectConstant(method()))));
+    append(new RuntimeCall(voidType, "dtrace_method_exit", CAST_FROM_FN_PTR(address, SharedRuntime::dtrace_method_exit), args));
+  }
+
   int bci = SynchronizationEntryBCI;
   if (lock) {
     assert(state()->locks_size() > 0 && state()->lock_at(state()->locks_size() - 1) == lock, "lock is missing");
@@ -3486,6 +3500,11 @@
     inline_sync_entry(lock, sync_handler);
   }
 
+  if (compilation()->env()->dtrace_method_probes()) {
+    Values* args = new Values(1);
+    args->push(append(new Constant(new ObjectConstant(method()))));
+    append(new RuntimeCall(voidType, "dtrace_method_entry", CAST_FROM_FN_PTR(address, SharedRuntime::dtrace_method_entry), args));
+  }
 
   BlockBegin* callee_start_block = block_at(0);
   if (callee_start_block != NULL) {
--- a/src/share/vm/c1/c1_Instruction.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/c1/c1_Instruction.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 1999, 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1999, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -106,6 +106,7 @@
 class         UnsafePrefetchWrite;
 class   ProfileCall;
 class   ProfileInvoke;
+class   RuntimeCall;
 
 // A Value is a reference to the instruction creating the value
 typedef Instruction* Value;
@@ -202,6 +203,7 @@
   virtual void do_UnsafePrefetchWrite(UnsafePrefetchWrite* x) = 0;
   virtual void do_ProfileCall    (ProfileCall*     x) = 0;
   virtual void do_ProfileInvoke  (ProfileInvoke*   x) = 0;
+  virtual void do_RuntimeCall    (RuntimeCall*     x) = 0;
 };
 
 
@@ -2267,6 +2269,38 @@
   virtual void input_values_do(ValueVisitor* f)   { if (_recv != NULL) f->visit(&_recv); }
 };
 
+
+// Call some C runtime function that doesn't safepoint,
+// optionally passing the current thread as the first argument.
+LEAF(RuntimeCall, Instruction)
+ private:
+  const char* _entry_name;
+  address     _entry;
+  Values*     _args;
+  bool        _pass_thread;  // Pass the JavaThread* as an implicit first argument
+
+ public:
+  RuntimeCall(ValueType* type, const char* entry_name, address entry, Values* args, bool pass_thread = true)
+    : Instruction(type)
+    , _entry(entry)
+    , _args(args)
+    , _entry_name(entry_name)
+    , _pass_thread(pass_thread) {
+    ASSERT_VALUES
+    pin();
+  }
+
+  const char* entry_name() const  { return _entry_name; }
+  address entry() const           { return _entry; }
+  int number_of_arguments() const { return _args->length(); }
+  Value argument_at(int i) const  { return _args->at(i); }
+  bool pass_thread() const        { return _pass_thread; }
+
+  virtual void input_values_do(ValueVisitor* f)   {
+    for (int i = 0; i < _args->length(); i++) f->visit(_args->adr_at(i));
+  }
+};
+
 // Use to trip invocation counter of an inlined method
 
 LEAF(ProfileInvoke, Instruction)
--- a/src/share/vm/c1/c1_InstructionPrinter.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/c1/c1_InstructionPrinter.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 1999, 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1999, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -841,4 +841,13 @@
 
 }
 
+void InstructionPrinter::do_RuntimeCall(RuntimeCall* x) {
+  output()->print("call_rt %s(", x->entry_name());
+  for (int i = 0; i < x->number_of_arguments(); i++) {
+    if (i > 0) output()->print(", ");
+    print_value(x->argument_at(i));
+  }
+  output()->put(')');
+}
+
 #endif // PRODUCT
--- a/src/share/vm/c1/c1_InstructionPrinter.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/c1/c1_InstructionPrinter.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 1999, 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1999, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -131,6 +131,7 @@
   virtual void do_UnsafePrefetchWrite(UnsafePrefetchWrite* x);
   virtual void do_ProfileCall    (ProfileCall*     x);
   virtual void do_ProfileInvoke  (ProfileInvoke*   x);
+  virtual void do_RuntimeCall    (RuntimeCall*     x);
 };
 #endif // PRODUCT
 
--- a/src/share/vm/c1/c1_LIR.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/c1/c1_LIR.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 2000, 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 2000, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -396,7 +396,7 @@
   , _should_profile(false)
 {
   if (code == lir_store_check) {
-    _stub = new ArrayStoreExceptionStub(info_for_exception);
+    _stub = new ArrayStoreExceptionStub(object, info_for_exception);
     assert(info_for_exception != NULL, "store_check throws exceptions");
   } else {
     ShouldNotReachHere();
--- a/src/share/vm/c1/c1_LIRGenerator.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/c1/c1_LIRGenerator.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 2005, 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 2005, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -2741,6 +2741,31 @@
   }
 }
 
+void LIRGenerator::do_RuntimeCall(RuntimeCall* x) {
+  LIR_OprList* args = new LIR_OprList(x->number_of_arguments());
+  BasicTypeList* signature = new BasicTypeList(x->number_of_arguments());
+
+  if (x->pass_thread()) {
+    signature->append(T_ADDRESS);
+    args->append(getThreadPointer());
+  }
+
+  for (int i = 0; i < x->number_of_arguments(); i++) {
+    Value a = x->argument_at(i);
+    LIRItem* item = new LIRItem(a, this);
+    item->load_item();
+    args->append(item->result());
+    signature->append(as_BasicType(a->type()));
+  }
+
+  LIR_Opr result = call_runtime(signature, args, x->entry(), x->type(), NULL);
+  if (x->type() == voidType) {
+    set_no_result(x);
+  } else {
+    __ move(result, rlock_result(x));
+  }
+}
+
 LIR_Opr LIRGenerator::call_runtime(Value arg1, address entry, ValueType* result_type, CodeEmitInfo* info) {
   LIRItemList args(1);
   LIRItem value(arg1, this);
--- a/src/share/vm/c1/c1_LIRGenerator.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/c1/c1_LIRGenerator.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 2005, 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 2005, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -522,6 +522,7 @@
   virtual void do_UnsafePrefetchWrite(UnsafePrefetchWrite* x);
   virtual void do_ProfileCall    (ProfileCall*     x);
   virtual void do_ProfileInvoke  (ProfileInvoke*   x);
+  virtual void do_RuntimeCall    (RuntimeCall*     x);
 };
 
 
--- a/src/share/vm/c1/c1_Optimizer.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/c1/c1_Optimizer.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 1999, 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1999, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -496,6 +496,7 @@
   void do_UnsafePrefetchWrite(UnsafePrefetchWrite* x);
   void do_ProfileCall    (ProfileCall*     x);
   void do_ProfileInvoke  (ProfileInvoke*   x);
+  void do_RuntimeCall    (RuntimeCall*     x);
 };
 
 
@@ -664,6 +665,7 @@
 void NullCheckVisitor::do_UnsafePrefetchWrite(UnsafePrefetchWrite* x) {}
 void NullCheckVisitor::do_ProfileCall    (ProfileCall*     x) { nce()->clear_last_explicit_null_check(); }
 void NullCheckVisitor::do_ProfileInvoke  (ProfileInvoke*   x) {}
+void NullCheckVisitor::do_RuntimeCall    (RuntimeCall*     x) {}
 
 
 void NullCheckEliminator::visit(Value* p) {
--- a/src/share/vm/c1/c1_Runtime1.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/c1/c1_Runtime1.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -339,8 +339,10 @@
 JRT_END
 
 
-JRT_ENTRY(void, Runtime1::throw_array_store_exception(JavaThread* thread))
-  THROW(vmSymbolHandles::java_lang_ArrayStoreException());
+JRT_ENTRY(void, Runtime1::throw_array_store_exception(JavaThread* thread, oopDesc* obj))
+  ResourceMark rm(thread);
+  const char* klass_name = Klass::cast(obj->klass())->external_name();
+  SharedRuntime::throw_and_post_jvmti_exception(thread, vmSymbols::java_lang_ArrayStoreException(), klass_name);
 JRT_END
 
 
--- a/src/share/vm/c1/c1_Runtime1.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/c1/c1_Runtime1.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 1999, 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1999, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -143,9 +143,9 @@
   static void throw_index_exception(JavaThread* thread, int index);
   static void throw_div0_exception(JavaThread* thread);
   static void throw_null_pointer_exception(JavaThread* thread);
-  static void throw_class_cast_exception(JavaThread* thread, oopDesc* obect);
+  static void throw_class_cast_exception(JavaThread* thread, oopDesc* object);
   static void throw_incompatible_class_change_error(JavaThread* thread);
-  static void throw_array_store_exception(JavaThread* thread);
+  static void throw_array_store_exception(JavaThread* thread, oopDesc* object);
 
   static void monitorenter(JavaThread* thread, oopDesc* obj, BasicObjectLock* lock);
   static void monitorexit (JavaThread* thread, BasicObjectLock* lock);
--- a/src/share/vm/c1/c1_ValueMap.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/c1/c1_ValueMap.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 1999, 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1999, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -192,11 +192,12 @@
   void do_ExceptionObject(ExceptionObject* x) { /* nothing to do */ }
   void do_RoundFP        (RoundFP*         x) { /* nothing to do */ }
   void do_UnsafeGetRaw   (UnsafeGetRaw*    x) { /* nothing to do */ }
-  void do_ProfileInvoke  (ProfileInvoke*   x) { /* nothing to do */ };
   void do_UnsafeGetObject(UnsafeGetObject* x) { /* nothing to do */ }
   void do_UnsafePrefetchRead (UnsafePrefetchRead*  x) { /* nothing to do */ }
   void do_UnsafePrefetchWrite(UnsafePrefetchWrite* x) { /* nothing to do */ }
   void do_ProfileCall    (ProfileCall*     x) { /* nothing to do */ }
+  void do_ProfileInvoke  (ProfileInvoke*   x) { /* nothing to do */ };
+  void do_RuntimeCall    (RuntimeCall*     x) { /* nothing to do */ };
 };
 
 
--- a/src/share/vm/ci/bcEscapeAnalyzer.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/ci/bcEscapeAnalyzer.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -233,6 +233,10 @@
 
   // compute size of arguments
   int arg_size = target->arg_size();
+  if (code == Bytecodes::_invokedynamic) {
+    assert(!target->is_static(), "receiver explicit in method");
+    arg_size--;  // implicit, not really on stack
+  }
   if (!target->is_loaded() && code == Bytecodes::_invokestatic) {
     arg_size--;
   }
@@ -250,6 +254,10 @@
     ArgumentMap arg = state._stack[i];
     skip_callee = !is_argument(arg) || !is_arg_stack(arg) || (directly_recursive && arg.is_singleton(i - arg_base));
   }
+  // For now we conservatively skip invokedynamic.
+  if (code == Bytecodes::_invokedynamic) {
+    skip_callee = true;
+  }
   if (skip_callee) {
     TRACE_BCEA(3, tty->print_cr("[EA] skipping method %s::%s", holder->name()->as_utf8(), target->name()->as_utf8()));
     for (i = 0; i < arg_size; i++) {
--- a/src/share/vm/ci/ciClassList.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/ci/ciClassList.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -60,7 +60,6 @@
 class    ciKlass;
 class     ciInstanceKlass;
 class     ciMethodKlass;
-class     ciSymbolKlass;
 class     ciArrayKlass;
 class       ciObjArrayKlass;
 class       ciTypeArrayKlass;
@@ -112,7 +111,6 @@
 friend class ciKlass;                  \
 friend class ciInstanceKlass;          \
 friend class ciMethodKlass;            \
-friend class ciSymbolKlass;            \
 friend class ciArrayKlass;             \
 friend class ciObjArrayKlass;          \
 friend class ciTypeArrayKlass;         \
--- a/src/share/vm/ci/ciEnv.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/ci/ciEnv.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -68,7 +68,6 @@
 
 ciObject*              ciEnv::_null_object_instance;
 ciMethodKlass*         ciEnv::_method_klass_instance;
-ciSymbolKlass*         ciEnv::_symbol_klass_instance;
 ciKlassKlass*          ciEnv::_klass_klass_instance;
 ciInstanceKlassKlass*  ciEnv::_instance_klass_klass_instance;
 ciTypeArrayKlassKlass* ciEnv::_type_array_klass_klass_instance;
@@ -202,6 +201,7 @@
 
 ciEnv::~ciEnv() {
   CompilerThread* current_thread = CompilerThread::current();
+  _factory->remove_symbols();
   current_thread->set_env(NULL);
 }
 
@@ -234,7 +234,7 @@
 
 // ------------------------------------------------------------------
 // helper for lazy exception creation
-ciInstance* ciEnv::get_or_create_exception(jobject& handle, symbolHandle name) {
+ciInstance* ciEnv::get_or_create_exception(jobject& handle, Symbol* name) {
   VM_ENTRY_MARK;
   if (handle == NULL) {
     // Cf. universe.cpp, creation of Universe::_null_ptr_exception_instance.
@@ -261,7 +261,7 @@
   if (_ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException_instance == NULL) {
     _ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException_instance
           = get_or_create_exception(_ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException_handle,
-          vmSymbolHandles::java_lang_ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException());
+          vmSymbols::java_lang_ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException());
   }
   return _ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException_instance;
 }
@@ -269,7 +269,7 @@
   if (_ArrayStoreException_instance == NULL) {
     _ArrayStoreException_instance
           = get_or_create_exception(_ArrayStoreException_handle,
-          vmSymbolHandles::java_lang_ArrayStoreException());
+          vmSymbols::java_lang_ArrayStoreException());
   }
   return _ArrayStoreException_instance;
 }
@@ -277,7 +277,7 @@
   if (_ClassCastException_instance == NULL) {
     _ClassCastException_instance
           = get_or_create_exception(_ClassCastException_handle,
-          vmSymbolHandles::java_lang_ClassCastException());
+          vmSymbols::java_lang_ClassCastException());
   }
   return _ClassCastException_instance;
 }
@@ -377,14 +377,16 @@
   EXCEPTION_CONTEXT;
 
   // Now we need to check the SystemDictionary
-  symbolHandle sym(THREAD, name->get_symbolOop());
+  Symbol* sym = name->get_symbol();
   if (sym->byte_at(0) == 'L' &&
     sym->byte_at(sym->utf8_length()-1) == ';') {
     // This is a name from a signature.  Strip off the trimmings.
-    sym = oopFactory::new_symbol_handle(sym->as_utf8()+1,
-                                        sym->utf8_length()-2,
-                                        KILL_COMPILE_ON_FATAL_(_unloaded_ciinstance_klass));
-    name = get_object(sym())->as_symbol();
+    // Call recursive to keep scope of strippedsym.
+    TempNewSymbol strippedsym = SymbolTable::new_symbol(sym->as_utf8()+1,
+                    sym->utf8_length()-2,
+                    KILL_COMPILE_ON_FATAL_(_unloaded_ciinstance_klass));
+    ciSymbol* strippedname = get_symbol(strippedsym);
+    return get_klass_by_name_impl(accessing_klass, strippedname, require_local);
   }
 
   // Check for prior unloaded klass.  The SystemDictionary's answers
@@ -430,13 +432,14 @@
       (sym->byte_at(1) == '[' || sym->byte_at(1) == 'L')) {
     // We have an unloaded array.
     // Build it on the fly if the element class exists.
-    symbolOop elem_sym = oopFactory::new_symbol(sym->as_utf8()+1,
-                                                sym->utf8_length()-1,
-                                                KILL_COMPILE_ON_FATAL_(fail_type));
+    TempNewSymbol elem_sym = SymbolTable::new_symbol(sym->as_utf8()+1,
+                                                 sym->utf8_length()-1,
+                                                 KILL_COMPILE_ON_FATAL_(fail_type));
+
     // Get element ciKlass recursively.
     ciKlass* elem_klass =
       get_klass_by_name_impl(accessing_klass,
-                             get_object(elem_sym)->as_symbol(),
+                             get_symbol(elem_sym),
                              require_local);
     if (elem_klass != NULL && elem_klass->is_loaded()) {
       // Now make an array for it
@@ -475,7 +478,7 @@
                                         ciInstanceKlass* accessor) {
   EXCEPTION_CONTEXT;
   KlassHandle klass (THREAD, constantPoolOopDesc::klass_at_if_loaded(cpool, index));
-  symbolHandle klass_name;
+  Symbol* klass_name = NULL;
   if (klass.is_null()) {
     // The klass has not been inserted into the constant pool.
     // Try to look it up by name.
@@ -490,10 +493,10 @@
         // very recently.
         klass = KlassHandle(THREAD, cpool->resolved_klass_at(index));
       } else if (tag.is_symbol()) {
-        klass_name = symbolHandle(THREAD, cpool->symbol_at(index));
+        klass_name = cpool->symbol_at(index);
       } else {
         assert(cpool->tag_at(index).is_unresolved_klass(), "wrong tag");
-        klass_name = symbolHandle(THREAD, cpool->unresolved_klass_at(index));
+        klass_name = cpool->unresolved_klass_at(index);
       }
     }
   }
@@ -501,7 +504,7 @@
   if (klass.is_null()) {
     // Not found in constant pool.  Use the name to do the lookup.
     ciKlass* k = get_klass_by_name_impl(accessor,
-                                        get_object(klass_name())->as_symbol(),
+                                        get_symbol(klass_name),
                                         false);
     // Calculate accessibility the hard way.
     if (!k->is_loaded()) {
@@ -519,7 +522,7 @@
 
   // Check for prior unloaded klass.  The SystemDictionary's answers
   // can vary over time but the compiler needs consistency.
-  ciSymbol* name = get_object(klass()->klass_part()->name())->as_symbol();
+  ciSymbol* name = get_symbol(klass()->klass_part()->name());
   ciKlass* unloaded_klass = check_get_unloaded_klass(accessor, name);
   if (unloaded_klass != NULL) {
     is_accessible = false;
@@ -605,7 +608,7 @@
     return ciConstant(T_OBJECT, ciobj);
   } else if (tag.is_method_type()) {
     // must execute Java code to link this CP entry into cache[i].f1
-    ciSymbol* signature = get_object(cpool->method_type_signature_at(index))->as_symbol();
+    ciSymbol* signature = get_symbol(cpool->method_type_signature_at(index));
     ciObject* ciobj = get_unloaded_method_type_constant(signature);
     return ciConstant(T_OBJECT, ciobj);
   } else if (tag.is_method_handle()) {
@@ -613,8 +616,8 @@
     int ref_kind        = cpool->method_handle_ref_kind_at(index);
     int callee_index    = cpool->method_handle_klass_index_at(index);
     ciKlass* callee     = get_klass_by_index_impl(cpool, callee_index, ignore_will_link, accessor);
-    ciSymbol* name      = get_object(cpool->method_handle_name_ref_at(index))->as_symbol();
-    ciSymbol* signature = get_object(cpool->method_handle_signature_ref_at(index))->as_symbol();
+    ciSymbol* name      = get_symbol(cpool->method_handle_name_ref_at(index));
+    ciSymbol* signature = get_symbol(cpool->method_handle_signature_ref_at(index));
     ciObject* ciobj     = get_unloaded_method_handle_constant(callee, name, signature, ref_kind);
     return ciConstant(T_OBJECT, ciobj);
   } else {
@@ -674,33 +677,31 @@
 // name, signature, and bytecode.
 methodOop ciEnv::lookup_method(instanceKlass*  accessor,
                                instanceKlass*  holder,
-                               symbolOop       name,
-                               symbolOop       sig,
+                               Symbol*       name,
+                               Symbol*       sig,
                                Bytecodes::Code bc) {
   EXCEPTION_CONTEXT;
   KlassHandle h_accessor(THREAD, accessor);
   KlassHandle h_holder(THREAD, holder);
-  symbolHandle h_name(THREAD, name);
-  symbolHandle h_sig(THREAD, sig);
   LinkResolver::check_klass_accessability(h_accessor, h_holder, KILL_COMPILE_ON_FATAL_(NULL));
   methodHandle dest_method;
   switch (bc) {
   case Bytecodes::_invokestatic:
     dest_method =
-      LinkResolver::resolve_static_call_or_null(h_holder, h_name, h_sig, h_accessor);
+      LinkResolver::resolve_static_call_or_null(h_holder, name, sig, h_accessor);
     break;
   case Bytecodes::_invokespecial:
     dest_method =
-      LinkResolver::resolve_special_call_or_null(h_holder, h_name, h_sig, h_accessor);
+      LinkResolver::resolve_special_call_or_null(h_holder, name, sig, h_accessor);
     break;
   case Bytecodes::_invokeinterface:
     dest_method =
-      LinkResolver::linktime_resolve_interface_method_or_null(h_holder, h_name, h_sig,
+      LinkResolver::linktime_resolve_interface_method_or_null(h_holder, name, sig,
                                                               h_accessor, true);
     break;
   case Bytecodes::_invokevirtual:
     dest_method =
-      LinkResolver::linktime_resolve_virtual_method_or_null(h_holder, h_name, h_sig,
+      LinkResolver::linktime_resolve_virtual_method_or_null(h_holder, name, sig,
                                                             h_accessor, true);
     break;
   default: ShouldNotReachHere();
@@ -721,8 +722,8 @@
   ciInstanceKlass* declared_holder = get_instance_klass_for_declared_method_holder(holder);
 
   // Get the method's name and signature.
-  symbolOop name_sym = cpool->name_ref_at(index);
-  symbolOop sig_sym  = cpool->signature_ref_at(index);
+  Symbol* name_sym = cpool->name_ref_at(index);
+  Symbol* sig_sym  = cpool->signature_ref_at(index);
 
   if (holder_is_accessible) { // Our declared holder is loaded.
     instanceKlass* lookup = declared_holder->get_instanceKlass();
@@ -738,8 +739,8 @@
   // lookup.
 
   return get_unloaded_method(declared_holder,
-                             get_object(name_sym)->as_symbol(),
-                             get_object(sig_sym)->as_symbol());
+                             get_symbol(name_sym),
+                             get_symbol(sig_sym));
 }
 
 
@@ -759,7 +760,7 @@
   // compiler, but it is simpler to stop the code path here with an unlinked method.
   if (!is_resolved) {
     ciInstanceKlass* mh_klass = get_object(SystemDictionary::MethodHandle_klass())->as_instance_klass();
-    ciSymbol*        sig_sym  = get_object(cpool->signature_ref_at(index))->as_symbol();
+    ciSymbol*        sig_sym  = get_symbol(cpool->signature_ref_at(index));
     return get_unloaded_method(mh_klass, ciSymbol::invokeExact_name(), sig_sym);
   }
 
--- a/src/share/vm/ci/ciEnv.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/ci/ciEnv.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -79,7 +79,6 @@
   // Distinguished instances of certain ciObjects..
   static ciObject*              _null_object_instance;
   static ciMethodKlass*         _method_klass_instance;
-  static ciSymbolKlass*         _symbol_klass_instance;
   static ciKlassKlass*          _klass_klass_instance;
   static ciInstanceKlassKlass*  _instance_klass_klass_instance;
   static ciTypeArrayKlassKlass* _type_array_klass_klass_instance;
@@ -160,8 +159,8 @@
                                       klassOop resolved_klassOop);
   methodOop  lookup_method(instanceKlass*  accessor,
                            instanceKlass*  holder,
-                           symbolOop       name,
-                           symbolOop       sig,
+                           Symbol*         name,
+                           Symbol*         sig,
                            Bytecodes::Code bc);
 
   // Get a ciObject from the object factory.  Ensures uniqueness
@@ -174,9 +173,18 @@
     }
   }
 
+  ciSymbol* get_symbol(Symbol* o) {
+    if (o == NULL) {
+      ShouldNotReachHere();
+      return NULL;
+    } else {
+      return _factory->get_symbol(o);
+    }
+  }
+
   ciMethod* get_method_from_handle(jobject method);
 
-  ciInstance* get_or_create_exception(jobject& handle, symbolHandle name);
+  ciInstance* get_or_create_exception(jobject& handle, Symbol* name);
 
   // Get a ciMethod representing either an unfound method or
   // a method with an unloaded holder.  Ensures uniqueness of
--- a/src/share/vm/ci/ciField.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/ci/ciField.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -79,15 +79,15 @@
   constantPoolHandle cpool(thread, klass->get_instanceKlass()->constants());
 
   // Get the field's name, signature, and type.
-  symbolHandle name  (thread, cpool->name_ref_at(index));
-  _name = ciEnv::current(thread)->get_object(name())->as_symbol();
+  Symbol* name  = cpool->name_ref_at(index);
+  _name = ciEnv::current(thread)->get_symbol(name);
 
   int nt_index = cpool->name_and_type_ref_index_at(index);
   int sig_index = cpool->signature_ref_index_at(nt_index);
-  symbolHandle signature (thread, cpool->symbol_at(sig_index));
-  _signature = ciEnv::current(thread)->get_object(signature())->as_symbol();
+  Symbol* signature = cpool->symbol_at(sig_index);
+  _signature = ciEnv::current(thread)->get_symbol(signature);
 
-  BasicType field_type = FieldType::basic_type(signature());
+  BasicType field_type = FieldType::basic_type(signature);
 
   // If the field is a pointer type, get the klass of the
   // field.
@@ -100,7 +100,7 @@
     _type = ciType::make(field_type);
   }
 
-  _name = (ciSymbol*)ciEnv::current(thread)->get_object(name());
+  _name = (ciSymbol*)ciEnv::current(thread)->get_symbol(name);
 
   // Get the field's declared holder.
   //
@@ -130,7 +130,7 @@
   // Perform the field lookup.
   fieldDescriptor field_desc;
   klassOop canonical_holder =
-    loaded_decl_holder->find_field(name(), signature(), &field_desc);
+    loaded_decl_holder->find_field(name, signature, &field_desc);
   if (canonical_holder == NULL) {
     // Field lookup failed.  Will be detected by will_link.
     _holder = declared_holder;
@@ -150,8 +150,8 @@
 
   // Get the field's name, signature, and type.
   ciEnv* env = CURRENT_ENV;
-  _name = env->get_object(fd->name())->as_symbol();
-  _signature = env->get_object(fd->signature())->as_symbol();
+  _name = env->get_symbol(fd->name());
+  _signature = env->get_symbol(fd->signature());
 
   BasicType field_type = fd->field_type();
 
--- a/src/share/vm/ci/ciInstanceKlass.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/ci/ciInstanceKlass.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -380,7 +380,7 @@
   VM_ENTRY_MARK;
   instanceKlass* k = get_instanceKlass();
   fieldDescriptor fd;
-  klassOop def = k->find_field(name->get_symbolOop(), signature->get_symbolOop(), is_static, &fd);
+  klassOop def = k->find_field(name->get_symbol(), signature->get_symbol(), is_static, &fd);
   if (def == NULL) {
     return NULL;
   }
@@ -541,8 +541,8 @@
 ciMethod* ciInstanceKlass::find_method(ciSymbol* name, ciSymbol* signature) {
   VM_ENTRY_MARK;
   instanceKlass* k = get_instanceKlass();
-  symbolOop name_sym = name->get_symbolOop();
-  symbolOop sig_sym= signature->get_symbolOop();
+  Symbol* name_sym = name->get_symbol();
+  Symbol* sig_sym= signature->get_symbol();
 
   methodOop m = k->find_method(name_sym, sig_sym);
   if (m == NULL)  return NULL;
--- a/src/share/vm/ci/ciKlass.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/ci/ciKlass.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -39,9 +39,9 @@
   assert(get_oop()->is_klass(), "wrong type");
   Klass* k = get_Klass();
   _layout_helper = k->layout_helper();
-  symbolOop klass_name = k->name();
+  Symbol* klass_name = k->name();
   assert(klass_name != NULL, "wrong ciKlass constructor");
-  _name = CURRENT_ENV->get_object(klass_name)->as_symbol();
+  _name = CURRENT_ENV->get_symbol(klass_name);
 }
 
 // ------------------------------------------------------------------
--- a/src/share/vm/ci/ciMethod.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/ci/ciMethod.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -122,9 +122,9 @@
 
   // generating _signature may allow GC and therefore move m.
   // These fields are always filled in.
-  _name = env->get_object(h_m()->name())->as_symbol();
+  _name = env->get_symbol(h_m()->name());
   _holder = env->get_object(h_m()->method_holder())->as_instance_klass();
-  ciSymbol* sig_symbol = env->get_object(h_m()->signature())->as_symbol();
+  ciSymbol* sig_symbol = env->get_symbol(h_m()->signature());
   _signature = new (env->arena()) ciSignature(_holder, sig_symbol);
   _method_data = NULL;
   // Take a snapshot of these values, so they will be commensurate with the MDO.
@@ -649,8 +649,8 @@
    KlassHandle caller_klass (THREAD, caller->get_klassOop());
    KlassHandle h_recv       (THREAD, exact_receiver->get_klassOop());
    KlassHandle h_resolved   (THREAD, holder()->get_klassOop());
-   symbolHandle h_name      (THREAD, name()->get_symbolOop());
-   symbolHandle h_signature (THREAD, signature()->get_symbolOop());
+   Symbol* h_name      = name()->get_symbol();
+   Symbol* h_signature = signature()->get_symbol();
 
    methodHandle m;
    // Only do exact lookup if receiver klass has been linked.  Otherwise,
@@ -702,8 +702,8 @@
 
      KlassHandle caller_klass (THREAD, caller->get_klassOop());
      KlassHandle h_recv       (THREAD, receiver->get_klassOop());
-     symbolHandle h_name      (THREAD, name()->get_symbolOop());
-     symbolHandle h_signature (THREAD, signature()->get_symbolOop());
+     Symbol* h_name = name()->get_symbol();
+     Symbol* h_signature = signature()->get_symbol();
 
      vtable_index = LinkResolver::resolve_virtual_vtable_index(h_recv, h_recv, h_name, h_signature, caller_klass);
      if (vtable_index == methodOopDesc::nonvirtual_vtable_index) {
--- a/src/share/vm/ci/ciObjArrayKlass.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/ci/ciObjArrayKlass.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -110,7 +110,7 @@
   EXCEPTION_CONTEXT;
   int element_len = element_name->utf8_length();
 
-  symbolOop base_name_sym = element_name->get_symbolOop();
+  Symbol* base_name_sym = element_name->get_symbol();
   char* name;
 
   if (base_name_sym->byte_at(0) == '[' ||
--- a/src/share/vm/ci/ciObject.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/ci/ciObject.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -268,10 +268,6 @@
     assert(is_type_array_klass(), "bad cast");
     return (ciTypeArrayKlass*)this;
   }
-  ciSymbolKlass*           as_symbol_klass() {
-    assert(is_symbol_klass(), "bad cast");
-    return (ciSymbolKlass*)this;
-  }
   ciKlassKlass*            as_klass_klass() {
     assert(is_klass_klass(), "bad cast");
     return (ciKlassKlass*)this;
--- a/src/share/vm/ci/ciObjectFactory.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/ci/ciObjectFactory.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -38,7 +38,6 @@
 #include "ci/ciObjArrayKlassKlass.hpp"
 #include "ci/ciObjectFactory.hpp"
 #include "ci/ciSymbol.hpp"
-#include "ci/ciSymbolKlass.hpp"
 #include "ci/ciTypeArray.hpp"
 #include "ci/ciTypeArrayKlass.hpp"
 #include "ci/ciTypeArrayKlassKlass.hpp"
@@ -98,6 +97,8 @@
   _unloaded_instances = new (arena) GrowableArray<ciInstance*>(arena, 4, 0, NULL);
   _return_addresses =
     new (arena) GrowableArray<ciReturnAddress*>(arena, 8, 0, NULL);
+
+  _symbols = new (arena) GrowableArray<ciSymbol*>(arena, 100, 0, NULL);
 }
 
 // ------------------------------------------------------------------
@@ -127,19 +128,19 @@
     // Create the shared symbols, but not in _shared_ci_objects.
     int i;
     for (i = vmSymbols::FIRST_SID; i < vmSymbols::SID_LIMIT; i++) {
-      symbolHandle sym_handle = vmSymbolHandles::symbol_handle_at((vmSymbols::SID) i);
-      assert(vmSymbols::find_sid(sym_handle()) == i, "1-1 mapping");
-      ciSymbol* sym = new (_arena) ciSymbol(sym_handle, (vmSymbols::SID) i);
+      Symbol* vmsym = vmSymbols::symbol_at((vmSymbols::SID) i);
+      assert(vmSymbols::find_sid(vmsym) == i, "1-1 mapping");
+      ciSymbol* sym = new (_arena) ciSymbol(vmsym, (vmSymbols::SID) i);
       init_ident_of(sym);
       _shared_ci_symbols[i] = sym;
     }
 #ifdef ASSERT
     for (i = vmSymbols::FIRST_SID; i < vmSymbols::SID_LIMIT; i++) {
-      symbolHandle sym_handle = vmSymbolHandles::symbol_handle_at((vmSymbols::SID) i);
+      Symbol* vmsym = vmSymbols::symbol_at((vmSymbols::SID) i);
       ciSymbol* sym = vm_symbol_at((vmSymbols::SID) i);
-      assert(sym->get_oop() == sym_handle(), "oop must match");
+      assert(sym->get_symbol() == vmsym, "oop must match");
     }
-    assert(ciSymbol::void_class_signature()->get_oop() == vmSymbols::void_class_signature(), "spot check");
+    assert(ciSymbol::void_class_signature()->get_symbol() == vmSymbols::void_class_signature(), "spot check");
 #endif
   }
 
@@ -157,8 +158,6 @@
   init_ident_of(ciEnv::_null_object_instance);
   ciEnv::_method_klass_instance =
     get(Universe::methodKlassObj())->as_method_klass();
-  ciEnv::_symbol_klass_instance =
-    get(Universe::symbolKlassObj())->as_symbol_klass();
   ciEnv::_klass_klass_instance =
     get(Universe::klassKlassObj())->as_klass_klass();
   ciEnv::_instance_klass_klass_instance =
@@ -188,7 +187,7 @@
     }
   }
 
-  ciEnv::_unloaded_cisymbol = (ciSymbol*) ciObjectFactory::get(vmSymbols::dummy_symbol_oop());
+  ciEnv::_unloaded_cisymbol = ciObjectFactory::get_symbol(vmSymbols::dummy_symbol());
   // Create dummy instanceKlass and objArrayKlass object and assign them idents
   ciEnv::_unloaded_ciinstance_klass = new (_arena) ciInstanceKlass(ciEnv::_unloaded_cisymbol, NULL, NULL);
   init_ident_of(ciEnv::_unloaded_ciinstance_klass);
@@ -218,6 +217,30 @@
   _shared_ci_objects = _ci_objects;
 }
 
+
+ciSymbol* ciObjectFactory::get_symbol(Symbol* key) {
+  vmSymbols::SID sid = vmSymbols::find_sid(key);
+  if (sid != vmSymbols::NO_SID) {
+    // do not pollute the main cache with it
+    return vm_symbol_at(sid);
+  }
+
+  assert(vmSymbols::find_sid(key) == vmSymbols::NO_SID, "");
+  ciSymbol* s = new (arena()) ciSymbol(key, vmSymbols::NO_SID);
+  _symbols->push(s);
+  return s;
+}
+
+// Decrement the refcount when done on symbols referenced by this compilation.
+void ciObjectFactory::remove_symbols() {
+  for (int i = 0; i < _symbols->length(); i++) {
+    ciSymbol* s = _symbols->at(i);
+    s->get_symbol()->decrement_refcount();
+  }
+  // Since _symbols is resource allocated we're not allowed to delete it
+  // but it'll go away just the same.
+}
+
 // ------------------------------------------------------------------
 // ciObjectFactory::get
 //
@@ -255,15 +278,6 @@
       return bucket->object();
     }
 
-    // Check in the shared symbol area before putting it in the list.
-    if (key->is_symbol()) {
-      vmSymbols::SID sid = vmSymbols::find_sid((symbolOop)key);
-      if (sid != vmSymbols::NO_SID) {
-        // do not pollute the main cache with it
-        return vm_symbol_at(sid);
-      }
-    }
-
     // The ciObject does not yet exist.  Create it and insert it
     // into the cache.
     Handle keyHandle(key);
@@ -297,11 +311,7 @@
 ciObject* ciObjectFactory::create_new_object(oop o) {
   EXCEPTION_CONTEXT;
 
-  if (o->is_symbol()) {
-    symbolHandle h_o(THREAD, (symbolOop)o);
-    assert(vmSymbols::find_sid(h_o()) == vmSymbols::NO_SID, "");
-    return new (arena()) ciSymbol(h_o, vmSymbols::NO_SID);
-  } else if (o->is_klass()) {
+  if (o->is_klass()) {
     KlassHandle h_k(THREAD, (klassOop)o);
     Klass* k = ((klassOop)o)->klass_part();
     if (k->oop_is_instance()) {
@@ -312,8 +322,6 @@
       return new (arena()) ciTypeArrayKlass(h_k);
     } else if (k->oop_is_method()) {
       return new (arena()) ciMethodKlass(h_k);
-    } else if (k->oop_is_symbol()) {
-      return new (arena()) ciSymbolKlass(h_k);
     } else if (k->oop_is_klass()) {
       if (k->oop_is_objArrayKlass()) {
         return new (arena()) ciObjArrayKlassKlass(h_k);
@@ -426,22 +434,20 @@
   // unloaded instanceKlass.  Deal with both.
   if (name->byte_at(0) == '[') {
     // Decompose the name.'
-    jint dimension = 0;
-    symbolOop element_name = NULL;
-    BasicType element_type= FieldType::get_array_info(name->get_symbolOop(),
-                                                      &dimension,
-                                                      &element_name,
-                                                      THREAD);
+    FieldArrayInfo fd;
+    BasicType element_type = FieldType::get_array_info(name->get_symbol(),
+                                                       fd, THREAD);
     if (HAS_PENDING_EXCEPTION) {
       CLEAR_PENDING_EXCEPTION;
       CURRENT_THREAD_ENV->record_out_of_memory_failure();
       return ciEnv::_unloaded_ciobjarrayklass;
     }
+    int dimension = fd.dimension();
     assert(element_type != T_ARRAY, "unsuccessful decomposition");
     ciKlass* element_klass = NULL;
     if (element_type == T_OBJECT) {
       ciEnv *env = CURRENT_THREAD_ENV;
-      ciSymbol* ci_name = env->get_object(element_name)->as_symbol();
+      ciSymbol* ci_name = env->get_symbol(fd.object_key());
       element_klass =
         env->get_klass_by_name(accessing_klass, ci_name, false)->as_instance_klass();
     } else {
@@ -573,6 +579,10 @@
   obj->set_ident(_next_ident++);
 }
 
+void ciObjectFactory::init_ident_of(ciSymbol* obj) {
+  obj->set_ident(_next_ident++);
+}
+
 
 // ------------------------------------------------------------------
 // ciObjectFactory::find
--- a/src/share/vm/ci/ciObjectFactory.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/ci/ciObjectFactory.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -48,6 +48,7 @@
   GrowableArray<ciKlass*>* _unloaded_klasses;
   GrowableArray<ciInstance*>* _unloaded_instances;
   GrowableArray<ciReturnAddress*>* _return_addresses;
+  GrowableArray<ciSymbol*>* _symbols;  // keep list of symbols created
   int                       _next_ident;
 
 public:
@@ -76,6 +77,7 @@
   void insert_non_perm(NonPermObject* &where, oop key, ciObject* obj);
 
   void init_ident_of(ciObject* obj);
+  void init_ident_of(ciSymbol* obj);
 
   Arena* arena() { return _arena; }
 
@@ -88,13 +90,15 @@
 
   static void initialize();
   void init_shared_objects();
+  void remove_symbols();
 
   ciObjectFactory(Arena* arena, int expected_size);
 
-
   // Get the ciObject corresponding to some oop.
   ciObject* get(oop key);
 
+  ciSymbol* get_symbol(Symbol* key);
+
   // Get the ciSymbol corresponding to one of the vmSymbols.
   static ciSymbol* vm_symbol_at(int index);
 
--- a/src/share/vm/ci/ciSignature.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/ci/ciSignature.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -47,7 +47,8 @@
 
   int size = 0;
   int count = 0;
-  symbolHandle sh (THREAD, symbol->get_symbolOop());
+  ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
+  Symbol* sh = symbol->get_symbol();
   SignatureStream ss(sh);
   for (; ; ss.next()) {
     // Process one element of the signature
@@ -55,14 +56,14 @@
     if (!ss.is_object()) {
       type = ciType::make(ss.type());
     } else {
-      symbolOop name = ss.as_symbol(THREAD);
+      Symbol* name = ss.as_symbol(THREAD);
       if (HAS_PENDING_EXCEPTION) {
         type = ss.is_array() ? (ciType*)ciEnv::unloaded_ciobjarrayklass()
           : (ciType*)ciEnv::unloaded_ciinstance_klass();
         env->record_out_of_memory_failure();
         CLEAR_PENDING_EXCEPTION;
       } else {
-        ciSymbol* klass_name = env->get_object(name)->as_symbol();
+        ciSymbol* klass_name = env->get_symbol(name);
         type = env->get_klass_by_name_impl(_accessing_klass, klass_name, false);
       }
     }
--- a/src/share/vm/ci/ciSignature.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/ci/ciSignature.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -48,7 +48,7 @@
 
   void get_all_klasses();
 
-  symbolOop get_symbolOop() const                { return _symbol->get_symbolOop(); }
+  Symbol* get_symbol() const                     { return _symbol->get_symbol(); }
 
 public:
   ciSymbol* as_symbol() const                    { return _symbol; }
--- a/src/share/vm/ci/ciSymbol.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/ci/ciSymbol.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -30,23 +30,27 @@
 // ------------------------------------------------------------------
 // ciSymbol::ciSymbol
 //
-// Preallocated handle variant.  Used with handles from vmSymboHandles.
-ciSymbol::ciSymbol(symbolHandle h_s, vmSymbols::SID sid)
-  : ciObject(h_s), _sid(sid)
+// Preallocated symbol variant.  Used with symbols from vmSymbols.
+ciSymbol::ciSymbol(Symbol* s, vmSymbols::SID sid)
+  : _symbol(s), _sid(sid)
 {
+  assert(_symbol != NULL, "adding null symbol");
+  _symbol->increment_refcount();  // increment ref count
   assert(sid_ok(), "must be in vmSymbols");
 }
 
 // Normal case for non-famous symbols.
-ciSymbol::ciSymbol(symbolOop s)
-  : ciObject(s), _sid(vmSymbols::NO_SID)
+ciSymbol::ciSymbol(Symbol* s)
+  : _symbol(s), _sid(vmSymbols::NO_SID)
 {
+  assert(_symbol != NULL, "adding null symbol");
+  _symbol->increment_refcount();  // increment ref count
   assert(sid_ok(), "must not be in vmSymbols");
 }
 
 // ciSymbol
 //
-// This class represents a symbolOop in the HotSpot virtual
+// This class represents a Symbol* in the HotSpot virtual
 // machine.
 
 // ------------------------------------------------------------------
@@ -55,20 +59,20 @@
 // The text of the symbol as a null-terminated C string.
 const char* ciSymbol::as_utf8() {
   VM_QUICK_ENTRY_MARK;
-  symbolOop s = get_symbolOop();
+  Symbol* s = get_symbol();
   return s->as_utf8();
 }
 
 // ------------------------------------------------------------------
 // ciSymbol::base
-jbyte* ciSymbol::base() {
-  GUARDED_VM_ENTRY(return get_symbolOop()->base();)
+const jbyte* ciSymbol::base() {
+  GUARDED_VM_ENTRY(return get_symbol()->base();)
 }
 
 // ------------------------------------------------------------------
 // ciSymbol::byte_at
 int ciSymbol::byte_at(int i) {
-  GUARDED_VM_ENTRY(return get_symbolOop()->byte_at(i);)
+  GUARDED_VM_ENTRY(return get_symbol()->byte_at(i);)
 }
 
 // ------------------------------------------------------------------
@@ -76,7 +80,7 @@
 //
 // Tests if the symbol starts with the given prefix.
 bool ciSymbol::starts_with(const char* prefix, int len) const {
-  GUARDED_VM_ENTRY(return get_symbolOop()->starts_with(prefix, len);)
+  GUARDED_VM_ENTRY(return get_symbol()->starts_with(prefix, len);)
 }
 
 // ------------------------------------------------------------------
@@ -84,13 +88,13 @@
 //
 // Determines where the symbol contains the given substring.
 int ciSymbol::index_of_at(int i, const char* str, int len) const {
-  GUARDED_VM_ENTRY(return get_symbolOop()->index_of_at(i, str, len);)
+  GUARDED_VM_ENTRY(return get_symbol()->index_of_at(i, str, len);)
 }
 
 // ------------------------------------------------------------------
 // ciSymbol::utf8_length
 int ciSymbol::utf8_length() {
-  GUARDED_VM_ENTRY(return get_symbolOop()->utf8_length();)
+  GUARDED_VM_ENTRY(return get_symbol()->utf8_length();)
 }
 
 // ------------------------------------------------------------------
@@ -107,7 +111,7 @@
 //
 // Print the value of this symbol on an outputStream
 void ciSymbol::print_symbol_on(outputStream *st) {
-  GUARDED_VM_ENTRY(get_symbolOop()->print_symbol_on(st);)
+  GUARDED_VM_ENTRY(get_symbol()->print_symbol_on(st);)
 }
 
 // ------------------------------------------------------------------
@@ -116,15 +120,13 @@
 // Make a ciSymbol from a C string (implementation).
 ciSymbol* ciSymbol::make_impl(const char* s) {
   EXCEPTION_CONTEXT;
-  // For some reason, oopFactory::new_symbol doesn't declare its
-  // char* argument as const.
-  symbolOop sym = oopFactory::new_symbol((char*)s, (int)strlen(s), THREAD);
+  TempNewSymbol sym = SymbolTable::new_symbol(s, THREAD);
   if (HAS_PENDING_EXCEPTION) {
     CLEAR_PENDING_EXCEPTION;
     CURRENT_THREAD_ENV->record_out_of_memory_failure();
     return ciEnv::_unloaded_cisymbol;
   }
-  return CURRENT_THREAD_ENV->get_object(sym)->as_symbol();
+  return CURRENT_THREAD_ENV->get_symbol(sym);
 }
 
 // ------------------------------------------------------------------
--- a/src/share/vm/ci/ciSymbol.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/ci/ciSymbol.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -28,15 +28,18 @@
 #include "ci/ciObject.hpp"
 #include "ci/ciObjectFactory.hpp"
 #include "classfile/vmSymbols.hpp"
-#include "oops/symbolOop.hpp"
+#include "oops/symbol.hpp"
 
 // ciSymbol
 //
-// This class represents a symbolOop in the HotSpot virtual
+// This class represents a Symbol* in the HotSpot virtual
 // machine.
-class ciSymbol : public ciObject {
+class ciSymbol : public ResourceObj {
+  Symbol* _symbol;
+  uint _ident;
+
   CI_PACKAGE_ACCESS
-  // These friends all make direct use of get_symbolOop:
+  // These friends all make direct use of get_symbol:
   friend class ciEnv;
   friend class ciInstanceKlass;
   friend class ciSignature;
@@ -45,24 +48,28 @@
 
 private:
   const vmSymbols::SID _sid;
-  DEBUG_ONLY( bool sid_ok() { return vmSymbols::find_sid(get_symbolOop()) == _sid; } )
+  DEBUG_ONLY( bool sid_ok() { return vmSymbols::find_sid(get_symbol()) == _sid; } )
 
-  ciSymbol(symbolOop s);  // normal case, for symbols not mentioned in vmSymbols
-  ciSymbol(symbolHandle s, vmSymbols::SID sid);   // for use with vmSymbolHandles
+  ciSymbol(Symbol* s);  // normal case, for symbols not mentioned in vmSymbols
+  ciSymbol(Symbol* s, vmSymbols::SID sid);   // for use with vmSymbols
 
-  symbolOop get_symbolOop() const { return (symbolOop)get_oop(); }
+  Symbol* get_symbol() const { return _symbol; }
 
   const char* type_string() { return "ciSymbol"; }
 
   void print_impl(outputStream* st);
 
-  // This is public in symbolOop but private here, because the base can move:
-  jbyte*      base();
+  // This is public in Symbol* but private here, because the base can move:
+  const jbyte* base();
 
   // Make a ciSymbol from a C string (implementation).
   static ciSymbol* make_impl(const char* s);
 
+  void set_ident(uint id) { _ident = id; }
 public:
+  // A number unique to this object.
+  uint ident() { return _ident; }
+
   // The enumeration ID from vmSymbols, or vmSymbols::NO_SID if none.
   vmSymbols::SID sid() const { return _sid; }
 
@@ -79,9 +86,6 @@
   // Determines where the symbol contains the given substring.
   int index_of_at(int i, const char* str, int len) const;
 
-  // What kind of ciObject is this?
-  bool is_symbol() { return true; }
-
   void print_symbol_on(outputStream* st);
   void print_symbol() {
     print_symbol_on(tty);
@@ -96,6 +100,13 @@
   static ciSymbol* name() { return ciObjectFactory::vm_symbol_at(vmSymbols::VM_SYMBOL_ENUM_NAME(name)); }
   VM_SYMBOLS_DO(CI_SYMBOL_DECLARE, CI_SYMBOL_DECLARE)
 #undef CI_SYMBOL_DECLARE
+
+  void print() {
+    _symbol->print();
+  }
+
+  // Are two ciSymbols equal?
+  bool equals(ciSymbol* obj) { return this->_symbol == obj->get_symbol(); }
 };
 
 #endif // SHARE_VM_CI_CISYMBOL_HPP
--- a/src/share/vm/ci/ciSymbolKlass.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,40 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Copyright (c) 1999, 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
- * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
- *
- * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
- * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
- * published by the Free Software Foundation.
- *
- * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
- * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
- * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
- * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
- * accompanied this code).
- *
- * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
- * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
- * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
- *
- * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
- * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
- * questions.
- *
- */
-
-#include "precompiled.hpp"
-#include "ci/ciSymbolKlass.hpp"
-#include "ci/ciUtilities.hpp"
-
-// ciSymbolKlass
-//
-// This class represents a klassOop in the HotSpot virtual machine
-// whose Klass part is a symbolKlass.
-
-// ------------------------------------------------------------------
-// ciSymbolKlass::instance
-//
-// Return the distinguished instance of this class
-ciSymbolKlass* ciSymbolKlass::make() {
-  return CURRENT_ENV->_symbol_klass_instance;
-}
--- a/src/share/vm/ci/ciSymbolKlass.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,60 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Copyright (c) 1999, 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
- * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
- *
- * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
- * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
- * published by the Free Software Foundation.
- *
- * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
- * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
- * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
- * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
- * accompanied this code).
- *
- * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
- * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
- * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
- *
- * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
- * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
- * questions.
- *
- */
-
-#ifndef SHARE_VM_CI_CISYMBOLKLASS_HPP
-#define SHARE_VM_CI_CISYMBOLKLASS_HPP
-
-#include "ci/ciKlass.hpp"
-#include "ci/ciSymbol.hpp"
-
-// ciSymbolKlass
-//
-// This class represents a klassOop in the HotSpot virtual machine
-// whose Klass part in a symbolKlass.  Although, in the VM
-// Klass hierarchy, symbolKlass is a direct subclass of typeArrayKlass,
-// we do not model this relationship in the ciObject hierarchy -- the
-// subclassing is used to share implementation and is not of note
-// to compiler writers.
-class ciSymbolKlass : public ciKlass {
-  CI_PACKAGE_ACCESS
-
-protected:
-  ciSymbolKlass(KlassHandle h_k)
-    : ciKlass(h_k, ciSymbol::make("unique_symbolKlass")) {
-    assert(get_Klass()->oop_is_symbol(), "wrong type");
-  }
-
-  symbolKlass* get_symbolKlass() { return (symbolKlass*)get_Klass(); }
-
-  const char* type_string() { return "ciSymbolKlass"; }
-
-public:
-  // What kind of ciObject is this?
-  bool is_symbol_klass() { return true; }
-
-  // Return the distinguished ciSymbolKlass instance.
-  static ciSymbolKlass* make();
-};
-
-#endif // SHARE_VM_CI_CISYMBOLKLASS_HPP
--- a/src/share/vm/ci/compilerInterface.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/ci/compilerInterface.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -49,7 +49,6 @@
 #include "ci/ciSignature.hpp"
 #include "ci/ciStreams.hpp"
 #include "ci/ciSymbol.hpp"
-#include "ci/ciSymbolKlass.hpp"
 #include "ci/ciTypeArray.hpp"
 #include "ci/ciTypeArrayKlass.hpp"
 #include "ci/ciTypeArrayKlassKlass.hpp"
--- a/src/share/vm/classfile/classFileError.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/classfile/classFileError.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -31,25 +31,25 @@
 
 void ClassFileParser::classfile_parse_error(const char* msg, TRAPS) {
     ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
-    Exceptions::fthrow(THREAD_AND_LOCATION, vmSymbolHandles::java_lang_ClassFormatError(),
+    Exceptions::fthrow(THREAD_AND_LOCATION, vmSymbols::java_lang_ClassFormatError(),
                        msg, _class_name->as_C_string());
 }
 
 void ClassFileParser::classfile_parse_error(const char* msg, int index, TRAPS) {
     ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
-    Exceptions::fthrow(THREAD_AND_LOCATION, vmSymbolHandles::java_lang_ClassFormatError(),
+    Exceptions::fthrow(THREAD_AND_LOCATION, vmSymbols::java_lang_ClassFormatError(),
                        msg, index, _class_name->as_C_string());
 }
 
 void ClassFileParser::classfile_parse_error(const char* msg, const char *name, TRAPS) {
     ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
-    Exceptions::fthrow(THREAD_AND_LOCATION, vmSymbolHandles::java_lang_ClassFormatError(),
+    Exceptions::fthrow(THREAD_AND_LOCATION, vmSymbols::java_lang_ClassFormatError(),
                        msg, name, _class_name->as_C_string());
 }
 
 void ClassFileParser::classfile_parse_error(const char* msg, int index, const char *name, TRAPS) {
     ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
-    Exceptions::fthrow(THREAD_AND_LOCATION, vmSymbolHandles::java_lang_ClassFormatError(),
+    Exceptions::fthrow(THREAD_AND_LOCATION, vmSymbols::java_lang_ClassFormatError(),
                        msg, index, name, _class_name->as_C_string());
 }
 
@@ -57,7 +57,7 @@
   ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
   Exceptions::fthrow(
     THREAD_AND_LOCATION,
-    vmSymbolHandles::java_lang_ClassFormatError(),
+    vmSymbols::java_lang_ClassFormatError(),
     "StackMapTable format error: %s", msg
   );
 }
--- a/src/share/vm/classfile/classFileParser.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/classfile/classFileParser.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -41,7 +41,7 @@
 #include "oops/klassOop.hpp"
 #include "oops/klassVtable.hpp"
 #include "oops/methodOop.hpp"
-#include "oops/symbolOop.hpp"
+#include "oops/symbol.hpp"
 #include "prims/jvmtiExport.hpp"
 #include "runtime/javaCalls.hpp"
 #include "runtime/perfData.hpp"
@@ -267,14 +267,14 @@
           }
 
           unsigned int hash;
-          symbolOop result = SymbolTable::lookup_only((char*)utf8_buffer, utf8_length, hash);
+          Symbol* result = SymbolTable::lookup_only((char*)utf8_buffer, utf8_length, hash);
           if (result == NULL) {
             names[names_count] = (char*)utf8_buffer;
             lengths[names_count] = utf8_length;
             indices[names_count] = index;
             hashValues[names_count++] = hash;
             if (names_count == SymbolTable::symbol_alloc_batch_size) {
-              oopFactory::new_symbols(cp, names_count, names, lengths, indices, hashValues, CHECK);
+              SymbolTable::new_symbols(cp, names_count, names, lengths, indices, hashValues, CHECK);
               names_count = 0;
             }
           } else {
@@ -291,7 +291,7 @@
 
   // Allocate the remaining symbols
   if (names_count > 0) {
-    oopFactory::new_symbols(cp, names_count, names, lengths, indices, hashValues, CHECK);
+    SymbolTable::new_symbols(cp, names_count, names, lengths, indices, hashValues, CHECK);
   }
 
   // Copy _current pointer of local copy back to stream().
@@ -301,6 +301,23 @@
   cfs0->set_current(cfs1.current());
 }
 
+// This class unreferences constant pool symbols if an error has occurred
+// while parsing the class before it is assigned into the class.
+// If it gets an error after that it is unloaded and the constant pool will
+// be cleaned up then.
+class ConstantPoolCleaner : public StackObj {
+  constantPoolHandle _cphandle;
+  bool               _in_error;
+ public:
+  ConstantPoolCleaner(constantPoolHandle cp) : _cphandle(cp), _in_error(true) {}
+  ~ConstantPoolCleaner() {
+    if (_in_error && _cphandle.not_null()) {
+      _cphandle->unreference_symbols();
+    }
+  }
+  void set_in_error(bool clean) { _in_error = clean; }
+};
+
 bool inline valid_cp_range(int index, int length) { return (index > 0 && index < length); }
 
 constantPoolHandle ClassFileParser::parse_constant_pool(TRAPS) {
@@ -319,6 +336,7 @@
   constantPoolHandle cp (THREAD, constant_pool);
 
   cp->set_partially_loaded();    // Enables heap verify to work on partial constantPoolOops
+  ConstantPoolCleaner cp_in_error(cp); // set constant pool to be cleaned up.
 
   // parsing constant pool entries
   parse_constant_pool_entries(cp, length, CHECK_(nullHandle));
@@ -411,7 +429,7 @@
               cp->tag_at(string_index).is_utf8(),
             "Invalid constant pool index %u in class file %s",
             string_index, CHECK_(nullHandle));
-          symbolOop sym = cp->symbol_at(string_index);
+          Symbol* sym = cp->symbol_at(string_index);
           cp->unresolved_string_at_put(index, sym);
         }
         break;
@@ -526,6 +544,7 @@
   }
 
   if (!_need_verify) {
+    cp_in_error.set_in_error(false);
     return cp;
   }
 
@@ -535,7 +554,7 @@
     jbyte tag = cp->tag_at(index).value();
     switch (tag) {
       case JVM_CONSTANT_UnresolvedClass: {
-        symbolHandle class_name(THREAD, cp->unresolved_klass_at(index));
+        Symbol*  class_name = cp->unresolved_klass_at(index);
         // check the name, even if _cp_patches will overwrite it
         verify_legal_class_name(class_name, CHECK_(nullHandle));
         break;
@@ -544,8 +563,8 @@
         if (_need_verify && _major_version >= JAVA_7_VERSION) {
           int sig_index = cp->signature_ref_index_at(index);
           int name_index = cp->name_ref_index_at(index);
-          symbolHandle name(THREAD, cp->symbol_at(name_index));
-          symbolHandle sig(THREAD, cp->symbol_at(sig_index));
+          Symbol*  name = cp->symbol_at(name_index);
+          Symbol*  sig = cp->symbol_at(sig_index);
           if (sig->byte_at(0) == JVM_SIGNATURE_FUNC) {
             verify_legal_method_signature(name, sig, CHECK_(nullHandle));
           } else {
@@ -562,8 +581,8 @@
         int name_ref_index = cp->name_ref_index_at(name_and_type_ref_index);
         // already verified to be utf8
         int signature_ref_index = cp->signature_ref_index_at(name_and_type_ref_index);
-        symbolHandle name(THREAD, cp->symbol_at(name_ref_index));
-        symbolHandle signature(THREAD, cp->symbol_at(signature_ref_index));
+        Symbol*  name = cp->symbol_at(name_ref_index);
+        Symbol*  signature = cp->symbol_at(signature_ref_index);
         if (tag == JVM_CONSTANT_Fieldref) {
           verify_legal_field_name(name, CHECK_(nullHandle));
           if (_need_verify && _major_version >= JAVA_7_VERSION) {
@@ -590,11 +609,11 @@
           }
           if (tag == JVM_CONSTANT_Methodref) {
             // 4509014: If a class method name begins with '<', it must be "<init>".
-            assert(!name.is_null(), "method name in constant pool is null");
+            assert(name != NULL, "method name in constant pool is null");
             unsigned int name_len = name->utf8_length();
             assert(name_len > 0, "bad method name");  // already verified as legal name
             if (name->byte_at(0) == '<') {
-              if (name() != vmSymbols::object_initializer_name()) {
+              if (name != vmSymbols::object_initializer_name()) {
                 classfile_parse_error(
                   "Bad method name at constant pool index %u in class file %s",
                   name_ref_index, CHECK_(nullHandle));
@@ -615,15 +634,15 @@
           {
             int name_and_type_ref_index = cp->name_and_type_ref_index_at(ref_index);
             int name_ref_index = cp->name_ref_index_at(name_and_type_ref_index);
-            symbolHandle name(THREAD, cp->symbol_at(name_ref_index));
+            Symbol*  name = cp->symbol_at(name_ref_index);
             if (ref_kind == JVM_REF_newInvokeSpecial) {
-              if (name() != vmSymbols::object_initializer_name()) {
+              if (name != vmSymbols::object_initializer_name()) {
                 classfile_parse_error(
                   "Bad constructor name at constant pool index %u in class file %s",
                   name_ref_index, CHECK_(nullHandle));
               }
             } else {
-              if (name() == vmSymbols::object_initializer_name()) {
+              if (name == vmSymbols::object_initializer_name()) {
                 classfile_parse_error(
                   "Bad method name at constant pool index %u in class file %s",
                   name_ref_index, CHECK_(nullHandle));
@@ -636,14 +655,18 @@
         break;
       }
       case JVM_CONSTANT_MethodType: {
-        symbolHandle no_name = vmSymbolHandles::type_name(); // place holder
-        symbolHandle signature(THREAD, cp->method_type_signature_at(index));
+        Symbol* no_name = vmSymbols::type_name(); // place holder
+        Symbol*  signature = cp->method_type_signature_at(index);
         verify_legal_method_signature(no_name, signature, CHECK_(nullHandle));
         break;
       }
+      case JVM_CONSTANT_Utf8: {
+        assert(cp->symbol_at(index)->refcount() != 0, "count corrupted");
+      }
     }  // end of switch
   }  // end of for
 
+  cp_in_error.set_in_error(false);
   return cp;
 }
 
@@ -665,8 +688,8 @@
       guarantee_property(java_lang_String::is_instance(patch()),
                          "Illegal class patch at %d in class file %s",
                          index, CHECK);
-      symbolHandle name = java_lang_String::as_symbol(patch(), CHECK);
-      cp->unresolved_klass_at_put(index, name());
+      Symbol* name = java_lang_String::as_symbol(patch(), CHECK);
+      cp->unresolved_klass_at_put(index, name);
     }
     break;
 
@@ -717,15 +740,15 @@
 
 class NameSigHash: public ResourceObj {
  public:
-  symbolOop     _name;       // name
-  symbolOop     _sig;        // signature
+  Symbol*       _name;       // name
+  Symbol*       _sig;        // signature
   NameSigHash*  _next;       // Next entry in hash table
 };
 
 
 #define HASH_ROW_SIZE 256
 
-unsigned int hash(symbolOop name, symbolOop sig) {
+unsigned int hash(Symbol* name, Symbol* sig) {
   unsigned int raw_hash = 0;
   raw_hash += ((unsigned int)(uintptr_t)name) >> (LogHeapWordSize + 2);
   raw_hash += ((unsigned int)(uintptr_t)sig) >> LogHeapWordSize;
@@ -742,8 +765,8 @@
 // Return true if no duplicate is found. And name/sig is added as a new entry in table.
 // The old format checker uses heap sort to find duplicates.
 // NOTE: caller should guarantee that GC doesn't happen during the life cycle
-// of table since we don't expect symbolOop's to move.
-bool put_after_lookup(symbolOop name, symbolOop sig, NameSigHash** table) {
+// of table since we don't expect Symbol*'s to move.
+bool put_after_lookup(Symbol* name, Symbol* sig, NameSigHash** table) {
   assert(name != NULL, "name in constant pool is NULL");
 
   // First lookup for duplicates
@@ -773,7 +796,7 @@
                                                  int length,
                                                  Handle class_loader,
                                                  Handle protection_domain,
-                                                 symbolHandle class_name,
+                                                 Symbol* class_name,
                                                  TRAPS) {
   ClassFileStream* cfs = stream();
   assert(length > 0, "only called for length>0");
@@ -793,7 +816,7 @@
     if (cp->tag_at(interface_index).is_klass()) {
       interf = KlassHandle(THREAD, cp->resolved_klass_at(interface_index));
     } else {
-      symbolHandle unresolved_klass (THREAD, cp->klass_name_at(interface_index));
+      Symbol*  unresolved_klass  = cp->klass_name_at(interface_index);
 
       // Don't need to check legal name because it's checked when parsing constant pool.
       // But need to make sure it's not an array type.
@@ -830,7 +853,7 @@
     debug_only(No_Safepoint_Verifier nsv;)
     for (index = 0; index < length; index++) {
       klassOop k = (klassOop)interfaces->obj_at(index);
-      symbolOop name = instanceKlass::cast(k)->name();
+      Symbol* name = instanceKlass::cast(k)->name();
       // If no duplicates, add (name, NULL) in hashtable interface_names.
       if (!put_after_lookup(name, NULL, interface_names)) {
         dup = true;
@@ -908,7 +931,7 @@
                    "Invalid field attribute index %u in class file %s",
                    attribute_name_index,
                    CHECK);
-    symbolOop attribute_name = cp->symbol_at(attribute_name_index);
+    Symbol* attribute_name = cp->symbol_at(attribute_name_index);
     if (is_static && attribute_name == vmSymbols::tag_constant_value()) {
       // ignore if non-static
       if (constantvalue_index != 0) {
@@ -1031,7 +1054,7 @@
       valid_cp_range(name_index, cp_size) && cp->tag_at(name_index).is_utf8(),
       "Invalid constant pool index %u for field name in class file %s",
       name_index, CHECK_(nullHandle));
-    symbolHandle name(THREAD, cp->symbol_at(name_index));
+    Symbol*  name = cp->symbol_at(name_index);
     verify_legal_field_name(name, CHECK_(nullHandle));
 
     u2 signature_index = cfs->get_u2_fast();
@@ -1040,7 +1063,7 @@
         cp->tag_at(signature_index).is_utf8(),
       "Invalid constant pool index %u for field signature in class file %s",
       signature_index, CHECK_(nullHandle));
-    symbolHandle sig(THREAD, cp->symbol_at(signature_index));
+    Symbol*  sig = cp->symbol_at(signature_index);
     verify_legal_field_signature(name, sig, CHECK_(nullHandle));
 
     u2 constantvalue_index = 0;
@@ -1166,9 +1189,9 @@
       debug_only(No_Safepoint_Verifier nsv;)
       for (int i = 0; i < length*instanceKlass::next_offset; i += instanceKlass::next_offset) {
         int name_index = fields->ushort_at(i + instanceKlass::name_index_offset);
-        symbolOop name = cp->symbol_at(name_index);
+        Symbol* name = cp->symbol_at(name_index);
         int sig_index = fields->ushort_at(i + instanceKlass::signature_index_offset);
-        symbolOop sig = cp->symbol_at(sig_index);
+        Symbol* sig = cp->symbol_at(sig_index);
         // If no duplicates, add name/signature in hashtable names_and_sigs.
         if (!put_after_lookup(name, sig, names_and_sigs)) {
           dup = true;
@@ -1422,16 +1445,16 @@
         "Signature index %u in %s has bad constant type in class file %s",
         descriptor_index, tbl_name, CHECK_NULL);
 
-      symbolHandle name(THREAD, cp->symbol_at(name_index));
-      symbolHandle sig(THREAD, cp->symbol_at(descriptor_index));
+      Symbol*  name = cp->symbol_at(name_index);
+      Symbol*  sig = cp->symbol_at(descriptor_index);
       verify_legal_field_name(name, CHECK_NULL);
       u2 extra_slot = 0;
       if (!isLVTT) {
         verify_legal_field_signature(name, sig, CHECK_NULL);
 
         // 4894874: check special cases for double and long local variables
-        if (sig() == vmSymbols::type_signature(T_DOUBLE) ||
-            sig() == vmSymbols::type_signature(T_LONG)) {
+        if (sig == vmSymbols::type_signature(T_DOUBLE) ||
+            sig == vmSymbols::type_signature(T_LONG)) {
           extra_slot = 1;
         }
       }
@@ -1539,7 +1562,7 @@
 }
 
 void ClassFileParser::throwIllegalSignature(
-    const char* type, symbolHandle name, symbolHandle sig, TRAPS) {
+    const char* type, Symbol* name, Symbol* sig, TRAPS) {
   ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
   Exceptions::fthrow(THREAD_AND_LOCATION,
       vmSymbols::java_lang_ClassFormatError(),
@@ -1580,7 +1603,7 @@
       cp->tag_at(name_index).is_utf8(),
     "Illegal constant pool index %u for method name in class file %s",
     name_index, CHECK_(nullHandle));
-  symbolHandle name(THREAD, cp->symbol_at(name_index));
+  Symbol*  name = cp->symbol_at(name_index);
   verify_legal_method_name(name, CHECK_(nullHandle));
 
   u2 signature_index = cfs->get_u2_fast();
@@ -1589,7 +1612,7 @@
       cp->tag_at(signature_index).is_utf8(),
     "Illegal constant pool index %u for method signature in class file %s",
     signature_index, CHECK_(nullHandle));
-  symbolHandle signature(THREAD, cp->symbol_at(signature_index));
+  Symbol*  signature = cp->symbol_at(signature_index);
 
   AccessFlags access_flags;
   if (name == vmSymbols::class_initializer_name()) {
@@ -1660,7 +1683,7 @@
       "Invalid method attribute name index %u in class file %s",
       method_attribute_name_index, CHECK_(nullHandle));
 
-    symbolOop method_attribute_name = cp->symbol_at(method_attribute_name_index);
+    Symbol* method_attribute_name = cp->symbol_at(method_attribute_name_index);
     if (method_attribute_name == vmSymbols::tag_code()) {
       // Parse Code attribute
       if (_need_verify) {
@@ -2057,16 +2080,16 @@
                                                      0,
                                                      CHECK_(nullHandle));
 
-  if (name() == vmSymbols::finalize_method_name() &&
-      signature() == vmSymbols::void_method_signature()) {
+  if (name == vmSymbols::finalize_method_name() &&
+      signature == vmSymbols::void_method_signature()) {
     if (m->is_empty_method()) {
       _has_empty_finalizer = true;
     } else {
       _has_finalizer = true;
     }
   }
-  if (name() == vmSymbols::object_initializer_name() &&
-      signature() == vmSymbols::void_method_signature() &&
+  if (name == vmSymbols::object_initializer_name() &&
+      signature == vmSymbols::void_method_signature() &&
       m->is_vanilla_constructor()) {
     _has_vanilla_constructor = true;
   }
@@ -2193,7 +2216,7 @@
     }
   }
   // Sort method array by ascending method name (for faster lookups & vtable construction)
-  // Note that the ordering is not alphabetical, see symbolOopDesc::fast_compare
+  // Note that the ordering is not alphabetical, see Symbol::fast_compare
   methodOopDesc::sort_methods(methods(),
                               methods_annotations(),
                               methods_parameter_annotations(),
@@ -2242,9 +2265,10 @@
   if (JvmtiExport::can_get_source_debug_extension()) {
     // Optimistically assume that only 1 byte UTF format is used
     // (common case)
-    symbolOop sde_symbol = oopFactory::new_symbol((char*)sde_buffer,
-                                                  length, CHECK);
+    TempNewSymbol sde_symbol = SymbolTable::new_symbol((const char*)sde_buffer, length, CHECK);
     k->set_source_debug_extension(sde_symbol);
+    // Note that set_source_debug_extension() increments the reference count
+    // for its copy of the Symbol*, so use a TempNewSymbol here.
   }
   // Got utf8 string, set stream position forward
   cfs->skip_u1(length, CHECK);
@@ -2440,7 +2464,7 @@
         cp->tag_at(attribute_name_index).is_utf8(),
       "Attribute name has bad constant pool index %u in class file %s",
       attribute_name_index, CHECK);
-    symbolOop tag = cp->symbol_at(attribute_name_index);
+    Symbol* tag = cp->symbol_at(attribute_name_index);
     if (tag == vmSymbols::tag_source_file()) {
       // Check for SourceFile tag
       if (_need_verify) {
@@ -2607,7 +2631,7 @@
       case T_OBJECT:
         {
           #ifdef ASSERT
-          symbolOop sym = oopFactory::new_symbol("Ljava/lang/String;", CHECK);
+          TempNewSymbol sym = SymbolTable::new_symbol("Ljava/lang/String;", CHECK);
           assert(fd->signature() == sym, "just checking");
           #endif
           oop string = fd->string_initial_value(CHECK);
@@ -2650,8 +2674,8 @@
     (*fields_ptr)()->ushort_at(i + instanceKlass::name_index_offset);
     int sig_index  =
       (*fields_ptr)()->ushort_at(i + instanceKlass::signature_index_offset);
-    symbolOop f_name = cp->symbol_at(name_index);
-    symbolOop f_sig  = cp->symbol_at(sig_index);
+    Symbol* f_name = cp->symbol_at(name_index);
+    Symbol* f_sig  = cp->symbol_at(sig_index);
     if (f_sig == vmSymbols::reference_signature() && reference_index == 0) {
       // Save the index for reference signature for later use.
       // The fake discovered field does not entries in the
@@ -2805,9 +2829,8 @@
     int name_index = fields->ushort_at(i + instanceKlass::name_index_offset);
     int sig_index  = fields->ushort_at(i + instanceKlass::signature_index_offset);
     int acc_flags  = fields->ushort_at(i + instanceKlass::access_flags_offset);
-    symbolOop f_name = cp->symbol_at(name_index);
-    symbolOop f_sig  = cp->symbol_at(sig_index);
-
+    Symbol* f_name = cp->symbol_at(name_index);
+    Symbol* f_sig  = cp->symbol_at(sig_index);
     if (f_name == vmSymbols::vmentry_name() && (acc_flags & JVM_ACC_STATIC) == 0) {
       if (f_sig == vmSymbols::machine_word_signature()) {
         // If the signature of vmentry is already changed, we're done.
@@ -2841,12 +2864,12 @@
 }
 
 
-instanceKlassHandle ClassFileParser::parseClassFile(symbolHandle name,
+instanceKlassHandle ClassFileParser::parseClassFile(Symbol* name,
                                                     Handle class_loader,
                                                     Handle protection_domain,
                                                     KlassHandle host_klass,
                                                     GrowableArray<Handle>* cp_patches,
-                                                    symbolHandle& parsed_name,
+                                                    TempNewSymbol& parsed_name,
                                                     bool verify,
                                                     TRAPS) {
   // So that JVMTI can cache class file in the state before retransformable agents
@@ -2899,7 +2922,7 @@
   cfs->set_verify(_need_verify);
 
   // Save the class file name for easier error message printing.
-  _class_name = name.not_null()? name : vmSymbolHandles::unknown_class_name();
+  _class_name = (name != NULL) ? name : vmSymbols::unknown_class_name();
 
   cfs->guarantee_more(8, CHECK_(nullHandle));  // magic, major, minor
   // Magic value
@@ -2914,10 +2937,10 @@
 
   // Check version numbers - we check this even with verifier off
   if (!is_supported_version(major_version, minor_version)) {
-    if (name.is_null()) {
+    if (name == NULL) {
       Exceptions::fthrow(
         THREAD_AND_LOCATION,
-        vmSymbolHandles::java_lang_UnsupportedClassVersionError(),
+        vmSymbols::java_lang_UnsupportedClassVersionError(),
         "Unsupported major.minor version %u.%u",
         major_version,
         minor_version);
@@ -2925,7 +2948,7 @@
       ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
       Exceptions::fthrow(
         THREAD_AND_LOCATION,
-        vmSymbolHandles::java_lang_UnsupportedClassVersionError(),
+        vmSymbols::java_lang_UnsupportedClassVersionError(),
         "%s : Unsupported major.minor version %u.%u",
         name->as_C_string(),
         major_version,
@@ -2944,6 +2967,8 @@
 
   // Constant pool
   constantPoolHandle cp = parse_constant_pool(CHECK_(nullHandle));
+  ConstantPoolCleaner error_handler(cp); // set constant pool to be cleaned up.
+
   int cp_size = cp->length();
 
   cfs->guarantee_more(8, CHECK_(nullHandle));  // flags, this_class, super_class, infs_len
@@ -2968,12 +2993,15 @@
     "Invalid this class index %u in constant pool in class file %s",
     this_class_index, CHECK_(nullHandle));
 
-  symbolHandle class_name (THREAD, cp->unresolved_klass_at(this_class_index));
-  assert(class_name.not_null(), "class_name can't be null");
+  Symbol*  class_name  = cp->unresolved_klass_at(this_class_index);
+  assert(class_name != NULL, "class_name can't be null");
 
   // It's important to set parsed_name *before* resolving the super class.
   // (it's used for cleanup by the caller if parsing fails)
   parsed_name = class_name;
+  // parsed_name is returned and can be used if there's an error, so add to
+  // its reference count.  Caller will decrement the refcount.
+  parsed_name->increment_refcount();
 
   // Update _class_name which could be null previously to be class_name
   _class_name = class_name;
@@ -2993,11 +3021,11 @@
   { HandleMark hm(THREAD);
 
     // Checks if name in class file matches requested name
-    if (name.not_null() && class_name() != name()) {
+    if (name != NULL && class_name != name) {
       ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
       Exceptions::fthrow(
         THREAD_AND_LOCATION,
-        vmSymbolHandles::java_lang_NoClassDefFoundError(),
+        vmSymbols::java_lang_NoClassDefFoundError(),
         "%s (wrong name: %s)",
         name->as_C_string(),
         class_name->as_C_string()
@@ -3006,14 +3034,14 @@
     }
 
     if (TraceClassLoadingPreorder) {
-      tty->print("[Loading %s", name()->as_klass_external_name());
+      tty->print("[Loading %s", name->as_klass_external_name());
       if (cfs->source() != NULL) tty->print(" from %s", cfs->source());
       tty->print_cr("]");
     }
 
     u2 super_class_index = cfs->get_u2_fast();
     if (super_class_index == 0) {
-      check_property(class_name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_Object(),
+      check_property(class_name == vmSymbols::java_lang_Object(),
                      "Invalid superclass index %u in class file %s",
                      super_class_index,
                      CHECK_(nullHandle));
@@ -3075,11 +3103,11 @@
 
     // We check super class after class file is parsed and format is checked
     if (super_class_index > 0 && super_klass.is_null()) {
-      symbolHandle sk (THREAD, cp->klass_name_at(super_class_index));
+      Symbol*  sk  = cp->klass_name_at(super_class_index);
       if (access_flags.is_interface()) {
         // Before attempting to resolve the superclass, check for class format
         // errors not checked yet.
-        guarantee_property(sk() == vmSymbols::java_lang_Object(),
+        guarantee_property(sk == vmSymbols::java_lang_Object(),
                            "Interfaces must have java.lang.Object as superclass in class file %s",
                            CHECK_(nullHandle));
       }
@@ -3100,7 +3128,7 @@
         ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
         Exceptions::fthrow(
           THREAD_AND_LOCATION,
-          vmSymbolHandles::java_lang_IncompatibleClassChangeError(),
+          vmSymbols::java_lang_IncompatibleClassChangeError(),
           "class %s has interface %s as super class",
           class_name->as_klass_external_name(),
           super_klass->external_name()
@@ -3193,18 +3221,18 @@
     next_nonstatic_field_offset = first_nonstatic_field_offset;
 
     // Add fake fields for java.lang.Class instances (also see below)
-    if (class_name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_Class() && class_loader.is_null()) {
+    if (class_name == vmSymbols::java_lang_Class() && class_loader.is_null()) {
       java_lang_Class_fix_pre(&methods, &fac, CHECK_(nullHandle));
     }
 
     // adjust the vmentry field declaration in java.dyn.MethodHandle
-    if (EnableMethodHandles && class_name() == vmSymbols::sun_dyn_MethodHandleImpl() && class_loader.is_null()) {
+    if (EnableMethodHandles && class_name == vmSymbols::sun_dyn_MethodHandleImpl() && class_loader.is_null()) {
       java_dyn_MethodHandle_fix_pre(cp, fields, &fac, CHECK_(nullHandle));
     }
 
     // Add a fake "discovered" field if it is not present
     // for compatibility with earlier jdk's.
-    if (class_name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_ref_Reference()
+    if (class_name == vmSymbols::java_lang_ref_Reference()
       && class_loader.is_null()) {
       java_lang_ref_Reference_fix_pre(&fields, cp, &fac, CHECK_(nullHandle));
     }
@@ -3236,7 +3264,7 @@
 
     // Add fake fields for java.lang.Class instances (also see above).
     // FieldsAllocationStyle and CompactFields values will be reset to default.
-    if(class_name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_Class() && class_loader.is_null()) {
+    if(class_name == vmSymbols::java_lang_Class() && class_loader.is_null()) {
       java_lang_Class_fix_post(&next_nonstatic_field_offset);
       nonstatic_oop_offsets[0] = first_nonstatic_field_offset;
       const uint fake_oop_count = (next_nonstatic_field_offset -
@@ -3279,22 +3307,22 @@
     // (see in JavaClasses::compute_hard_coded_offsets()).
     // Use default fields allocation order for them.
     if( (allocation_style != 0 || compact_fields ) && class_loader.is_null() &&
-        (class_name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_AssertionStatusDirectives() ||
-         class_name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_Class() ||
-         class_name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_ClassLoader() ||
-         class_name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_ref_Reference() ||
-         class_name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_ref_SoftReference() ||
-         class_name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_StackTraceElement() ||
-         class_name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_String() ||
-         class_name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_Throwable() ||
-         class_name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_Boolean() ||
-         class_name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_Character() ||
-         class_name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_Float() ||
-         class_name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_Double() ||
-         class_name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_Byte() ||
-         class_name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_Short() ||
-         class_name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_Integer() ||
-         class_name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_Long())) {
+        (class_name == vmSymbols::java_lang_AssertionStatusDirectives() ||
+         class_name == vmSymbols::java_lang_Class() ||
+         class_name == vmSymbols::java_lang_ClassLoader() ||
+         class_name == vmSymbols::java_lang_ref_Reference() ||
+         class_name == vmSymbols::java_lang_ref_SoftReference() ||
+         class_name == vmSymbols::java_lang_StackTraceElement() ||
+         class_name == vmSymbols::java_lang_String() ||
+         class_name == vmSymbols::java_lang_Throwable() ||
+         class_name == vmSymbols::java_lang_Boolean() ||
+         class_name == vmSymbols::java_lang_Character() ||
+         class_name == vmSymbols::java_lang_Float() ||
+         class_name == vmSymbols::java_lang_Double() ||
+         class_name == vmSymbols::java_lang_Byte() ||
+         class_name == vmSymbols::java_lang_Short() ||
+         class_name == vmSymbols::java_lang_Integer() ||
+         class_name == vmSymbols::java_lang_Long())) {
       allocation_style = 0;     // Allocate oops first
       compact_fields   = false; // Don't compact fields
     }
@@ -3543,6 +3571,7 @@
     this_klass->set_has_nonstatic_fields(has_nonstatic_fields);
     this_klass->set_static_oop_field_size(fac.static_oop_count);
     cp->set_pool_holder(this_klass());
+    error_handler.set_in_error(false);   // turn off error handler for cp
     this_klass->set_constants(cp());
     this_klass->set_local_interfaces(local_interfaces());
     this_klass->set_fields(fields());
@@ -3935,7 +3964,7 @@
     ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
     Exceptions::fthrow(
       THREAD_AND_LOCATION,
-      vmSymbolHandles::java_lang_IllegalAccessError(),
+      vmSymbols::java_lang_IllegalAccessError(),
       "class %s cannot access its superclass %s",
       this_klass->external_name(),
       instanceKlass::cast(super)->external_name()
@@ -3955,7 +3984,7 @@
       ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
       Exceptions::fthrow(
         THREAD_AND_LOCATION,
-        vmSymbolHandles::java_lang_IllegalAccessError(),
+        vmSymbols::java_lang_IllegalAccessError(),
         "class %s cannot access its superinterface %s",
         this_klass->external_name(),
         instanceKlass::cast(k)->external_name()
@@ -3979,8 +4008,8 @@
         (!m->is_static()) &&
         (m->name() != vmSymbols::object_initializer_name())) {
 
-      symbolOop name = m->name();
-      symbolOop signature = m->signature();
+      Symbol* name = m->name();
+      Symbol* signature = m->signature();
       klassOop k = this_klass->super();
       methodOop super_m = NULL;
       while (k != NULL) {
@@ -4003,7 +4032,7 @@
             ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
             Exceptions::fthrow(
               THREAD_AND_LOCATION,
-              vmSymbolHandles::java_lang_VerifyError(),
+              vmSymbols::java_lang_VerifyError(),
               "class %s overrides final method %s.%s",
               this_klass->external_name(),
               name->as_C_string(),
@@ -4037,7 +4066,7 @@
       ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
       Exceptions::fthrow(
         THREAD_AND_LOCATION,
-        vmSymbolHandles::java_lang_VerifyError(),
+        vmSymbols::java_lang_VerifyError(),
         "Illegal static method %s in interface %s",
         m->name()->as_C_string(),
         this_klass->external_name()
@@ -4067,7 +4096,7 @@
     ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
     Exceptions::fthrow(
       THREAD_AND_LOCATION,
-      vmSymbolHandles::java_lang_ClassFormatError(),
+      vmSymbols::java_lang_ClassFormatError(),
       "Illegal class modifiers in class %s: 0x%X",
       _class_name->as_C_string(), flags
     );
@@ -4127,7 +4156,7 @@
     ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
     Exceptions::fthrow(
       THREAD_AND_LOCATION,
-      vmSymbolHandles::java_lang_ClassFormatError(),
+      vmSymbols::java_lang_ClassFormatError(),
       "Illegal field modifiers in class %s: 0x%X",
       _class_name->as_C_string(), flags);
     return;
@@ -4135,7 +4164,7 @@
 }
 
 void ClassFileParser::verify_legal_method_modifiers(
-    jint flags, bool is_interface, symbolHandle name, TRAPS) {
+    jint flags, bool is_interface, Symbol* name, TRAPS) {
   if (!_need_verify) { return; }
 
   const bool is_public       = (flags & JVM_ACC_PUBLIC)       != 0;
@@ -4180,7 +4209,7 @@
     ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
     Exceptions::fthrow(
       THREAD_AND_LOCATION,
-      vmSymbolHandles::java_lang_ClassFormatError(),
+      vmSymbols::java_lang_ClassFormatError(),
       "Method %s in class %s has illegal modifiers: 0x%X",
       name->as_C_string(), _class_name->as_C_string(), flags);
     return;
@@ -4251,7 +4280,7 @@
 }
 
 // Checks if name is a legal class name.
-void ClassFileParser::verify_legal_class_name(symbolHandle name, TRAPS) {
+void ClassFileParser::verify_legal_class_name(Symbol* name, TRAPS) {
   if (!_need_verify || _relax_verify) { return; }
 
   char buf[fixed_buffer_size];
@@ -4281,7 +4310,7 @@
     ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
     Exceptions::fthrow(
       THREAD_AND_LOCATION,
-      vmSymbolHandles::java_lang_ClassFormatError(),
+      vmSymbols::java_lang_ClassFormatError(),
       "Illegal class name \"%s\" in class file %s", bytes,
       _class_name->as_C_string()
     );
@@ -4290,7 +4319,7 @@
 }
 
 // Checks if name is a legal field name.
-void ClassFileParser::verify_legal_field_name(symbolHandle name, TRAPS) {
+void ClassFileParser::verify_legal_field_name(Symbol* name, TRAPS) {
   if (!_need_verify || _relax_verify) { return; }
 
   char buf[fixed_buffer_size];
@@ -4314,7 +4343,7 @@
     ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
     Exceptions::fthrow(
       THREAD_AND_LOCATION,
-      vmSymbolHandles::java_lang_ClassFormatError(),
+      vmSymbols::java_lang_ClassFormatError(),
       "Illegal field name \"%s\" in class %s", bytes,
       _class_name->as_C_string()
     );
@@ -4323,10 +4352,10 @@
 }
 
 // Checks if name is a legal method name.
-void ClassFileParser::verify_legal_method_name(symbolHandle name, TRAPS) {
+void ClassFileParser::verify_legal_method_name(Symbol* name, TRAPS) {
   if (!_need_verify || _relax_verify) { return; }
 
-  assert(!name.is_null(), "method name is null");
+  assert(name != NULL, "method name is null");
   char buf[fixed_buffer_size];
   char* bytes = name->as_utf8_flexible_buffer(THREAD, buf, fixed_buffer_size);
   unsigned int length = name->utf8_length();
@@ -4351,7 +4380,7 @@
     ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
     Exceptions::fthrow(
       THREAD_AND_LOCATION,
-      vmSymbolHandles::java_lang_ClassFormatError(),
+      vmSymbols::java_lang_ClassFormatError(),
       "Illegal method name \"%s\" in class %s", bytes,
       _class_name->as_C_string()
     );
@@ -4361,7 +4390,7 @@
 
 
 // Checks if signature is a legal field signature.
-void ClassFileParser::verify_legal_field_signature(symbolHandle name, symbolHandle signature, TRAPS) {
+void ClassFileParser::verify_legal_field_signature(Symbol* name, Symbol* signature, TRAPS) {
   if (!_need_verify) { return; }
 
   char buf[fixed_buffer_size];
@@ -4376,7 +4405,7 @@
 
 // Checks if signature is a legal method signature.
 // Returns number of parameters
-int ClassFileParser::verify_legal_method_signature(symbolHandle name, symbolHandle signature, TRAPS) {
+int ClassFileParser::verify_legal_method_signature(Symbol* name, Symbol* signature, TRAPS) {
   if (!_need_verify) {
     // make sure caller's args_size will be less than 0 even for non-static
     // method so it will be recomputed in compute_size_of_parameters().
@@ -4508,8 +4537,8 @@
       // public static boolean isJavaIdentifierStart(char ch);
       JavaCalls::call_static(&result,
                              klass,
-                             vmSymbolHandles::isJavaIdentifierStart_name(),
-                             vmSymbolHandles::int_bool_signature(),
+                             vmSymbols::isJavaIdentifierStart_name(),
+                             vmSymbols::int_bool_signature(),
                              &args,
                              THREAD);
 
@@ -4525,8 +4554,8 @@
         // public static boolean isJavaIdentifierPart(char ch);
         JavaCalls::call_static(&result,
                                klass,
-                               vmSymbolHandles::isJavaIdentifierPart_name(),
-                               vmSymbolHandles::int_bool_signature(),
+                               vmSymbols::isJavaIdentifierPart_name(),
+                               vmSymbols::int_bool_signature(),
                                &args,
                                THREAD);
 
--- a/src/share/vm/classfile/classFileParser.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/classfile/classFileParser.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -32,6 +32,7 @@
 #include "runtime/handles.inline.hpp"
 #include "utilities/accessFlags.hpp"
 
+class TempNewSymbol;
 // Parser for for .class files
 //
 // The bytes describing the class file structure is read from a Stream object
@@ -42,7 +43,7 @@
   bool _relax_verify;
   u2   _major_version;
   u2   _minor_version;
-  symbolHandle _class_name;
+  Symbol* _class_name;
   KlassHandle _host_klass;
   GrowableArray<Handle>* _cp_patches; // overrides for CP entries
 
@@ -73,7 +74,7 @@
                                   int length,
                                   Handle class_loader,
                                   Handle protection_domain,
-                                  symbolHandle class_name,
+                                  Symbol* class_name,
                                   TRAPS);
 
   // Field parsing
@@ -209,21 +210,21 @@
   }
 
   void throwIllegalSignature(
-      const char* type, symbolHandle name, symbolHandle sig, TRAPS);
+      const char* type, Symbol* name, Symbol* sig, TRAPS);
 
   bool is_supported_version(u2 major, u2 minor);
   bool has_illegal_visibility(jint flags);
 
   void verify_constantvalue(int constantvalue_index, int signature_index, constantPoolHandle cp, TRAPS);
   void verify_legal_utf8(const unsigned char* buffer, int length, TRAPS);
-  void verify_legal_class_name(symbolHandle name, TRAPS);
-  void verify_legal_field_name(symbolHandle name, TRAPS);
-  void verify_legal_method_name(symbolHandle name, TRAPS);
-  void verify_legal_field_signature(symbolHandle fieldname, symbolHandle signature, TRAPS);
-  int  verify_legal_method_signature(symbolHandle methodname, symbolHandle signature, TRAPS);
+  void verify_legal_class_name(Symbol* name, TRAPS);
+  void verify_legal_field_name(Symbol* name, TRAPS);
+  void verify_legal_method_name(Symbol* name, TRAPS);
+  void verify_legal_field_signature(Symbol* fieldname, Symbol* signature, TRAPS);
+  int  verify_legal_method_signature(Symbol* methodname, Symbol* signature, TRAPS);
   void verify_legal_class_modifiers(jint flags, TRAPS);
   void verify_legal_field_modifiers(jint flags, bool is_interface, TRAPS);
-  void verify_legal_method_modifiers(jint flags, bool is_interface, symbolHandle name, TRAPS);
+  void verify_legal_method_modifiers(jint flags, bool is_interface, Symbol* name, TRAPS);
   bool verify_unqualified_name(char* name, unsigned int length, int type);
   char* skip_over_field_name(char* name, bool slash_ok, unsigned int length);
   char* skip_over_field_signature(char* signature, bool void_ok, unsigned int length, TRAPS);
@@ -272,21 +273,21 @@
   //
   // "parsed_name" is updated by this method, and is the name found
   // while parsing the stream.
-  instanceKlassHandle parseClassFile(symbolHandle name,
+  instanceKlassHandle parseClassFile(Symbol* name,
                                      Handle class_loader,
                                      Handle protection_domain,
-                                     symbolHandle& parsed_name,
+                                     TempNewSymbol& parsed_name,
                                      bool verify,
                                      TRAPS) {
     KlassHandle no_host_klass;
     return parseClassFile(name, class_loader, protection_domain, no_host_klass, NULL, parsed_name, verify, THREAD);
   }
-  instanceKlassHandle parseClassFile(symbolHandle name,
+  instanceKlassHandle parseClassFile(Symbol* name,
                                      Handle class_loader,
                                      Handle protection_domain,
                                      KlassHandle host_klass,
                                      GrowableArray<Handle>* cp_patches,
-                                     symbolHandle& parsed_name,
+                                     TempNewSymbol& parsed_name,
                                      bool verify,
                                      TRAPS);
 
--- a/src/share/vm/classfile/classLoader.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/classfile/classLoader.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -41,7 +41,7 @@
 #include "oops/instanceKlass.hpp"
 #include "oops/instanceRefKlass.hpp"
 #include "oops/oop.inline.hpp"
-#include "oops/symbolOop.hpp"
+#include "oops/symbol.hpp"
 #include "prims/jvm_misc.hpp"
 #include "runtime/arguments.hpp"
 #include "runtime/compilationPolicy.hpp"
@@ -752,11 +752,7 @@
     }
   }
   if (*top + n + sizeof(intptr_t) >= end) {
-    warning("\nThe shared miscellaneous data space is not large "
-            "enough to \npreload requested classes.  Use "
-            "-XX:SharedMiscDataSize= to increase \nthe initial "
-            "size of the miscellaneous data space.\n");
-    exit(2);
+    report_out_of_shared_space(SharedMiscData);
   }
 
   // Copy the table data (the strings) to the shared space.
@@ -875,9 +871,9 @@
 }
 
 
-instanceKlassHandle ClassLoader::load_classfile(symbolHandle h_name, TRAPS) {
+instanceKlassHandle ClassLoader::load_classfile(Symbol* h_name, TRAPS) {
   ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
-  EventMark m("loading class " INTPTR_FORMAT, (address)h_name());
+  EventMark m("loading class " INTPTR_FORMAT, (address)h_name);
   ThreadProfilerMark tpm(ThreadProfilerMark::classLoaderRegion);
 
   stringStream st;
@@ -912,7 +908,7 @@
     ClassFileParser parser(stream);
     Handle class_loader;
     Handle protection_domain;
-    symbolHandle parsed_name;
+    TempNewSymbol parsed_name = NULL;
     instanceKlassHandle result = parser.parseClassFile(h_name,
                                                        class_loader,
                                                        protection_domain,
@@ -1308,7 +1304,7 @@
       if (_compile_the_world_counter > CompileTheWorldStopAt) return;
 
       // Construct name without extension
-      symbolHandle sym = oopFactory::new_symbol_handle(buffer, CHECK);
+      TempNewSymbol sym = SymbolTable::new_symbol(buffer, CHECK);
       // Use loader to load and initialize class
       klassOop ik = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_null(sym, loader, Handle(), THREAD);
       instanceKlassHandle k (THREAD, ik);
--- a/src/share/vm/classfile/classLoader.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/classfile/classLoader.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -280,7 +280,7 @@
   }
 
   // Load individual .class file
-  static instanceKlassHandle load_classfile(symbolHandle h_name, TRAPS);
+  static instanceKlassHandle load_classfile(Symbol* h_name, TRAPS);
 
   // If the specified package has been loaded by the system, then returns
   // the name of the directory or ZIP file that the package was loaded from.
--- a/src/share/vm/classfile/dictionary.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/classfile/dictionary.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -36,7 +36,7 @@
 
 
 Dictionary::Dictionary(int table_size)
-  : TwoOopHashtable(table_size, sizeof(DictionaryEntry)) {
+  : TwoOopHashtable<klassOop>(table_size, sizeof(DictionaryEntry)) {
   _current_class_index = 0;
   _current_class_entry = NULL;
 };
@@ -45,7 +45,7 @@
 
 Dictionary::Dictionary(int table_size, HashtableBucket* t,
                        int number_of_entries)
-  : TwoOopHashtable(table_size, sizeof(DictionaryEntry), t, number_of_entries) {
+  : TwoOopHashtable<klassOop>(table_size, sizeof(DictionaryEntry), t, number_of_entries) {
   _current_class_index = 0;
   _current_class_entry = NULL;
 };
@@ -54,7 +54,7 @@
 DictionaryEntry* Dictionary::new_entry(unsigned int hash, klassOop klass,
                                        oop loader) {
   DictionaryEntry* entry;
-  entry = (DictionaryEntry*)Hashtable::new_entry(hash, klass);
+  entry = (DictionaryEntry*)Hashtable<klassOop>::new_entry(hash, klass);
   entry->set_loader(loader);
   entry->set_pd_set(NULL);
   return entry;
@@ -62,7 +62,7 @@
 
 
 DictionaryEntry* Dictionary::new_entry() {
-  DictionaryEntry* entry = (DictionaryEntry*)Hashtable::new_entry(0L, NULL);
+  DictionaryEntry* entry = (DictionaryEntry*)Hashtable<klassOop>::new_entry(0L, NULL);
   entry->set_loader(NULL);
   entry->set_pd_set(NULL);
   return entry;
@@ -76,7 +76,7 @@
     entry->set_pd_set(to_delete->next());
     delete to_delete;
   }
-  Hashtable::free_entry(entry);
+  Hashtable<klassOop>::free_entry(entry);
 }
 
 
@@ -298,7 +298,7 @@
     for (DictionaryEntry *probe = bucket(index);
                           probe != NULL;
                           probe = probe->next()) {
-      oop e = probe->klass();
+      klassOop e = probe->klass();
       oop class_loader = probe->loader();
       if (is_strongly_reachable(class_loader, e)) {
         blk->do_oop((oop*)probe->klass_addr());
@@ -421,11 +421,11 @@
 // also cast to volatile;  we do this to ensure store order is maintained
 // by the compilers.
 
-void Dictionary::add_klass(symbolHandle class_name, Handle class_loader,
+void Dictionary::add_klass(Symbol* class_name, Handle class_loader,
                            KlassHandle obj) {
   assert_locked_or_safepoint(SystemDictionary_lock);
   assert(obj() != NULL, "adding NULL obj");
-  assert(Klass::cast(obj())->name() == class_name(), "sanity check on name");
+  assert(Klass::cast(obj())->name() == class_name, "sanity check on name");
 
   unsigned int hash = compute_hash(class_name, class_loader);
   int index = hash_to_index(hash);
@@ -444,15 +444,14 @@
 // Callers should be aware that an entry could be added just after
 // _buckets[index] is read here, so the caller will not see the new entry.
 DictionaryEntry* Dictionary::get_entry(int index, unsigned int hash,
-                                       symbolHandle class_name,
+                                       Symbol* class_name,
                                        Handle class_loader) {
-  symbolOop name_ = class_name();
-  oop loader_ = class_loader();
+  oop loader = class_loader();
   debug_only(_lookup_count++);
   for (DictionaryEntry* entry = bucket(index);
                         entry != NULL;
                         entry = entry->next()) {
-    if (entry->hash() == hash && entry->equals(name_, loader_)) {
+    if (entry->hash() == hash && entry->equals(class_name, loader)) {
       return entry;
     }
     debug_only(_lookup_length++);
@@ -461,7 +460,7 @@
 }
 
 
-klassOop Dictionary::find(int index, unsigned int hash, symbolHandle name,
+klassOop Dictionary::find(int index, unsigned int hash, Symbol* name,
                           Handle loader, Handle protection_domain, TRAPS) {
   DictionaryEntry* entry = get_entry(index, hash, name, loader);
   if (entry != NULL && entry->is_valid_protection_domain(protection_domain)) {
@@ -473,7 +472,7 @@
 
 
 klassOop Dictionary::find_class(int index, unsigned int hash,
-                                symbolHandle name, Handle loader) {
+                                Symbol* name, Handle loader) {
   assert_locked_or_safepoint(SystemDictionary_lock);
   assert (index == index_for(name, loader), "incorrect index?");
 
@@ -486,7 +485,7 @@
 // that table is static.
 
 klassOop Dictionary::find_shared_class(int index, unsigned int hash,
-                                       symbolHandle name) {
+                                       Symbol* name) {
   assert (index == index_for(name, Handle()), "incorrect index?");
 
   DictionaryEntry* entry = get_entry(index, hash, name, Handle());
@@ -498,7 +497,7 @@
                                        instanceKlassHandle klass,
                                        Handle loader, Handle protection_domain,
                                        TRAPS) {
-  symbolHandle klass_name(THREAD, klass->name());
+  Symbol*  klass_name = klass->name();
   DictionaryEntry* entry = get_entry(index, hash, klass_name, loader);
 
   assert(entry != NULL,"entry must be present, we just created it");
@@ -513,7 +512,7 @@
 
 
 bool Dictionary::is_valid_protection_domain(int index, unsigned int hash,
-                                            symbolHandle name,
+                                            Symbol* name,
                                             Handle loader,
                                             Handle protection_domain) {
   DictionaryEntry* entry = get_entry(index, hash, name, loader);
@@ -545,7 +544,7 @@
     DictionaryEntry* p = master_list;
     master_list = master_list->next();
     p->set_next(NULL);
-    symbolHandle class_name (thread, instanceKlass::cast((klassOop)(p->klass()))->name());
+    Symbol* class_name = instanceKlass::cast((klassOop)(p->klass()))->name();
     unsigned int hash = compute_hash(class_name, Handle(thread, p->loader()));
     int index = hash_to_index(hash);
     p->set_hash(hash);
@@ -555,22 +554,22 @@
 }
 
 SymbolPropertyTable::SymbolPropertyTable(int table_size)
-  : Hashtable(table_size, sizeof(SymbolPropertyEntry))
+  : Hashtable<Symbol*>(table_size, sizeof(SymbolPropertyEntry))
 {
 }
 SymbolPropertyTable::SymbolPropertyTable(int table_size, HashtableBucket* t,
                                          int number_of_entries)
-  : Hashtable(table_size, sizeof(SymbolPropertyEntry), t, number_of_entries)
+  : Hashtable<Symbol*>(table_size, sizeof(SymbolPropertyEntry), t, number_of_entries)
 {
 }
 
 
 SymbolPropertyEntry* SymbolPropertyTable::find_entry(int index, unsigned int hash,
-                                                     symbolHandle sym,
+                                                     Symbol* sym,
                                                      intptr_t sym_mode) {
   assert(index == index_for(sym, sym_mode), "incorrect index?");
   for (SymbolPropertyEntry* p = bucket(index); p != NULL; p = p->next()) {
-    if (p->hash() == hash && p->symbol() == sym() && p->symbol_mode() == sym_mode) {
+    if (p->hash() == hash && p->symbol() == sym && p->symbol_mode() == sym_mode) {
       return p;
     }
   }
@@ -579,13 +578,13 @@
 
 
 SymbolPropertyEntry* SymbolPropertyTable::add_entry(int index, unsigned int hash,
-                                                    symbolHandle sym, intptr_t sym_mode) {
+                                                    Symbol* sym, intptr_t sym_mode) {
   assert_locked_or_safepoint(SystemDictionary_lock);
   assert(index == index_for(sym, sym_mode), "incorrect index?");
   assert(find_entry(index, hash, sym, sym_mode) == NULL, "no double entry");
 
-  SymbolPropertyEntry* p = new_entry(hash, sym(), sym_mode);
-  Hashtable::add_entry(index, p);
+  SymbolPropertyEntry* p = new_entry(hash, sym, sym_mode);
+  Hashtable<Symbol*>::add_entry(index, p);
   return p;
 }
 
@@ -593,7 +592,6 @@
 void SymbolPropertyTable::oops_do(OopClosure* f) {
   for (int index = 0; index < table_size(); index++) {
     for (SymbolPropertyEntry* p = bucket(index); p != NULL; p = p->next()) {
-      f->do_oop((oop*) p->symbol_addr());
       if (p->property_oop() != NULL) {
         f->do_oop(p->property_oop_addr());
       }
--- a/src/share/vm/classfile/dictionary.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/classfile/dictionary.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -36,7 +36,7 @@
 // The data structure for the system dictionary (and the shared system
 // dictionary).
 
-class Dictionary : public TwoOopHashtable {
+class Dictionary : public TwoOopHashtable<klassOop> {
   friend class VMStructs;
 private:
   // current iteration index.
@@ -45,19 +45,19 @@
   static DictionaryEntry*       _current_class_entry;
 
   DictionaryEntry* get_entry(int index, unsigned int hash,
-                             symbolHandle name, Handle loader);
+                             Symbol* name, Handle loader);
 
   DictionaryEntry* bucket(int i) {
-    return (DictionaryEntry*)Hashtable::bucket(i);
+    return (DictionaryEntry*)Hashtable<klassOop>::bucket(i);
   }
 
   // The following method is not MT-safe and must be done under lock.
   DictionaryEntry** bucket_addr(int i) {
-    return (DictionaryEntry**)Hashtable::bucket_addr(i);
+    return (DictionaryEntry**)Hashtable<klassOop>::bucket_addr(i);
   }
 
   void add_entry(int index, DictionaryEntry* new_entry) {
-    Hashtable::add_entry(index, (HashtableEntry*)new_entry);
+    Hashtable<klassOop>::add_entry(index, (HashtableEntry<oop>*)new_entry);
   }
 
 
@@ -71,12 +71,12 @@
 
   void free_entry(DictionaryEntry* entry);
 
-  void add_klass(symbolHandle class_name, Handle class_loader,KlassHandle obj);
+  void add_klass(Symbol* class_name, Handle class_loader,KlassHandle obj);
 
   klassOop find_class(int index, unsigned int hash,
-                      symbolHandle name, Handle loader);
+                      Symbol* name, Handle loader);
 
-  klassOop find_shared_class(int index, unsigned int hash, symbolHandle name);
+  klassOop find_shared_class(int index, unsigned int hash, Symbol* name);
 
   // Compiler support
   klassOop try_get_next_class();
@@ -95,7 +95,7 @@
 
   // Classes loaded by the bootstrap loader are always strongly reachable.
   // If we're not doing class unloading, all classes are strongly reachable.
-  static bool is_strongly_reachable(oop class_loader, oop klass) {
+  static bool is_strongly_reachable(oop class_loader, klassOop klass) {
     assert (klass != NULL, "should have non-null klass");
     return (class_loader == NULL || !ClassUnloading);
   }
@@ -105,10 +105,10 @@
   bool do_unloading(BoolObjectClosure* is_alive);
 
   // Protection domains
-  klassOop find(int index, unsigned int hash, symbolHandle name,
+  klassOop find(int index, unsigned int hash, Symbol* name,
                 Handle loader, Handle protection_domain, TRAPS);
   bool is_valid_protection_domain(int index, unsigned int hash,
-                                  symbolHandle name, Handle class_loader,
+                                  Symbol* name, Handle class_loader,
                                   Handle protection_domain);
   void add_protection_domain(int index, unsigned int hash,
                              instanceKlassHandle klass, Handle loader,
@@ -147,7 +147,7 @@
 // An entry in the system dictionary, this describes a class as
 // { klassOop, loader, protection_domain }.
 
-class DictionaryEntry : public HashtableEntry {
+class DictionaryEntry : public HashtableEntry<klassOop> {
   friend class VMStructs;
  private:
   // Contains the set of approved protection domains that can access
@@ -166,11 +166,11 @@
   klassOop* klass_addr() { return (klassOop*)literal_addr(); }
 
   DictionaryEntry* next() const {
-    return (DictionaryEntry*)HashtableEntry::next();
+    return (DictionaryEntry*)HashtableEntry<klassOop>::next();
   }
 
   DictionaryEntry** next_addr() {
-    return (DictionaryEntry**)HashtableEntry::next_addr();
+    return (DictionaryEntry**)HashtableEntry<klassOop>::next_addr();
   }
 
   oop loader() const { return _loader; }
@@ -209,7 +209,7 @@
     }
   }
 
-  bool equals(symbolOop class_name, oop class_loader) const {
+  bool equals(Symbol* class_name, oop class_loader) const {
     klassOop klass = (klassOop)literal();
     return (instanceKlass::cast(klass)->name() == class_name &&
             _loader == class_loader);
@@ -226,9 +226,9 @@
   }
 };
 
-// Entry in a SymbolPropertyTable, mapping a single symbolOop
+// Entry in a SymbolPropertyTable, mapping a single Symbol*
 // to a managed and an unmanaged pointer.
-class SymbolPropertyEntry : public HashtableEntry {
+class SymbolPropertyEntry : public HashtableEntry<Symbol*> {
   friend class VMStructs;
  private:
   intptr_t _symbol_mode;  // secondary key
@@ -236,7 +236,7 @@
   address _property_data;
 
  public:
-  symbolOop symbol() const          { return (symbolOop) literal(); }
+  Symbol* symbol() const            { return literal(); }
 
   intptr_t symbol_mode() const      { return _symbol_mode; }
   void set_symbol_mode(intptr_t m)  { _symbol_mode = m; }
@@ -248,14 +248,13 @@
   void set_property_data(address p) { _property_data = p; }
 
   SymbolPropertyEntry* next() const {
-    return (SymbolPropertyEntry*)HashtableEntry::next();
+    return (SymbolPropertyEntry*)HashtableEntry<Symbol*>::next();
   }
 
   SymbolPropertyEntry** next_addr() {
-    return (SymbolPropertyEntry**)HashtableEntry::next_addr();
+    return (SymbolPropertyEntry**)HashtableEntry<Symbol*>::next_addr();
   }
 
-  oop* symbol_addr()                { return literal_addr(); }
   oop* property_oop_addr()          { return &_property_oop; }
 
   void print_on(outputStream* st) const {
@@ -279,16 +278,16 @@
 // A system-internal mapping of symbols to pointers, both managed
 // and unmanaged.  Used to record the auto-generation of each method
 // MethodHandle.invoke(S)T, for all signatures (S)T.
-class SymbolPropertyTable : public Hashtable {
+class SymbolPropertyTable : public Hashtable<Symbol*> {
   friend class VMStructs;
 private:
   SymbolPropertyEntry* bucket(int i) {
-    return (SymbolPropertyEntry*) Hashtable::bucket(i);
+    return (SymbolPropertyEntry*) Hashtable<Symbol*>::bucket(i);
   }
 
   // The following method is not MT-safe and must be done under lock.
   SymbolPropertyEntry** bucket_addr(int i) {
-    return (SymbolPropertyEntry**) Hashtable::bucket_addr(i);
+    return (SymbolPropertyEntry**) Hashtable<Symbol*>::bucket_addr(i);
   }
 
   void add_entry(int index, SymbolPropertyEntry* new_entry) {
@@ -298,8 +297,10 @@
     ShouldNotReachHere();
   }
 
-  SymbolPropertyEntry* new_entry(unsigned int hash, symbolOop symbol, intptr_t symbol_mode) {
-    SymbolPropertyEntry* entry = (SymbolPropertyEntry*) Hashtable::new_entry(hash, symbol);
+  SymbolPropertyEntry* new_entry(unsigned int hash, Symbol* symbol, intptr_t symbol_mode) {
+    SymbolPropertyEntry* entry = (SymbolPropertyEntry*) Hashtable<Symbol*>::new_entry(hash, symbol);
+    // Hashtable with Symbol* literal must increment and decrement refcount.
+    symbol->increment_refcount();
     entry->set_symbol_mode(symbol_mode);
     entry->set_property_oop(NULL);
     entry->set_property_data(NULL);
@@ -311,23 +312,25 @@
   SymbolPropertyTable(int table_size, HashtableBucket* t, int number_of_entries);
 
   void free_entry(SymbolPropertyEntry* entry) {
-    Hashtable::free_entry(entry);
+    // decrement Symbol refcount here because hashtable doesn't.
+    entry->literal()->decrement_refcount();
+    Hashtable<Symbol*>::free_entry(entry);
   }
 
-  unsigned int compute_hash(symbolHandle sym, intptr_t symbol_mode) {
+  unsigned int compute_hash(Symbol* sym, intptr_t symbol_mode) {
     // Use the regular identity_hash.
-    return Hashtable::compute_hash(sym) ^ symbol_mode;
+    return Hashtable<Symbol*>::compute_hash(sym) ^ symbol_mode;
   }
 
-  int index_for(symbolHandle name, intptr_t symbol_mode) {
+  int index_for(Symbol* name, intptr_t symbol_mode) {
     return hash_to_index(compute_hash(name, symbol_mode));
   }
 
   // need not be locked; no state change
-  SymbolPropertyEntry* find_entry(int index, unsigned int hash, symbolHandle name, intptr_t name_mode);
+  SymbolPropertyEntry* find_entry(int index, unsigned int hash, Symbol* name, intptr_t name_mode);
 
   // must be done under SystemDictionary_lock
-  SymbolPropertyEntry* add_entry(int index, unsigned int hash, symbolHandle name, intptr_t name_mode);
+  SymbolPropertyEntry* add_entry(int index, unsigned int hash, Symbol* name, intptr_t name_mode);
 
   // GC support
   void oops_do(OopClosure* f);
@@ -343,6 +346,4 @@
 #endif
   void verify();
 };
-
-
 #endif // SHARE_VM_CLASSFILE_DICTIONARY_HPP
--- a/src/share/vm/classfile/javaAssertions.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/classfile/javaAssertions.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -93,7 +93,7 @@
 }
 
 oop JavaAssertions::createAssertionStatusDirectives(TRAPS) {
-  symbolHandle asd_sym = vmSymbolHandles::java_lang_AssertionStatusDirectives();
+  Symbol* asd_sym = vmSymbols::java_lang_AssertionStatusDirectives();
   klassOop k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(asd_sym, true, CHECK_NULL);
   instanceKlassHandle asd_klass (THREAD, k);
   asd_klass->initialize(CHECK_NULL);
--- a/src/share/vm/classfile/javaClasses.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/classfile/javaClasses.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -36,7 +36,7 @@
 #include "oops/klass.hpp"
 #include "oops/klassOop.hpp"
 #include "oops/methodOop.hpp"
-#include "oops/symbolOop.hpp"
+#include "oops/symbol.hpp"
 #include "oops/typeArrayOop.hpp"
 #include "runtime/fieldDescriptor.hpp"
 #include "runtime/handles.inline.hpp"
@@ -57,7 +57,7 @@
 #endif
 
 static bool find_field(instanceKlass* ik,
-                       symbolOop name_symbol, symbolOop signature_symbol,
+                       Symbol* name_symbol, Symbol* signature_symbol,
                        fieldDescriptor* fd,
                        bool allow_super = false) {
   if (allow_super)
@@ -69,7 +69,7 @@
 // Helpful routine for computing field offsets at run time rather than hardcoding them
 static void
 compute_offset(int &dest_offset,
-               klassOop klass_oop, symbolOop name_symbol, symbolOop signature_symbol,
+               klassOop klass_oop, Symbol* name_symbol, Symbol* signature_symbol,
                bool allow_super = false) {
   fieldDescriptor fd;
   instanceKlass* ik = instanceKlass::cast(klass_oop);
@@ -84,7 +84,7 @@
 // Same as above but for "optional" offsets that might not be present in certain JDK versions
 static void
 compute_optional_offset(int& dest_offset,
-                        klassOop klass_oop, symbolOop name_symbol, symbolOop signature_symbol,
+                        klassOop klass_oop, Symbol* name_symbol, Symbol* signature_symbol,
                         bool allow_super = false) {
   fieldDescriptor fd;
   instanceKlass* ik = instanceKlass::cast(klass_oop);
@@ -164,7 +164,7 @@
   return h_obj();
 }
 
-Handle java_lang_String::create_from_symbol(symbolHandle symbol, TRAPS) {
+Handle java_lang_String::create_from_symbol(Symbol* symbol, TRAPS) {
   int length = UTF8::unicode_length((char*)symbol->bytes(), symbol->utf8_length());
   Handle h_obj = basic_create(length, false, CHECK_NH);
   if (length > 0) {
@@ -278,17 +278,17 @@
   return result;
 }
 
-symbolHandle java_lang_String::as_symbol(Handle java_string, TRAPS) {
+Symbol* java_lang_String::as_symbol(Handle java_string, TRAPS) {
   oop          obj    = java_string();
   typeArrayOop value  = java_lang_String::value(obj);
   int          offset = java_lang_String::offset(obj);
   int          length = java_lang_String::length(obj);
   jchar* base = (length == 0) ? NULL : value->char_at_addr(offset);
-  symbolOop sym = SymbolTable::lookup_unicode(base, length, THREAD);
-  return symbolHandle(THREAD, sym);
+  Symbol* sym = SymbolTable::lookup_unicode(base, length, THREAD);
+  return sym;
 }
 
-symbolOop java_lang_String::as_symbol_or_null(oop java_string) {
+Symbol* java_lang_String::as_symbol_or_null(oop java_string) {
   typeArrayOop value  = java_lang_String::value(java_string);
   int          offset = java_lang_String::offset(java_string);
   int          length = java_lang_String::length(java_string);
@@ -437,7 +437,7 @@
 
 void java_lang_Class::print_signature(oop java_class, outputStream* st) {
   assert(java_lang_Class::is_instance(java_class), "must be a Class object");
-  symbolOop name = NULL;
+  Symbol* name = NULL;
   bool is_instance = false;
   if (is_primitive(java_class)) {
     name = vmSymbols::type_signature(primitive_type(java_class));
@@ -455,25 +455,32 @@
   if (is_instance)  st->print(";");
 }
 
-symbolOop java_lang_Class::as_signature(oop java_class, bool intern_if_not_found, TRAPS) {
+Symbol* java_lang_Class::as_signature(oop java_class, bool intern_if_not_found, TRAPS) {
   assert(java_lang_Class::is_instance(java_class), "must be a Class object");
-  symbolOop name = NULL;
+  Symbol* name;
   if (is_primitive(java_class)) {
-    return vmSymbols::type_signature(primitive_type(java_class));
+    name = vmSymbols::type_signature(primitive_type(java_class));
+    // Because this can create a new symbol, the caller has to decrement
+    // the refcount, so make adjustment here and below for symbols returned
+    // that are not created or incremented due to a successful lookup.
+    name->increment_refcount();
   } else {
     klassOop k = as_klassOop(java_class);
     if (!Klass::cast(k)->oop_is_instance()) {
-      return Klass::cast(k)->name();
+      name = Klass::cast(k)->name();
+      name->increment_refcount();
     } else {
       ResourceMark rm;
       const char* sigstr = Klass::cast(k)->signature_name();
       int         siglen = (int) strlen(sigstr);
-      if (!intern_if_not_found)
-        return SymbolTable::probe(sigstr, siglen);
-      else
-        return oopFactory::new_symbol(sigstr, siglen, THREAD);
+      if (!intern_if_not_found) {
+        name = SymbolTable::probe(sigstr, siglen);
+      } else {
+        name = SymbolTable::new_symbol(sigstr, siglen, THREAD);
+      }
     }
   }
+  return name;
 }
 
 
@@ -1022,8 +1029,8 @@
       JavaCalls::call_virtual(&result,
                               stream,
                               KlassHandle(THREAD, stream->klass()),
-                              vmSymbolHandles::println_name(),
-                              vmSymbolHandles::char_array_void_signature(),
+                              vmSymbols::println_name(),
+                              vmSymbols::char_array_void_signature(),
                               arg,
                               THREAD);
     }
@@ -1077,8 +1084,8 @@
       JavaCalls::call_virtual(&result,
                               h_throwable,
                               KlassHandle(THREAD, h_throwable->klass()),
-                              vmSymbolHandles::getCause_name(),
-                              vmSymbolHandles::void_throwable_signature(),
+                              vmSymbols::getCause_name(),
+                              vmSymbols::void_throwable_signature(),
                               THREAD);
       // Ignore any exceptions. we are in the middle of exception handling. Same as classic VM.
       if (HAS_PENDING_EXCEPTION) {
@@ -1516,7 +1523,7 @@
   oop methodname = StringTable::intern(method->name(), CHECK_0);
   java_lang_StackTraceElement::set_methodName(element(), methodname);
   // Fill in source file name
-  symbolOop source = instanceKlass::cast(method->method_holder())->source_file_name();
+  Symbol* source = instanceKlass::cast(method->method_holder())->source_file_name();
   oop filename = StringTable::intern(source, CHECK_0);
   java_lang_StackTraceElement::set_fileName(element(), filename);
   // File in source line number
@@ -1732,7 +1739,7 @@
 
 Handle java_lang_reflect_Constructor::create(TRAPS) {
   assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
-  symbolHandle name = vmSymbolHandles::java_lang_reflect_Constructor();
+  Symbol* name = vmSymbols::java_lang_reflect_Constructor();
   klassOop k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(name, true, CHECK_NH);
   instanceKlassHandle klass (THREAD, k);
   // Ensure it is initialized
@@ -1854,7 +1861,7 @@
 
 Handle java_lang_reflect_Field::create(TRAPS) {
   assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
-  symbolHandle name = vmSymbolHandles::java_lang_reflect_Field();
+  Symbol* name = vmSymbols::java_lang_reflect_Field();
   klassOop k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(name, true, CHECK_NH);
   instanceKlassHandle klass (THREAD, k);
   // Ensure it is initialized
@@ -2422,16 +2429,19 @@
   java_lang_Class::print_signature(rtype(mt), st);
 }
 
-symbolOop java_dyn_MethodType::as_signature(oop mt, bool intern_if_not_found, TRAPS) {
+Symbol* java_dyn_MethodType::as_signature(oop mt, bool intern_if_not_found, TRAPS) {
   ResourceMark rm;
   stringStream buffer(128);
   print_signature(mt, &buffer);
   const char* sigstr =       buffer.base();
   int         siglen = (int) buffer.size();
-  if (!intern_if_not_found)
-    return SymbolTable::probe(sigstr, siglen);
-  else
-    return oopFactory::new_symbol(sigstr, siglen, THREAD);
+  Symbol *name;
+  if (!intern_if_not_found) {
+    name = SymbolTable::probe(sigstr, siglen);
+  } else {
+    name = SymbolTable::new_symbol(sigstr, siglen, THREAD);
+  }
+  return name;
 }
 
 oop java_dyn_MethodType::rtype(oop mt) {
@@ -2908,13 +2918,12 @@
 bool JavaClasses::check_offset(const char *klass_name, int hardcoded_offset, const char *field_name, const char* field_sig) {
   EXCEPTION_MARK;
   fieldDescriptor fd;
-  symbolHandle klass_sym = oopFactory::new_symbol_handle(klass_name, CATCH);
+  TempNewSymbol klass_sym = SymbolTable::new_symbol(klass_name, CATCH);
   klassOop k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(klass_sym, true, CATCH);
   instanceKlassHandle h_klass (THREAD, k);
-  //instanceKlassHandle h_klass(klass);
-  symbolHandle f_name = oopFactory::new_symbol_handle(field_name, CATCH);
-  symbolHandle f_sig  = oopFactory::new_symbol_handle(field_sig, CATCH);
-  if (!h_klass->find_local_field(f_name(), f_sig(), &fd)) {
+  TempNewSymbol f_name = SymbolTable::new_symbol(field_name, CATCH);
+  TempNewSymbol f_sig  = SymbolTable::new_symbol(field_sig, CATCH);
+  if (!h_klass->find_local_field(f_name, f_sig, &fd)) {
     tty->print_cr("Nonstatic field %s.%s not found", klass_name, field_name);
     return false;
   }
@@ -2935,12 +2944,12 @@
 bool JavaClasses::check_static_offset(const char *klass_name, int hardcoded_offset, const char *field_name, const char* field_sig) {
   EXCEPTION_MARK;
   fieldDescriptor fd;
-  symbolHandle klass_sym = oopFactory::new_symbol_handle(klass_name, CATCH);
+  TempNewSymbol klass_sym = SymbolTable::new_symbol(klass_name, CATCH);
   klassOop k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(klass_sym, true, CATCH);
   instanceKlassHandle h_klass (THREAD, k);
-  symbolHandle f_name = oopFactory::new_symbol_handle(field_name, CATCH);
-  symbolHandle f_sig  = oopFactory::new_symbol_handle(field_sig, CATCH);
-  if (!h_klass->find_local_field(f_name(), f_sig(), &fd)) {
+  TempNewSymbol f_name = SymbolTable::new_symbol(field_name, CATCH);
+  TempNewSymbol f_sig  = SymbolTable::new_symbol(field_sig, CATCH);
+  if (!h_klass->find_local_field(f_name, f_sig, &fd)) {
     tty->print_cr("Static field %s.%s not found", klass_name, field_name);
     return false;
   }
@@ -2960,12 +2969,12 @@
 bool JavaClasses::check_constant(const char *klass_name, int hardcoded_constant, const char *field_name, const char* field_sig) {
   EXCEPTION_MARK;
   fieldDescriptor fd;
-  symbolHandle klass_sym = oopFactory::new_symbol_handle(klass_name, CATCH);
+  TempNewSymbol klass_sym = SymbolTable::new_symbol(klass_name, CATCH);
   klassOop k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(klass_sym, true, CATCH);
   instanceKlassHandle h_klass (THREAD, k);
-  symbolHandle f_name = oopFactory::new_symbol_handle(field_name, CATCH);
-  symbolHandle f_sig  = oopFactory::new_symbol_handle(field_sig, CATCH);
-  if (!h_klass->find_local_field(f_name(), f_sig(), &fd)) {
+  TempNewSymbol f_name = SymbolTable::new_symbol(field_name, CATCH);
+  TempNewSymbol f_sig  = SymbolTable::new_symbol(field_sig, CATCH);
+  if (!h_klass->find_local_field(f_name, f_sig, &fd)) {
     tty->print_cr("Static field %s.%s not found", klass_name, field_name);
     return false;
   }
--- a/src/share/vm/classfile/javaClasses.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/classfile/javaClasses.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -78,7 +78,7 @@
   static oop    create_oop_from_unicode(jchar* unicode, int len, TRAPS);
   static Handle create_from_str(const char* utf8_str, TRAPS);
   static oop    create_oop_from_str(const char* utf8_str, TRAPS);
-  static Handle create_from_symbol(symbolHandle symbol, TRAPS);
+  static Handle create_from_symbol(Symbol* symbol, TRAPS);
   static Handle create_from_platform_dependent_str(const char* str, TRAPS);
   static Handle char_converter(Handle java_string, jchar from_char, jchar to_char, TRAPS);
 
@@ -116,8 +116,8 @@
   static Handle internalize_classname(Handle java_string, TRAPS) { return char_converter(java_string, '.', '/', THREAD); }
 
   // Conversion
-  static symbolHandle as_symbol(Handle java_string, TRAPS);
-  static symbolOop as_symbol_or_null(oop java_string);
+  static Symbol* as_symbol(Handle java_string, TRAPS);
+  static Symbol* as_symbol_or_null(oop java_string);
 
   // Testers
   static bool is_instance(oop obj) {
@@ -167,7 +167,7 @@
     (*reference_klass) = KlassHandle(refk_oop);
     return result;
   }
-  static symbolOop as_signature(oop java_class, bool intern_if_not_found, TRAPS);
+  static Symbol* as_signature(oop java_class, bool intern_if_not_found, TRAPS);
   static void print_signature(oop java_class, outputStream *st);
   // Testing
   static bool is_instance(oop obj) {
@@ -1039,7 +1039,7 @@
   static oop            ptype(oop mt, int index);
   static int            ptype_count(oop mt);
 
-  static symbolOop      as_signature(oop mt, bool intern_if_not_found, TRAPS);
+  static Symbol*        as_signature(oop mt, bool intern_if_not_found, TRAPS);
   static void           print_signature(oop mt, outputStream* st);
 
   static bool is_instance(oop obj) {
--- a/src/share/vm/classfile/loaderConstraints.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/classfile/loaderConstraints.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -31,28 +31,33 @@
 #include "utilities/hashtable.inline.hpp"
 
 LoaderConstraintTable::LoaderConstraintTable(int nof_buckets)
-  : Hashtable(nof_buckets, sizeof(LoaderConstraintEntry)) {};
+  : Hashtable<klassOop>(nof_buckets, sizeof(LoaderConstraintEntry)) {};
 
 
 LoaderConstraintEntry* LoaderConstraintTable::new_entry(
-                                 unsigned int hash, symbolOop name,
+                                 unsigned int hash, Symbol* name,
                                  klassOop klass, int num_loaders,
                                  int max_loaders) {
   LoaderConstraintEntry* entry;
-  entry = (LoaderConstraintEntry*)Hashtable::new_entry(hash, klass);
+  entry = (LoaderConstraintEntry*)Hashtable<klassOop>::new_entry(hash, klass);
   entry->set_name(name);
   entry->set_num_loaders(num_loaders);
   entry->set_max_loaders(max_loaders);
   return entry;
 }
 
+void LoaderConstraintTable::free_entry(LoaderConstraintEntry *entry) {
+  // decrement name refcount before freeing
+  entry->name()->decrement_refcount();
+  Hashtable<klassOop>::free_entry(entry);
+}
+
 
 void LoaderConstraintTable::oops_do(OopClosure* f) {
   for (int index = 0; index < table_size(); index++) {
     for (LoaderConstraintEntry* probe = bucket(index);
                                 probe != NULL;
                                 probe = probe->next()) {
-      f->do_oop((oop*)(probe->name_addr()));
       if (probe->klass() != NULL) {
         f->do_oop((oop*)probe->klass_addr());
       }
@@ -65,27 +70,13 @@
   }
 }
 
-// We must keep the symbolOop used in the name alive.  We'll use the
-// loaders to decide if a particular entry can be purged.
-void LoaderConstraintTable::always_strong_classes_do(OopClosure* blk) {
-  // We must keep the symbolOop used in the name alive.
-  for (int cindex = 0; cindex < table_size(); cindex++) {
-    for (LoaderConstraintEntry* lc_probe = bucket(cindex);
-                                lc_probe != NULL;
-                                lc_probe = lc_probe->next()) {
-      assert (lc_probe->name() != NULL,  "corrupted loader constraint table");
-      blk->do_oop((oop*)lc_probe->name_addr());
-    }
-  }
-}
-
 
 // The loaderConstraintTable must always be accessed with the
 // SystemDictionary lock held. This is true even for readers as
 // entries in the table could be being dynamically resized.
 
 LoaderConstraintEntry** LoaderConstraintTable::find_loader_constraint(
-                                    symbolHandle name, Handle loader) {
+                                    Symbol* name, Handle loader) {
 
   unsigned int hash = compute_hash(name);
   int index = hash_to_index(hash);
@@ -93,7 +84,7 @@
   while (*pp) {
     LoaderConstraintEntry* p = *pp;
     if (p->hash() == hash) {
-      if (p->name() == name()) {
+      if (p->name() == name) {
         for (int i = p->num_loaders() - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
           if (p->loader(i) == loader()) {
             return pp;
@@ -177,7 +168,6 @@
         free_entry(probe);
       } else {
 #ifdef ASSERT
-        assert(is_alive->do_object_b(probe->name()), "name should be live");
         if (probe->klass() != NULL) {
           assert(is_alive->do_object_b(probe->klass()), "klass should be live");
         }
@@ -194,7 +184,7 @@
   }
 }
 
-bool LoaderConstraintTable::add_entry(symbolHandle class_name,
+bool LoaderConstraintTable::add_entry(Symbol* class_name,
                                       klassOop klass1, Handle class_loader1,
                                       klassOop klass2, Handle class_loader2) {
   int failure_code = 0; // encode different reasons for failing
@@ -233,7 +223,7 @@
         unsigned int hash = compute_hash(class_name);
         int index = hash_to_index(hash);
         LoaderConstraintEntry* p;
-        p = new_entry(hash, class_name(), klass, 2, 2);
+        p = new_entry(hash, class_name, klass, 2, 2);
         p->set_loaders(NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(oop, 2));
         p->set_loader(0, class_loader1());
         p->set_loader(1, class_loader2());
@@ -244,7 +234,7 @@
           ResourceMark rm;
           tty->print("[Adding new constraint for name: %s, loader[0]: %s,"
                      " loader[1]: %s ]\n",
-                     class_name()->as_C_string(),
+                     class_name->as_C_string(),
                      SystemDictionary::loader_name(class_loader1()),
                      SystemDictionary::loader_name(class_loader2())
                      );
@@ -257,7 +247,7 @@
             ResourceMark rm;
             tty->print("[Setting class object in existing constraint for"
                        " name: %s and loader %s ]\n",
-                       class_name()->as_C_string(),
+                       class_name->as_C_string(),
                        SystemDictionary::loader_name(class_loader1())
                        );
           }
@@ -288,7 +278,7 @@
     }
     tty->print("[Failed to add constraint for name: %s, loader[0]: %s,"
                " loader[1]: %s, Reason: %s ]\n",
-               class_name()->as_C_string(),
+               class_name->as_C_string(),
                SystemDictionary::loader_name(class_loader1()),
                SystemDictionary::loader_name(class_loader2()),
                reason
@@ -303,14 +293,14 @@
 // violated
 bool LoaderConstraintTable::check_or_update(instanceKlassHandle k,
                                                    Handle loader,
-                                                   symbolHandle name) {
+                                                   Symbol* name) {
   LoaderConstraintEntry* p = *(find_loader_constraint(name, loader));
   if (p && p->klass() != NULL && p->klass() != k()) {
     if (TraceLoaderConstraints) {
       ResourceMark rm;
       tty->print("[Constraint check failed for name %s, loader %s: "
                  "the presented class object differs from that stored ]\n",
-                 name()->as_C_string(),
+                 name->as_C_string(),
                  SystemDictionary::loader_name(loader()));
     }
     return false;
@@ -321,7 +311,7 @@
         ResourceMark rm;
         tty->print("[Updating constraint for name %s, loader %s, "
                    "by setting class object ]\n",
-                   name()->as_C_string(),
+                   name->as_C_string(),
                    SystemDictionary::loader_name(loader()));
       }
     }
@@ -329,7 +319,7 @@
   }
 }
 
-klassOop LoaderConstraintTable::find_constrained_klass(symbolHandle name,
+klassOop LoaderConstraintTable::find_constrained_klass(Symbol* name,
                                                        Handle loader) {
   LoaderConstraintEntry *p = *(find_loader_constraint(name, loader));
   if (p != NULL && p->klass() != NULL)
@@ -442,11 +432,10 @@
     for (LoaderConstraintEntry* probe = bucket(cindex);
                                 probe != NULL;
                                 probe = probe->next()) {
-      guarantee(probe->name()->is_symbol(), "should be symbol");
       if (probe->klass() != NULL) {
         instanceKlass* ik = instanceKlass::cast(probe->klass());
         guarantee(ik->name() == probe->name(), "name should match");
-        symbolHandle name (thread, ik->name());
+        Symbol* name = ik->name();
         Handle loader(thread, ik->class_loader());
         unsigned int d_hash = dictionary->compute_hash(name, loader);
         int d_index = dictionary->hash_to_index(d_hash);
--- a/src/share/vm/classfile/loaderConstraints.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/classfile/loaderConstraints.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -31,7 +31,7 @@
 
 class LoaderConstraintEntry;
 
-class LoaderConstraintTable : public Hashtable {
+class LoaderConstraintTable : public Hashtable<klassOop> {
   friend class VMStructs;
 private:
 
@@ -40,39 +40,39 @@
     _nof_buckets            = 1009                     // number of buckets in hash table
   };
 
-  LoaderConstraintEntry** find_loader_constraint(symbolHandle name,
+  LoaderConstraintEntry** find_loader_constraint(Symbol* name,
                                                  Handle loader);
 
 public:
 
   LoaderConstraintTable(int nof_buckets);
 
-  LoaderConstraintEntry* new_entry(unsigned int hash, symbolOop name,
+  LoaderConstraintEntry* new_entry(unsigned int hash, Symbol* name,
                                    klassOop klass, int num_loaders,
                                    int max_loaders);
+  void free_entry(LoaderConstraintEntry *entry);
 
   LoaderConstraintEntry* bucket(int i) {
-    return (LoaderConstraintEntry*)Hashtable::bucket(i);
+    return (LoaderConstraintEntry*)Hashtable<klassOop>::bucket(i);
   }
 
   LoaderConstraintEntry** bucket_addr(int i) {
-    return (LoaderConstraintEntry**)Hashtable::bucket_addr(i);
+    return (LoaderConstraintEntry**)Hashtable<klassOop>::bucket_addr(i);
   }
 
   // GC support
   void oops_do(OopClosure* f);
-  void always_strong_classes_do(OopClosure* blk);
 
   // Check class loader constraints
-  bool add_entry(symbolHandle name, klassOop klass1, Handle loader1,
+  bool add_entry(Symbol* name, klassOop klass1, Handle loader1,
                                     klassOop klass2, Handle loader2);
 
   // Note:  The main entry point for this module is via SystemDictionary.
-  // SystemDictionary::check_signature_loaders(symbolHandle signature,
+  // SystemDictionary::check_signature_loaders(Symbol* signature,
   //                                           Handle loader1, Handle loader2,
   //                                           bool is_method, TRAPS)
 
-  klassOop find_constrained_klass(symbolHandle name, Handle loader);
+  klassOop find_constrained_klass(Symbol* name, Handle loader);
 
   // Class loader constraints
 
@@ -83,7 +83,7 @@
                                 LoaderConstraintEntry** pp2, klassOop klass);
 
   bool check_or_update(instanceKlassHandle k, Handle loader,
-                              symbolHandle name);
+                              Symbol* name);
 
 
   void purge_loader_constraints(BoolObjectClosure* is_alive);
@@ -94,34 +94,36 @@
 #endif
 };
 
-class LoaderConstraintEntry : public HashtableEntry {
+class LoaderConstraintEntry : public HashtableEntry<klassOop> {
   friend class VMStructs;
 private:
-  symbolOop              _name;                   // class name
+  Symbol*                _name;                   // class name
   int                    _num_loaders;
   int                    _max_loaders;
   oop*                   _loaders;                // initiating loaders
 
 public:
 
-  klassOop klass() { return (klassOop)literal(); }
-  klassOop* klass_addr() { return (klassOop*)literal_addr(); }
+  klassOop klass() { return literal(); }
+  klassOop* klass_addr() { return literal_addr(); }
   void set_klass(klassOop k) { set_literal(k); }
 
   LoaderConstraintEntry* next() {
-    return (LoaderConstraintEntry*)HashtableEntry::next();
+    return (LoaderConstraintEntry*)HashtableEntry<klassOop>::next();
   }
 
   LoaderConstraintEntry** next_addr() {
-    return (LoaderConstraintEntry**)HashtableEntry::next_addr();
+    return (LoaderConstraintEntry**)HashtableEntry<klassOop>::next_addr();
   }
   void set_next(LoaderConstraintEntry* next) {
-    HashtableEntry::set_next(next);
+    HashtableEntry<klassOop>::set_next(next);
   }
 
-  symbolOop name() { return _name; }
-  symbolOop* name_addr() { return &_name; }
-  void set_name(symbolOop name) { _name = name; }
+  Symbol* name() { return _name; }
+  void set_name(Symbol* name) {
+    _name = name;
+    if (name != NULL) name->increment_refcount();
+  }
 
   int num_loaders() { return _num_loaders; }
   void set_num_loaders(int i) { _num_loaders = i; }
--- a/src/share/vm/classfile/placeholders.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/classfile/placeholders.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -31,10 +31,12 @@
 
 // Placeholder methods
 
-PlaceholderEntry* PlaceholderTable::new_entry(int hash, symbolOop name,
+PlaceholderEntry* PlaceholderTable::new_entry(int hash, Symbol* name,
                                               oop loader, bool havesupername,
-                                              symbolOop supername) {
-  PlaceholderEntry* entry = (PlaceholderEntry*)Hashtable::new_entry(hash, name);
+                                              Symbol* supername) {
+  PlaceholderEntry* entry = (PlaceholderEntry*)Hashtable<Symbol*>::new_entry(hash, name);
+  // Hashtable with Symbol* literal must increment and decrement refcount.
+  name->increment_refcount();
   entry->set_loader(loader);
   entry->set_havesupername(havesupername);
   entry->set_supername(supername);
@@ -46,33 +48,40 @@
   return entry;
 }
 
+void PlaceholderTable::free_entry(PlaceholderEntry* entry) {
+  // decrement Symbol refcount here because Hashtable doesn't.
+  entry->literal()->decrement_refcount();
+  if (entry->supername() != NULL) entry->supername()->decrement_refcount();
+  Hashtable<Symbol*>::free_entry(entry);
+}
+
 
 // Placeholder objects represent classes currently being loaded.
 // All threads examining the placeholder table must hold the
 // SystemDictionary_lock, so we don't need special precautions
 // on store ordering here.
 void PlaceholderTable::add_entry(int index, unsigned int hash,
-                                 symbolHandle class_name, Handle class_loader,
-                                 bool havesupername, symbolHandle supername){
+                                 Symbol* class_name, Handle class_loader,
+                                 bool havesupername, Symbol* supername){
   assert_locked_or_safepoint(SystemDictionary_lock);
-  assert(!class_name.is_null(), "adding NULL obj");
+  assert(class_name != NULL, "adding NULL obj");
 
   // Both readers and writers are locked so it's safe to just
   // create the placeholder and insert it in the list without a membar.
-  PlaceholderEntry* entry = new_entry(hash, class_name(), class_loader(), havesupername, supername());
+  PlaceholderEntry* entry = new_entry(hash, class_name, class_loader(), havesupername, supername);
   add_entry(index, entry);
 }
 
 
 // Remove a placeholder object.
 void PlaceholderTable::remove_entry(int index, unsigned int hash,
-                                    symbolHandle class_name,
+                                    Symbol* class_name,
                                     Handle class_loader) {
   assert_locked_or_safepoint(SystemDictionary_lock);
   PlaceholderEntry** p = bucket_addr(index);
   while (*p) {
     PlaceholderEntry *probe = *p;
-    if (probe->hash() == hash && probe->equals(class_name(), class_loader())) {
+    if (probe->hash() == hash && probe->equals(class_name, class_loader())) {
       // Delete entry
       *p = probe->next();
       free_entry(probe);
@@ -83,29 +92,28 @@
 }
 
 PlaceholderEntry* PlaceholderTable::get_entry(int index, unsigned int hash,
-                                       symbolHandle class_name,
+                                       Symbol* class_name,
                                        Handle class_loader) {
   assert_locked_or_safepoint(SystemDictionary_lock);
 
-  symbolOop class_name_ = class_name();
   oop class_loader_ = class_loader();
 
   for (PlaceholderEntry *place_probe = bucket(index);
                          place_probe != NULL;
                          place_probe = place_probe->next()) {
     if (place_probe->hash() == hash &&
-        place_probe->equals(class_name_, class_loader_)) {
+        place_probe->equals(class_name, class_loader_)) {
       return place_probe;
     }
   }
   return NULL;
 }
 
-symbolOop PlaceholderTable::find_entry(int index, unsigned int hash,
-                                       symbolHandle class_name,
+Symbol* PlaceholderTable::find_entry(int index, unsigned int hash,
+                                       Symbol* class_name,
                                        Handle class_loader) {
   PlaceholderEntry* probe = get_entry(index, hash, class_name, class_loader);
-  return (probe? probe->klass(): symbolOop(NULL));
+  return (probe? probe->klassname(): (Symbol*)NULL);
 }
 
   // find_and_add returns probe pointer - old or new
@@ -113,7 +121,7 @@
   // If entry exists, reuse entry
   // For both, push SeenThread for classloadAction
   // if havesupername: this is used for circularity for instanceklass loading
-PlaceholderEntry* PlaceholderTable::find_and_add(int index, unsigned int hash, symbolHandle name, Handle loader, classloadAction action, symbolHandle supername, Thread* thread) {
+PlaceholderEntry* PlaceholderTable::find_and_add(int index, unsigned int hash, Symbol* name, Handle loader, classloadAction action, Symbol* supername, Thread* thread) {
   PlaceholderEntry* probe = get_entry(index, hash, name, loader);
   if (probe == NULL) {
     // Nothing found, add place holder
@@ -122,7 +130,7 @@
   } else {
     if (action == LOAD_SUPER) {
       probe->set_havesupername(true);
-      probe->set_supername(supername());
+      probe->set_supername(supername);
     }
   }
   if (probe) probe->add_seen_thread(thread, action);
@@ -145,7 +153,7 @@
 // Therefore - must always check SD first
 // Ignores the case where entry is not found
 void PlaceholderTable::find_and_remove(int index, unsigned int hash,
-                       symbolHandle name, Handle loader, Thread* thread) {
+                       Symbol* name, Handle loader, Thread* thread) {
     assert_locked_or_safepoint(SystemDictionary_lock);
     PlaceholderEntry *probe = get_entry(index, hash, name, loader);
     if (probe != NULL) {
@@ -158,7 +166,7 @@
   }
 
 PlaceholderTable::PlaceholderTable(int table_size)
-    : TwoOopHashtable(table_size, sizeof(PlaceholderEntry)) {
+    : TwoOopHashtable<Symbol*>(table_size, sizeof(PlaceholderEntry)) {
 }
 
 
@@ -174,26 +182,22 @@
 
 
 void PlaceholderEntry::oops_do(OopClosure* blk) {
-  assert(klass() != NULL, "should have a non-null klass");
-  blk->do_oop((oop*)klass_addr());
+  assert(klassname() != NULL, "should have a non-null klass");
   if (_loader != NULL) {
     blk->do_oop(loader_addr());
   }
-  if (_supername != NULL) {
-    blk->do_oop((oop*)supername_addr());
-  }
   if (_instanceKlass != NULL) {
     blk->do_oop((oop*)instanceKlass_addr());
   }
 }
 
 // do all entries in the placeholder table
-void PlaceholderTable::entries_do(void f(symbolOop, oop)) {
+void PlaceholderTable::entries_do(void f(Symbol*, oop)) {
   for (int index = 0; index < table_size(); index++) {
     for (PlaceholderEntry* probe = bucket(index);
                            probe != NULL;
                            probe = probe->next()) {
-      f(probe->klass(), probe->loader());
+      f(probe->klassname(), probe->loader());
     }
   }
 }
@@ -202,7 +206,7 @@
 #ifndef PRODUCT
 // Note, doesn't append a cr
 void PlaceholderEntry::print() const {
-  klass()->print_value();
+  klassname()->print_value();
   if (loader() != NULL) {
     tty->print(", loader ");
     loader()->print_value();
@@ -238,7 +242,6 @@
   guarantee(instanceKlass() == NULL
             || Klass::cast(instanceKlass())->oop_is_instance(),
             "checking type of instanceKlass result");
-  klass()->verify();
 }
 
 void PlaceholderTable::verify() {
--- a/src/share/vm/classfile/placeholders.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/classfile/placeholders.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -34,35 +34,36 @@
 // being loaded, as well as arrays of primitives.
 //
 
-class PlaceholderTable : public TwoOopHashtable {
+class PlaceholderTable : public TwoOopHashtable<Symbol*> {
   friend class VMStructs;
 
 public:
   PlaceholderTable(int table_size);
 
-  PlaceholderEntry* new_entry(int hash, symbolOop name, oop loader, bool havesupername, symbolOop supername);
+  PlaceholderEntry* new_entry(int hash, Symbol* name, oop loader, bool havesupername, Symbol* supername);
+  void free_entry(PlaceholderEntry* entry);
 
   PlaceholderEntry* bucket(int i) {
-    return (PlaceholderEntry*)Hashtable::bucket(i);
+    return (PlaceholderEntry*)Hashtable<Symbol*>::bucket(i);
   }
 
   PlaceholderEntry** bucket_addr(int i) {
-    return (PlaceholderEntry**)Hashtable::bucket_addr(i);
+    return (PlaceholderEntry**)Hashtable<Symbol*>::bucket_addr(i);
   }
 
   void add_entry(int index, PlaceholderEntry* new_entry) {
-    Hashtable::add_entry(index, (HashtableEntry*)new_entry);
+    Hashtable<Symbol*>::add_entry(index, (HashtableEntry<Symbol*>*)new_entry);
   }
 
-  void add_entry(int index, unsigned int hash, symbolHandle name,
-                Handle loader, bool havesupername, symbolHandle supername);
+  void add_entry(int index, unsigned int hash, Symbol* name,
+                Handle loader, bool havesupername, Symbol* supername);
 
-// This returns a symbolOop to match type for SystemDictionary
-  symbolOop find_entry(int index, unsigned int hash,
-                       symbolHandle name, Handle loader);
+  // This returns a Symbol* to match type for SystemDictionary
+  Symbol* find_entry(int index, unsigned int hash,
+                       Symbol* name, Handle loader);
 
   PlaceholderEntry* get_entry(int index, unsigned int hash,
-                       symbolHandle name, Handle loader);
+                       Symbol* name, Handle loader);
 
 // caller to create a placeholder entry must enumerate an action
 // caller claims ownership of that action
@@ -84,22 +85,22 @@
   // If no entry exists, add a placeholder entry and push SeenThread
   // If entry exists, reuse entry and push SeenThread for classloadAction
   PlaceholderEntry* find_and_add(int index, unsigned int hash,
-                                 symbolHandle name, Handle loader,
-                                 classloadAction action, symbolHandle supername,
+                                 Symbol* name, Handle loader,
+                                 classloadAction action, Symbol* supername,
                                  Thread* thread);
 
   void remove_entry(int index, unsigned int hash,
-                    symbolHandle name, Handle loader);
+                    Symbol* name, Handle loader);
 
 // Remove placeholder information
   void find_and_remove(int index, unsigned int hash,
-                       symbolHandle name, Handle loader, Thread* thread);
+                       Symbol* name, Handle loader, Thread* thread);
 
   // GC support.
   void oops_do(OopClosure* f);
 
   // JVMTI support
-  void entries_do(void f(symbolOop, oop));
+  void entries_do(void f(Symbol*, oop));
 
 #ifndef PRODUCT
   void print();
@@ -151,14 +152,14 @@
 // on store ordering here.
 // The system dictionary is the only user of this class.
 
-class PlaceholderEntry : public HashtableEntry {
+class PlaceholderEntry : public HashtableEntry<Symbol*> {
   friend class VMStructs;
 
 
  private:
   oop               _loader;        // initiating loader
   bool              _havesupername; // distinguish between null supername, and unknown
-  symbolOop         _supername;
+  Symbol*           _supername;
   Thread*           _definer;       // owner of define token
   klassOop          _instanceKlass; // instanceKlass from successful define
   SeenThread*       _superThreadQ;  // doubly-linked queue of Threads loading a superclass for this class
@@ -173,8 +174,7 @@
 
  public:
   // Simple accessors, used only by SystemDictionary
-  symbolOop          klass()               const { return (symbolOop)literal(); }
-  symbolOop*         klass_addr()          { return (symbolOop*)literal_addr(); }
+  Symbol*            klassname()           const { return literal(); }
 
   oop                loader()              const { return _loader; }
   void               set_loader(oop loader) { _loader = loader; }
@@ -183,9 +183,11 @@
   bool               havesupername()       const { return _havesupername; }
   void               set_havesupername(bool havesupername) { _havesupername = havesupername; }
 
-  symbolOop          supername()           const { return _supername; }
-  void               set_supername(symbolOop supername) { _supername = supername; }
-  symbolOop*         supername_addr()      { return &_supername; }
+  Symbol*            supername()           const { return _supername; }
+  void               set_supername(Symbol* supername) {
+    _supername = supername;
+    if (_supername != NULL) _supername->increment_refcount();
+  }
 
   Thread*            definer()             const {return _definer; }
   void               set_definer(Thread* definer) { _definer = definer; }
@@ -204,17 +206,17 @@
   void               set_defineThreadQ(SeenThread* SeenThread) { _defineThreadQ = SeenThread; }
 
   PlaceholderEntry* next() const {
-    return (PlaceholderEntry*)HashtableEntry::next();
+    return (PlaceholderEntry*)HashtableEntry<Symbol*>::next();
   }
 
   PlaceholderEntry** next_addr() {
-    return (PlaceholderEntry**)HashtableEntry::next_addr();
+    return (PlaceholderEntry**)HashtableEntry<Symbol*>::next_addr();
   }
 
   // Test for equality
   // Entries are unique for class/classloader name pair
-  bool equals(symbolOop class_name, oop class_loader) const {
-    return (klass() == class_name && loader() == class_loader);
+  bool equals(Symbol* class_name, oop class_loader) const {
+    return (klassname() == class_name && loader() == class_loader);
   }
 
   SeenThread* actionToQueue(PlaceholderTable::classloadAction action) {
--- a/src/share/vm/classfile/resolutionErrors.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/classfile/resolutionErrors.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -32,12 +32,12 @@
 
 // add new entry to the table
 void ResolutionErrorTable::add_entry(int index, unsigned int hash,
-                                     constantPoolHandle pool, int cp_index, symbolHandle error)
+                                     constantPoolHandle pool, int cp_index, Symbol* error)
 {
   assert_locked_or_safepoint(SystemDictionary_lock);
-  assert(!pool.is_null() && !error.is_null(), "adding NULL obj");
+  assert(!pool.is_null() && error != NULL, "adding NULL obj");
 
-  ResolutionErrorEntry* entry = new_entry(hash, pool(), cp_index, error());
+  ResolutionErrorEntry* entry = new_entry(hash, pool(), cp_index, error);
   add_entry(index, entry);
 }
 
@@ -57,20 +57,35 @@
   return NULL;
 }
 
+void ResolutionErrorEntry::set_error(Symbol* e) {
+  assert(e == NULL || _error == NULL, "cannot reset error");
+  _error = e;
+  if (_error != NULL) _error->increment_refcount();
+}
+
 // create new error entry
 ResolutionErrorEntry* ResolutionErrorTable::new_entry(int hash, constantPoolOop pool,
-                                                      int cp_index, symbolOop error)
+                                                      int cp_index, Symbol* error)
 {
-  ResolutionErrorEntry* entry = (ResolutionErrorEntry*)Hashtable::new_entry(hash, pool);
+  ResolutionErrorEntry* entry = (ResolutionErrorEntry*)Hashtable<constantPoolOop>::new_entry(hash, pool);
   entry->set_cp_index(cp_index);
+  NOT_PRODUCT(entry->set_error(NULL);)
   entry->set_error(error);
 
   return entry;
 }
 
+void ResolutionErrorTable::free_entry(ResolutionErrorEntry *entry) {
+  // decrement error refcount
+  assert(entry->error() != NULL, "error should be set");
+  entry->error()->decrement_refcount();
+  Hashtable<constantPoolOop>::free_entry(entry);
+}
+
+
 // create resolution error table
 ResolutionErrorTable::ResolutionErrorTable(int table_size)
-    : Hashtable(table_size, sizeof(ResolutionErrorEntry)) {
+    : Hashtable<constantPoolOop>(table_size, sizeof(ResolutionErrorEntry)) {
 }
 
 // GC support
@@ -80,7 +95,7 @@
                            probe != NULL;
                            probe = probe->next()) {
       assert(probe->pool() != (constantPoolOop)NULL, "resolution error table is corrupt");
-      assert(probe->error() != (symbolOop)NULL, "resolution error table is corrupt");
+      assert(probe->error() != (Symbol*)NULL, "resolution error table is corrupt");
       probe->oops_do(f);
     }
   }
@@ -89,20 +104,6 @@
 // GC support
 void ResolutionErrorEntry::oops_do(OopClosure* blk) {
   blk->do_oop((oop*)pool_addr());
-  blk->do_oop((oop*)error_addr());
-}
-
-// We must keep the symbolOop used in the error alive. The constantPoolOop will
-// decide when the entry can be purged.
-void ResolutionErrorTable::always_strong_classes_do(OopClosure* blk) {
-  for (int i = 0; i < table_size(); i++) {
-    for (ResolutionErrorEntry* probe = bucket(i);
-                           probe != NULL;
-                           probe = probe->next()) {
-      assert(probe->error() != (symbolOop)NULL, "resolution error table is corrupt");
-      blk->do_oop((oop*)probe->error_addr());
-    }
-  }
 }
 
 // Remove unloaded entries from the table
--- a/src/share/vm/classfile/resolutionErrors.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/classfile/resolutionErrors.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -33,27 +33,28 @@
 // ResolutionError objects are used to record errors encountered during
 // constant pool resolution (JVMS 5.4.3).
 
-class ResolutionErrorTable : public Hashtable {
+class ResolutionErrorTable : public Hashtable<constantPoolOop> {
 
 public:
   ResolutionErrorTable(int table_size);
 
-  ResolutionErrorEntry* new_entry(int hash, constantPoolOop pool, int cp_index, symbolOop error);
+  ResolutionErrorEntry* new_entry(int hash, constantPoolOop pool, int cp_index, Symbol* error);
+  void free_entry(ResolutionErrorEntry *entry);
 
   ResolutionErrorEntry* bucket(int i) {
-    return (ResolutionErrorEntry*)Hashtable::bucket(i);
+    return (ResolutionErrorEntry*)Hashtable<constantPoolOop>::bucket(i);
   }
 
   ResolutionErrorEntry** bucket_addr(int i) {
-    return (ResolutionErrorEntry**)Hashtable::bucket_addr(i);
+    return (ResolutionErrorEntry**)Hashtable<constantPoolOop>::bucket_addr(i);
   }
 
   void add_entry(int index, ResolutionErrorEntry* new_entry) {
-    Hashtable::add_entry(index, (HashtableEntry*)new_entry);
+    Hashtable<constantPoolOop>::add_entry(index, (HashtableEntry<constantPoolOop>*)new_entry);
   }
 
   void add_entry(int index, unsigned int hash,
-                 constantPoolHandle pool, int which, symbolHandle error);
+                 constantPoolHandle pool, int which, Symbol* error);
 
 
   // find error given the constant pool and constant pool index
@@ -68,18 +69,15 @@
   // purges unloaded entries from the table
   void purge_resolution_errors(BoolObjectClosure* is_alive);
 
-  // this table keeps symbolOops alive
-  void always_strong_classes_do(OopClosure* blk);
-
   // GC support.
   void oops_do(OopClosure* f);
 };
 
 
-class ResolutionErrorEntry : public HashtableEntry {
+class ResolutionErrorEntry : public HashtableEntry<constantPoolOop> {
  private:
   int               _cp_index;
-  symbolOop         _error;
+  Symbol*           _error;
 
  public:
   constantPoolOop    pool() const               { return (constantPoolOop)literal(); }
@@ -88,16 +86,15 @@
   int                cp_index() const           { return _cp_index; }
   void               set_cp_index(int cp_index) { _cp_index = cp_index; }
 
-  symbolOop          error() const              { return _error; }
-  void               set_error(symbolOop e)     { _error = e; }
-  symbolOop*         error_addr()               { return &_error; }
+  Symbol*            error() const              { return _error; }
+  void               set_error(Symbol* e);
 
   ResolutionErrorEntry* next() const {
-    return (ResolutionErrorEntry*)HashtableEntry::next();
+    return (ResolutionErrorEntry*)HashtableEntry<constantPoolOop>::next();
   }
 
   ResolutionErrorEntry** next_addr() {
-    return (ResolutionErrorEntry**)HashtableEntry::next_addr();
+    return (ResolutionErrorEntry**)HashtableEntry<constantPoolOop>::next_addr();
   }
 
   // GC support
--- a/src/share/vm/classfile/stackMapFrame.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/classfile/stackMapFrame.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -27,7 +27,7 @@
 #include "classfile/verifier.hpp"
 #include "memory/resourceArea.hpp"
 #include "oops/oop.inline.hpp"
-#include "oops/symbolOop.hpp"
+#include "oops/symbol.hpp"
 #include "runtime/handles.inline.hpp"
 #include "utilities/globalDefinitions.hpp"
 
@@ -90,8 +90,7 @@
 
 VerificationType StackMapFrame::set_locals_from_arg(
     const methodHandle m, VerificationType thisKlass, TRAPS) {
-  symbolHandle signature(THREAD, m->signature());
-  SignatureStream ss(signature);
+  SignatureStream ss(m->signature());
   int init_local_num = 0;
   if (!m->is_static()) {
     init_local_num++;
@@ -118,8 +117,14 @@
     case T_OBJECT:
     case T_ARRAY:
     {
-      symbolOop sig = ss.as_symbol(CHECK_(VerificationType::bogus_type()));
-      return VerificationType::reference_type(symbolHandle(THREAD, sig));
+      Symbol* sig = ss.as_symbol(CHECK_(VerificationType::bogus_type()));
+      // Create another symbol to save as signature stream unreferences
+      // this symbol.
+      Symbol* sig_copy =
+        verifier()->create_temporary_symbol(sig, 0, sig->utf8_length(),
+                                 CHECK_(VerificationType::bogus_type()));
+      assert(sig_copy == sig, "symbols don't match");
+      return VerificationType::reference_type(sig_copy);
     }
     case T_INT:     return VerificationType::integer_type();
     case T_BYTE:    return VerificationType::byte_type();
@@ -157,7 +162,7 @@
     VerificationType* from, VerificationType* to, int32_t len, TRAPS) const {
   for (int32_t i = 0; i < len; i++) {
     bool subtype = to[i].is_assignable_from(
-      from[i], verifier()->current_class(), THREAD);
+      from[i], verifier(), THREAD);
     if (!subtype) {
       return false;
     }
@@ -187,7 +192,7 @@
   }
   VerificationType top = _stack[--_stack_size];
   bool subtype = type.is_assignable_from(
-    top, verifier()->current_class(), CHECK_(VerificationType::bogus_type()));
+    top, verifier(), CHECK_(VerificationType::bogus_type()));
   if (!subtype) {
     verifier()->verify_error(_offset, "Bad type on operand stack");
     return VerificationType::bogus_type();
@@ -203,7 +208,7 @@
     return VerificationType::bogus_type();
   }
   bool subtype = type.is_assignable_from(_locals[index],
-    verifier()->current_class(), CHECK_(VerificationType::bogus_type()));
+    verifier(), CHECK_(VerificationType::bogus_type()));
   if (!subtype) {
     verifier()->verify_error(_offset, "Bad local variable type");
     return VerificationType::bogus_type();
@@ -221,9 +226,9 @@
     return;
   }
   bool subtype1 = type1.is_assignable_from(
-    _locals[index], verifier()->current_class(), CHECK);
+    _locals[index], verifier(), CHECK);
   bool subtype2 = type2.is_assignable_from(
-    _locals[index+1], verifier()->current_class(), CHECK);
+    _locals[index+1], verifier(), CHECK);
   if (!subtype1 || !subtype2) {
     verifier()->verify_error(_offset, "Bad local variable type");
     return;
--- a/src/share/vm/classfile/stackMapFrame.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/classfile/stackMapFrame.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -177,8 +177,7 @@
     if (_stack_size != 0) {
       VerificationType top = _stack[_stack_size - 1];
       bool subtype = type.is_assignable_from(
-        top, verifier()->current_class(),
-        CHECK_(VerificationType::bogus_type()));
+        top, verifier(), CHECK_(VerificationType::bogus_type()));
       if (subtype) {
         _stack_size --;
         NOT_PRODUCT( _stack[_stack_size] = VerificationType::bogus_type(); )
@@ -194,11 +193,9 @@
     assert(type2.is_long() || type2.is_double(), "must be long/double_2");
     if (_stack_size >= 2) {
       VerificationType top1 = _stack[_stack_size - 1];
-      bool subtype1 = type1.is_assignable_from(
-        top1, verifier()->current_class(), CHECK);
+      bool subtype1 = type1.is_assignable_from(top1, verifier(), CHECK);
       VerificationType top2 = _stack[_stack_size - 2];
-      bool subtype2 = type2.is_assignable_from(
-        top2, verifier()->current_class(), CHECK);
+      bool subtype2 = type2.is_assignable_from(top2, verifier(), CHECK);
       if (subtype1 && subtype2) {
         _stack_size -= 2;
         NOT_PRODUCT( _stack[_stack_size] = VerificationType::bogus_type(); )
--- a/src/share/vm/classfile/stackMapTable.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/classfile/stackMapTable.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -184,8 +184,7 @@
       _stream->stackmap_format_error("bad class index", THREAD);
       return VerificationType::bogus_type();
     }
-    return VerificationType::reference_type(
-      symbolHandle(THREAD, _cp->klass_name_at(class_index)));
+    return VerificationType::reference_type(_cp->klass_name_at(class_index));
   }
   if (tag == ITEM_UninitializedThis) {
     if (flags != NULL) {
--- a/src/share/vm/classfile/symbolTable.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/classfile/symbolTable.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -31,7 +31,6 @@
 #include "memory/gcLocker.inline.hpp"
 #include "oops/oop.inline.hpp"
 #include "oops/oop.inline2.hpp"
-#include "oops/symbolKlass.hpp"
 #include "runtime/mutexLocker.hpp"
 #include "utilities/hashtable.inline.hpp"
 
@@ -39,14 +38,97 @@
 
 SymbolTable* SymbolTable::_the_table = NULL;
 
+Symbol* SymbolTable::allocate_symbol(const u1* name, int len, TRAPS) {
+  // Don't allow symbols to be created which cannot fit in a Symbol*.
+  if (len > Symbol::max_length()) {
+    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_InternalError(),
+                "name is too long to represent");
+  }
+  Symbol* sym = new (len) Symbol(name, len);
+  assert(sym != NULL, "new should call vm_exit_out_of_memory if C_HEAP is exhausted");
+  return sym;
+}
+
+bool SymbolTable::allocate_symbols(int names_count, const u1** names,
+                                   int* lengths, Symbol** syms, TRAPS) {
+  for (int i = 0; i< names_count; i++) {
+    if (lengths[i] > Symbol::max_length()) {
+      THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_InternalError(),
+                  "name is too long to represent");
+    }
+  }
+
+  for (int i = 0; i< names_count; i++) {
+    int len = lengths[i];
+    syms[i] = new (len) Symbol(names[i], len);
+    assert(syms[i] != NULL, "new should call vm_exit_out_of_memory if "
+                            "C_HEAP is exhausted");
+  }
+  return true;
+}
+
+// Call function for all symbols in the symbol table.
+void SymbolTable::symbols_do(SymbolClosure *cl) {
+  const int n = the_table()->table_size();
+  for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
+    for (HashtableEntry<Symbol*>* p = the_table()->bucket(i);
+         p != NULL;
+         p = p->next()) {
+      cl->do_symbol(p->literal_addr());
+    }
+  }
+}
+
+int SymbolTable::symbols_removed = 0;
+int SymbolTable::symbols_counted = 0;
+
+// Remove unreferenced symbols from the symbol table
+// This is done late during GC.  This doesn't use the hash table unlink because
+// it assumes that the literals are oops.
+void SymbolTable::unlink() {
+  int removed = 0;
+  int total = 0;
+  int memory_total = 0;
+  for (int i = 0; i < the_table()->table_size(); ++i) {
+    for (HashtableEntry<Symbol*>** p = the_table()->bucket_addr(i); *p != NULL; ) {
+      HashtableEntry<Symbol*>* entry = *p;
+      if (entry->is_shared()) {
+        break;
+      }
+      Symbol* s = entry->literal();
+      memory_total += s->object_size();
+      total++;
+      assert(s != NULL, "just checking");
+      // If reference count is zero, remove.
+      if (s->refcount() == 0) {
+        delete s;
+        removed++;
+        *p = entry->next();
+        the_table()->free_entry(entry);
+      } else {
+        p = entry->next_addr();
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  symbols_removed += removed;
+  symbols_counted += total;
+  if (PrintGCDetails) {
+    gclog_or_tty->print(" [Symbols=%d size=%dK] ", total,
+                        (memory_total*HeapWordSize)/1024);
+  }
+}
+
+
 // Lookup a symbol in a bucket.
 
-symbolOop SymbolTable::lookup(int index, const char* name,
+Symbol* SymbolTable::lookup(int index, const char* name,
                               int len, unsigned int hash) {
-  for (HashtableEntry* e = bucket(index); e != NULL; e = e->next()) {
+  for (HashtableEntry<Symbol*>* e = bucket(index); e != NULL; e = e->next()) {
     if (e->hash() == hash) {
-      symbolOop sym = symbolOop(e->literal());
+      Symbol* sym = e->literal();
       if (sym->equals(name, len)) {
+        // something is referencing this symbol now.
+        sym->increment_refcount();
         return sym;
       }
     }
@@ -62,11 +144,11 @@
 // entries in the symbol table during normal execution (only during
 // safepoints).
 
-symbolOop SymbolTable::lookup(const char* name, int len, TRAPS) {
+Symbol* SymbolTable::lookup(const char* name, int len, TRAPS) {
   unsigned int hashValue = hash_symbol(name, len);
   int index = the_table()->hash_to_index(hashValue);
 
-  symbolOop s = the_table()->lookup(index, name, len, hashValue);
+  Symbol* s = the_table()->lookup(index, name, len, hashValue);
 
   // Found
   if (s != NULL) return s;
@@ -75,7 +157,7 @@
   return the_table()->basic_add(index, (u1*)name, len, hashValue, CHECK_NULL);
 }
 
-symbolOop SymbolTable::lookup(symbolHandle sym, int begin, int end, TRAPS) {
+Symbol* SymbolTable::lookup(const Symbol* sym, int begin, int end, TRAPS) {
   char* buffer;
   int index, len;
   unsigned int hashValue;
@@ -87,7 +169,7 @@
     len = end - begin;
     hashValue = hash_symbol(name, len);
     index = the_table()->hash_to_index(hashValue);
-    symbolOop s = the_table()->lookup(index, name, len, hashValue);
+    Symbol* s = the_table()->lookup(index, name, len, hashValue);
 
     // Found
     if (s != NULL) return s;
@@ -111,18 +193,19 @@
   return the_table()->basic_add(index, (u1*)buffer, len, hashValue, CHECK_NULL);
 }
 
-symbolOop SymbolTable::lookup_only(const char* name, int len,
+Symbol* SymbolTable::lookup_only(const char* name, int len,
                                    unsigned int& hash) {
   hash = hash_symbol(name, len);
   int index = the_table()->hash_to_index(hash);
 
-  return the_table()->lookup(index, name, len, hash);
+  Symbol* s = the_table()->lookup(index, name, len, hash);
+  return s;
 }
 
 // Suggestion: Push unicode-based lookup all the way into the hashing
 // and probing logic, so there is no need for convert_to_utf8 until
-// an actual new symbolOop is created.
-symbolOop SymbolTable::lookup_unicode(const jchar* name, int utf16_length, TRAPS) {
+// an actual new Symbol* is created.
+Symbol* SymbolTable::lookup_unicode(const jchar* name, int utf16_length, TRAPS) {
   int utf8_length = UNICODE::utf8_length((jchar*) name, utf16_length);
   char stack_buf[128];
   if (utf8_length < (int) sizeof(stack_buf)) {
@@ -137,7 +220,7 @@
   }
 }
 
-symbolOop SymbolTable::lookup_only_unicode(const jchar* name, int utf16_length,
+Symbol* SymbolTable::lookup_only_unicode(const jchar* name, int utf16_length,
                                            unsigned int& hash) {
   int utf8_length = UNICODE::utf8_length((jchar*) name, utf16_length);
   char stack_buf[128];
@@ -163,25 +246,23 @@
     // do it the hard way
     for (int i=0; i<names_count; i++) {
       int index = table->hash_to_index(hashValues[i]);
-      symbolOop sym = table->basic_add(index, (u1*)names[i], lengths[i],
+      Symbol* sym = table->basic_add(index, (u1*)names[i], lengths[i],
                                        hashValues[i], CHECK);
       cp->symbol_at_put(cp_indices[i], sym);
     }
   }
 }
 
-symbolOop SymbolTable::basic_add(int index, u1 *name, int len,
+Symbol* SymbolTable::basic_add(int index, u1 *name, int len,
                                  unsigned int hashValue, TRAPS) {
   assert(!Universe::heap()->is_in_reserved(name) || GC_locker::is_active(),
          "proposed name of symbol must be stable");
 
   // We assume that lookup() has been called already, that it failed,
   // and symbol was not found.  We create the symbol here.
-  symbolKlass* sk  = (symbolKlass*) Universe::symbolKlassObj()->klass_part();
-  symbolOop s_oop = sk->allocate_symbol(name, len, CHECK_NULL);
-  symbolHandle sym (THREAD, s_oop);
+  Symbol* sym = allocate_symbol(name, len, CHECK_NULL);
 
-  // Allocation must be done before grapping the SymbolTable_lock lock
+  // Allocation must be done before grabbing the SymbolTable_lock lock
   MutexLocker ml(SymbolTable_lock, THREAD);
 
   assert(sym->equals((char*)name, len), "symbol must be properly initialized");
@@ -189,51 +270,51 @@
   // Since look-up was done lock-free, we need to check if another
   // thread beat us in the race to insert the symbol.
 
-  symbolOop test = lookup(index, (char*)name, len, hashValue);
+  Symbol* test = lookup(index, (char*)name, len, hashValue);
   if (test != NULL) {
     // A race occurred and another thread introduced the symbol, this one
     // will be dropped and collected.
+    delete sym;
+    assert(test->refcount() != 0, "lookup should have incremented the count");
     return test;
   }
 
-  HashtableEntry* entry = new_entry(hashValue, sym());
+  HashtableEntry<Symbol*>* entry = new_entry(hashValue, sym);
+  sym->increment_refcount();
   add_entry(index, entry);
-  return sym();
+  return sym;
 }
 
 bool SymbolTable::basic_add(constantPoolHandle cp, int names_count,
                             const char** names, int* lengths,
                             int* cp_indices, unsigned int* hashValues,
                             TRAPS) {
-  symbolKlass* sk  = (symbolKlass*) Universe::symbolKlassObj()->klass_part();
-  symbolOop sym_oops[symbol_alloc_batch_size];
-  bool allocated = sk->allocate_symbols(names_count, names, lengths,
-                                        sym_oops, CHECK_false);
+  Symbol* syms[symbol_alloc_batch_size];
+  bool allocated = allocate_symbols(names_count, (const u1**)names, lengths,
+                                    syms, CHECK_false);
   if (!allocated) {
     return false;
   }
-  symbolHandle syms[symbol_alloc_batch_size];
-  int i;
-  for (i=0; i<names_count; i++) {
-    syms[i] = symbolHandle(THREAD, sym_oops[i]);
-  }
 
   // Allocation must be done before grabbing the SymbolTable_lock lock
   MutexLocker ml(SymbolTable_lock, THREAD);
 
-  for (i=0; i<names_count; i++) {
+  for (int i=0; i<names_count; i++) {
     assert(syms[i]->equals(names[i], lengths[i]), "symbol must be properly initialized");
     // Since look-up was done lock-free, we need to check if another
     // thread beat us in the race to insert the symbol.
     int index = hash_to_index(hashValues[i]);
-    symbolOop test = lookup(index, names[i], lengths[i], hashValues[i]);
+    Symbol* test = lookup(index, names[i], lengths[i], hashValues[i]);
     if (test != NULL) {
       // A race occurred and another thread introduced the symbol, this one
       // will be dropped and collected. Use test instead.
       cp->symbol_at_put(cp_indices[i], test);
+      assert(test->refcount() != 0, "lookup should have incremented the count");
+      delete syms[i];
     } else {
-      symbolOop sym = syms[i]();
-      HashtableEntry* entry = new_entry(hashValues[i], sym);
+      Symbol* sym = syms[i];
+      HashtableEntry<Symbol*>* entry = new_entry(hashValues[i], sym);
+      sym->increment_refcount();  // increment refcount in external hashtable
       add_entry(index, entry);
       cp->symbol_at_put(cp_indices[i], sym);
     }
@@ -245,12 +326,10 @@
 
 void SymbolTable::verify() {
   for (int i = 0; i < the_table()->table_size(); ++i) {
-    HashtableEntry* p = the_table()->bucket(i);
+    HashtableEntry<Symbol*>* p = the_table()->bucket(i);
     for ( ; p != NULL; p = p->next()) {
-      symbolOop s = symbolOop(p->literal());
+      Symbol* s = (Symbol*)(p->literal());
       guarantee(s != NULL, "symbol is NULL");
-      s->verify();
-      guarantee(s->is_perm(), "symbol not in permspace");
       unsigned int h = hash_symbol((char*)s->bytes(), s->utf8_length());
       guarantee(p->hash() == h, "broken hash in symbol table entry");
       guarantee(the_table()->hash_to_index(h) == i,
@@ -279,10 +358,14 @@
   int total = 0;
   int max_symbols = 0;
   int out_of_range = 0;
+  int memory_total = 0;
+  int count = 0;
   for (i = 0; i < the_table()->table_size(); i++) {
-    HashtableEntry* p = the_table()->bucket(i);
+    HashtableEntry<Symbol*>* p = the_table()->bucket(i);
     for ( ; p != NULL; p = p->next()) {
-      int counter = symbolOop(p->literal())->utf8_length();
+      memory_total += p->literal()->object_size();
+      count++;
+      int counter = p->literal()->utf8_length();
       total += counter;
       if (counter < results_length) {
         results[counter]++;
@@ -293,6 +376,17 @@
     }
   }
   tty->print_cr("Symbol Table:");
+  tty->print_cr("Total number of symbols  %5d", count);
+  tty->print_cr("Total size in memory     %5dK",
+          (memory_total*HeapWordSize)/1024);
+  tty->print_cr("Total counted            %5d", symbols_counted);
+  tty->print_cr("Total removed            %5d", symbols_removed);
+  if (symbols_counted > 0) {
+    tty->print_cr("Percent removed          %3.2f",
+          ((float)symbols_removed/(float)symbols_counted)* 100);
+  }
+  tty->print_cr("Reference counts         %5d", Symbol::_total_count);
+  tty->print_cr("Histogram of symbol length:");
   tty->print_cr("%8s %5d", "Total  ", total);
   tty->print_cr("%8s %5d", "Maximum", max_symbols);
   tty->print_cr("%8s %3.2f", "Average",
@@ -304,22 +398,41 @@
       tty->print_cr("%6d %10d", i, results[i]);
     }
   }
-  int line_length = 70;
-  tty->print_cr("%s %30s", " Length", "Number chains that length");
-  for (i = 0; i < results_length; i++) {
-    if (results[i] > 0) {
-      tty->print("%4d", i);
-      for (j = 0; (j < results[i]) && (j < line_length);  j++) {
-        tty->print("%1s", "*");
+  if (Verbose) {
+    int line_length = 70;
+    tty->print_cr("%s %30s", " Length", "Number chains that length");
+    for (i = 0; i < results_length; i++) {
+      if (results[i] > 0) {
+        tty->print("%4d", i);
+        for (j = 0; (j < results[i]) && (j < line_length);  j++) {
+          tty->print("%1s", "*");
+        }
+        if (j == line_length) {
+          tty->print("%1s", "+");
+        }
+        tty->cr();
       }
-      if (j == line_length) {
-        tty->print("%1s", "+");
+    }
+  }
+  tty->print_cr(" %s %d: %d\n", "Number chains longer than",
+                    results_length, out_of_range);
+}
+
+void SymbolTable::print() {
+  for (int i = 0; i < the_table()->table_size(); ++i) {
+    HashtableEntry<Symbol*>** p = the_table()->bucket_addr(i);
+    HashtableEntry<Symbol*>* entry = the_table()->bucket(i);
+    if (entry != NULL) {
+      while (entry != NULL) {
+        tty->print(PTR_FORMAT " ", entry->literal());
+        entry->literal()->print();
+        tty->print(" %d", entry->literal()->refcount());
+        p = entry->next_addr();
+        entry = (HashtableEntry<Symbol*>*)HashtableEntry<Symbol*>::make_ptr(*p);
       }
       tty->cr();
     }
   }
-  tty->print_cr(" %s %d: %d\n", "Number chains longer than",
-                    results_length, out_of_range);
 }
 
 #endif // PRODUCT
@@ -396,7 +509,7 @@
 
 oop StringTable::lookup(int index, jchar* name,
                         int len, unsigned int hash) {
-  for (HashtableEntry* l = bucket(index); l != NULL; l = l->next()) {
+  for (HashtableEntry<oop>* l = bucket(index); l != NULL; l = l->next()) {
     if (l->hash() == hash) {
       if (java_lang_String::equals(l->literal(), name, len)) {
         return l->literal();
@@ -436,13 +549,13 @@
     return test;
   }
 
-  HashtableEntry* entry = new_entry(hashValue, string());
+  HashtableEntry<oop>* entry = new_entry(hashValue, string());
   add_entry(index, entry);
   return string();
 }
 
 
-oop StringTable::lookup(symbolOop symbol) {
+oop StringTable::lookup(Symbol* symbol) {
   ResourceMark rm;
   int length;
   jchar* chars = symbol->as_unicode(length);
@@ -466,7 +579,7 @@
                                 hashValue, CHECK_NULL);
 }
 
-oop StringTable::intern(symbolOop symbol, TRAPS) {
+oop StringTable::intern(Symbol* symbol, TRAPS) {
   if (symbol == NULL) return NULL;
   ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
   int length;
@@ -500,9 +613,50 @@
   return result;
 }
 
+void StringTable::unlink(BoolObjectClosure* is_alive) {
+  // Readers of the table are unlocked, so we should only be removing
+  // entries at a safepoint.
+  assert(SafepointSynchronize::is_at_safepoint(), "must be at safepoint");
+  for (int i = 0; i < the_table()->table_size(); ++i) {
+    for (HashtableEntry<oop>** p = the_table()->bucket_addr(i); *p != NULL; ) {
+      HashtableEntry<oop>* entry = *p;
+      if (entry->is_shared()) {
+        break;
+      }
+      assert(entry->literal() != NULL, "just checking");
+      if (is_alive->do_object_b(entry->literal())) {
+        p = entry->next_addr();
+      } else {
+        *p = entry->next();
+        the_table()->free_entry(entry);
+      }
+    }
+  }
+}
+
+void StringTable::oops_do(OopClosure* f) {
+  for (int i = 0; i < the_table()->table_size(); ++i) {
+    HashtableEntry<oop>** p = the_table()->bucket_addr(i);
+    HashtableEntry<oop>* entry = the_table()->bucket(i);
+    while (entry != NULL) {
+      f->do_oop((oop*)entry->literal_addr());
+
+      // Did the closure remove the literal from the table?
+      if (entry->literal() == NULL) {
+        assert(!entry->is_shared(), "immutable hashtable entry?");
+        *p = entry->next();
+        the_table()->free_entry(entry);
+      } else {
+        p = entry->next_addr();
+      }
+      entry = (HashtableEntry<oop>*)HashtableEntry<oop>::make_ptr(*p);
+    }
+  }
+}
+
 void StringTable::verify() {
   for (int i = 0; i < the_table()->table_size(); ++i) {
-    HashtableEntry* p = the_table()->bucket(i);
+    HashtableEntry<oop>* p = the_table()->bucket(i);
     for ( ; p != NULL; p = p->next()) {
       oop s = p->literal();
       guarantee(s != NULL, "interned string is NULL");
--- a/src/share/vm/classfile/symbolTable.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/classfile/symbolTable.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -26,11 +26,11 @@
 #define SHARE_VM_CLASSFILE_SYMBOLTABLE_HPP
 
 #include "memory/allocation.inline.hpp"
-#include "oops/symbolOop.hpp"
+#include "oops/symbol.hpp"
 #include "utilities/hashtable.hpp"
 
-// The symbol table holds all symbolOops and corresponding interned strings.
-// symbolOops and literal strings should be canonicalized.
+// The symbol table holds all Symbol*s and corresponding interned strings.
+// Symbol*s and literal strings should be canonicalized.
 //
 // The interned strings are created lazily.
 //
@@ -42,32 +42,76 @@
 class BoolObjectClosure;
 
 
-class SymbolTable : public Hashtable {
+// Class to hold a newly created or referenced Symbol* temporarily in scope.
+// new_symbol() and lookup() will create a Symbol* if not already in the
+// symbol table and add to the symbol's reference count.
+// probe() and lookup_only() will increment the refcount if symbol is found.
+class TempNewSymbol : public StackObj {
+  Symbol* _temp;
+
+ public:
+  TempNewSymbol() : _temp(NULL) {}
+  // Creating or looking up a symbol increments the symbol's reference count
+  TempNewSymbol(Symbol *s) : _temp(s) {}
+
+  // Operator= increments reference count.
+  void operator=(const TempNewSymbol &s) {
+    _temp = s._temp;
+    if (_temp !=NULL) _temp->increment_refcount();
+  }
+
+  // Decrement reference counter so it can go away if it's unique
+  ~TempNewSymbol() { if (_temp != NULL) _temp->decrement_refcount(); }
+
+  // Operators so they can be used like Symbols
+  Symbol* operator -> () const                   { return _temp; }
+  bool    operator == (Symbol* o) const          { return _temp == o; }
+  // Sneaky conversion function
+  operator Symbol*()                             { return _temp; }
+};
+
+class SymbolTable : public Hashtable<Symbol*> {
   friend class VMStructs;
+  friend class ClassFileParser;
 
 private:
   // The symbol table
   static SymbolTable* _the_table;
 
+  // For statistics
+  static int symbols_removed;
+  static int symbols_counted;
+
+  Symbol* allocate_symbol(const u1* name, int len, TRAPS);   // Assumes no characters larger than 0x7F
+  bool allocate_symbols(int names_count, const u1** names, int* lengths, Symbol** syms, TRAPS);
+
   // Adding elements
-  symbolOop basic_add(int index, u1* name, int len,
+  Symbol* basic_add(int index, u1* name, int len,
                       unsigned int hashValue, TRAPS);
   bool basic_add(constantPoolHandle cp, int names_count,
                  const char** names, int* lengths, int* cp_indices,
                  unsigned int* hashValues, TRAPS);
 
+  static void new_symbols(constantPoolHandle cp, int names_count,
+                          const char** name, int* lengths,
+                          int* cp_indices, unsigned int* hashValues,
+                          TRAPS) {
+    add(cp, names_count, name, lengths, cp_indices, hashValues, THREAD);
+  }
+
+
   // Table size
   enum {
     symbol_table_size = 20011
   };
 
-  symbolOop lookup(int index, const char* name, int len, unsigned int hash);
+  Symbol* lookup(int index, const char* name, int len, unsigned int hash);
 
   SymbolTable()
-    : Hashtable(symbol_table_size, sizeof (HashtableEntry)) {}
+    : Hashtable<Symbol*>(symbol_table_size, sizeof (HashtableEntry<Symbol*>)) {}
 
   SymbolTable(HashtableBucket* t, int number_of_entries)
-    : Hashtable(symbol_table_size, sizeof (HashtableEntry), t,
+    : Hashtable<Symbol*>(symbol_table_size, sizeof (HashtableEntry<Symbol*>), t,
                 number_of_entries) {}
 
 
@@ -92,66 +136,76 @@
     _the_table = new SymbolTable(t, number_of_entries);
   }
 
-  static symbolOop lookup(const char* name, int len, TRAPS);
+  static Symbol* lookup(const char* name, int len, TRAPS);
   // lookup only, won't add. Also calculate hash.
-  static symbolOop lookup_only(const char* name, int len, unsigned int& hash);
+  static Symbol* lookup_only(const char* name, int len, unsigned int& hash);
   // Only copy to C string to be added if lookup failed.
-  static symbolOop lookup(symbolHandle sym, int begin, int end, TRAPS);
+  static Symbol* lookup(const Symbol* sym, int begin, int end, TRAPS);
+
+  static void release(Symbol* sym);
 
   // jchar (utf16) version of lookups
-  static symbolOop lookup_unicode(const jchar* name, int len, TRAPS);
-  static symbolOop lookup_only_unicode(const jchar* name, int len, unsigned int& hash);
+  static Symbol* lookup_unicode(const jchar* name, int len, TRAPS);
+  static Symbol* lookup_only_unicode(const jchar* name, int len, unsigned int& hash);
 
   static void add(constantPoolHandle cp, int names_count,
                   const char** names, int* lengths, int* cp_indices,
                   unsigned int* hashValues, TRAPS);
 
-  // GC support
-  //   Delete pointers to otherwise-unreachable objects.
-  static void unlink(BoolObjectClosure* cl) {
-    the_table()->Hashtable::unlink(cl);
+  // Release any dead symbols
+  static void unlink();
+
+  // iterate over symbols
+  static void symbols_do(SymbolClosure *cl);
+
+  // Symbol creation
+  static Symbol* new_symbol(const char* utf8_buffer, int length, TRAPS) {
+    assert(utf8_buffer != NULL, "just checking");
+    return lookup(utf8_buffer, length, THREAD);
   }
-
-  // Invoke "f->do_oop" on the locations of all oops in the table.
-  static void oops_do(OopClosure* f) {
-    the_table()->Hashtable::oops_do(f);
+  static Symbol*       new_symbol(const char* name, TRAPS) {
+    return new_symbol(name, (int)strlen(name), THREAD);
+  }
+  static Symbol*       new_symbol(const Symbol* sym, int begin, int end, TRAPS) {
+    assert(begin <= end && end <= sym->utf8_length(), "just checking");
+    return lookup(sym, begin, end, THREAD);
   }
 
   // Symbol lookup
-  static symbolOop lookup(int index, const char* name, int len, TRAPS);
+  static Symbol* lookup(int index, const char* name, int len, TRAPS);
 
   // Needed for preloading classes in signatures when compiling.
   // Returns the symbol is already present in symbol table, otherwise
   // NULL.  NO ALLOCATION IS GUARANTEED!
-  static symbolOop probe(const char* name, int len) {
+  static Symbol* probe(const char* name, int len) {
     unsigned int ignore_hash;
     return lookup_only(name, len, ignore_hash);
   }
-  static symbolOop probe_unicode(const jchar* name, int len) {
+  static Symbol* probe_unicode(const jchar* name, int len) {
     unsigned int ignore_hash;
     return lookup_only_unicode(name, len, ignore_hash);
   }
 
   // Histogram
   static void print_histogram()     PRODUCT_RETURN;
+  static void print()     PRODUCT_RETURN;
 
   // Debugging
   static void verify();
 
   // Sharing
   static void copy_buckets(char** top, char*end) {
-    the_table()->Hashtable::copy_buckets(top, end);
+    the_table()->Hashtable<Symbol*>::copy_buckets(top, end);
   }
   static void copy_table(char** top, char*end) {
-    the_table()->Hashtable::copy_table(top, end);
+    the_table()->Hashtable<Symbol*>::copy_table(top, end);
   }
   static void reverse(void* boundary = NULL) {
-    ((Hashtable*)the_table())->reverse(boundary);
+    the_table()->Hashtable<Symbol*>::reverse(boundary);
   }
 };
 
-
-class StringTable : public Hashtable {
+class StringTable : public Hashtable<oop> {
   friend class VMStructs;
 
 private:
@@ -169,10 +223,10 @@
 
   oop lookup(int index, jchar* chars, int length, unsigned int hashValue);
 
-  StringTable() : Hashtable(string_table_size, sizeof (HashtableEntry)) {}
+  StringTable() : Hashtable<oop>(string_table_size, sizeof (HashtableEntry<oop>)) {}
 
   StringTable(HashtableBucket* t, int number_of_entries)
-    : Hashtable(string_table_size, sizeof (HashtableEntry), t,
+    : Hashtable<oop>(string_table_size, sizeof (HashtableEntry<oop>), t,
                 number_of_entries) {}
 
 public:
@@ -192,26 +246,20 @@
     _the_table = new StringTable(t, number_of_entries);
   }
 
-
   static int hash_string(jchar* s, int len);
 
-
   // GC support
   //   Delete pointers to otherwise-unreachable objects.
-  static void unlink(BoolObjectClosure* cl) {
-    the_table()->Hashtable::unlink(cl);
-  }
+  static void unlink(BoolObjectClosure* cl);
 
   // Invoke "f->do_oop" on the locations of all oops in the table.
-  static void oops_do(OopClosure* f) {
-    the_table()->Hashtable::oops_do(f);
-  }
+  static void oops_do(OopClosure* f);
 
   // Probing
-  static oop lookup(symbolOop symbol);
+  static oop lookup(Symbol* symbol);
 
   // Interning
-  static oop intern(symbolOop symbol, TRAPS);
+  static oop intern(Symbol* symbol, TRAPS);
   static oop intern(oop string, TRAPS);
   static oop intern(const char *utf8_string, TRAPS);
 
@@ -220,13 +268,13 @@
 
   // Sharing
   static void copy_buckets(char** top, char*end) {
-    the_table()->Hashtable::copy_buckets(top, end);
+    the_table()->Hashtable<oop>::copy_buckets(top, end);
   }
   static void copy_table(char** top, char*end) {
-    the_table()->Hashtable::copy_table(top, end);
+    the_table()->Hashtable<oop>::copy_table(top, end);
   }
   static void reverse() {
-    ((BasicHashtable*)the_table())->reverse();
+    the_table()->Hashtable<oop>::reverse();
   }
 };
 
--- a/src/share/vm/classfile/systemDictionary.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/classfile/systemDictionary.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -93,8 +93,8 @@
   JavaValue result(T_OBJECT);
   JavaCalls::call_static(&result,
                          KlassHandle(THREAD, WK_KLASS(ClassLoader_klass)),
-                         vmSymbolHandles::getSystemClassLoader_name(),
-                         vmSymbolHandles::void_classloader_signature(),
+                         vmSymbols::getSystemClassLoader_name(),
+                         vmSymbols::void_classloader_signature(),
                          CHECK);
 
   _java_system_loader = (oop)result.get_jobject();
@@ -107,8 +107,8 @@
 #ifdef ASSERT
 
 // return true if class_name contains no '.' (internal format is '/')
-bool SystemDictionary::is_internal_format(symbolHandle class_name) {
-  if (class_name.not_null()) {
+bool SystemDictionary::is_internal_format(Symbol* class_name) {
+  if (class_name != NULL) {
     ResourceMark rm;
     char* name = class_name->as_C_string();
     return strchr(name, '.') == NULL;
@@ -141,7 +141,7 @@
 
 // Forwards to resolve_or_null
 
-klassOop SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(symbolHandle class_name, Handle class_loader, Handle protection_domain, bool throw_error, TRAPS) {
+klassOop SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(Symbol* class_name, Handle class_loader, Handle protection_domain, bool throw_error, TRAPS) {
   klassOop klass = resolve_or_null(class_name, class_loader, protection_domain, THREAD);
   if (HAS_PENDING_EXCEPTION || klass == NULL) {
     KlassHandle k_h(THREAD, klass);
@@ -151,7 +151,7 @@
   return klass;
 }
 
-klassOop SystemDictionary::handle_resolution_exception(symbolHandle class_name, Handle class_loader, Handle protection_domain, bool throw_error, KlassHandle klass_h, TRAPS) {
+klassOop SystemDictionary::handle_resolution_exception(Symbol* class_name, Handle class_loader, Handle protection_domain, bool throw_error, KlassHandle klass_h, TRAPS) {
   if (HAS_PENDING_EXCEPTION) {
     // If we have a pending exception we forward it to the caller, unless throw_error is true,
     // in which case we have to check whether the pending exception is a ClassNotFoundException,
@@ -180,7 +180,7 @@
 }
 
 
-klassOop SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(symbolHandle class_name,
+klassOop SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(Symbol* class_name,
                                            bool throw_error, TRAPS)
 {
   return resolve_or_fail(class_name, Handle(), Handle(), throw_error, THREAD);
@@ -189,48 +189,49 @@
 
 // Forwards to resolve_instance_class_or_null
 
-klassOop SystemDictionary::resolve_or_null(symbolHandle class_name, Handle class_loader, Handle protection_domain, TRAPS) {
+klassOop SystemDictionary::resolve_or_null(Symbol* class_name, Handle class_loader, Handle protection_domain, TRAPS) {
   assert(!THREAD->is_Compiler_thread(), "Can not load classes with the Compiler thread");
-  if (FieldType::is_array(class_name())) {
+  if (FieldType::is_array(class_name)) {
     return resolve_array_class_or_null(class_name, class_loader, protection_domain, CHECK_NULL);
+  } else if (FieldType::is_obj(class_name)) {
+    ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
+    // Ignore wrapping L and ;.
+    TempNewSymbol name = SymbolTable::new_symbol(class_name->as_C_string() + 1,
+                                   class_name->utf8_length() - 2, CHECK_NULL);
+    return resolve_instance_class_or_null(name, class_loader, protection_domain, CHECK_NULL);
   } else {
     return resolve_instance_class_or_null(class_name, class_loader, protection_domain, CHECK_NULL);
   }
 }
 
-klassOop SystemDictionary::resolve_or_null(symbolHandle class_name, TRAPS) {
+klassOop SystemDictionary::resolve_or_null(Symbol* class_name, TRAPS) {
   return resolve_or_null(class_name, Handle(), Handle(), THREAD);
 }
 
 // Forwards to resolve_instance_class_or_null
 
-klassOop SystemDictionary::resolve_array_class_or_null(symbolHandle class_name,
+klassOop SystemDictionary::resolve_array_class_or_null(Symbol* class_name,
                                                        Handle class_loader,
                                                        Handle protection_domain,
                                                        TRAPS) {
-  assert(FieldType::is_array(class_name()), "must be array");
-  jint dimension;
-  symbolOop object_key;
+  assert(FieldType::is_array(class_name), "must be array");
   klassOop k = NULL;
-  // dimension and object_key are assigned as a side-effect of this call
-  BasicType t = FieldType::get_array_info(class_name(),
-                                          &dimension,
-                                          &object_key,
-                                          CHECK_NULL);
-
+  FieldArrayInfo fd;
+  // dimension and object_key in FieldArrayInfo are assigned as a side-effect
+  // of this call
+  BasicType t = FieldType::get_array_info(class_name, fd, CHECK_NULL);
   if (t == T_OBJECT) {
-    symbolHandle h_key(THREAD, object_key);
     // naked oop "k" is OK here -- we assign back into it
-    k = SystemDictionary::resolve_instance_class_or_null(h_key,
+    k = SystemDictionary::resolve_instance_class_or_null(fd.object_key(),
                                                          class_loader,
                                                          protection_domain,
                                                          CHECK_NULL);
     if (k != NULL) {
-      k = Klass::cast(k)->array_klass(dimension, CHECK_NULL);
+      k = Klass::cast(k)->array_klass(fd.dimension(), CHECK_NULL);
     }
   } else {
     k = Universe::typeArrayKlassObj(t);
-    k = typeArrayKlass::cast(k)->array_klass(dimension, CHECK_NULL);
+    k = typeArrayKlass::cast(k)->array_klass(fd.dimension(), CHECK_NULL);
   }
   return k;
 }
@@ -271,8 +272,8 @@
 // Must be called, even if superclass is null, since this is
 // where the placeholder entry is created which claims this
 // thread is loading this class/classloader.
-klassOop SystemDictionary::resolve_super_or_fail(symbolHandle child_name,
-                                                 symbolHandle class_name,
+klassOop SystemDictionary::resolve_super_or_fail(Symbol* child_name,
+                                                 Symbol* class_name,
                                                  Handle class_loader,
                                                  Handle protection_domain,
                                                  bool is_superclass,
@@ -281,7 +282,7 @@
   // Try to get one of the well-known klasses.
   // They are trusted, and do not participate in circularities.
   if (LinkWellKnownClasses) {
-    klassOop k = find_well_known_klass(class_name());
+    klassOop k = find_well_known_klass(class_name);
     if (k != NULL) {
       return k;
     }
@@ -323,7 +324,7 @@
     if ((childk != NULL ) && (is_superclass) &&
        ((quicksuperk = instanceKlass::cast(childk)->super()) != NULL) &&
 
-         ((Klass::cast(quicksuperk)->name() == class_name()) &&
+         ((Klass::cast(quicksuperk)->name() == class_name) &&
             (Klass::cast(quicksuperk)->class_loader()  == class_loader()))) {
            return quicksuperk;
     } else {
@@ -342,7 +343,7 @@
   }
 
 // java.lang.Object should have been found above
-  assert(class_name() != NULL, "null super class for resolving");
+  assert(class_name != NULL, "null super class for resolving");
   // Resolve the super class or interface, check results on return
   klassOop superk = NULL;
   superk = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_null(class_name,
@@ -392,8 +393,8 @@
   JavaCalls::call_special(&result,
                          class_loader,
                          system_loader,
-                         vmSymbolHandles::checkPackageAccess_name(),
-                         vmSymbolHandles::class_protectiondomain_signature(),
+                         vmSymbols::checkPackageAccess_name(),
+                         vmSymbols::class_protectiondomain_signature(),
                          Handle(THREAD, klass->java_mirror()),
                          protection_domain,
                          THREAD);
@@ -414,7 +415,7 @@
   {
     // We recalculate the entry here -- we've called out to java since
     // the last time it was calculated.
-    symbolHandle kn(THREAD, klass->name());
+    Symbol*  kn = klass->name();
     unsigned int d_hash = dictionary()->compute_hash(kn, class_loader);
     int d_index = dictionary()->hash_to_index(d_hash);
 
@@ -489,7 +490,7 @@
 // and we are done,
 // If return null klassOop and no pending exception, the caller must load the class
 instanceKlassHandle SystemDictionary::handle_parallel_super_load(
-    symbolHandle name, symbolHandle superclassname, Handle class_loader,
+    Symbol* name, Symbol* superclassname, Handle class_loader,
     Handle protection_domain, Handle lockObject, TRAPS) {
 
   instanceKlassHandle nh = instanceKlassHandle(); // null Handle
@@ -578,17 +579,9 @@
 }
 
 
-klassOop SystemDictionary::resolve_instance_class_or_null(symbolHandle class_name, Handle class_loader, Handle protection_domain, TRAPS) {
-  assert(class_name.not_null() && !FieldType::is_array(class_name()), "invalid class name");
-  // First check to see if we should remove wrapping L and ;
-  symbolHandle name;
-  if (FieldType::is_obj(class_name())) {
-    ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
-    // Ignore wrapping L and ;.
-    name = oopFactory::new_symbol_handle(class_name()->as_C_string() + 1, class_name()->utf8_length() - 2, CHECK_NULL);
-  } else {
-    name = class_name;
-  }
+klassOop SystemDictionary::resolve_instance_class_or_null(Symbol* name, Handle class_loader, Handle protection_domain, TRAPS) {
+  assert(name != NULL && !FieldType::is_array(name) &&
+         !FieldType::is_obj(name), "invalid class name");
 
   // UseNewReflection
   // Fix for 4474172; see evaluation for more details
@@ -632,7 +625,7 @@
   bool havesupername = false;
   instanceKlassHandle k;
   PlaceholderEntry* placeholder;
-  symbolHandle superclassname;
+  Symbol* superclassname = NULL;
 
   {
     MutexLocker mu(SystemDictionary_lock, THREAD);
@@ -646,7 +639,7 @@
       if (placeholder && placeholder->super_load_in_progress()) {
          super_load_in_progress = true;
          if (placeholder->havesupername() == true) {
-           superclassname = symbolHandle(THREAD, placeholder->supername());
+           superclassname = placeholder->supername();
            havesupername = true;
          }
       }
@@ -691,7 +684,6 @@
     //    No performance benefit and no deadlock issues.
     // case 5. parallelCapable user level classloaders - without objectLocker
     //    Allow parallel classloading of a class/classloader pair
-    symbolHandle nullsymbolHandle;
     bool throw_circularity_error = false;
     {
       MutexLocker mu(SystemDictionary_lock, THREAD);
@@ -733,7 +725,7 @@
       // LOAD_INSTANCE in parallel
       // add placeholder entry even if error - callers will remove on error
       if (!throw_circularity_error && !class_has_been_loaded) {
-        PlaceholderEntry* newprobe = placeholders()->find_and_add(p_index, p_hash, name, class_loader, PlaceholderTable::LOAD_INSTANCE, nullsymbolHandle, THREAD);
+        PlaceholderEntry* newprobe = placeholders()->find_and_add(p_index, p_hash, name, class_loader, PlaceholderTable::LOAD_INSTANCE, NULL, THREAD);
         // For class loaders that do not acquire the classloader object lock,
         // if they did not catch another thread holding LOAD_INSTANCE,
         // need a check analogous to the acquire ObjectLocker/find_class
@@ -837,7 +829,7 @@
   {
     Handle loader (THREAD, k->class_loader());
     MutexLocker mu(SystemDictionary_lock, THREAD);
-    oop kk = find_class_or_placeholder(name, loader);
+    oop kk = find_class(name, loader);
     assert(kk == k(), "should be present in dictionary");
   }
 #endif
@@ -880,7 +872,7 @@
 // _dictionary->bucket(index) is read here, so the caller will not see
 // the new entry.
 
-klassOop SystemDictionary::find(symbolHandle class_name,
+klassOop SystemDictionary::find(Symbol* class_name,
                                 Handle class_loader,
                                 Handle protection_domain,
                                 TRAPS) {
@@ -910,37 +902,34 @@
 
 // Look for a loaded instance or array klass by name.  Do not do any loading.
 // return NULL in case of error.
-klassOop SystemDictionary::find_instance_or_array_klass(symbolHandle class_name,
+klassOop SystemDictionary::find_instance_or_array_klass(Symbol* class_name,
                                                         Handle class_loader,
                                                         Handle protection_domain,
                                                         TRAPS) {
   klassOop k = NULL;
-  assert(class_name() != NULL, "class name must be non NULL");
+  assert(class_name != NULL, "class name must be non NULL");
 
   // Try to get one of the well-known klasses.
   if (LinkWellKnownClasses) {
-    k = find_well_known_klass(class_name());
+    k = find_well_known_klass(class_name);
     if (k != NULL) {
       return k;
     }
   }
 
-  if (FieldType::is_array(class_name())) {
+  if (FieldType::is_array(class_name)) {
     // The name refers to an array.  Parse the name.
-    jint dimension;
-    symbolOop object_key;
-
-    // dimension and object_key are assigned as a side-effect of this call
-    BasicType t = FieldType::get_array_info(class_name(), &dimension,
-                                            &object_key, CHECK_(NULL));
+    // dimension and object_key in FieldArrayInfo are assigned as a
+    // side-effect of this call
+    FieldArrayInfo fd;
+    BasicType t = FieldType::get_array_info(class_name, fd, CHECK_(NULL));
     if (t != T_OBJECT) {
       k = Universe::typeArrayKlassObj(t);
     } else {
-      symbolHandle h_key(THREAD, object_key);
-      k = SystemDictionary::find(h_key, class_loader, protection_domain, THREAD);
+      k = SystemDictionary::find(fd.object_key(), class_loader, protection_domain, THREAD);
     }
     if (k != NULL) {
-      k = Klass::cast(k)->array_klass_or_null(dimension);
+      k = Klass::cast(k)->array_klass_or_null(fd.dimension());
     }
   } else {
     k = find(class_name, class_loader, protection_domain, THREAD);
@@ -949,7 +938,7 @@
 }
 
 // Quick range check for names of well-known classes:
-static symbolOop wk_klass_name_limits[2] = {NULL, NULL};
+static Symbol* wk_klass_name_limits[2] = {NULL, NULL};
 
 #ifndef PRODUCT
 static int find_wkk_calls, find_wkk_probes, find_wkk_wins;
@@ -957,7 +946,7 @@
 //  => 60% hit after limit guard, 25% total win rate
 #endif
 
-klassOop SystemDictionary::find_well_known_klass(symbolOop class_name) {
+klassOop SystemDictionary::find_well_known_klass(Symbol* class_name) {
   // A bounds-check on class_name will quickly get a negative result.
   NOT_PRODUCT(find_wkk_calls++);
   if (class_name >= wk_klass_name_limits[0] &&
@@ -983,14 +972,14 @@
 // Note: this method is much like resolve_from_stream, but
 // updates no supplemental data structures.
 // TODO consolidate the two methods with a helper routine?
-klassOop SystemDictionary::parse_stream(symbolHandle class_name,
+klassOop SystemDictionary::parse_stream(Symbol* class_name,
                                         Handle class_loader,
                                         Handle protection_domain,
                                         ClassFileStream* st,
                                         KlassHandle host_klass,
                                         GrowableArray<Handle>* cp_patches,
                                         TRAPS) {
-  symbolHandle parsed_name;
+  TempNewSymbol parsed_name = NULL;
 
   // Parse the stream. Note that we do this even though this klass might
   // already be present in the SystemDictionary, otherwise we would not
@@ -1011,13 +1000,12 @@
                                                              true,
                                                              THREAD);
 
-
   // We don't redefine the class, so we just need to clean up whether there
   // was an error or not (don't want to modify any system dictionary
   // data structures).
   // Parsed name could be null if we threw an error before we got far
   // enough along to parse it -- in that case, there is nothing to clean up.
-  if (!parsed_name.is_null()) {
+  if (parsed_name != NULL) {
     unsigned int p_hash = placeholders()->compute_hash(parsed_name,
                                                        class_loader);
     int p_index = placeholders()->hash_to_index(p_hash);
@@ -1060,7 +1048,7 @@
 // Note: class_name can be NULL. In that case we do not know the name of
 // the class until we have parsed the stream.
 
-klassOop SystemDictionary::resolve_from_stream(symbolHandle class_name,
+klassOop SystemDictionary::resolve_from_stream(Symbol* class_name,
                                                Handle class_loader,
                                                Handle protection_domain,
                                                ClassFileStream* st,
@@ -1079,7 +1067,7 @@
   check_loader_lock_contention(lockObject, THREAD);
   ObjectLocker ol(lockObject, THREAD, DoObjectLock);
 
-  symbolHandle parsed_name;
+  TempNewSymbol parsed_name = NULL;
 
   // Parse the stream. Note that we do this even though this klass might
   // already be present in the SystemDictionary, otherwise we would not
@@ -1101,7 +1089,7 @@
   const char* pkg = "java/";
   if (!HAS_PENDING_EXCEPTION &&
       !class_loader.is_null() &&
-      !parsed_name.is_null() &&
+      parsed_name != NULL &&
       !strncmp((const char*)parsed_name->bytes(), pkg, strlen(pkg))) {
     // It is illegal to define classes in the "java." package from
     // JVM_DefineClass or jni_DefineClass unless you're the bootclassloader
@@ -1121,9 +1109,8 @@
   }
 
   if (!HAS_PENDING_EXCEPTION) {
-    assert(!parsed_name.is_null(), "Sanity");
-    assert(class_name.is_null() || class_name() == parsed_name(),
-           "name mismatch");
+    assert(parsed_name != NULL, "Sanity");
+    assert(class_name == NULL || class_name == parsed_name, "name mismatch");
     // Verification prevents us from creating names with dots in them, this
     // asserts that that's the case.
     assert(is_internal_format(parsed_name),
@@ -1144,7 +1131,7 @@
   // must make sure parsed_name is valid first (it won't be if we had
   // a format error before the class was parsed far enough to
   // find the name).
-  if (HAS_PENDING_EXCEPTION && !parsed_name.is_null()) {
+  if (HAS_PENDING_EXCEPTION && parsed_name != NULL) {
     unsigned int p_hash = placeholders()->compute_hash(parsed_name,
                                                        class_loader);
     int p_index = placeholders()->hash_to_index(p_hash);
@@ -1160,16 +1147,16 @@
   // SystemDictionary; this is only done on success
   debug_only( {
     if (!HAS_PENDING_EXCEPTION) {
-      assert(!parsed_name.is_null(), "parsed_name is still null?");
-      symbolHandle h_name   (THREAD, k->name());
+      assert(parsed_name != NULL, "parsed_name is still null?");
+      Symbol*  h_name    = k->name();
       Handle h_loader (THREAD, k->class_loader());
 
       MutexLocker mu(SystemDictionary_lock, THREAD);
 
-      oop check = find_class_or_placeholder(parsed_name, class_loader);
+      klassOop check = find_class(parsed_name, class_loader);
       assert(check == k(), "should be present in the dictionary");
 
-      oop check2 = find_class_or_placeholder(h_name, h_loader);
+      klassOop check2 = find_class(h_name, h_loader);
       assert(check == check2, "name inconsistancy in SystemDictionary");
     }
   } );
@@ -1189,7 +1176,7 @@
 // If there is a shared dictionary, then find the entry for the
 // given shared system class, if any.
 
-klassOop SystemDictionary::find_shared_class(symbolHandle class_name) {
+klassOop SystemDictionary::find_shared_class(Symbol* class_name) {
   if (shared_dictionary() != NULL) {
     unsigned int d_hash = dictionary()->compute_hash(class_name, Handle());
     int d_index = dictionary()->hash_to_index(d_hash);
@@ -1207,7 +1194,7 @@
 // object hierarchy until loaded.]
 
 instanceKlassHandle SystemDictionary::load_shared_class(
-                 symbolHandle class_name, Handle class_loader, TRAPS) {
+                 Symbol* class_name, Handle class_loader, TRAPS) {
   instanceKlassHandle ik (THREAD, find_shared_class(class_name));
   return load_shared_class(ik, class_loader, THREAD);
 }
@@ -1222,14 +1209,14 @@
   assert(class_loader.is_null(), "non-null classloader for shared class?");
   if (ik.not_null()) {
     instanceKlassHandle nh = instanceKlassHandle(); // null Handle
-    symbolHandle class_name(THREAD, ik->name());
+    Symbol*  class_name = ik->name();
 
     // Found the class, now load the superclass and interfaces.  If they
     // are shared, add them to the main system dictionary and reset
     // their hierarchy references (supers, subs, and interfaces).
 
     if (ik->super() != NULL) {
-      symbolHandle cn(THREAD, ik->super()->klass_part()->name());
+      Symbol*  cn = ik->super()->klass_part()->name();
       resolve_super_or_fail(class_name, cn,
                             class_loader, Handle(), true, CHECK_(nh));
     }
@@ -1243,7 +1230,7 @@
       // interfaces' instanceKlass's C++ vtbls haven't been
       // reinitialized yet (they will be once the interface classes
       // are loaded)
-      symbolHandle name (THREAD, k->klass_part()->name());
+      Symbol*  name  = k->klass_part()->name();
       resolve_super_or_fail(class_name, name, class_loader, Handle(), false, CHECK_(nh));
     }
 
@@ -1290,7 +1277,7 @@
 // Note that with delegation class loaders all classes in another loader will
 // first try to call this so it'd better be fast!!
 static instanceKlassHandle download_and_retry_class_load(
-                                                    symbolHandle class_name,
+                                                    Symbol* class_name,
                                                     TRAPS) {
 
   klassOop dlm = SystemDictionary::sun_jkernel_DownloadManager_klass();
@@ -1313,8 +1300,8 @@
     // public static String getBootClassPathEntryForClass(String className);
     JavaCalls::call_static(&result,
                        KlassHandle(THREAD, dlm),
-                       vmSymbolHandles::getBootClassPathEntryForClass_name(),
-                       vmSymbolHandles::string_string_signature(),
+                       vmSymbols::getBootClassPathEntryForClass_name(),
+                       vmSymbols::string_string_signature(),
                        class_string,
                        CHECK_(nk));
 
@@ -1344,7 +1331,7 @@
 #endif // KERNEL
 
 
-instanceKlassHandle SystemDictionary::load_instance_class(symbolHandle class_name, Handle class_loader, TRAPS) {
+instanceKlassHandle SystemDictionary::load_instance_class(Symbol* class_name, Handle class_loader, TRAPS) {
   instanceKlassHandle nh = instanceKlassHandle(); // null Handle
   if (class_loader.is_null()) {
 
@@ -1419,16 +1406,16 @@
       JavaCalls::call_special(&result,
                               class_loader,
                               spec_klass,
-                              vmSymbolHandles::loadClassInternal_name(),
-                              vmSymbolHandles::string_class_signature(),
+                              vmSymbols::loadClassInternal_name(),
+                              vmSymbols::string_class_signature(),
                               string,
                               CHECK_(nh));
     } else {
       JavaCalls::call_virtual(&result,
                               class_loader,
                               spec_klass,
-                              vmSymbolHandles::loadClass_name(),
-                              vmSymbolHandles::string_class_signature(),
+                              vmSymbols::loadClass_name(),
+                              vmSymbols::string_class_signature(),
                               string,
                               CHECK_(nh));
     }
@@ -1444,7 +1431,7 @@
       // For user defined Java class loaders, check that the name returned is
       // the same as that requested.  This check is done for the bootstrap
       // loader when parsing the class file.
-      if (class_name() == k->name()) {
+      if (class_name == k->name()) {
         return k;
       }
     }
@@ -1477,7 +1464,7 @@
   // classloader lock held
   // Parallel classloaders will call find_or_define_instance_class
   // which will require a token to perform the define class
-  symbolHandle name_h(THREAD, k->name());
+  Symbol*  name_h = k->name();
   unsigned int d_hash = dictionary()->compute_hash(name_h, class_loader_h);
   int d_index = dictionary()->hash_to_index(d_hash);
   check_constraints(d_index, d_hash, k, class_loader_h, true, CHECK);
@@ -1536,10 +1523,10 @@
 // findClass(), i.e. FindLoadedClass/DefineClassIfAbsent or they
 // potentially waste time reading and parsing the bytestream.
 // Note: VM callers should ensure consistency of k/class_name,class_loader
-instanceKlassHandle SystemDictionary::find_or_define_instance_class(symbolHandle class_name, Handle class_loader, instanceKlassHandle k, TRAPS) {
+instanceKlassHandle SystemDictionary::find_or_define_instance_class(Symbol* class_name, Handle class_loader, instanceKlassHandle k, TRAPS) {
 
   instanceKlassHandle nh = instanceKlassHandle(); // null Handle
-  symbolHandle name_h(THREAD, k->name()); // passed in class_name may be null
+  Symbol*  name_h = k->name(); // passed in class_name may be null
 
   unsigned int d_hash = dictionary()->compute_hash(name_h, class_loader);
   int d_index = dictionary()->hash_to_index(d_hash);
@@ -1560,8 +1547,7 @@
     }
 
     // Acquire define token for this class/classloader
-    symbolHandle nullsymbolHandle;
-    probe = placeholders()->find_and_add(p_index, p_hash, name_h, class_loader, PlaceholderTable::DEFINE_CLASS, nullsymbolHandle, THREAD);
+    probe = placeholders()->find_and_add(p_index, p_hash, name_h, class_loader, PlaceholderTable::DEFINE_CLASS, NULL, THREAD);
     // Wait if another thread defining in parallel
     // All threads wait - even those that will throw duplicate class: otherwise
     // caller is surprised by LinkageError: duplicate, but findLoadedClass fails
@@ -1653,7 +1639,7 @@
 // Lookup
 
 klassOop SystemDictionary::find_class(int index, unsigned int hash,
-                                      symbolHandle class_name,
+                                      Symbol* class_name,
                                       Handle class_loader) {
   assert_locked_or_safepoint(SystemDictionary_lock);
   assert (index == dictionary()->index_for(class_name, class_loader),
@@ -1665,18 +1651,17 @@
 
 
 // Basic find on classes in the midst of being loaded
-symbolOop SystemDictionary::find_placeholder(int index, unsigned int hash,
-                                             symbolHandle class_name,
-                                             Handle class_loader) {
+Symbol* SystemDictionary::find_placeholder(Symbol* class_name,
+                                           Handle class_loader) {
   assert_locked_or_safepoint(SystemDictionary_lock);
-
-  return placeholders()->find_entry(index, hash, class_name, class_loader);
+  unsigned int p_hash = placeholders()->compute_hash(class_name, class_loader);
+  int p_index = placeholders()->hash_to_index(p_hash);
+  return placeholders()->find_entry(p_index, p_hash, class_name, class_loader);
 }
 
 
 // Used for assertions and verification only
-oop SystemDictionary::find_class_or_placeholder(symbolHandle class_name,
-                                                Handle class_loader) {
+klassOop SystemDictionary::find_class(Symbol* class_name, Handle class_loader) {
   #ifndef ASSERT
   guarantee(VerifyBeforeGC   ||
             VerifyDuringGC   ||
@@ -1684,22 +1669,11 @@
             VerifyAfterGC, "too expensive");
   #endif
   assert_locked_or_safepoint(SystemDictionary_lock);
-  symbolOop class_name_ = class_name();
-  oop class_loader_ = class_loader();
 
   // First look in the loaded class array
   unsigned int d_hash = dictionary()->compute_hash(class_name, class_loader);
   int d_index = dictionary()->hash_to_index(d_hash);
-  oop lookup = find_class(d_index, d_hash, class_name, class_loader);
-
-  if (lookup == NULL) {
-    // Next try the placeholders
-    unsigned int p_hash = placeholders()->compute_hash(class_name,class_loader);
-    int p_index = placeholders()->hash_to_index(p_hash);
-    lookup = find_placeholder(p_index, p_hash, class_name, class_loader);
-  }
-
-  return lookup;
+  return find_class(d_index, d_hash, class_name, class_loader);
 }
 
 
@@ -1757,12 +1731,6 @@
 
   // Visit extra methods
   invoke_method_table()->oops_do(blk);
-
-  // Loader constraints. We must keep the symbolOop used in the name alive.
-  constraints()->always_strong_classes_do(blk);
-
-  // Resolution errors keep the symbolOop for the error alive
-  resolution_errors()->always_strong_classes_do(blk);
 }
 
 
@@ -1808,9 +1776,6 @@
 
 
 void SystemDictionary::preloaded_oops_do(OopClosure* f) {
-  f->do_oop((oop*) &wk_klass_name_limits[0]);
-  f->do_oop((oop*) &wk_klass_name_limits[1]);
-
   for (int k = (int)FIRST_WKID; k < (int)WKID_LIMIT; k++) {
     f->do_oop((oop*) &_well_known_klasses[k]);
   }
@@ -1862,7 +1827,7 @@
   dictionary()->classes_do(f, CHECK);
 }
 
-void SystemDictionary::placeholders_do(void f(symbolOop, oop)) {
+void SystemDictionary::placeholders_do(void f(Symbol*, oop)) {
   placeholders()->entries_do(f);
 }
 
@@ -1882,7 +1847,7 @@
   // class is loaded.
   klassOop aos = _abstract_ownable_synchronizer_klass;
   if (aos == NULL) {
-    klassOop k = resolve_or_fail(vmSymbolHandles::java_util_concurrent_locks_AbstractOwnableSynchronizer(), true, CHECK);
+    klassOop k = resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_util_concurrent_locks_AbstractOwnableSynchronizer(), true, CHECK);
     // Force a fence to prevent any read before the write completes
     OrderAccess::fence();
     _abstract_ownable_synchronizer_klass = k;
@@ -1924,7 +1889,7 @@
   assert(id >= (int)FIRST_WKID && id < (int)WKID_LIMIT, "oob");
   int  info = wk_init_info[id - FIRST_WKID];
   int  sid  = (info >> CEIL_LG_OPTION_LIMIT);
-  symbolHandle symbol = vmSymbolHandles::symbol_handle_at((vmSymbols::SID)sid);
+  Symbol* symbol = vmSymbols::symbol_at((vmSymbols::SID)sid);
   klassOop*    klassp = &_well_known_klasses[id];
   bool must_load = (init_opt < SystemDictionary::Opt);
   bool try_load  = true;
@@ -1954,7 +1919,7 @@
     initialize_wk_klass((WKID)id, opt, CHECK);
 
     // Update limits, so find_well_known_klass can be very fast:
-    symbolOop s = vmSymbols::symbol_at((vmSymbols::SID)sid);
+    Symbol* s = vmSymbols::symbol_at((vmSymbols::SID)sid);
     if (wk_klass_name_limits[1] == NULL) {
       wk_klass_name_limits[0] = wk_klass_name_limits[1] = s;
     } else if (wk_klass_name_limits[1] < s) {
@@ -2081,7 +2046,7 @@
                                          TRAPS) {
   const char *linkage_error = NULL;
   {
-    symbolHandle name (THREAD, k->name());
+    Symbol*  name  = k->name();
     MutexLocker mu(SystemDictionary_lock, THREAD);
 
     klassOop check = find_class(d_index, d_hash, name, class_loader);
@@ -2102,10 +2067,8 @@
     }
 
 #ifdef ASSERT
-    unsigned int p_hash = placeholders()->compute_hash(name, class_loader);
-    int p_index = placeholders()->hash_to_index(p_hash);
-    symbolOop ph_check = find_placeholder(p_index, p_hash, name, class_loader);
-    assert(ph_check == NULL || ph_check == name(), "invalid symbol");
+    Symbol* ph_check = find_placeholder(name, class_loader);
+    assert(ph_check == NULL || ph_check == name, "invalid symbol");
 #endif
 
     if (linkage_error == NULL) {
@@ -2141,7 +2104,7 @@
                                          TRAPS) {
   // Compile_lock prevents systemDictionary updates during compilations
   assert_locked_or_safepoint(Compile_lock);
-  symbolHandle name (THREAD, k->name());
+  Symbol*  name  = k->name();
 
   {
   MutexLocker mu1(SystemDictionary_lock, THREAD);
@@ -2181,7 +2144,7 @@
 // while only one thread can define a class at one time, multiple
 // classes can resolve the superclass for a class at one time,
 // and the placeholder is used to track that
-//  symbolOop ph_check = find_placeholder(p_index, p_hash, name, class_loader);
+//  Symbol* ph_check = find_placeholder(name, class_loader);
 //  assert (ph_check == NULL, "should not have a placeholder entry");
 #endif
     SystemDictionary_lock->notify_all();
@@ -2190,7 +2153,7 @@
 
 
 klassOop SystemDictionary::find_constrained_instance_or_array_klass(
-                    symbolHandle class_name, Handle class_loader, TRAPS) {
+                    Symbol* class_name, Handle class_loader, TRAPS) {
 
   // First see if it has been loaded directly.
   // Force the protection domain to be null.  (This removes protection checks.)
@@ -2203,23 +2166,20 @@
   // Now look to see if it has been loaded elsewhere, and is subject to
   // a loader constraint that would require this loader to return the
   // klass that is already loaded.
-  if (FieldType::is_array(class_name())) {
+  if (FieldType::is_array(class_name)) {
     // For array classes, their klassOops are not kept in the
     // constraint table. The element klassOops are.
-    jint dimension;
-    symbolOop object_key;
-    BasicType t = FieldType::get_array_info(class_name(), &dimension,
-                                            &object_key, CHECK_(NULL));
+    FieldArrayInfo fd;
+    BasicType t = FieldType::get_array_info(class_name, fd, CHECK_(NULL));
     if (t != T_OBJECT) {
       klass = Universe::typeArrayKlassObj(t);
     } else {
-      symbolHandle elem_name(THREAD, object_key);
       MutexLocker mu(SystemDictionary_lock, THREAD);
-      klass = constraints()->find_constrained_klass(elem_name, class_loader);
+      klass = constraints()->find_constrained_klass(fd.object_key(), class_loader);
     }
     // If element class already loaded, allocate array klass
     if (klass != NULL) {
-      klass = Klass::cast(klass)->array_klass_or_null(dimension);
+      klass = Klass::cast(klass)->array_klass_or_null(fd.dimension());
     }
   } else {
     MutexLocker mu(SystemDictionary_lock, THREAD);
@@ -2231,25 +2191,23 @@
 }
 
 
-bool SystemDictionary::add_loader_constraint(symbolHandle class_name,
+bool SystemDictionary::add_loader_constraint(Symbol* class_name,
                                              Handle class_loader1,
                                              Handle class_loader2,
                                              Thread* THREAD) {
-  symbolHandle constraint_name;
-  if (!FieldType::is_array(class_name())) {
+  Symbol* constraint_name = NULL;
+  if (!FieldType::is_array(class_name)) {
     constraint_name = class_name;
   } else {
     // For array classes, their klassOops are not kept in the
     // constraint table. The element classes are.
-    jint dimension;
-    symbolOop object_key;
-    BasicType t = FieldType::get_array_info(class_name(), &dimension,
-                                            &object_key, CHECK_(false));
+    FieldArrayInfo fd;
+    BasicType t = FieldType::get_array_info(class_name, fd, CHECK_(false));
     // primitive types always pass
     if (t != T_OBJECT) {
       return true;
     } else {
-      constraint_name = symbolHandle(THREAD, object_key);
+      constraint_name = fd.object_key();
     }
   }
   unsigned int d_hash1 = dictionary()->compute_hash(constraint_name, class_loader1);
@@ -2272,7 +2230,7 @@
 
 // Add entry to resolution error table to record the error when the first
 // attempt to resolve a reference to a class has failed.
-void SystemDictionary::add_resolution_error(constantPoolHandle pool, int which, symbolHandle error) {
+void SystemDictionary::add_resolution_error(constantPoolHandle pool, int which, Symbol* error) {
   unsigned int hash = resolution_errors()->compute_hash(pool, which);
   int index = resolution_errors()->hash_to_index(hash);
   {
@@ -2282,13 +2240,13 @@
 }
 
 // Lookup resolution error table. Returns error if found, otherwise NULL.
-symbolOop SystemDictionary::find_resolution_error(constantPoolHandle pool, int which) {
+Symbol* SystemDictionary::find_resolution_error(constantPoolHandle pool, int which) {
   unsigned int hash = resolution_errors()->compute_hash(pool, which);
   int index = resolution_errors()->hash_to_index(hash);
   {
     MutexLocker ml(SystemDictionary_lock, Thread::current());
     ResolutionErrorEntry* entry = resolution_errors()->find_entry(index, hash, pool, which);
-    return (entry != NULL) ? entry->error() : (symbolOop)NULL;
+    return (entry != NULL) ? entry->error() : (Symbol*)NULL;
   }
 }
 
@@ -2344,7 +2302,7 @@
 // NULL if no constraint failed. The returned C string needs cleaning up
 // with a ResourceMark in the caller.  No exception except OOME is thrown.
 // Arrays are not added to the loader constraint table, their elements are.
-char* SystemDictionary::check_signature_loaders(symbolHandle signature,
+char* SystemDictionary::check_signature_loaders(Symbol* signature,
                                                Handle loader1, Handle loader2,
                                                bool is_method, TRAPS)  {
   // Nothing to do if loaders are the same.
@@ -2352,13 +2310,14 @@
     return NULL;
   }
 
+  ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
   SignatureStream sig_strm(signature, is_method);
   while (!sig_strm.is_done()) {
     if (sig_strm.is_object()) {
-      symbolOop s = sig_strm.as_symbol(CHECK_NULL);
-      symbolHandle sig (THREAD, s);
+      Symbol* s = sig_strm.as_symbol(CHECK_NULL);
+      Symbol*  sig  = s;
       if (!add_loader_constraint(sig, loader1, loader2, THREAD)) {
-        return sig()->as_C_string();
+        return sig->as_C_string();
       }
     }
     sig_strm.next();
@@ -2367,12 +2326,12 @@
 }
 
 
-methodOop SystemDictionary::find_method_handle_invoke(symbolHandle name,
-                                                      symbolHandle signature,
+methodOop SystemDictionary::find_method_handle_invoke(Symbol* name,
+                                                      Symbol* signature,
                                                       KlassHandle accessing_klass,
                                                       TRAPS) {
   if (!EnableMethodHandles)  return NULL;
-  vmSymbols::SID name_id = vmSymbols::find_sid(name());
+  vmSymbols::SID name_id = vmSymbols::find_sid(name);
   assert(name_id != vmSymbols::NO_SID, "must be a known name");
   unsigned int hash  = invoke_method_table()->compute_hash(signature, name_id);
   int          index = invoke_method_table()->hash_to_index(hash);
@@ -2385,7 +2344,7 @@
       return NULL;              // do not attempt from within compiler
     bool for_invokeGeneric = (name_id == vmSymbols::VM_SYMBOL_ENUM_NAME(invokeGeneric_name));
     bool found_on_bcp = false;
-    Handle mt = find_method_handle_type(signature(), accessing_klass,
+    Handle mt = find_method_handle_type(signature, accessing_klass,
                                         for_invokeGeneric,
                                         found_on_bcp, CHECK_NULL);
     KlassHandle  mh_klass = SystemDictionaryHandles::MethodHandle_klass();
@@ -2416,7 +2375,7 @@
 // signature, as interpreted relative to the given class loader.
 // Because of class loader constraints, all method handle usage must be
 // consistent with this loader.
-Handle SystemDictionary::find_method_handle_type(symbolHandle signature,
+Handle SystemDictionary::find_method_handle_type(Symbol* signature,
                                                  KlassHandle accessing_klass,
                                                  bool for_invokeGeneric,
                                                  bool& return_bcp_flag,
@@ -2424,11 +2383,12 @@
   Handle class_loader, protection_domain;
   bool is_on_bcp = true;  // keep this true as long as we can materialize from the boot classloader
   Handle empty;
-  int npts = ArgumentCount(signature()).size();
+  int npts = ArgumentCount(signature).size();
   objArrayHandle pts = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::Class_klass(), npts, CHECK_(empty));
   int arg = 0;
   Handle rt;                            // the return type from the signature
-  for (SignatureStream ss(signature()); !ss.is_done(); ss.next()) {
+  ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
+  for (SignatureStream ss(signature); !ss.is_done(); ss.next()) {
     oop mirror = NULL;
     if (is_on_bcp) {
       mirror = ss.as_java_mirror(class_loader, protection_domain,
@@ -2500,17 +2460,18 @@
 Handle SystemDictionary::link_method_handle_constant(KlassHandle caller,
                                                      int ref_kind, //e.g., JVM_REF_invokeVirtual
                                                      KlassHandle callee,
-                                                     symbolHandle name_sym,
-                                                     symbolHandle signature,
+                                                     Symbol* name_sym,
+                                                     Symbol* signature,
                                                      TRAPS) {
   Handle empty;
-  Handle name = java_lang_String::create_from_symbol(name_sym(), CHECK_(empty));
+  Handle name = java_lang_String::create_from_symbol(name_sym, CHECK_(empty));
   Handle type;
   if (signature->utf8_length() > 0 && signature->byte_at(0) == '(') {
     bool ignore_is_on_bcp = false;
     type = find_method_handle_type(signature, caller, false, ignore_is_on_bcp, CHECK_(empty));
   } else {
-    SignatureStream ss(signature(), false);
+    ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
+    SignatureStream ss(signature, false);
     if (!ss.is_done()) {
       oop mirror = ss.as_java_mirror(caller->class_loader(), caller->protection_domain(),
                                      SignatureStream::NCDFError, CHECK_(empty));
@@ -2542,7 +2503,7 @@
 // Ask Java code to find or construct a java.dyn.CallSite for the given
 // name and signature, as interpreted relative to the given class loader.
 Handle SystemDictionary::make_dynamic_call_site(Handle bootstrap_method,
-                                                symbolHandle name,
+                                                Symbol* name,
                                                 methodHandle signature_invoker,
                                                 Handle info,
                                                 methodHandle caller_method,
@@ -2557,7 +2518,7 @@
   MethodHandles::init_MemberName(caller_mname(), caller_method());
 
   // call sun.dyn.MethodHandleNatives::makeDynamicCallSite(bootm, name, mtype, info, caller_mname, caller_pos)
-  oop name_str_oop = StringTable::intern(name(), CHECK_(empty)); // not a handle!
+  oop name_str_oop = StringTable::intern(name, CHECK_(empty)); // not a handle!
   JavaCallArguments args(Handle(THREAD, bootstrap_method()));
   args.push_oop(name_str_oop);
   args.push_oop(signature_invoker->method_handle_type());
@@ -2740,16 +2701,20 @@
 
 
 void SystemDictionary::verify_obj_klass_present(Handle obj,
-                                                symbolHandle class_name,
+                                                Symbol* class_name,
                                                 Handle class_loader) {
   GCMutexLocker mu(SystemDictionary_lock);
-  oop probe = find_class_or_placeholder(class_name, class_loader);
+  Symbol* name;
+
+  klassOop probe = find_class(class_name, class_loader);
   if (probe == NULL) {
     probe = SystemDictionary::find_shared_class(class_name);
+    if (probe == NULL) {
+      name = find_placeholder(class_name, class_loader);
+    }
   }
-  guarantee(probe != NULL &&
-            (!probe->is_klass() || probe == obj()),
-                     "Loaded klasses should be in SystemDictionary");
+  guarantee(probe != NULL || name != NULL,
+            "Loaded klasses should be in SystemDictionary");
 }
 
 #ifndef PRODUCT
--- a/src/share/vm/classfile/systemDictionary.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/classfile/systemDictionary.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -28,14 +28,14 @@
 #include "classfile/classFileStream.hpp"
 #include "classfile/classLoader.hpp"
 #include "oops/objArrayOop.hpp"
-#include "oops/symbolOop.hpp"
+#include "oops/symbol.hpp"
 #include "runtime/java.hpp"
 #include "runtime/reflectionUtils.hpp"
 #include "utilities/hashtable.hpp"
 
 // The system dictionary stores all loaded classes and maps:
 //
-//   [class name,class loader] -> class   i.e.  [symbolOop,oop] -> klassOop
+//   [class name,class loader] -> class   i.e.  [Symbol*,oop] -> klassOop
 //
 // Classes are loaded lazily. The default VM class loader is
 // represented as NULL.
@@ -226,26 +226,26 @@
   // throw_error flag.  For most uses the throw_error argument should be set
   // to true.
 
-  static klassOop resolve_or_fail(symbolHandle class_name, Handle class_loader, Handle protection_domain, bool throw_error, TRAPS);
+  static klassOop resolve_or_fail(Symbol* class_name, Handle class_loader, Handle protection_domain, bool throw_error, TRAPS);
   // Convenient call for null loader and protection domain.
-  static klassOop resolve_or_fail(symbolHandle class_name, bool throw_error, TRAPS);
+  static klassOop resolve_or_fail(Symbol* class_name, bool throw_error, TRAPS);
 private:
   // handle error translation for resolve_or_null results
-  static klassOop handle_resolution_exception(symbolHandle class_name, Handle class_loader, Handle protection_domain, bool throw_error, KlassHandle klass_h, TRAPS);
+  static klassOop handle_resolution_exception(Symbol* class_name, Handle class_loader, Handle protection_domain, bool throw_error, KlassHandle klass_h, TRAPS);
 
 public:
 
   // Returns a class with a given class name and class loader.
   // Loads the class if needed. If not found NULL is returned.
-  static klassOop resolve_or_null(symbolHandle class_name, Handle class_loader, Handle protection_domain, TRAPS);
+  static klassOop resolve_or_null(Symbol* class_name, Handle class_loader, Handle protection_domain, TRAPS);
   // Version with null loader and protection domain
-  static klassOop resolve_or_null(symbolHandle class_name, TRAPS);
+  static klassOop resolve_or_null(Symbol* class_name, TRAPS);
 
   // Resolve a superclass or superinterface. Called from ClassFileParser,
   // parse_interfaces, resolve_instance_class_or_null, load_shared_class
   // "child_name" is the class whose super class or interface is being resolved.
-  static klassOop resolve_super_or_fail(symbolHandle child_name,
-                                        symbolHandle class_name,
+  static klassOop resolve_super_or_fail(Symbol* child_name,
+                                        Symbol* class_name,
                                         Handle class_loader,
                                         Handle protection_domain,
                                         bool is_superclass,
@@ -253,7 +253,7 @@
 
   // Parse new stream. This won't update the system dictionary or
   // class hierarchy, simply parse the stream. Used by JVMTI RedefineClasses.
-  static klassOop parse_stream(symbolHandle class_name,
+  static klassOop parse_stream(Symbol* class_name,
                                Handle class_loader,
                                Handle protection_domain,
                                ClassFileStream* st,
@@ -261,7 +261,7 @@
     KlassHandle nullHandle;
     return parse_stream(class_name, class_loader, protection_domain, st, nullHandle, NULL, THREAD);
   }
-  static klassOop parse_stream(symbolHandle class_name,
+  static klassOop parse_stream(Symbol* class_name,
                                Handle class_loader,
                                Handle protection_domain,
                                ClassFileStream* st,
@@ -270,23 +270,23 @@
                                TRAPS);
 
   // Resolve from stream (called by jni_DefineClass and JVM_DefineClass)
-  static klassOop resolve_from_stream(symbolHandle class_name, Handle class_loader,
+  static klassOop resolve_from_stream(Symbol* class_name, Handle class_loader,
                                       Handle protection_domain,
                                       ClassFileStream* st, bool verify, TRAPS);
 
   // Lookup an already loaded class. If not found NULL is returned.
-  static klassOop find(symbolHandle class_name, Handle class_loader, Handle protection_domain, TRAPS);
+  static klassOop find(Symbol* class_name, Handle class_loader, Handle protection_domain, TRAPS);
 
   // Lookup an already loaded instance or array class.
   // Do not make any queries to class loaders; consult only the cache.
   // If not found NULL is returned.
-  static klassOop find_instance_or_array_klass(symbolHandle class_name,
+  static klassOop find_instance_or_array_klass(Symbol* class_name,
                                                Handle class_loader,
                                                Handle protection_domain,
                                                TRAPS);
 
   // If the given name is known to vmSymbols, return the well-know klass:
-  static klassOop find_well_known_klass(symbolOop class_name);
+  static klassOop find_well_known_klass(Symbol* class_name);
 
   // Lookup an instance or array class that has already been loaded
   // either into the given class loader, or else into another class
@@ -309,7 +309,7 @@
   // satisfied, and it is safe for classes in the given class loader
   // to manipulate strongly-typed values of the found class, subject
   // to local linkage and access checks.
-  static klassOop find_constrained_instance_or_array_klass(symbolHandle class_name,
+  static klassOop find_constrained_instance_or_array_klass(Symbol* class_name,
                                                            Handle class_loader,
                                                            TRAPS);
 
@@ -324,7 +324,7 @@
   //   (added for helpers that use HandleMarks and ResourceMarks)
   static void classes_do(void f(klassOop, oop, TRAPS), TRAPS);
   // All entries in the placeholder table and their class loaders
-  static void placeholders_do(void f(symbolOop, oop));
+  static void placeholders_do(void f(Symbol*, oop));
 
   // Iterate over all methods in all klasses in dictionary
   static void methods_do(void f(methodOop));
@@ -383,12 +383,12 @@
   static void verify();
 
 #ifdef ASSERT
-  static bool is_internal_format(symbolHandle class_name);
+  static bool is_internal_format(Symbol* class_name);
 #endif
 
   // Verify class is in dictionary
   static void verify_obj_klass_present(Handle obj,
-                                       symbolHandle class_name,
+                                       Symbol* class_name,
                                        Handle class_loader);
 
   // Initialization
@@ -469,19 +469,19 @@
   // Note:  java_lang_Class::primitive_type is the inverse of java_mirror
 
   // Check class loader constraints
-  static bool add_loader_constraint(symbolHandle name, Handle loader1,
+  static bool add_loader_constraint(Symbol* name, Handle loader1,
                                     Handle loader2, TRAPS);
-  static char* check_signature_loaders(symbolHandle signature, Handle loader1,
+  static char* check_signature_loaders(Symbol* signature, Handle loader1,
                                        Handle loader2, bool is_method, TRAPS);
 
   // JSR 292
   // find the java.dyn.MethodHandles::invoke method for a given signature
-  static methodOop find_method_handle_invoke(symbolHandle name,
-                                             symbolHandle signature,
+  static methodOop find_method_handle_invoke(Symbol* name,
+                                             Symbol* signature,
                                              KlassHandle accessing_klass,
                                              TRAPS);
   // ask Java to compute a java.dyn.MethodType object for a given signature
-  static Handle    find_method_handle_type(symbolHandle signature,
+  static Handle    find_method_handle_type(Symbol* signature,
                                            KlassHandle accessing_klass,
                                            bool for_invokeGeneric,
                                            bool& return_bcp_flag,
@@ -490,13 +490,13 @@
   static Handle    link_method_handle_constant(KlassHandle caller,
                                                int ref_kind, //e.g., JVM_REF_invokeVirtual
                                                KlassHandle callee,
-                                               symbolHandle name,
-                                               symbolHandle signature,
+                                               Symbol* name,
+                                               Symbol* signature,
                                                TRAPS);
   // ask Java to create a dynamic call site, while linking an invokedynamic op
   static Handle    make_dynamic_call_site(Handle bootstrap_method,
                                           // Callee information:
-                                          symbolHandle name,
+                                          Symbol* name,
                                           methodHandle signature_invoker,
                                           Handle info,
                                           // Caller information:
@@ -519,8 +519,8 @@
 
   // Record the error when the first attempt to resolve a reference from a constant
   // pool entry to a class fails.
-  static void add_resolution_error(constantPoolHandle pool, int which, symbolHandle error);
-  static symbolOop find_resolution_error(constantPoolHandle pool, int which);
+  static void add_resolution_error(constantPoolHandle pool, int which, Symbol* error);
+  static Symbol* find_resolution_error(constantPoolHandle pool, int which);
 
  private:
 
@@ -580,29 +580,29 @@
   static SymbolPropertyTable* invoke_method_table() { return _invoke_method_table; }
 
   // Basic loading operations
-  static klassOop resolve_instance_class_or_null(symbolHandle class_name, Handle class_loader, Handle protection_domain, TRAPS);
-  static klassOop resolve_array_class_or_null(symbolHandle class_name, Handle class_loader, Handle protection_domain, TRAPS);
-  static instanceKlassHandle handle_parallel_super_load(symbolHandle class_name, symbolHandle supername, Handle class_loader, Handle protection_domain, Handle lockObject, TRAPS);
+  static klassOop resolve_instance_class_or_null(Symbol* class_name, Handle class_loader, Handle protection_domain, TRAPS);
+  static klassOop resolve_array_class_or_null(Symbol* class_name, Handle class_loader, Handle protection_domain, TRAPS);
+  static instanceKlassHandle handle_parallel_super_load(Symbol* class_name, Symbol* supername, Handle class_loader, Handle protection_domain, Handle lockObject, TRAPS);
   // Wait on SystemDictionary_lock; unlocks lockObject before
   // waiting; relocks lockObject with correct recursion count
   // after waiting, but before reentering SystemDictionary_lock
   // to preserve lock order semantics.
   static void double_lock_wait(Handle lockObject, TRAPS);
   static void define_instance_class(instanceKlassHandle k, TRAPS);
-  static instanceKlassHandle find_or_define_instance_class(symbolHandle class_name,
+  static instanceKlassHandle find_or_define_instance_class(Symbol* class_name,
                                                 Handle class_loader,
                                                 instanceKlassHandle k, TRAPS);
-  static instanceKlassHandle load_shared_class(symbolHandle class_name,
+  static instanceKlassHandle load_shared_class(Symbol* class_name,
                                                Handle class_loader, TRAPS);
   static instanceKlassHandle load_shared_class(instanceKlassHandle ik,
                                                Handle class_loader, TRAPS);
-  static instanceKlassHandle load_instance_class(symbolHandle class_name, Handle class_loader, TRAPS);
+  static instanceKlassHandle load_instance_class(Symbol* class_name, Handle class_loader, TRAPS);
   static Handle compute_loader_lock_object(Handle class_loader, TRAPS);
   static void check_loader_lock_contention(Handle loader_lock, TRAPS);
   static bool is_parallelCapable(Handle class_loader);
   static bool is_parallelDefine(Handle class_loader);
 
-  static klassOop find_shared_class(symbolHandle class_name);
+  static klassOop find_shared_class(Symbol* class_name);
 
   // Setup link to hierarchy
   static void add_to_hierarchy(instanceKlassHandle k, TRAPS);
@@ -613,34 +613,29 @@
 
   // Basic find on loaded classes
   static klassOop find_class(int index, unsigned int hash,
-                             symbolHandle name, Handle loader);
+                             Symbol* name, Handle loader);
+  static klassOop find_class(Symbol* class_name, Handle class_loader);
 
   // Basic find on classes in the midst of being loaded
-  static symbolOop find_placeholder(int index, unsigned int hash,
-                                    symbolHandle name, Handle loader);
-
-  // Basic find operation of loaded classes and classes in the midst
-  // of loading;  used for assertions and verification only.
-  static oop find_class_or_placeholder(symbolHandle class_name,
-                                       Handle class_loader);
+  static Symbol* find_placeholder(Symbol* name, Handle loader);
 
   // Updating entry in dictionary
   // Add a completely loaded class
-  static void add_klass(int index, symbolHandle class_name,
+  static void add_klass(int index, Symbol* class_name,
                         Handle class_loader, KlassHandle obj);
 
   // Add a placeholder for a class being loaded
   static void add_placeholder(int index,
-                              symbolHandle class_name,
+                              Symbol* class_name,
                               Handle class_loader);
   static void remove_placeholder(int index,
-                                 symbolHandle class_name,
+                                 Symbol* class_name,
                                  Handle class_loader);
 
   // Performs cleanups after resolve_super_or_fail. This typically needs
   // to be called on failure.
   // Won't throw, but can block.
-  static void resolution_cleanups(symbolHandle class_name,
+  static void resolution_cleanups(Symbol* class_name,
                                   Handle class_loader,
                                   TRAPS);
 
@@ -670,7 +665,6 @@
   static bool _has_checkPackageAccess;
 };
 
-// Cf. vmSymbols vs. vmSymbolHandles
 class SystemDictionaryHandles : AllStatic {
 public:
   #define WK_KLASS_HANDLE_DECLARE(name, ignore_symbol, option) \
--- a/src/share/vm/classfile/verificationType.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/classfile/verificationType.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -25,6 +25,7 @@
 #include "precompiled.hpp"
 #include "classfile/symbolTable.hpp"
 #include "classfile/verificationType.hpp"
+#include "classfile/verifier.hpp"
 
 VerificationType VerificationType::from_tag(u1 tag) {
   switch (tag) {
@@ -41,7 +42,8 @@
 }
 
 bool VerificationType::is_reference_assignable_from(
-    const VerificationType& from, instanceKlassHandle context, TRAPS) const {
+    const VerificationType& from, ClassVerifier* context, TRAPS) const {
+  instanceKlassHandle klass = context->current_class();
   if (from.is_null()) {
     // null is assignable to any reference
     return true;
@@ -56,8 +58,8 @@
       return true;
     }
     klassOop obj = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(
-        name_handle(), Handle(THREAD, context->class_loader()),
-        Handle(THREAD, context->protection_domain()), true, CHECK_false);
+        name(), Handle(THREAD, klass->class_loader()),
+        Handle(THREAD, klass->protection_domain()), true, CHECK_false);
     KlassHandle this_class(THREAD, obj);
 
     if (this_class->is_interface()) {
@@ -66,13 +68,13 @@
       return true;
     } else if (from.is_object()) {
       klassOop from_class = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(
-          from.name_handle(), Handle(THREAD, context->class_loader()),
-          Handle(THREAD, context->protection_domain()), true, CHECK_false);
+          from.name(), Handle(THREAD, klass->class_loader()),
+          Handle(THREAD, klass->protection_domain()), true, CHECK_false);
       return instanceKlass::cast(from_class)->is_subclass_of(this_class());
     }
   } else if (is_array() && from.is_array()) {
-    VerificationType comp_this = get_component(CHECK_false);
-    VerificationType comp_from = from.get_component(CHECK_false);
+    VerificationType comp_this = get_component(context, CHECK_false);
+    VerificationType comp_from = from.get_component(context, CHECK_false);
     if (!comp_this.is_bogus() && !comp_from.is_bogus()) {
       return comp_this.is_assignable_from(comp_from, context, CHECK_false);
     }
@@ -80,9 +82,9 @@
   return false;
 }
 
-VerificationType VerificationType::get_component(TRAPS) const {
+VerificationType VerificationType::get_component(ClassVerifier *context, TRAPS) const {
   assert(is_array() && name()->utf8_length() >= 2, "Must be a valid array");
-  symbolOop component;
+  Symbol* component;
   switch (name()->byte_at(1)) {
     case 'Z': return VerificationType(Boolean);
     case 'B': return VerificationType(Byte);
@@ -93,12 +95,12 @@
     case 'F': return VerificationType(Float);
     case 'D': return VerificationType(Double);
     case '[':
-      component = SymbolTable::lookup(
+      component = context->create_temporary_symbol(
         name(), 1, name()->utf8_length(),
         CHECK_(VerificationType::bogus_type()));
       return VerificationType::reference_type(component);
     case 'L':
-      component = SymbolTable::lookup(
+      component = context->create_temporary_symbol(
         name(), 2, name()->utf8_length() - 1,
         CHECK_(VerificationType::bogus_type()));
       return VerificationType::reference_type(component);
--- a/src/share/vm/classfile/verificationType.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/classfile/verificationType.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -29,7 +29,7 @@
 #include "memory/allocation.hpp"
 #include "oops/instanceKlass.hpp"
 #include "oops/oop.inline.hpp"
-#include "oops/symbolOop.hpp"
+#include "oops/symbol.hpp"
 #include "runtime/handles.hpp"
 #include "runtime/signature.hpp"
 
@@ -47,6 +47,8 @@
   ITEM_Bogus = (uint)-1
 };
 
+class ClassVerifier;
+
 class VerificationType VALUE_OBJ_CLASS_SPEC {
   private:
     // Least significant bits of _handle are always 0, so we use these as
@@ -56,7 +58,7 @@
     // will catch this and we'll have to add a descriminator tag to this
     // structure.
     union {
-      symbolOop* _handle;
+      Symbol*   _sym;
       uintptr_t _data;
     } _u;
 
@@ -73,7 +75,7 @@
       TypeMask           = 0x00000003,
 
       // Topmost types encoding
-      Reference          = 0x0,        // _handle contains the name
+      Reference          = 0x0,        // _sym contains the name
       Primitive          = 0x1,        // see below for primitive list
       Uninitialized      = 0x2,        // 0x00ffff00 contains bci
       TypeQuery          = 0x3,        // Meta-types used for category testing
@@ -85,7 +87,7 @@
       Category2_2ndFlag  = 0x04,       // Second word of a two-word value
 
       // special reference values
-      Null               = 0x00000000, // A reference with a 0 handle is null
+      Null               = 0x00000000, // A reference with a 0 sym is null
 
       // Primitives categories (the second byte determines the category)
       Category1          = (Category1Flag     << 1 * BitsPerByte) | Primitive,
@@ -152,17 +154,14 @@
   static VerificationType category2_2nd_check()
     { return VerificationType(Category2_2ndQuery); }
 
-  // For reference types, store the actual oop* handle
-  static VerificationType reference_type(symbolHandle sh) {
-      assert(((uintptr_t)sh.raw_value() & 0x3) == 0, "Oops must be aligned");
+  // For reference types, store the actual Symbol
+  static VerificationType reference_type(Symbol* sh) {
+      assert(((uintptr_t)sh & 0x3) == 0, "Oops must be aligned");
       // If the above assert fails in the future because oop* isn't aligned,
       // then this type encoding system will have to change to have a tag value
       // to descriminate between oops and primitives.
-      return VerificationType((uintptr_t)((symbolOop*)sh.raw_value()));
+      return VerificationType((uintptr_t)sh);
   }
-  static VerificationType reference_type(symbolOop s, TRAPS)
-    { return reference_type(symbolHandle(THREAD, s)); }
-
   static VerificationType uninitialized_type(u2 bci)
     { return VerificationType(bci << 1 * BitsPerByte | Uninitialized); }
   static VerificationType uninitialized_this_type()
@@ -242,13 +241,9 @@
     return ((_u._data & BciMask) >> 1 * BitsPerByte);
   }
 
-  symbolHandle name_handle() const {
+  Symbol* name() const {
     assert(is_reference() && !is_null(), "Must be a non-null reference");
-    return symbolHandle(_u._handle, true);
-  }
-  symbolOop name() const {
-    assert(is_reference() && !is_null(), "Must be a non-null reference");
-    return *(_u._handle);
+    return _u._sym;
   }
 
   bool equals(const VerificationType& t) const {
@@ -269,7 +264,7 @@
   // is assignable to another.  Returns true if one can assign 'from' to
   // this.
   bool is_assignable_from(
-      const VerificationType& from, instanceKlassHandle context, TRAPS) const {
+      const VerificationType& from, ClassVerifier* context, TRAPS) const {
     if (equals(from) || is_bogus()) {
       return true;
     } else {
@@ -298,7 +293,7 @@
     }
   }
 
-  VerificationType get_component(TRAPS) const;
+  VerificationType get_component(ClassVerifier* context, TRAPS) const;
 
   int dimensions() const {
     assert(is_array(), "Must be an array");
@@ -312,7 +307,7 @@
  private:
 
   bool is_reference_assignable_from(
-    const VerificationType&, instanceKlassHandle, TRAPS) const;
+    const VerificationType&, ClassVerifier*, TRAPS) const;
 };
 
 #endif // SHARE_VM_CLASSFILE_VERIFICATIONTYPE_HPP
--- a/src/share/vm/classfile/verifier.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/classfile/verifier.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -98,10 +98,10 @@
 }
 
 bool Verifier::verify(instanceKlassHandle klass, Verifier::Mode mode, bool should_verify_class, TRAPS) {
+  HandleMark hm;
   ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
-  HandleMark hm;
 
-  symbolHandle exception_name;
+  Symbol* exception_name = NULL;
   const size_t message_buffer_len = klass->name()->utf8_length() + 1024;
   char* message_buffer = NEW_RESOURCE_ARRAY(char, message_buffer_len);
 
@@ -141,7 +141,7 @@
         tty->print("Verification for %s has", klassName);
         tty->print_cr(" exception pending %s ",
           instanceKlass::cast(PENDING_EXCEPTION->klass())->external_name());
-      } else if (!exception_name.is_null()) {
+      } else if (exception_name != NULL) {
         tty->print_cr("Verification for %s failed", klassName);
       }
       tty->print_cr("End class verification for: %s", klassName);
@@ -150,7 +150,7 @@
 
   if (HAS_PENDING_EXCEPTION) {
     return false; // use the existing exception
-  } else if (exception_name.is_null()) {
+  } else if (exception_name == NULL) {
     return true; // verifcation succeeded
   } else { // VerifyError or ClassFormatError to be created and thrown
     ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
@@ -172,7 +172,7 @@
 }
 
 bool Verifier::is_eligible_for_verification(instanceKlassHandle klass, bool should_verify_class) {
-  symbolOop name = klass->name();
+  Symbol* name = klass->name();
   klassOop refl_magic_klass = SystemDictionary::reflect_MagicAccessorImpl_klass();
 
   return (should_verify_for(klass->class_loader(), should_verify_class) &&
@@ -202,7 +202,7 @@
   );
 }
 
-symbolHandle Verifier::inference_verify(
+Symbol* Verifier::inference_verify(
     instanceKlassHandle klass, char* message, size_t message_len, TRAPS) {
   JavaThread* thread = (JavaThread*)THREAD;
   JNIEnv *env = thread->jni_environment();
@@ -245,18 +245,17 @@
   // These numbers are chosen so that VerifyClassCodes interface doesn't need
   // to be changed (still return jboolean (unsigned char)), and result is
   // 1 when verification is passed.
-  symbolHandle nh(NULL);
   if (result == 0) {
     return vmSymbols::java_lang_VerifyError();
   } else if (result == 1) {
-    return nh; // verified.
+    return NULL; // verified.
   } else if (result == 2) {
-    THROW_MSG_(vmSymbols::java_lang_OutOfMemoryError(), message, nh);
+    THROW_MSG_(vmSymbols::java_lang_OutOfMemoryError(), message, NULL);
   } else if (result == 3) {
     return vmSymbols::java_lang_ClassFormatError();
   } else {
     ShouldNotReachHere();
-    return nh;
+    return NULL;
   }
 }
 
@@ -266,12 +265,19 @@
 
 ClassVerifier::ClassVerifier(
     instanceKlassHandle klass, char* msg, size_t msg_len, TRAPS)
-    : _thread(THREAD), _exception_type(symbolHandle()), _message(msg),
+    : _thread(THREAD), _exception_type(NULL), _message(msg),
       _message_buffer_len(msg_len), _klass(klass) {
   _this_type = VerificationType::reference_type(klass->name());
+  // Create list to hold symbols in reference area.
+  _symbols = new GrowableArray<Symbol*>(100, 0, NULL);
 }
 
 ClassVerifier::~ClassVerifier() {
+  // Decrement the reference count for any symbols created.
+  for (int i = 0; i < _symbols->length(); i++) {
+    Symbol* s = _symbols->at(i);
+    s->decrement_refcount();
+  }
 }
 
 VerificationType ClassVerifier::object_type() const {
@@ -308,7 +314,6 @@
 }
 
 void ClassVerifier::verify_method(methodHandle m, TRAPS) {
-  ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
   _method = m;   // initialize _method
   if (_verify_verbose) {
     tty->print_cr("Verifying method %s", m->name_and_sig_as_C_string());
@@ -615,7 +620,7 @@
               VerificationType::null_type(), CHECK_VERIFY(this));
           } else {
             VerificationType component =
-              atype.get_component(CHECK_VERIFY(this));
+              atype.get_component(this, CHECK_VERIFY(this));
             current_frame.push_stack(component, CHECK_VERIFY(this));
           }
           no_control_flow = false; break;
@@ -1386,7 +1391,7 @@
         VerificationType throwable =
           VerificationType::reference_type(vmSymbols::java_lang_Throwable());
         bool is_subclass = throwable.is_assignable_from(
-          catch_type, current_class(), CHECK_VERIFY(this));
+          catch_type, this, CHECK_VERIFY(this));
         if (!is_subclass) {
           // 4286534: should throw VerifyError according to recent spec change
           verify_error(
@@ -1473,8 +1478,6 @@
       if(bci >= start_pc && bci < end_pc) {
         u1 flags = current_frame->flags();
         if (this_uninit) {  flags |= FLAG_THIS_UNINIT; }
-
-        ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
         StackMapFrame* new_frame = current_frame->frame_in_exception_handler(flags);
         if (catch_type_index != 0) {
           // We know that this index refers to a subclass of Throwable
@@ -1575,7 +1578,7 @@
   va_end(va);
 }
 
-klassOop ClassVerifier::load_class(symbolHandle name, TRAPS) {
+klassOop ClassVerifier::load_class(Symbol* name, TRAPS) {
   // Get current loader and protection domain first.
   oop loader = current_class()->class_loader();
   oop protection_domain = current_class()->protection_domain();
@@ -1587,8 +1590,8 @@
 
 bool ClassVerifier::is_protected_access(instanceKlassHandle this_class,
                                         klassOop target_class,
-                                        symbolOop field_name,
-                                        symbolOop field_sig,
+                                        Symbol* field_name,
+                                        Symbol* field_sig,
                                         bool is_method) {
   No_Safepoint_Verifier nosafepoint;
 
@@ -1736,7 +1739,7 @@
 }
 
 bool ClassVerifier::name_in_supers(
-    symbolOop ref_name, instanceKlassHandle current) {
+    Symbol* ref_name, instanceKlassHandle current) {
   klassOop super = current->super();
   while (super != NULL) {
     if (super->klass_part()->name() == ref_name) {
@@ -1755,8 +1758,8 @@
   verify_cp_type(index, cp, 1 << JVM_CONSTANT_Fieldref, CHECK_VERIFY(this));
 
   // Get field name and signature
-  symbolHandle field_name = symbolHandle(THREAD, cp->name_ref_at(index));
-  symbolHandle field_sig = symbolHandle(THREAD, cp->signature_ref_at(index));
+  Symbol* field_name = cp->name_ref_at(index);
+  Symbol* field_sig = cp->signature_ref_at(index);
 
   if (!SignatureVerifier::is_valid_type_signature(field_sig)) {
     class_format_error(
@@ -1823,11 +1826,11 @@
       fieldDescriptor fd;
       if (stack_object_type == VerificationType::uninitialized_this_type() &&
           target_class_type.equals(current_type()) &&
-          _klass->find_local_field(field_name(), field_sig(), &fd)) {
+          _klass->find_local_field(field_name, field_sig, &fd)) {
         stack_object_type = current_type();
       }
       is_assignable = target_class_type.is_assignable_from(
-        stack_object_type, current_class(), CHECK_VERIFY(this));
+        stack_object_type, this, CHECK_VERIFY(this));
       if (!is_assignable) {
         verify_error(bci, "Bad type on operand stack in putfield");
         return;
@@ -1836,9 +1839,9 @@
     check_protected: {
       if (_this_type == stack_object_type)
         break; // stack_object_type must be assignable to _current_class_type
-      symbolHandle ref_class_name = symbolHandle(THREAD,
-        cp->klass_name_at(cp->klass_ref_index_at(index)));
-      if (!name_in_supers(ref_class_name(), current_class()))
+      Symbol* ref_class_name =
+        cp->klass_name_at(cp->klass_ref_index_at(index));
+      if (!name_in_supers(ref_class_name, current_class()))
         // stack_object_type must be assignable to _current_class_type since:
         // 1. stack_object_type must be assignable to ref_class.
         // 2. ref_class must be _current_class or a subclass of it. It can't
@@ -1846,12 +1849,12 @@
         break;
 
       klassOop ref_class_oop = load_class(ref_class_name, CHECK);
-      if (is_protected_access(current_class(), ref_class_oop, field_name(),
-                              field_sig(), false)) {
+      if (is_protected_access(current_class(), ref_class_oop, field_name,
+                              field_sig, false)) {
         // It's protected access, check if stack object is assignable to
         // current class.
         is_assignable = current_type().is_assignable_from(
-          stack_object_type, current_class(), CHECK_VERIFY(this));
+          stack_object_type, this, CHECK_VERIFY(this));
         if (!is_assignable) {
           verify_error(bci, "Bad access to protected data in getfield");
           return;
@@ -1911,7 +1914,7 @@
       instanceKlassHandle mh(THREAD, m->method_holder());
       if (m->is_protected() && !mh->is_same_class_package(_klass())) {
         bool assignable = current_type().is_assignable_from(
-          objectref_type, current_class(), CHECK_VERIFY(this));
+          objectref_type, this, CHECK_VERIFY(this));
         if (!assignable) {
           verify_error(bci, "Bad access to protected <init> method");
           return;
@@ -1941,8 +1944,8 @@
   verify_cp_type(index, cp, types, CHECK_VERIFY(this));
 
   // Get method name and signature
-  symbolHandle method_name(THREAD, cp->name_ref_at(index));
-  symbolHandle method_sig(THREAD, cp->signature_ref_at(index));
+  Symbol* method_name = cp->name_ref_at(index);
+  Symbol* method_sig = cp->signature_ref_at(index);
 
   if (!SignatureVerifier::is_valid_method_signature(method_sig)) {
     class_format_error(
@@ -2035,7 +2038,7 @@
   if (method_name->byte_at(0) == '<') {
     // Make sure <init> can only be invoked by invokespecial
     if (opcode != Bytecodes::_invokespecial ||
-        method_name() != vmSymbols::object_initializer_name()) {
+        method_name != vmSymbols::object_initializer_name()) {
       verify_error(bci, "Illegal call to internal method");
       return;
     }
@@ -2044,7 +2047,7 @@
              && !ref_class_type.equals(VerificationType::reference_type(
                   current_class()->super()->klass_part()->name()))) {
     bool subtype = ref_class_type.is_assignable_from(
-      current_type(), current_class(), CHECK_VERIFY(this));
+      current_type(), this, CHECK_VERIFY(this));
     if (!subtype) {
       verify_error(bci, "Bad invokespecial instruction: "
           "current class isn't assignable to reference class.");
@@ -2058,7 +2061,7 @@
   // Check objectref on operand stack
   if (opcode != Bytecodes::_invokestatic &&
       opcode != Bytecodes::_invokedynamic) {
-    if (method_name() == vmSymbols::object_initializer_name()) {  // <init> method
+    if (method_name == vmSymbols::object_initializer_name()) {  // <init> method
       verify_invoke_init(bcs, ref_class_type, current_frame,
         code_length, this_uninit, cp, CHECK_VERIFY(this));
     } else {   // other methods
@@ -2070,22 +2073,22 @@
           current_frame->pop_stack(ref_class_type, CHECK_VERIFY(this));
         if (current_type() != stack_object_type) {
           assert(cp->cache() == NULL, "not rewritten yet");
-          symbolHandle ref_class_name = symbolHandle(THREAD,
-            cp->klass_name_at(cp->klass_ref_index_at(index)));
+          Symbol* ref_class_name =
+            cp->klass_name_at(cp->klass_ref_index_at(index));
           // See the comments in verify_field_instructions() for
           // the rationale behind this.
-          if (name_in_supers(ref_class_name(), current_class())) {
+          if (name_in_supers(ref_class_name, current_class())) {
             klassOop ref_class = load_class(ref_class_name, CHECK);
             if (is_protected_access(
-                  _klass, ref_class, method_name(), method_sig(), true)) {
+                  _klass, ref_class, method_name, method_sig, true)) {
               // It's protected access, check if stack object is
               // assignable to current class.
               bool is_assignable = current_type().is_assignable_from(
-                stack_object_type, current_class(), CHECK_VERIFY(this));
+                stack_object_type, this, CHECK_VERIFY(this));
               if (!is_assignable) {
                 if (ref_class_type.name() == vmSymbols::java_lang_Object()
                     && stack_object_type.is_array()
-                    && method_name() == vmSymbols::clone_name()) {
+                    && method_name == vmSymbols::clone_name()) {
                   // Special case: arrays pretend to implement public Object
                   // clone().
                 } else {
@@ -2105,7 +2108,7 @@
   }
   // Push the result type.
   if (sig_stream.type() != T_VOID) {
-    if (method_name() == vmSymbols::object_initializer_name()) {
+    if (method_name == vmSymbols::object_initializer_name()) {
       // <init> method must have a void return type
       verify_error(bci, "Return type must be void in <init> method");
       return;
@@ -2130,7 +2133,7 @@
   }
 
   // from_bt[index] contains the array signature which has a length of 2
-  symbolHandle sig = oopFactory::new_symbol_handle(
+  Symbol* sig = create_temporary_symbol(
     from_bt[index], 2, CHECK_(VerificationType::bogus_type()));
   return VerificationType::reference_type(sig);
 }
@@ -2143,7 +2146,6 @@
 
   VerificationType component_type =
     cp_index_to_type(index, cp, CHECK_VERIFY(this));
-  ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
   int length;
   char* arr_sig_str;
   if (component_type.is_array()) {     // it's an array
@@ -2163,7 +2165,7 @@
     strncpy(&arr_sig_str[2], component_name, length - 2);
     arr_sig_str[length - 1] = ';';
   }
-  symbolHandle arr_sig = oopFactory::new_symbol_handle(
+  Symbol* arr_sig = create_temporary_symbol(
     arr_sig_str, length, CHECK_VERIFY(this));
   VerificationType new_array_type = VerificationType::reference_type(arr_sig);
   current_frame->push_stack(new_array_type, CHECK_VERIFY(this));
@@ -2256,9 +2258,25 @@
     verify_error(bci, "Method expects a return value");
     return;
   }
-  bool match = return_type.is_assignable_from(type, _klass, CHECK_VERIFY(this));
+  bool match = return_type.is_assignable_from(type, this, CHECK_VERIFY(this));
   if (!match) {
     verify_error(bci, "Bad return type");
     return;
   }
 }
+
+// The verifier creates symbols which are substrings of Symbols.
+// These are stored in the verifier until the end of verification so that
+// they can be reference counted.
+Symbol* ClassVerifier::create_temporary_symbol(const Symbol *s, int begin,
+                                               int end, TRAPS) {
+  Symbol* sym = SymbolTable::new_symbol(s, begin, end, CHECK_NULL);
+  _symbols->push(sym);
+  return sym;
+}
+
+Symbol* ClassVerifier::create_temporary_symbol(const char *s, int length, TRAPS) {
+  Symbol* sym = SymbolTable::new_symbol(s, length, CHECK_NULL);
+  _symbols->push(sym);
+  return sym;
+}
--- a/src/share/vm/classfile/verifier.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/classfile/verifier.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -59,7 +59,7 @@
 
  private:
   static bool is_eligible_for_verification(instanceKlassHandle klass, bool should_verify_class);
-  static symbolHandle inference_verify(
+  static Symbol* inference_verify(
     instanceKlassHandle klass, char* msg, size_t msg_len, TRAPS);
 };
 
@@ -69,8 +69,8 @@
 
 // Summary of verifier's memory usage:
 // StackMapTable is stack allocated.
-// StackMapFrame are resource allocated. There is one ResourceMark
-// for each method.
+// StackMapFrame are resource allocated. There is only one ResourceMark
+// for each class verification, which is created at the top level.
 // There is one mutable StackMapFrame (current_frame) which is updated
 // by abstract bytecode interpretation. frame_in_exception_handler() returns
 // a frame that has a mutable one-item stack (ready for pushing the
@@ -80,8 +80,6 @@
 // locals/stack arrays in StackMapFrame are resource allocated.
 // locals/stack arrays can be shared between StackMapFrame's, except
 // the mutable StackMapFrame (current_frame).
-// Care needs to be taken to make sure resource objects don't outlive
-// the lifetime of their ResourceMark.
 
 // These macros are used similarly to CHECK macros but also check
 // the status of the verifier and return if that has an error.
@@ -94,9 +92,10 @@
 class ClassVerifier : public StackObj {
  private:
   Thread* _thread;
-  symbolHandle _exception_type;
+  Symbol* _exception_type;
   char* _message;
   size_t _message_buffer_len;
+  GrowableArray<Symbol*>* _symbols;  // keep a list of symbols created
 
   void verify_method(methodHandle method, TRAPS);
   char* generate_code_data(methodHandle m, u4 code_length, TRAPS);
@@ -110,7 +109,7 @@
 
   bool is_protected_access(
     instanceKlassHandle this_class, klassOop target_class,
-    symbolOop field_name, symbolOop field_sig, bool is_method);
+    Symbol* field_name, Symbol* field_sig, bool is_method);
 
   void verify_cp_index(constantPoolHandle cp, int index, TRAPS);
   void verify_cp_type(
@@ -165,7 +164,7 @@
   void verify_astore(u2 index, StackMapFrame* current_frame, TRAPS);
   void verify_iinc  (u2 index, StackMapFrame* current_frame, TRAPS);
 
-  bool name_in_supers(symbolOop ref_name, instanceKlassHandle current);
+  bool name_in_supers(Symbol* ref_name, instanceKlassHandle current);
 
   VerificationType object_type() const;
 
@@ -206,8 +205,8 @@
   void verify_class(TRAPS);
 
   // Return status modes
-  symbolHandle result() const { return _exception_type; }
-  bool has_error() const { return !(result().is_null()); }
+  Symbol* result() const { return _exception_type; }
+  bool has_error() const { return result() != NULL; }
 
   // Called when verify or class format errors are encountered.
   // May throw an exception based upon the mode.
@@ -216,16 +215,22 @@
   void class_format_error(const char* fmt, ...);
   void format_error_message(const char* fmt, int offset, va_list args);
 
-  klassOop load_class(symbolHandle name, TRAPS);
+  klassOop load_class(Symbol* name, TRAPS);
 
   int change_sig_to_verificationType(
     SignatureStream* sig_type, VerificationType* inference_type, TRAPS);
 
   VerificationType cp_index_to_type(int index, constantPoolHandle cp, TRAPS) {
-    return VerificationType::reference_type(
-      symbolHandle(THREAD, cp->klass_name_at(index)));
+    return VerificationType::reference_type(cp->klass_name_at(index));
   }
 
+  // Keep a list of temporary symbols created during verification because
+  // their reference counts need to be decrememented when the verifier object
+  // goes out of scope.  Since these symbols escape the scope in which they're
+  // created, we can't use a TempNewSymbol.
+  Symbol* create_temporary_symbol(const Symbol* s, int begin, int end, TRAPS);
+  Symbol* create_temporary_symbol(const char *s, int length, TRAPS);
+
   static bool _verify_verbose;  // for debugging
 };
 
@@ -236,9 +241,14 @@
     case T_OBJECT:
     case T_ARRAY:
       {
-        symbolOop name = sig_type->as_symbol(CHECK_0);
+        Symbol* name = sig_type->as_symbol(CHECK_0);
+        // Create another symbol to save as signature stream unreferences
+        // this symbol.
+        Symbol* name_copy =
+          create_temporary_symbol(name, 0, name->utf8_length(), CHECK_0);
+        assert(name_copy == name, "symbols don't match");
         *inference_type =
-          VerificationType::reference_type(symbolHandle(THREAD, name));
+          VerificationType::reference_type(name_copy);
         return 1;
       }
     case T_LONG:
--- a/src/share/vm/classfile/vmSymbols.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/classfile/vmSymbols.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -30,11 +30,11 @@
 #include "utilities/xmlstream.hpp"
 
 
-symbolOop vmSymbols::_symbols[vmSymbols::SID_LIMIT];
+Symbol* vmSymbols::_symbols[vmSymbols::SID_LIMIT];
 
-symbolOop vmSymbols::_type_signatures[T_VOID+1] = { NULL /*, NULL...*/ };
+Symbol* vmSymbols::_type_signatures[T_VOID+1] = { NULL /*, NULL...*/ };
 
-inline int compare_symbol(symbolOop a, symbolOop b) {
+inline int compare_symbol(Symbol* a, Symbol* b) {
   if (a == b)  return 0;
   // follow the natural address order:
   return (address)a > (address)b ? +1 : -1;
@@ -43,8 +43,8 @@
 static vmSymbols::SID vm_symbol_index[vmSymbols::SID_LIMIT];
 extern "C" {
   static int compare_vmsymbol_sid(const void* void_a, const void* void_b) {
-    symbolOop a = vmSymbols::symbol_at(*((vmSymbols::SID*) void_a));
-    symbolOop b = vmSymbols::symbol_at(*((vmSymbols::SID*) void_b));
+    Symbol* a = vmSymbols::symbol_at(*((vmSymbols::SID*) void_a));
+    Symbol* b = vmSymbols::symbol_at(*((vmSymbols::SID*) void_b));
     return compare_symbol(a, b);
   }
 }
@@ -79,7 +79,7 @@
   if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
     const char* string = &vm_symbol_bodies[0];
     for (int index = (int)FIRST_SID; index < (int)SID_LIMIT; index++) {
-      symbolOop sym = oopFactory::new_symbol(string, CHECK);
+      Symbol* sym = SymbolTable::new_symbol(string, CHECK);
       _symbols[index] = sym;
       string += strlen(string); // skip string body
       string += 1;              // skip trailing null
@@ -100,7 +100,7 @@
 #ifdef ASSERT
   // Check for duplicates:
   for (int i1 = (int)FIRST_SID; i1 < (int)SID_LIMIT; i1++) {
-    symbolOop sym = symbol_at((SID)i1);
+    Symbol* sym = symbol_at((SID)i1);
     for (int i2 = (int)FIRST_SID; i2 < i1; i2++) {
       if (symbol_at((SID)i2) == sym) {
         tty->print("*** Duplicate VM symbol SIDs %s(%d) and %s(%d): \"",
@@ -128,16 +128,16 @@
     // Spot-check correspondence between strings, symbols, and enums:
     assert(_symbols[NO_SID] == NULL, "must be");
     const char* str = "java/lang/Object";
-    symbolOop sym = oopFactory::new_symbol(str, CHECK);
-    assert(strcmp(str, (char*)sym->base()) == 0, "");
-    assert(sym == java_lang_Object(), "");
+    TempNewSymbol jlo = SymbolTable::new_symbol(str, CHECK);
+    assert(strncmp(str, (char*)jlo->base(), jlo->utf8_length()) == 0, "");
+    assert(jlo == java_lang_Object(), "");
     SID sid = VM_SYMBOL_ENUM_NAME(java_lang_Object);
-    assert(find_sid(sym) == sid, "");
-    assert(symbol_at(sid) == sym, "");
+    assert(find_sid(jlo) == sid, "");
+    assert(symbol_at(sid) == jlo, "");
 
     // Make sure find_sid produces the right answer in each case.
     for (int index = (int)FIRST_SID; index < (int)SID_LIMIT; index++) {
-      sym = symbol_at((SID)index);
+      Symbol* sym = symbol_at((SID)index);
       sid = find_sid(sym);
       assert(sid == (SID)index, "symbol index works");
       // Note:  If there are duplicates, this assert will fail.
@@ -147,8 +147,8 @@
     // The string "format" happens (at the moment) not to be a vmSymbol,
     // though it is a method name in java.lang.String.
     str = "format";
-    sym = oopFactory::new_symbol(str, CHECK);
-    sid = find_sid(sym);
+    TempNewSymbol fmt = SymbolTable::new_symbol(str, CHECK);
+    sid = find_sid(fmt);
     assert(sid == NO_SID, "symbol index works (negative test)");
   }
 #endif
@@ -172,22 +172,23 @@
 
 
 
-void vmSymbols::oops_do(OopClosure* f, bool do_all) {
+void vmSymbols::symbols_do(SymbolClosure* f) {
   for (int index = (int)FIRST_SID; index < (int)SID_LIMIT; index++) {
-    f->do_oop((oop*) &_symbols[index]);
+    f->do_symbol(&_symbols[index]);
   }
   for (int i = 0; i < T_VOID+1; i++) {
-    if (_type_signatures[i] != NULL) {
-      assert(i >= T_BOOLEAN, "checking");
-      f->do_oop((oop*)&_type_signatures[i]);
-    } else if (do_all) {
-      f->do_oop((oop*)&_type_signatures[i]);
-    }
+    f->do_symbol(&_type_signatures[i]);
   }
 }
 
+void vmSymbols::serialize(SerializeOopClosure* soc) {
+  soc->do_region((u_char*)&_symbols[FIRST_SID],
+                 (SID_LIMIT - FIRST_SID) * sizeof(_symbols[0]));
+  soc->do_region((u_char*)_type_signatures, sizeof(_type_signatures));
+}
 
-BasicType vmSymbols::signature_type(symbolOop s) {
+
+BasicType vmSymbols::signature_type(Symbol* s) {
   assert(s != NULL, "checking");
   for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_VOID+1; i++) {
     if (s == _type_signatures[i]) {
@@ -205,7 +206,7 @@
 // (Typical counts are calls=7000 and probes=17000.)
 #endif
 
-vmSymbols::SID vmSymbols::find_sid(symbolOop symbol) {
+vmSymbols::SID vmSymbols::find_sid(Symbol* symbol) {
   // Handle the majority of misses by a bounds check.
   // Then, use a binary search over the index.
   // Expected trip count is less than log2_SID_LIMIT, about eight.
@@ -260,7 +261,7 @@
     // (We have already proven that there are no duplicates in the list.)
     SID sid2 = NO_SID;
     for (int index = (int)FIRST_SID; index < (int)SID_LIMIT; index++) {
-      symbolOop sym2 = symbol_at((SID)index);
+      Symbol* sym2 = symbol_at((SID)index);
       if (sym2 == symbol) {
         sid2 = (SID)index;
         break;
@@ -319,9 +320,9 @@
 
 methodOop vmIntrinsics::method_for(vmIntrinsics::ID id) {
   if (id == _none)  return NULL;
-  symbolOop cname = vmSymbols::symbol_at(class_for(id));
-  symbolOop mname = vmSymbols::symbol_at(name_for(id));
-  symbolOop msig  = vmSymbols::symbol_at(signature_for(id));
+  Symbol* cname = vmSymbols::symbol_at(class_for(id));
+  Symbol* mname = vmSymbols::symbol_at(name_for(id));
+  Symbol* msig  = vmSymbols::symbol_at(signature_for(id));
   if (cname == NULL || mname == NULL || msig == NULL)  return NULL;
   klassOop k = SystemDictionary::find_well_known_klass(cname);
   if (k == NULL)  return NULL;
@@ -490,17 +491,17 @@
 #ifndef PRODUCT
 // verify_method performs an extra check on a matched intrinsic method
 
-static bool match_method(methodOop m, symbolOop n, symbolOop s) {
+static bool match_method(methodOop m, Symbol* n, Symbol* s) {
   return (m->name() == n &&
           m->signature() == s);
 }
 
-static vmIntrinsics::ID match_method_with_klass(methodOop m, symbolOop mk) {
+static vmIntrinsics::ID match_method_with_klass(methodOop m, Symbol* mk) {
 #define VM_INTRINSIC_MATCH(id, klassname, namepart, sigpart, flags) \
-  { symbolOop k = vmSymbols::klassname(); \
+  { Symbol* k = vmSymbols::klassname(); \
     if (mk == k) { \
-      symbolOop n = vmSymbols::namepart(); \
-      symbolOop s = vmSymbols::sigpart(); \
+      Symbol* n = vmSymbols::namepart(); \
+      Symbol* s = vmSymbols::sigpart(); \
       if (match_method(m, n, s)) \
         return vmIntrinsics::id; \
     } }
@@ -511,7 +512,7 @@
 }
 
 void vmIntrinsics::verify_method(ID actual_id, methodOop m) {
-  symbolOop mk = Klass::cast(m->method_holder())->name();
+  Symbol* mk = Klass::cast(m->method_holder())->name();
   ID declared_id = match_method_with_klass(m, mk);
 
   if (declared_id == actual_id)  return; // success
--- a/src/share/vm/classfile/vmSymbols.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/classfile/vmSymbols.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -25,17 +25,15 @@
 #ifndef SHARE_VM_CLASSFILE_VMSYMBOLS_HPP
 #define SHARE_VM_CLASSFILE_VMSYMBOLS_HPP
 
-#include "oops/symbolOop.hpp"
+#include "oops/symbol.hpp"
+#include "memory/iterator.hpp"
 
-// The classes vmSymbols and vmSymbolHandles are a name spaces for fast lookup of
-// symbols commonly used in the VM. The first class return a symbolOop, while the
-// second class returns a SymbolHandle. The underlying data structure is shared
-// between the two classes.
+// The class vmSymbols is a name space for fast lookup of
+// symbols commonly used in the VM.
 //
 // Sample usage:
 //
-//   symbolOop obj       = vmSymbols::java_lang_Object()();
-//   SymbolHandle handle = vmSymbolHandles::java_lang_Object();
+//   Symbol* obj       = vmSymbols::java_lang_Object();
 
 
 // Useful sub-macros exported by this header file:
@@ -459,7 +457,7 @@
   VM_INTRINSICS_DO(VM_INTRINSIC_IGNORE, VM_SYMBOL_IGNORE, VM_SYMBOL_IGNORE, VM_SYMBOL_IGNORE, do_alias)           \
                                                                                                                   \
   /* returned by the C1 compiler in case there's not enough memory to allocate a new symbol*/                     \
-  template(dummy_symbol_oop,                          "illegal symbol")                                           \
+  template(dummy_symbol,                              "illegal symbol")                                           \
                                                                                                                   \
   /* used by ClassFormatError when class name is not known yet */                                                 \
   template(unknown_class_name,                        "<Unknown>")                                                \
@@ -938,10 +936,9 @@
 // Class vmSymbols
 
 class vmSymbols: AllStatic {
- friend class vmSymbolHandles;
  friend class vmIntrinsics;
  public:
-  // enum for figuring positions and size of array holding symbolOops
+  // enum for figuring positions and size of array holding Symbol*s
   enum SID {
     NO_SID = 0,
 
@@ -963,39 +960,42 @@
 
  private:
   // The symbol array
-  static symbolOop _symbols[];
+  static Symbol* _symbols[];
 
   // Field signatures indexed by BasicType.
-  static symbolOop _type_signatures[T_VOID+1];
+  static Symbol* _type_signatures[T_VOID+1];
 
  public:
   // Initialization
   static void initialize(TRAPS);
   // Accessing
-  #define VM_SYMBOL_DECLARE(name, ignore) \
-    static symbolOop name() { return _symbols[VM_SYMBOL_ENUM_NAME(name)]; }
+  #define VM_SYMBOL_DECLARE(name, ignore)                 \
+    static Symbol* name() {                               \
+      return _symbols[VM_SYMBOL_ENUM_NAME(name)];         \
+    }
   VM_SYMBOLS_DO(VM_SYMBOL_DECLARE, VM_SYMBOL_DECLARE)
   #undef VM_SYMBOL_DECLARE
 
-  // GC support
-  static void oops_do(OopClosure* f, bool do_all = false);
+  // Sharing support
+  static void symbols_do(SymbolClosure* f);
+  static void serialize(SerializeOopClosure* soc);
 
-  static symbolOop type_signature(BasicType t) {
+  static Symbol* type_signature(BasicType t) {
     assert((uint)t < T_VOID+1, "range check");
     assert(_type_signatures[t] != NULL, "domain check");
     return _type_signatures[t];
   }
   // inverse of type_signature; returns T_OBJECT if s is not recognized
-  static BasicType signature_type(symbolOop s);
+  static BasicType signature_type(Symbol* s);
 
-  static symbolOop symbol_at(SID id) {
+  static Symbol* symbol_at(SID id) {
     assert(id >= FIRST_SID && id < SID_LIMIT, "oob");
     assert(_symbols[id] != NULL, "init");
     return _symbols[id];
   }
 
   // Returns symbol's SID if one is assigned, else NO_SID.
-  static SID find_sid(symbolOop symbol);
+  static SID find_sid(Symbol* symbol);
 
 #ifndef PRODUCT
   // No need for this in the product:
@@ -1003,34 +1003,6 @@
 #endif //PRODUCT
 };
 
-
-// Class vmSymbolHandles
-
-class vmSymbolHandles: AllStatic {
-  friend class vmIntrinsics;
-  friend class ciObjectFactory;
-
- public:
-  // Accessing
-  #define VM_SYMBOL_HANDLE_DECLARE(name, ignore) \
-    static symbolHandle name() { return symbol_handle_at(vmSymbols::VM_SYMBOL_ENUM_NAME(name)); }
-  VM_SYMBOLS_DO(VM_SYMBOL_HANDLE_DECLARE, VM_SYMBOL_HANDLE_DECLARE)
-  #undef VM_SYMBOL_HANDLE_DECLARE
-
-  static symbolHandle symbol_handle_at(vmSymbols::SID id) {
-    return symbolHandle(&vmSymbols::_symbols[(int)id], false);
-  }
-
-  static symbolHandle type_signature(BasicType t) {
-    assert(vmSymbols::type_signature(t) != NULL, "domain check");
-    return symbolHandle(&vmSymbols::_type_signatures[t], false);
-  }
-  // inverse of type_signature; returns T_OBJECT if s is not recognized
-  static BasicType signature_type(symbolHandle s) {
-    return vmSymbols::signature_type(s());
-  }
-};
-
 // VM Intrinsic ID's uniquely identify some very special methods
 class vmIntrinsics: AllStatic {
   friend class vmSymbols;
--- a/src/share/vm/code/compiledIC.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/code/compiledIC.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -34,7 +34,7 @@
 #include "memory/oopFactory.hpp"
 #include "oops/methodOop.hpp"
 #include "oops/oop.inline.hpp"
-#include "oops/symbolOop.hpp"
+#include "oops/symbol.hpp"
 #include "runtime/icache.hpp"
 #include "runtime/sharedRuntime.hpp"
 #include "runtime/stubRoutines.hpp"
--- a/src/share/vm/code/dependencies.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/code/dependencies.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -628,8 +628,8 @@
 
  private:
   // optional method descriptor to check for:
-  symbolOop _name;
-  symbolOop _signature;
+  Symbol* _name;
+  Symbol* _signature;
 
   // special classes which are not allowed to be witnesses:
   klassOop  _participants[PARTICIPANT_LIMIT+1];
--- a/src/share/vm/code/nmethod.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/code/nmethod.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -57,9 +57,9 @@
   {                                                                       \
     methodOop m = (method);                                               \
     if (m != NULL) {                                                      \
-      symbolOop klass_name = m->klass_name();                             \
-      symbolOop name = m->name();                                         \
-      symbolOop signature = m->signature();                               \
+      Symbol* klass_name = m->klass_name();                               \
+      Symbol* name = m->name();                                           \
+      Symbol* signature = m->signature();                                 \
       HS_DTRACE_PROBE6(hotspot, compiled__method__unload,                 \
         klass_name->bytes(), klass_name->utf8_length(),                   \
         name->bytes(), name->utf8_length(),                               \
@@ -1865,7 +1865,7 @@
     SimpleScopeDesc ssd(this, fr.pc());
     Bytecode_invoke call(ssd.method(), ssd.bci());
     bool has_receiver = call.has_receiver();
-    symbolOop signature = call.signature();
+    Symbol* signature = call.signature();
     fr.oops_compiled_arguments_do(signature, has_receiver, reg_map, f);
   }
 #endif // !SHARK
@@ -2636,7 +2636,7 @@
         } else {
           bool did_name = false;
           if (!at_this && ss.is_object()) {
-            symbolOop name = ss.as_symbol_or_null();
+            Symbol* name = ss.as_symbol_or_null();
             if (name != NULL) {
               name->print_value_on(stream);
               did_name = true;
--- a/src/share/vm/compiler/compileBroker.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/compiler/compileBroker.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -66,9 +66,9 @@
 #define DTRACE_METHOD_COMPILE_BEGIN_PROBE(compiler, method)              \
   {                                                                      \
     char* comp_name = (char*)(compiler)->name();                         \
-    symbolOop klass_name = (method)->klass_name();                       \
-    symbolOop name = (method)->name();                                   \
-    symbolOop signature = (method)->signature();                         \
+    Symbol* klass_name = (method)->klass_name();                         \
+    Symbol* name = (method)->name();                                     \
+    Symbol* signature = (method)->signature();                           \
     HS_DTRACE_PROBE8(hotspot, method__compile__begin,                    \
       comp_name, strlen(comp_name),                                      \
       klass_name->bytes(), klass_name->utf8_length(),                    \
@@ -79,9 +79,9 @@
 #define DTRACE_METHOD_COMPILE_END_PROBE(compiler, method, success)       \
   {                                                                      \
     char* comp_name = (char*)(compiler)->name();                         \
-    symbolOop klass_name = (method)->klass_name();                       \
-    symbolOop name = (method)->name();                                   \
-    symbolOop signature = (method)->signature();                         \
+    Symbol* klass_name = (method)->klass_name();                         \
+    Symbol* name = (method)->name();                                     \
+    Symbol* signature = (method)->signature();                           \
     HS_DTRACE_PROBE9(hotspot, method__compile__end,                      \
       comp_name, strlen(comp_name),                                      \
       klass_name->bytes(), klass_name->utf8_length(),                    \
@@ -689,7 +689,7 @@
   CompilerThread* compiler_thread = NULL;
 
   klassOop k =
-    SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbolHandles::java_lang_Thread(),
+    SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_Thread(),
                                       true, CHECK_0);
   instanceKlassHandle klass (THREAD, k);
   instanceHandle thread_oop = klass->allocate_instance_handle(CHECK_0);
@@ -700,8 +700,8 @@
   JavaValue result(T_VOID);
   JavaCalls::call_special(&result, thread_oop,
                        klass,
-                       vmSymbolHandles::object_initializer_name(),
-                       vmSymbolHandles::threadgroup_string_void_signature(),
+                       vmSymbols::object_initializer_name(),
+                       vmSymbols::threadgroup_string_void_signature(),
                        thread_group,
                        string,
                        CHECK_0);
--- a/src/share/vm/compiler/compileLog.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/compiler/compileLog.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -63,7 +63,7 @@
   stringStream* context()                        { return &_context; }
 
   void          name(ciSymbol* s);               // name='s'
-  void          name(symbolHandle s)             { xmlStream::name(s); }
+  void          name(Symbol* s)                  { xmlStream::name(s); }
 
   // Output an object description, return obj->ident().
   int           identify(ciObject* obj);
--- a/src/share/vm/compiler/compilerOracle.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/compiler/compilerOracle.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -30,7 +30,7 @@
 #include "oops/klass.hpp"
 #include "oops/methodOop.hpp"
 #include "oops/oop.inline.hpp"
-#include "oops/symbolOop.hpp"
+#include "oops/symbol.hpp"
 #include "runtime/handles.inline.hpp"
 #include "runtime/jniHandles.hpp"
 
@@ -46,33 +46,33 @@
   };
 
  protected:
-  jobject        _class_name;
+  Symbol*        _class_name;
+  Symbol*        _method_name;
+  Symbol*        _signature;
   Mode           _class_mode;
-  jobject        _method_name;
   Mode           _method_mode;
-  jobject        _signature;
   MethodMatcher* _next;
 
-  static bool match(symbolHandle candidate, symbolHandle match, Mode match_mode);
+  static bool match(Symbol* candidate, Symbol* match, Mode match_mode);
 
-  symbolHandle class_name() const { return (symbolOop)JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(_class_name); }
-  symbolHandle method_name() const { return (symbolOop)JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(_method_name); }
-  symbolHandle signature() const { return (symbolOop)JNIHandles::resolve(_signature); }
+  Symbol* class_name() const { return _class_name; }
+  Symbol* method_name() const { return _method_name; }
+  Symbol* signature() const { return _signature; }
 
  public:
-  MethodMatcher(symbolHandle class_name, Mode class_mode,
-                symbolHandle method_name, Mode method_mode,
-                symbolHandle signature, MethodMatcher* next);
-  MethodMatcher(symbolHandle class_name, symbolHandle method_name, MethodMatcher* next);
+  MethodMatcher(Symbol* class_name, Mode class_mode,
+                Symbol* method_name, Mode method_mode,
+                Symbol* signature, MethodMatcher* next);
+  MethodMatcher(Symbol* class_name, Symbol* method_name, MethodMatcher* next);
 
   // utility method
   MethodMatcher* find(methodHandle method) {
-    symbolHandle class_name  = Klass::cast(method->method_holder())->name();
-    symbolHandle method_name = method->name();
+    Symbol* class_name  = Klass::cast(method->method_holder())->name();
+    Symbol* method_name = method->name();
     for (MethodMatcher* current = this; current != NULL; current = current->_next) {
       if (match(class_name, current->class_name(), current->_class_mode) &&
           match(method_name, current->method_name(), current->_method_mode) &&
-          (current->signature().is_null() || current->signature()() == method->signature())) {
+          (current->signature() == NULL || current->signature() == method->signature())) {
         return current;
       }
     }
@@ -85,14 +85,14 @@
 
   MethodMatcher* next() const { return _next; }
 
-  static void print_symbol(symbolHandle h, Mode mode) {
+  static void print_symbol(Symbol* h, Mode mode) {
     ResourceMark rm;
 
     if (mode == Suffix || mode == Substring || mode == Any) {
       tty->print("*");
     }
     if (mode != Any) {
-      h()->print_symbol_on(tty);
+      h->print_symbol_on(tty);
     }
     if (mode == Prefix || mode == Substring) {
       tty->print("*");
@@ -103,7 +103,7 @@
     print_symbol(class_name(), _class_mode);
     tty->print(".");
     print_symbol(method_name(), _method_mode);
-    if (!signature().is_null()) {
+    if (signature() != NULL) {
       tty->print(" ");
       signature()->print_symbol_on(tty);
     }
@@ -115,9 +115,9 @@
   }
 };
 
-MethodMatcher::MethodMatcher(symbolHandle class_name, symbolHandle method_name, MethodMatcher* next) {
-  _class_name  = JNIHandles::make_global(class_name);
-  _method_name = JNIHandles::make_global(method_name);
+MethodMatcher::MethodMatcher(Symbol* class_name, Symbol* method_name, MethodMatcher* next) {
+  _class_name  = class_name;
+  _method_name = method_name;
   _next        = next;
   _class_mode  = MethodMatcher::Exact;
   _method_mode = MethodMatcher::Exact;
@@ -125,24 +125,24 @@
 }
 
 
-MethodMatcher::MethodMatcher(symbolHandle class_name, Mode class_mode,
-                             symbolHandle method_name, Mode method_mode,
-                             symbolHandle signature, MethodMatcher* next):
+MethodMatcher::MethodMatcher(Symbol* class_name, Mode class_mode,
+                             Symbol* method_name, Mode method_mode,
+                             Symbol* signature, MethodMatcher* next):
     _class_mode(class_mode)
   , _method_mode(method_mode)
   , _next(next)
-  , _class_name(JNIHandles::make_global(class_name()))
-  , _method_name(JNIHandles::make_global(method_name()))
-  , _signature(JNIHandles::make_global(signature())) {
+  , _class_name(class_name)
+  , _method_name(method_name)
+  , _signature(signature) {
 }
 
-bool MethodMatcher::match(symbolHandle candidate, symbolHandle match, Mode match_mode) {
+bool MethodMatcher::match(Symbol* candidate, Symbol* match, Mode match_mode) {
   if (match_mode == Any) {
     return true;
   }
 
   if (match_mode == Exact) {
-    return candidate() == match();
+    return candidate == match;
   }
 
   ResourceMark rm;
@@ -171,9 +171,9 @@
 class MethodOptionMatcher: public MethodMatcher {
   const char * option;
  public:
-  MethodOptionMatcher(symbolHandle class_name, Mode class_mode,
-                             symbolHandle method_name, Mode method_mode,
-                             symbolHandle signature, const char * opt, MethodMatcher* next):
+  MethodOptionMatcher(Symbol* class_name, Mode class_mode,
+                             Symbol* method_name, Mode method_mode,
+                             Symbol* signature, const char * opt, MethodMatcher* next):
     MethodMatcher(class_name, class_mode, method_name, method_mode, signature, next) {
     option = opt;
   }
@@ -256,9 +256,9 @@
 
 
 static MethodMatcher* add_predicate(OracleCommand command,
-                                    symbolHandle class_name, MethodMatcher::Mode c_mode,
-                                    symbolHandle method_name, MethodMatcher::Mode m_mode,
-                                    symbolHandle signature) {
+                                    Symbol* class_name, MethodMatcher::Mode c_mode,
+                                    Symbol* method_name, MethodMatcher::Mode m_mode,
+                                    Symbol* signature) {
   assert(command != OptionCommand, "must use add_option_string");
   if (command == LogCommand && !LogCompilation && lists[LogCommand] == NULL)
     tty->print_cr("Warning:  +LogCompilation must be enabled in order for individual methods to be logged.");
@@ -268,9 +268,9 @@
 
 
 
-static MethodMatcher* add_option_string(symbolHandle class_name, MethodMatcher::Mode c_mode,
-                                        symbolHandle method_name, MethodMatcher::Mode m_mode,
-                                        symbolHandle signature,
+static MethodMatcher* add_option_string(Symbol* class_name, MethodMatcher::Mode c_mode,
+                                        Symbol* method_name, MethodMatcher::Mode m_mode,
+                                        Symbol* signature,
                                         const char* option) {
   lists[OptionCommand] = new MethodOptionMatcher(class_name, c_mode, method_name, m_mode,
                                                  signature, option, lists[OptionCommand]);
@@ -497,9 +497,9 @@
 
   if (scan_line(line, class_name, &c_match, method_name, &m_match, &bytes_read, error_msg)) {
     EXCEPTION_MARK;
-    symbolHandle c_name = oopFactory::new_symbol_handle(class_name, CHECK);
-    symbolHandle m_name = oopFactory::new_symbol_handle(method_name, CHECK);
-    symbolHandle signature;
+    Symbol* c_name = SymbolTable::new_symbol(class_name, CHECK);
+    Symbol* m_name = SymbolTable::new_symbol(method_name, CHECK);
+    Symbol* signature = NULL;
 
     line += bytes_read;
     // there might be a signature following the method.
@@ -507,7 +507,7 @@
     if (1 == sscanf(line, "%*[ \t](%254[[);/" RANGEBASE "]%n", sig + 1, &bytes_read)) {
       sig[0] = '(';
       line += bytes_read;
-      signature = oopFactory::new_symbol_handle(sig, CHECK);
+      signature = SymbolTable::new_symbol(sig, CHECK);
     }
 
     if (command == OptionCommand) {
@@ -714,9 +714,9 @@
       }
 
       EXCEPTION_MARK;
-      symbolHandle c_name = oopFactory::new_symbol_handle(className, CHECK);
-      symbolHandle m_name = oopFactory::new_symbol_handle(methodName, CHECK);
-      symbolHandle signature;
+      Symbol* c_name = SymbolTable::new_symbol(className, CHECK);
+      Symbol* m_name = SymbolTable::new_symbol(methodName, CHECK);
+      Symbol* signature = NULL;
 
       add_predicate(CompileOnlyCommand, c_name, c_match, m_name, m_match, signature);
       if (PrintVMOptions) {
--- a/src/share/vm/compiler/compilerOracle.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/compiler/compilerOracle.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -31,8 +31,6 @@
 // CompilerOracle is an interface for turning on and off compilation
 // for some methods
 
-class symbolHandle;
-
 class CompilerOracle : AllStatic {
  private:
   static bool _quiet;
--- a/src/share/vm/gc_implementation/concurrentMarkSweep/concurrentMarkSweepGeneration.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/gc_implementation/concurrentMarkSweep/concurrentMarkSweepGeneration.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -5921,9 +5921,10 @@
 
     {
       TraceTime t("scrub symbol & string tables", PrintGCDetails, false, gclog_or_tty);
-      // Now clean up stale oops in SymbolTable and StringTable
-      SymbolTable::unlink(&_is_alive_closure);
+      // Now clean up stale oops in StringTable
       StringTable::unlink(&_is_alive_closure);
+      // Clean up unreferenced symbols in symbol table.
+      SymbolTable::unlink();
     }
   }
 
--- a/src/share/vm/gc_implementation/g1/concurrentMark.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/gc_implementation/g1/concurrentMark.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -1055,7 +1055,12 @@
       do {
         double start_vtime_sec = os::elapsedVTime();
         double start_time_sec = os::elapsedTime();
-        the_task->do_marking_step(10.0);
+        double mark_step_duration_ms = G1ConcMarkStepDurationMillis;
+
+        the_task->do_marking_step(mark_step_duration_ms,
+                                  true /* do_stealing    */,
+                                  true /* do_termination */);
+
         double end_time_sec = os::elapsedTime();
         double end_vtime_sec = os::elapsedVTime();
         double elapsed_vtime_sec = end_vtime_sec - start_vtime_sec;
@@ -1111,7 +1116,8 @@
 
   _restart_for_overflow = false;
 
-  set_phase(MAX2((size_t) 1, parallel_marking_threads()), true);
+  size_t active_workers = MAX2((size_t) 1, parallel_marking_threads());
+  set_phase(active_workers, true /* concurrent */);
 
   CMConcurrentMarkingTask markingTask(this, cmThread());
   if (parallel_marking_threads() > 0)
@@ -1176,6 +1182,12 @@
                                /* silent */           false,
                                /* use_prev_marking */ false);
     }
+    assert(!restart_for_overflow(), "sanity");
+  }
+
+  // Reset the marking state if marking completed
+  if (!restart_for_overflow()) {
+    set_non_marking_state();
   }
 
 #if VERIFY_OBJS_PROCESSED
@@ -1500,21 +1512,19 @@
   size_t _max_live_bytes;
   size_t _regions_claimed;
   size_t _freed_bytes;
-  FreeRegionList _local_cleanup_list;
-  HumongousRegionSet _humongous_proxy_set;
+  FreeRegionList* _local_cleanup_list;
+  HumongousRegionSet* _humongous_proxy_set;
+  HRRSCleanupTask* _hrrs_cleanup_task;
   double _claimed_region_time;
   double _max_region_time;
 
 public:
   G1NoteEndOfConcMarkClosure(G1CollectedHeap* g1,
-                             int worker_num);
+                             int worker_num,
+                             FreeRegionList* local_cleanup_list,
+                             HumongousRegionSet* humongous_proxy_set,
+                             HRRSCleanupTask* hrrs_cleanup_task);
   size_t freed_bytes() { return _freed_bytes; }
-  FreeRegionList* local_cleanup_list() {
-    return &_local_cleanup_list;
-  }
-  HumongousRegionSet* humongous_proxy_set() {
-    return &_humongous_proxy_set;
-  }
 
   bool doHeapRegion(HeapRegion *r);
 
@@ -1541,7 +1551,12 @@
 
   void work(int i) {
     double start = os::elapsedTime();
-    G1NoteEndOfConcMarkClosure g1_note_end(_g1h, i);
+    FreeRegionList local_cleanup_list("Local Cleanup List");
+    HumongousRegionSet humongous_proxy_set("Local Cleanup Humongous Proxy Set");
+    HRRSCleanupTask hrrs_cleanup_task;
+    G1NoteEndOfConcMarkClosure g1_note_end(_g1h, i, &local_cleanup_list,
+                                           &humongous_proxy_set,
+                                           &hrrs_cleanup_task);
     if (G1CollectedHeap::use_parallel_gc_threads()) {
       _g1h->heap_region_par_iterate_chunked(&g1_note_end, i,
                                             HeapRegion::NoteEndClaimValue);
@@ -1553,15 +1568,17 @@
     // Now update the lists
     _g1h->update_sets_after_freeing_regions(g1_note_end.freed_bytes(),
                                             NULL /* free_list */,
-                                            g1_note_end.humongous_proxy_set(),
+                                            &humongous_proxy_set,
                                             true /* par */);
     {
       MutexLockerEx x(ParGCRareEvent_lock, Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
       _max_live_bytes += g1_note_end.max_live_bytes();
       _freed_bytes += g1_note_end.freed_bytes();
 
-      _cleanup_list->add_as_tail(g1_note_end.local_cleanup_list());
-      assert(g1_note_end.local_cleanup_list()->is_empty(), "post-condition");
+      _cleanup_list->add_as_tail(&local_cleanup_list);
+      assert(local_cleanup_list.is_empty(), "post-condition");
+
+      HeapRegionRemSet::finish_cleanup_task(&hrrs_cleanup_task);
     }
     double end = os::elapsedTime();
     if (G1PrintParCleanupStats) {
@@ -1602,13 +1619,17 @@
 
 G1NoteEndOfConcMarkClosure::
 G1NoteEndOfConcMarkClosure(G1CollectedHeap* g1,
-                           int worker_num)
+                           int worker_num,
+                           FreeRegionList* local_cleanup_list,
+                           HumongousRegionSet* humongous_proxy_set,
+                           HRRSCleanupTask* hrrs_cleanup_task)
   : _g1(g1), _worker_num(worker_num),
     _max_live_bytes(0), _regions_claimed(0),
     _freed_bytes(0),
     _claimed_region_time(0.0), _max_region_time(0.0),
-    _local_cleanup_list("Local Cleanup List"),
-    _humongous_proxy_set("Local Cleanup Humongous Proxy Set") { }
+    _local_cleanup_list(local_cleanup_list),
+    _humongous_proxy_set(humongous_proxy_set),
+    _hrrs_cleanup_task(hrrs_cleanup_task) { }
 
 bool G1NoteEndOfConcMarkClosure::doHeapRegion(HeapRegion *hr) {
   // We use a claim value of zero here because all regions
@@ -1619,11 +1640,12 @@
     _regions_claimed++;
     hr->note_end_of_marking();
     _max_live_bytes += hr->max_live_bytes();
-    _g1->free_region_if_totally_empty(hr,
-                                      &_freed_bytes,
-                                      &_local_cleanup_list,
-                                      &_humongous_proxy_set,
-                                      true /* par */);
+    _g1->free_region_if_empty(hr,
+                              &_freed_bytes,
+                              _local_cleanup_list,
+                              _humongous_proxy_set,
+                              _hrrs_cleanup_task,
+                              true /* par */);
     double region_time = (os::elapsedTime() - start);
     _claimed_region_time += region_time;
     if (region_time > _max_region_time) _max_region_time = region_time;
@@ -1659,6 +1681,8 @@
 
   double start = os::elapsedTime();
 
+  HeapRegionRemSet::reset_for_cleanup_tasks();
+
   // Do counting once more with the world stopped for good measure.
   G1ParFinalCountTask g1_par_count_task(g1h, nextMarkBitMap(),
                                         &_region_bm, &_card_bm);
@@ -1853,6 +1877,8 @@
   assert(local_free_list.is_empty(), "post-condition");
 }
 
+// Support closures for reference procssing in G1
+
 bool G1CMIsAliveClosure::do_object_b(oop obj) {
   HeapWord* addr = (HeapWord*)obj;
   return addr != NULL &&
@@ -1873,11 +1899,17 @@
   virtual void do_oop(      oop* p) { do_oop_work(p); }
 
   template <class T> void do_oop_work(T* p) {
-    oop thisOop = oopDesc::load_decode_heap_oop(p);
-    HeapWord* addr = (HeapWord*)thisOop;
-    if (_g1->is_in_g1_reserved(addr) && _g1->is_obj_ill(thisOop)) {
+    oop obj = oopDesc::load_decode_heap_oop(p);
+    HeapWord* addr = (HeapWord*)obj;
+
+    if (_cm->verbose_high())
+      gclog_or_tty->print_cr("\t[0] we're looking at location "
+                               "*"PTR_FORMAT" = "PTR_FORMAT,
+                               p, (void*) obj);
+
+    if (_g1->is_in_g1_reserved(addr) && _g1->is_obj_ill(obj)) {
       _bitMap->mark(addr);
-      _cm->mark_stack_push(thisOop);
+      _cm->mark_stack_push(obj);
     }
   }
 };
@@ -1899,6 +1931,199 @@
   }
 };
 
+// 'Keep Alive' closure used by parallel reference processing.
+// An instance of this closure is used in the parallel reference processing
+// code rather than an instance of G1CMKeepAliveClosure. We could have used
+// the G1CMKeepAliveClosure as it is MT-safe. Also reference objects are
+// placed on to discovered ref lists once so we can mark and push with no
+// need to check whether the object has already been marked. Using the
+// G1CMKeepAliveClosure would mean, however, having all the worker threads
+// operating on the global mark stack. This means that an individual
+// worker would be doing lock-free pushes while it processes its own
+// discovered ref list followed by drain call. If the discovered ref lists
+// are unbalanced then this could cause interference with the other
+// workers. Using a CMTask (and its embedded local data structures)
+// avoids that potential interference.
+class G1CMParKeepAliveAndDrainClosure: public OopClosure {
+  ConcurrentMark*  _cm;
+  CMTask*          _task;
+  CMBitMap*        _bitMap;
+  int              _ref_counter_limit;
+  int              _ref_counter;
+ public:
+  G1CMParKeepAliveAndDrainClosure(ConcurrentMark* cm,
+                                  CMTask* task,
+                                  CMBitMap* bitMap) :
+    _cm(cm), _task(task), _bitMap(bitMap),
+    _ref_counter_limit(G1RefProcDrainInterval)
+  {
+    assert(_ref_counter_limit > 0, "sanity");
+    _ref_counter = _ref_counter_limit;
+  }
+
+  virtual void do_oop(narrowOop* p) { do_oop_work(p); }
+  virtual void do_oop(      oop* p) { do_oop_work(p); }
+
+  template <class T> void do_oop_work(T* p) {
+    if (!_cm->has_overflown()) {
+      oop obj = oopDesc::load_decode_heap_oop(p);
+      if (_cm->verbose_high())
+        gclog_or_tty->print_cr("\t[%d] we're looking at location "
+                               "*"PTR_FORMAT" = "PTR_FORMAT,
+                               _task->task_id(), p, (void*) obj);
+
+      _task->deal_with_reference(obj);
+      _ref_counter--;
+
+      if (_ref_counter == 0) {
+        // We have dealt with _ref_counter_limit references, pushing them and objects
+        // reachable from them on to the local stack (and possibly the global stack).
+        // Call do_marking_step() to process these entries. We call the routine in a
+        // loop, which we'll exit if there's nothing more to do (i.e. we're done
+        // with the entries that we've pushed as a result of the deal_with_reference
+        // calls above) or we overflow.
+        // Note: CMTask::do_marking_step() can set the CMTask::has_aborted() flag
+        // while there may still be some work to do. (See the comment at the
+        // beginning of CMTask::do_marking_step() for those conditions - one of which
+        // is reaching the specified time target.) It is only when
+        // CMTask::do_marking_step() returns without setting the has_aborted() flag
+        // that the marking has completed.
+        do {
+          double mark_step_duration_ms = G1ConcMarkStepDurationMillis;
+          _task->do_marking_step(mark_step_duration_ms,
+                                 false /* do_stealing    */,
+                                 false /* do_termination */);
+        } while (_task->has_aborted() && !_cm->has_overflown());
+        _ref_counter = _ref_counter_limit;
+      }
+    } else {
+       if (_cm->verbose_high())
+         gclog_or_tty->print_cr("\t[%d] CM Overflow", _task->task_id());
+    }
+  }
+};
+
+class G1CMParDrainMarkingStackClosure: public VoidClosure {
+  ConcurrentMark* _cm;
+  CMTask* _task;
+ public:
+  G1CMParDrainMarkingStackClosure(ConcurrentMark* cm, CMTask* task) :
+    _cm(cm), _task(task)
+  {}
+
+  void do_void() {
+    do {
+      if (_cm->verbose_high())
+        gclog_or_tty->print_cr("\t[%d] Drain: Calling do marking_step", _task->task_id());
+
+      // We call CMTask::do_marking_step() to completely drain the local and
+      // global marking stacks. The routine is called in a loop, which we'll
+      // exit if there's nothing more to do (i.e. we'completely drained the
+      // entries that were pushed as a result of applying the
+      // G1CMParKeepAliveAndDrainClosure to the entries on the discovered ref
+      // lists above) or we overflow the global marking stack.
+      // Note: CMTask::do_marking_step() can set the CMTask::has_aborted() flag
+      // while there may still be some work to do. (See the comment at the
+      // beginning of CMTask::do_marking_step() for those conditions - one of which
+      // is reaching the specified time target.) It is only when
+      // CMTask::do_marking_step() returns without setting the has_aborted() flag
+      // that the marking has completed.
+
+      _task->do_marking_step(1000000000.0 /* something very large */,
+                             true /* do_stealing    */,
+                             true /* do_termination */);
+    } while (_task->has_aborted() && !_cm->has_overflown());
+  }
+};
+
+// Implementation of AbstractRefProcTaskExecutor for G1
+class G1RefProcTaskExecutor: public AbstractRefProcTaskExecutor {
+private:
+  G1CollectedHeap* _g1h;
+  ConcurrentMark*  _cm;
+  CMBitMap*        _bitmap;
+  WorkGang*        _workers;
+  int              _active_workers;
+
+public:
+  G1RefProcTaskExecutor(G1CollectedHeap* g1h,
+                        ConcurrentMark* cm,
+                        CMBitMap* bitmap,
+                        WorkGang* workers,
+                        int n_workers) :
+    _g1h(g1h), _cm(cm), _bitmap(bitmap),
+    _workers(workers), _active_workers(n_workers)
+  { }
+
+  // Executes the given task using concurrent marking worker threads.
+  virtual void execute(ProcessTask& task);
+  virtual void execute(EnqueueTask& task);
+};
+
+class G1RefProcTaskProxy: public AbstractGangTask {
+  typedef AbstractRefProcTaskExecutor::ProcessTask ProcessTask;
+  ProcessTask&     _proc_task;
+  G1CollectedHeap* _g1h;
+  ConcurrentMark*  _cm;
+  CMBitMap*        _bitmap;
+
+public:
+  G1RefProcTaskProxy(ProcessTask& proc_task,
+                     G1CollectedHeap* g1h,
+                     ConcurrentMark* cm,
+                     CMBitMap* bitmap) :
+    AbstractGangTask("Process reference objects in parallel"),
+    _proc_task(proc_task), _g1h(g1h), _cm(cm), _bitmap(bitmap)
+  {}
+
+  virtual void work(int i) {
+    CMTask* marking_task = _cm->task(i);
+    G1CMIsAliveClosure g1_is_alive(_g1h);
+    G1CMParKeepAliveAndDrainClosure g1_par_keep_alive(_cm, marking_task, _bitmap);
+    G1CMParDrainMarkingStackClosure g1_par_drain(_cm, marking_task);
+
+    _proc_task.work(i, g1_is_alive, g1_par_keep_alive, g1_par_drain);
+  }
+};
+
+void G1RefProcTaskExecutor::execute(ProcessTask& proc_task) {
+  assert(_workers != NULL, "Need parallel worker threads.");
+
+  G1RefProcTaskProxy proc_task_proxy(proc_task, _g1h, _cm, _bitmap);
+
+  // We need to reset the phase for each task execution so that
+  // the termination protocol of CMTask::do_marking_step works.
+  _cm->set_phase(_active_workers, false /* concurrent */);
+  _g1h->set_par_threads(_active_workers);
+  _workers->run_task(&proc_task_proxy);
+  _g1h->set_par_threads(0);
+}
+
+class G1RefEnqueueTaskProxy: public AbstractGangTask {
+  typedef AbstractRefProcTaskExecutor::EnqueueTask EnqueueTask;
+  EnqueueTask& _enq_task;
+
+public:
+  G1RefEnqueueTaskProxy(EnqueueTask& enq_task) :
+    AbstractGangTask("Enqueue reference objects in parallel"),
+    _enq_task(enq_task)
+  { }
+
+  virtual void work(int i) {
+    _enq_task.work(i);
+  }
+};
+
+void G1RefProcTaskExecutor::execute(EnqueueTask& enq_task) {
+  assert(_workers != NULL, "Need parallel worker threads.");
+
+  G1RefEnqueueTaskProxy enq_task_proxy(enq_task);
+
+  _g1h->set_par_threads(_active_workers);
+  _workers->run_task(&enq_task_proxy);
+  _g1h->set_par_threads(0);
+}
+
 void ConcurrentMark::weakRefsWork(bool clear_all_soft_refs) {
   ResourceMark rm;
   HandleMark   hm;
@@ -1917,24 +2142,59 @@
   G1CMDrainMarkingStackClosure
     g1_drain_mark_stack(nextMarkBitMap(), &_markStack, &g1_keep_alive);
 
-  // XXXYYY  Also: copy the parallel ref processing code from CMS.
-  rp->process_discovered_references(&g1_is_alive,
-                                    &g1_keep_alive,
-                                    &g1_drain_mark_stack,
-                                    NULL);
+  // We use the work gang from the G1CollectedHeap and we utilize all
+  // the worker threads.
+  int active_workers = MAX2(MIN2(g1h->workers()->total_workers(), (int)_max_task_num), 1);
+
+  G1RefProcTaskExecutor par_task_executor(g1h, this, nextMarkBitMap(),
+                                          g1h->workers(), active_workers);
+
+  if (rp->processing_is_mt()) {
+    // Set the degree of MT here.  If the discovery is done MT, there
+    // may have been a different number of threads doing the discovery
+    // and a different number of discovered lists may have Ref objects.
+    // That is OK as long as the Reference lists are balanced (see
+    // balance_all_queues() and balance_queues()).
+    rp->set_mt_degree(active_workers);
+
+    rp->process_discovered_references(&g1_is_alive,
+                                      &g1_keep_alive,
+                                      &g1_drain_mark_stack,
+                                      &par_task_executor);
+
+    // The work routines of the parallel keep_alive and drain_marking_stack
+    // will set the has_overflown flag if we overflow the global marking
+    // stack.
+  } else {
+    rp->process_discovered_references(&g1_is_alive,
+                                      &g1_keep_alive,
+                                      &g1_drain_mark_stack,
+                                      NULL);
+
+  }
+
   assert(_markStack.overflow() || _markStack.isEmpty(),
-         "mark stack should be empty (unless it overflowed)");
+      "mark stack should be empty (unless it overflowed)");
   if (_markStack.overflow()) {
+    // Should have been done already when we tried to push an
+    // entry on to the global mark stack. But let's do it again.
     set_has_overflown();
   }
 
-  rp->enqueue_discovered_references();
+  if (rp->processing_is_mt()) {
+    assert(rp->num_q() == active_workers, "why not");
+    rp->enqueue_discovered_references(&par_task_executor);
+  } else {
+    rp->enqueue_discovered_references();
+  }
+
   rp->verify_no_references_recorded();
   assert(!rp->discovery_enabled(), "should have been disabled");
 
-  // Now clean up stale oops in SymbolTable and StringTable
-  SymbolTable::unlink(&g1_is_alive);
+  // Now clean up stale oops in StringTable
   StringTable::unlink(&g1_is_alive);
+  // Clean up unreferenced symbols in symbol table.
+  SymbolTable::unlink();
 }
 
 void ConcurrentMark::swapMarkBitMaps() {
@@ -1955,7 +2215,9 @@
       CMTask* task = _cm->task(worker_i);
       task->record_start_time();
       do {
-        task->do_marking_step(1000000000.0 /* something very large */);
+        task->do_marking_step(1000000000.0 /* something very large */,
+                              true /* do_stealing    */,
+                              true /* do_termination */);
       } while (task->has_aborted() && !_cm->has_overflown());
       // If we overflow, then we do not want to restart. We instead
       // want to abort remark and do concurrent marking again.
@@ -1978,7 +2240,7 @@
     G1CollectedHeap::StrongRootsScope srs(g1h);
     // this is remark, so we'll use up all available threads
     int active_workers = ParallelGCThreads;
-    set_phase(active_workers, false);
+    set_phase(active_workers, false /* concurrent */);
 
     CMRemarkTask remarkTask(this);
     // We will start all available threads, even if we decide that the
@@ -1992,7 +2254,7 @@
     G1CollectedHeap::StrongRootsScope srs(g1h);
     // this is remark, so we'll use up all available threads
     int active_workers = 1;
-    set_phase(active_workers, false);
+    set_phase(active_workers, false /* concurrent */);
 
     CMRemarkTask remarkTask(this);
     // We will start all available threads, even if we decide that the
@@ -2005,9 +2267,6 @@
 
   print_stats();
 
-  if (!restart_for_overflow())
-    set_non_marking_state();
-
 #if VERIFY_OBJS_PROCESSED
   if (_scan_obj_cl.objs_processed != ThreadLocalObjQueue::objs_enqueued) {
     gclog_or_tty->print_cr("Processed = %d, enqueued = %d.",
@@ -3124,7 +3383,7 @@
           // do nothing
         }
 #else // _CHECK_BOTH_FINGERS_
-      // we will only check the global finger
+        // we will only check the global finger
 
         if (objAddr < global_finger) {
           // see long comment above
@@ -3249,7 +3508,7 @@
   double elapsed_time_ms = curr_time_ms - _start_time_ms;
   if (elapsed_time_ms > _time_target_ms) {
     set_has_aborted();
-    _has_aborted_timed_out = true;
+    _has_timed_out = true;
     statsOnly( ++_aborted_timed_out );
     return;
   }
@@ -3754,7 +4013,9 @@
 
  *****************************************************************************/
 
-void CMTask::do_marking_step(double time_target_ms) {
+void CMTask::do_marking_step(double time_target_ms,
+                             bool do_stealing,
+                             bool do_termination) {
   assert(time_target_ms >= 1.0, "minimum granularity is 1ms");
   assert(concurrent() == _cm->concurrent(), "they should be the same");
 
@@ -3794,7 +4055,7 @@
 
   // clear all flags
   clear_has_aborted();
-  _has_aborted_timed_out = false;
+  _has_timed_out = false;
   _draining_satb_buffers = false;
 
   ++_calls;
@@ -3970,7 +4231,7 @@
   drain_global_stack(false);
 
   // Attempt at work stealing from other task's queues.
-  if (!has_aborted()) {
+  if (do_stealing && !has_aborted()) {
     // We have not aborted. This means that we have finished all that
     // we could. Let's try to do some stealing...
 
@@ -4011,7 +4272,7 @@
 
   // We still haven't aborted. Now, let's try to get into the
   // termination protocol.
-  if (!has_aborted()) {
+  if (do_termination && !has_aborted()) {
     // We cannot check whether the global stack is empty, since other
     // tasks might be concurrently pushing objects on it. We also cannot
     // check if the region stack is empty because if a thread is aborting
@@ -4087,7 +4348,7 @@
 
     statsOnly( ++_aborted );
 
-    if (_has_aborted_timed_out) {
+    if (_has_timed_out) {
       double diff_ms = elapsed_time_ms - _time_target_ms;
       // Keep statistics of how well we did with respect to hitting
       // our target only if we actually timed out (if we aborted for
--- a/src/share/vm/gc_implementation/g1/concurrentMark.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/gc_implementation/g1/concurrentMark.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -353,6 +353,10 @@
   friend class CMConcurrentMarkingTask;
   friend class G1ParNoteEndTask;
   friend class CalcLiveObjectsClosure;
+  friend class G1RefProcTaskProxy;
+  friend class G1RefProcTaskExecutor;
+  friend class G1CMParKeepAliveAndDrainClosure;
+  friend class G1CMParDrainMarkingStackClosure;
 
 protected:
   ConcurrentMarkThread* _cmThread;   // the thread doing the work
@@ -936,7 +940,7 @@
   // if this is true, then the task has aborted for some reason
   bool                        _has_aborted;
   // set when the task aborts because it has met its time quota
-  bool                        _has_aborted_timed_out;
+  bool                        _has_timed_out;
   // true when we're draining SATB buffers; this avoids the task
   // aborting due to SATB buffers being available (as we're already
   // dealing with them)
@@ -1041,7 +1045,7 @@
   // trying not to exceed the given duration. However, it might exit
   // prematurely, according to some conditions (i.e. SATB buffers are
   // available for processing).
-  void do_marking_step(double target_ms);
+  void do_marking_step(double target_ms, bool do_stealing, bool do_termination);
 
   // These two calls start and stop the timer
   void record_start_time() {
@@ -1063,7 +1067,8 @@
   bool has_aborted()            { return _has_aborted; }
   void set_has_aborted()        { _has_aborted = true; }
   void clear_has_aborted()      { _has_aborted = false; }
-  bool claimed() { return _claimed; }
+  bool has_timed_out()          { return _has_timed_out; }
+  bool claimed()                { return _claimed; }
 
   // Support routines for the partially scanned region that may be
   // recorded as a result of aborting while draining the CMRegionStack
--- a/src/share/vm/gc_implementation/g1/concurrentMarkThread.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/gc_implementation/g1/concurrentMarkThread.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -251,7 +251,9 @@
 
         // Now do the remainder of the cleanup operation.
         _cm->completeCleanup();
+        _sts.join();
         g1_policy->record_concurrent_mark_cleanup_completed();
+        _sts.leave();
 
         double cleanup_end_sec = os::elapsedTime();
         if (PrintGC) {
--- a/src/share/vm/gc_implementation/g1/g1CollectedHeap.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/gc_implementation/g1/g1CollectedHeap.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -4925,10 +4925,11 @@
   COMPILER2_PRESENT(DerivedPointerTable::update_pointers());
 }
 
-void G1CollectedHeap::free_region_if_totally_empty(HeapRegion* hr,
+void G1CollectedHeap::free_region_if_empty(HeapRegion* hr,
                                      size_t* pre_used,
                                      FreeRegionList* free_list,
                                      HumongousRegionSet* humongous_proxy_set,
+                                     HRRSCleanupTask* hrrs_cleanup_task,
                                      bool par) {
   if (hr->used() > 0 && hr->max_live_bytes() == 0 && !hr->is_young()) {
     if (hr->isHumongous()) {
@@ -4937,6 +4938,8 @@
     } else {
       free_region(hr, pre_used, free_list, par);
     }
+  } else {
+    hr->rem_set()->do_cleanup_work(hrrs_cleanup_task);
   }
 }
 
--- a/src/share/vm/gc_implementation/g1/g1CollectedHeap.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/gc_implementation/g1/g1CollectedHeap.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -40,6 +40,7 @@
 
 class HeapRegion;
 class HeapRegionSeq;
+class HRRSCleanupTask;
 class PermanentGenerationSpec;
 class GenerationSpec;
 class OopsInHeapRegionClosure;
@@ -1099,11 +1100,12 @@
   // all dead. It calls either free_region() or
   // free_humongous_region() depending on the type of the region that
   // is passed to it.
-  void free_region_if_totally_empty(HeapRegion* hr,
-                                    size_t* pre_used,
-                                    FreeRegionList* free_list,
-                                    HumongousRegionSet* humongous_proxy_set,
-                                    bool par);
+  void free_region_if_empty(HeapRegion* hr,
+                            size_t* pre_used,
+                            FreeRegionList* free_list,
+                            HumongousRegionSet* humongous_proxy_set,
+                            HRRSCleanupTask* hrrs_cleanup_task,
+                            bool par);
 
   // It appends the free list to the master free list and updates the
   // master humongous list according to the contents of the proxy
--- a/src/share/vm/gc_implementation/g1/g1MarkSweep.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/gc_implementation/g1/g1MarkSweep.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -172,9 +172,10 @@
   assert(GenMarkSweep::_marking_stack.is_empty(), "just drained");
 
 
-  // Visit symbol and interned string tables and delete unmarked oops
-  SymbolTable::unlink(&GenMarkSweep::is_alive);
+  // Visit interned string tables and delete unmarked oops
   StringTable::unlink(&GenMarkSweep::is_alive);
+  // Clean up unreferenced symbols in symbol table.
+  SymbolTable::unlink();
 
   assert(GenMarkSweep::_marking_stack.is_empty(),
          "stack should be empty by now");
--- a/src/share/vm/gc_implementation/g1/g1_globals.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/gc_implementation/g1/g1_globals.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -81,6 +81,14 @@
   product(intx, G1MarkRegionStackSize, 1024 * 1024,                         \
           "Size of the region stack for concurrent marking.")               \
                                                                             \
+  product(double, G1ConcMarkStepDurationMillis, 10.0,                       \
+          "Target duration of individual concurrent marking steps "         \
+          "in milliseconds.")                                               \
+                                                                            \
+  product(intx, G1RefProcDrainInterval, 10,                                 \
+          "The number of discovered reference objects to process before "   \
+          "draining concurrent marking work queues.")                       \
+                                                                            \
   develop(bool, G1SATBBarrierPrintNullPreVals, false,                       \
           "If true, count frac of ptr writes with null pre-vals.")          \
                                                                             \
--- a/src/share/vm/gc_implementation/g1/heapRegionRemSet.cpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/gc_implementation/g1/heapRegionRemSet.cpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 2001, 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 2001, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -463,7 +463,6 @@
   }
 
   static void par_contract_all();
-
 };
 
 void PosParPRT::par_contract_all() {
@@ -1070,6 +1069,11 @@
 
 }
 
+void
+OtherRegionsTable::do_cleanup_work(HRRSCleanupTask* hrrs_cleanup_task) {
+  _sparse_table.do_cleanup_work(hrrs_cleanup_task);
+}
+
 // Determines how many threads can add records to an rset in parallel.
 // This can be done by either mutator threads together with the
 // concurrent refinement threads or GC threads.
@@ -1384,6 +1388,19 @@
   }
 }
 
+void HeapRegionRemSet::reset_for_cleanup_tasks() {
+  SparsePRT::reset_for_cleanup_tasks();
+}
+
+void HeapRegionRemSet::do_cleanup_work(HRRSCleanupTask* hrrs_cleanup_task) {
+  _other_regions.do_cleanup_work(hrrs_cleanup_task);
+}
+
+void
+HeapRegionRemSet::finish_cleanup_task(HRRSCleanupTask* hrrs_cleanup_task) {
+  SparsePRT::finish_cleanup_task(hrrs_cleanup_task);
+}
+
 #ifndef PRODUCT
 void HeapRegionRemSet::test() {
   os::sleep(Thread::current(), (jlong)5000, false);
--- a/src/share/vm/gc_implementation/g1/heapRegionRemSet.hpp	Thu Feb 03 17:22:06 2011 -0800
+++ b/src/share/vm/gc_implementation/g1/heapRegionRemSet.hpp	Thu Feb 03 23:26:25 2011 -0800
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 2001, 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 2001, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -38,6 +38,10 @@
 class PosParPRT;
 class SparsePRT;
 
+// Essentially a wrapper around SparsePRTCleanupTask. See
+// sparsePRT.hpp for more details.
+class HRRSCleanupTask : public SparsePRTCleanupTask {
+};
 
 // The "_coarse_map" is a bitmap with one bit for each region, where set
 // bits indicate that the corresponding region may contain some pointer
@@ -156,6 +160,8 @@
   // "from_hr" is being cleared; remove any entries from it.
   void clear_incoming_entry(HeapRegion* from_hr);
 
+  void do_cleanup_work(HRRSCleanupTask* hrrs_cleanup_task);
+
   // Declare the heap size (in # of regions) to the OtherRegionsTable.
   // (Uses it to initialize from_card_cache).
   static void init_from_card_cache(size_t max_regions);
@@ -165,10 +171,8 @@
   static void shrink_from_card_cache(size_t new_n_regs);
 
   static void print_from_card_cache();
-
 };
 
-
 class HeapRegionRemSet : public CHeapObj {
   friend class VMStructs;
   friend class HeapRegionRemSetIterator;
@@ -342,11 +346,16 @@
   static void print_recorded();
   static void record_event(