view src/cpu/x86/vm/assembler_x86.hpp @ 2346:e1162778c1c8

7009266: G1: assert(obj->is_oop_or_null(true )) failed: Error Summary: A referent object that is only weakly reachable at the start of concurrent marking but is re-attached to the strongly reachable object graph during marking may not be marked as live. This can cause the reference object to be processed prematurely and leave dangling pointers to the referent object. Implement a read barrier for the java.lang.ref.Reference::referent field by intrinsifying the Reference.get() method, and intercepting accesses though JNI, reflection, and Unsafe, so that when a non-null referent object is read it is also logged in an SATB buffer. Reviewed-by: kvn, iveresov, never, tonyp, dholmes
author johnc
date Thu, 07 Apr 2011 09:53:20 -0700
parents 41d4973cf100
children 92add02409c9
line wrap: on
line source
/*
 * Copyright (c) 1997, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
 *
 * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
 * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
 * published by the Free Software Foundation.
 *
 * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
 * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
 * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
 * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
 * accompanied this code).
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
 * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
 * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
 *
 * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
 * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
 * questions.
 *
 */

#ifndef CPU_X86_VM_ASSEMBLER_X86_HPP
#define CPU_X86_VM_ASSEMBLER_X86_HPP

class BiasedLockingCounters;

// Contains all the definitions needed for x86 assembly code generation.

// Calling convention
class Argument VALUE_OBJ_CLASS_SPEC {
 public:
  enum {
#ifdef _LP64
#ifdef _WIN64
    n_int_register_parameters_c   = 4, // rcx, rdx, r8, r9 (c_rarg0, c_rarg1, ...)
    n_float_register_parameters_c = 4,  // xmm0 - xmm3 (c_farg0, c_farg1, ... )
#else
    n_int_register_parameters_c   = 6, // rdi, rsi, rdx, rcx, r8, r9 (c_rarg0, c_rarg1, ...)
    n_float_register_parameters_c = 8,  // xmm0 - xmm7 (c_farg0, c_farg1, ... )
#endif // _WIN64
    n_int_register_parameters_j   = 6, // j_rarg0, j_rarg1, ...
    n_float_register_parameters_j = 8  // j_farg0, j_farg1, ...
#else
    n_register_parameters = 0   // 0 registers used to pass arguments
#endif // _LP64
  };
};


#ifdef _LP64
// Symbolically name the register arguments used by the c calling convention.
// Windows is different from linux/solaris. So much for standards...

#ifdef _WIN64

REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, c_rarg0, rcx);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, c_rarg1, rdx);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, c_rarg2, r8);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, c_rarg3, r9);

REGISTER_DECLARATION(XMMRegister, c_farg0, xmm0);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(XMMRegister, c_farg1, xmm1);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(XMMRegister, c_farg2, xmm2);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(XMMRegister, c_farg3, xmm3);

#else

REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, c_rarg0, rdi);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, c_rarg1, rsi);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, c_rarg2, rdx);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, c_rarg3, rcx);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, c_rarg4, r8);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, c_rarg5, r9);

REGISTER_DECLARATION(XMMRegister, c_farg0, xmm0);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(XMMRegister, c_farg1, xmm1);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(XMMRegister, c_farg2, xmm2);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(XMMRegister, c_farg3, xmm3);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(XMMRegister, c_farg4, xmm4);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(XMMRegister, c_farg5, xmm5);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(XMMRegister, c_farg6, xmm6);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(XMMRegister, c_farg7, xmm7);

#endif // _WIN64

// Symbolically name the register arguments used by the Java calling convention.
// We have control over the convention for java so we can do what we please.
// What pleases us is to offset the java calling convention so that when
// we call a suitable jni method the arguments are lined up and we don't
// have to do little shuffling. A suitable jni method is non-static and a
// small number of arguments (two fewer args on windows)
//
//        |-------------------------------------------------------|
//        | c_rarg0   c_rarg1  c_rarg2 c_rarg3 c_rarg4 c_rarg5    |
//        |-------------------------------------------------------|
//        | rcx       rdx      r8      r9      rdi*    rsi*       | windows (* not a c_rarg)
//        | rdi       rsi      rdx     rcx     r8      r9         | solaris/linux
//        |-------------------------------------------------------|
//        | j_rarg5   j_rarg0  j_rarg1 j_rarg2 j_rarg3 j_rarg4    |
//        |-------------------------------------------------------|

REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, j_rarg0, c_rarg1);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, j_rarg1, c_rarg2);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, j_rarg2, c_rarg3);
// Windows runs out of register args here
#ifdef _WIN64
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, j_rarg3, rdi);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, j_rarg4, rsi);
#else
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, j_rarg3, c_rarg4);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, j_rarg4, c_rarg5);
#endif /* _WIN64 */
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, j_rarg5, c_rarg0);

REGISTER_DECLARATION(XMMRegister, j_farg0, xmm0);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(XMMRegister, j_farg1, xmm1);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(XMMRegister, j_farg2, xmm2);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(XMMRegister, j_farg3, xmm3);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(XMMRegister, j_farg4, xmm4);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(XMMRegister, j_farg5, xmm5);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(XMMRegister, j_farg6, xmm6);
REGISTER_DECLARATION(XMMRegister, j_farg7, xmm7);

REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, rscratch1, r10);  // volatile
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, rscratch2, r11);  // volatile

REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, r12_heapbase, r12); // callee-saved
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, r15_thread, r15); // callee-saved

#else
// rscratch1 will apear in 32bit code that is dead but of course must compile
// Using noreg ensures if the dead code is incorrectly live and executed it
// will cause an assertion failure
#define rscratch1 noreg
#define rscratch2 noreg

#endif // _LP64

// JSR 292 fixed register usages:
REGISTER_DECLARATION(Register, rbp_mh_SP_save, rbp);

// Address is an abstraction used to represent a memory location
// using any of the amd64 addressing modes with one object.
//
// Note: A register location is represented via a Register, not
//       via an address for efficiency & simplicity reasons.

class ArrayAddress;

class Address VALUE_OBJ_CLASS_SPEC {
 public:
  enum ScaleFactor {
    no_scale = -1,
    times_1  =  0,
    times_2  =  1,
    times_4  =  2,
    times_8  =  3,
    times_ptr = LP64_ONLY(times_8) NOT_LP64(times_4)
  };
  static ScaleFactor times(int size) {
    assert(size >= 1 && size <= 8 && is_power_of_2(size), "bad scale size");
    if (size == 8)  return times_8;
    if (size == 4)  return times_4;
    if (size == 2)  return times_2;
    return times_1;
  }
  static int scale_size(ScaleFactor scale) {
    assert(scale != no_scale, "");
    assert(((1 << (int)times_1) == 1 &&
            (1 << (int)times_2) == 2 &&
            (1 << (int)times_4) == 4 &&
            (1 << (int)times_8) == 8), "");
    return (1 << (int)scale);
  }

 private:
  Register         _base;
  Register         _index;
  ScaleFactor      _scale;
  int              _disp;
  RelocationHolder _rspec;

  // Easily misused constructors make them private
  // %%% can we make these go away?
  NOT_LP64(Address(address loc, RelocationHolder spec);)
  Address(int disp, address loc, relocInfo::relocType rtype);
  Address(int disp, address loc, RelocationHolder spec);

 public:

 int disp() { return _disp; }
  // creation
  Address()
    : _base(noreg),
      _index(noreg),
      _scale(no_scale),
      _disp(0) {
  }

  // No default displacement otherwise Register can be implicitly
  // converted to 0(Register) which is quite a different animal.

  Address(Register base, int disp)
    : _base(base),
      _index(noreg),
      _scale(no_scale),
      _disp(disp) {
  }

  Address(Register base, Register index, ScaleFactor scale, int disp = 0)
    : _base (base),
      _index(index),
      _scale(scale),
      _disp (disp) {
    assert(!index->is_valid() == (scale == Address::no_scale),
           "inconsistent address");
  }

  Address(Register base, RegisterOrConstant index, ScaleFactor scale = times_1, int disp = 0)
    : _base (base),
      _index(index.register_or_noreg()),
      _scale(scale),
      _disp (disp + (index.constant_or_zero() * scale_size(scale))) {
    if (!index.is_register())  scale = Address::no_scale;
    assert(!_index->is_valid() == (scale == Address::no_scale),
           "inconsistent address");
  }

  Address plus_disp(int disp) const {
    Address a = (*this);
    a._disp += disp;
    return a;
  }

  // The following two overloads are used in connection with the
  // ByteSize type (see sizes.hpp).  They simplify the use of
  // ByteSize'd arguments in assembly code. Note that their equivalent
  // for the optimized build are the member functions with int disp
  // argument since ByteSize is mapped to an int type in that case.
  //
  // Note: DO NOT introduce similar overloaded functions for WordSize
  // arguments as in the optimized mode, both ByteSize and WordSize
  // are mapped to the same type and thus the compiler cannot make a
  // distinction anymore (=> compiler errors).

#ifdef ASSERT
  Address(Register base, ByteSize disp)
    : _base(base),
      _index(noreg),
      _scale(no_scale),
      _disp(in_bytes(disp)) {
  }

  Address(Register base, Register index, ScaleFactor scale, ByteSize disp)
    : _base(base),
      _index(index),
      _scale(scale),
      _disp(in_bytes(disp)) {
    assert(!index->is_valid() == (scale == Address::no_scale),
           "inconsistent address");
  }

  Address(Register base, RegisterOrConstant index, ScaleFactor scale, ByteSize disp)
    : _base (base),
      _index(index.register_or_noreg()),
      _scale(scale),
      _disp (in_bytes(disp) + (index.constant_or_zero() * scale_size(scale))) {
    if (!index.is_register())  scale = Address::no_scale;
    assert(!_index->is_valid() == (scale == Address::no_scale),
           "inconsistent address");
  }

#endif // ASSERT

  // accessors
  bool        uses(Register reg) const { return _base == reg || _index == reg; }
  Register    base()             const { return _base;  }
  Register    index()            const { return _index; }
  ScaleFactor scale()            const { return _scale; }
  int         disp()             const { return _disp;  }

  // Convert the raw encoding form into the form expected by the constructor for
  // Address.  An index of 4 (rsp) corresponds to having no index, so convert
  // that to noreg for the Address constructor.
  static Address make_raw(int base, int index, int scale, int disp, bool disp_is_oop);

  static Address make_array(ArrayAddress);

 private:
  bool base_needs_rex() const {
    return _base != noreg && _base->encoding() >= 8;
  }

  bool index_needs_rex() const {
    return _index != noreg &&_index->encoding() >= 8;
  }

  relocInfo::relocType reloc() const { return _rspec.type(); }

  friend class Assembler;
  friend class MacroAssembler;
  friend class LIR_Assembler; // base/index/scale/disp
};

//
// AddressLiteral has been split out from Address because operands of this type
// need to be treated specially on 32bit vs. 64bit platforms. By splitting it out
// the few instructions that need to deal with address literals are unique and the
// MacroAssembler does not have to implement every instruction in the Assembler
// in order to search for address literals that may need special handling depending
// on the instruction and the platform. As small step on the way to merging i486/amd64
// directories.
//
class AddressLiteral VALUE_OBJ_CLASS_SPEC {
  friend class ArrayAddress;
  RelocationHolder _rspec;
  // Typically we use AddressLiterals we want to use their rval
  // However in some situations we want the lval (effect address) of the item.
  // We provide a special factory for making those lvals.
  bool _is_lval;

  // If the target is far we'll need to load the ea of this to
  // a register to reach it. Otherwise if near we can do rip
  // relative addressing.

  address          _target;

 protected:
  // creation
  AddressLiteral()
    : _is_lval(false),
      _target(NULL)
  {}

  public:


  AddressLiteral(address target, relocInfo::relocType rtype);

  AddressLiteral(address target, RelocationHolder const& rspec)
    : _rspec(rspec),
      _is_lval(false),
      _target(target)
  {}

  AddressLiteral addr() {
    AddressLiteral ret = *this;
    ret._is_lval = true;
    return ret;
  }


 private:

  address target() { return _target; }
  bool is_lval() { return _is_lval; }

  relocInfo::relocType reloc() const { return _rspec.type(); }
  const RelocationHolder& rspec() const { return _rspec; }

  friend class Assembler;
  friend class MacroAssembler;
  friend class Address;
  friend class LIR_Assembler;
};

// Convience classes
class RuntimeAddress: public AddressLiteral {

  public:

  RuntimeAddress(address target) : AddressLiteral(target, relocInfo::runtime_call_type) {}

};

class OopAddress: public AddressLiteral {

  public:

  OopAddress(address target) : AddressLiteral(target, relocInfo::oop_type){}

};

class ExternalAddress: public AddressLiteral {

  public:

  ExternalAddress(address target) : AddressLiteral(target, relocInfo::external_word_type){}

};

class InternalAddress: public AddressLiteral {

  public:

  InternalAddress(address target) : AddressLiteral(target, relocInfo::internal_word_type) {}

};

// x86 can do array addressing as a single operation since disp can be an absolute
// address amd64 can't. We create a class that expresses the concept but does extra
// magic on amd64 to get the final result

class ArrayAddress VALUE_OBJ_CLASS_SPEC {
  private:

  AddressLiteral _base;
  Address        _index;

  public:

  ArrayAddress() {};
  ArrayAddress(AddressLiteral base, Address index): _base(base), _index(index) {};
  AddressLiteral base() { return _base; }
  Address index() { return _index; }

};

const int FPUStateSizeInWords = NOT_LP64(27) LP64_ONLY( 512 / wordSize);

// The Intel x86/Amd64 Assembler: Pure assembler doing NO optimizations on the instruction
// level (e.g. mov rax, 0 is not translated into xor rax, rax!); i.e., what you write
// is what you get. The Assembler is generating code into a CodeBuffer.

class Assembler : public AbstractAssembler  {
  friend class AbstractAssembler; // for the non-virtual hack
  friend class LIR_Assembler; // as_Address()
  friend class StubGenerator;

 public:
  enum Condition {                     // The x86 condition codes used for conditional jumps/moves.
    zero          = 0x4,
    notZero       = 0x5,
    equal         = 0x4,
    notEqual      = 0x5,
    less          = 0xc,
    lessEqual     = 0xe,
    greater       = 0xf,
    greaterEqual  = 0xd,
    below         = 0x2,
    belowEqual    = 0x6,
    above         = 0x7,
    aboveEqual    = 0x3,
    overflow      = 0x0,
    noOverflow    = 0x1,
    carrySet      = 0x2,
    carryClear    = 0x3,
    negative      = 0x8,
    positive      = 0x9,
    parity        = 0xa,
    noParity      = 0xb
  };

  enum Prefix {
    // segment overrides
    CS_segment = 0x2e,
    SS_segment = 0x36,
    DS_segment = 0x3e,
    ES_segment = 0x26,
    FS_segment = 0x64,
    GS_segment = 0x65,

    REX        = 0x40,

    REX_B      = 0x41,
    REX_X      = 0x42,
    REX_XB     = 0x43,
    REX_R      = 0x44,
    REX_RB     = 0x45,
    REX_RX     = 0x46,
    REX_RXB    = 0x47,

    REX_W      = 0x48,

    REX_WB     = 0x49,
    REX_WX     = 0x4A,
    REX_WXB    = 0x4B,
    REX_WR     = 0x4C,
    REX_WRB    = 0x4D,
    REX_WRX    = 0x4E,
    REX_WRXB   = 0x4F
  };

  enum WhichOperand {
    // input to locate_operand, and format code for relocations
    imm_operand  = 0,            // embedded 32-bit|64-bit immediate operand
    disp32_operand = 1,          // embedded 32-bit displacement or address
    call32_operand = 2,          // embedded 32-bit self-relative displacement
#ifndef _LP64
    _WhichOperand_limit = 3
#else
     narrow_oop_operand = 3,     // embedded 32-bit immediate narrow oop
    _WhichOperand_limit = 4
#endif
  };



  // NOTE: The general philopsophy of the declarations here is that 64bit versions
  // of instructions are freely declared without the need for wrapping them an ifdef.
  // (Some dangerous instructions are ifdef's out of inappropriate jvm's.)
  // In the .cpp file the implementations are wrapped so that they are dropped out
  // of the resulting jvm. This is done mostly to keep the footprint of KERNEL
  // to the size it was prior to merging up the 32bit and 64bit assemblers.
  //
  // This does mean you'll get a linker/runtime error if you use a 64bit only instruction
  // in a 32bit vm. This is somewhat unfortunate but keeps the ifdef noise down.

private:


  // 64bit prefixes
  int prefix_and_encode(int reg_enc, bool byteinst = false);
  int prefixq_and_encode(int reg_enc);

  int prefix_and_encode(int dst_enc, int src_enc, bool byteinst = false);
  int prefixq_and_encode(int dst_enc, int src_enc);

  void prefix(Register reg);
  void prefix(Address adr);
  void prefixq(Address adr);

  void prefix(Address adr, Register reg,  bool byteinst = false);
  void prefixq(Address adr, Register reg);

  void prefix(Address adr, XMMRegister reg);

  void prefetch_prefix(Address src);

  // Helper functions for groups of instructions
  void emit_arith_b(int op1, int op2, Register dst, int imm8);

  void emit_arith(int op1, int op2, Register dst, int32_t imm32);
  // only 32bit??
  void emit_arith(int op1, int op2, Register dst, jobject obj);
  void emit_arith(int op1, int op2, Register dst, Register src);

  void emit_operand(Register reg,
                    Register base, Register index, Address::ScaleFactor scale,
                    int disp,
                    RelocationHolder const& rspec,
                    int rip_relative_correction = 0);

  void emit_operand(Register reg, Address adr, int rip_relative_correction = 0);

  // operands that only take the original 32bit registers
  void emit_operand32(Register reg, Address adr);

  void emit_operand(XMMRegister reg,
                    Register base, Register index, Address::ScaleFactor scale,
                    int disp,
                    RelocationHolder const& rspec);

  void emit_operand(XMMRegister reg, Address adr);

  void emit_operand(MMXRegister reg, Address adr);

  // workaround gcc (3.2.1-7) bug
  void emit_operand(Address adr, MMXRegister reg);


  // Immediate-to-memory forms
  void emit_arith_operand(int op1, Register rm, Address adr, int32_t imm32);

  void emit_farith(int b1, int b2, int i);


 protected:
  #ifdef ASSERT
  void check_relocation(RelocationHolder const& rspec, int format);
  #endif

  inline void emit_long64(jlong x);

  void emit_data(jint data, relocInfo::relocType    rtype, int format);
  void emit_data(jint data, RelocationHolder const& rspec, int format);
  void emit_data64(jlong data, relocInfo::relocType rtype, int format = 0);
  void emit_data64(jlong data, RelocationHolder const& rspec, int format = 0);


  bool reachable(AddressLiteral adr) NOT_LP64({ return true;});

  // These are all easily abused and hence protected

  // 32BIT ONLY SECTION
#ifndef _LP64
  // Make these disappear in 64bit mode since they would never be correct
  void cmp_literal32(Register src1, int32_t imm32, RelocationHolder const& rspec);   // 32BIT ONLY
  void cmp_literal32(Address src1, int32_t imm32, RelocationHolder const& rspec);    // 32BIT ONLY

  void mov_literal32(Register dst, int32_t imm32, RelocationHolder const& rspec);    // 32BIT ONLY
  void mov_literal32(Address dst, int32_t imm32, RelocationHolder const& rspec);     // 32BIT ONLY

  void push_literal32(int32_t imm32, RelocationHolder const& rspec);                 // 32BIT ONLY
#else
  // 64BIT ONLY SECTION
  void mov_literal64(Register dst, intptr_t imm64, RelocationHolder const& rspec);   // 64BIT ONLY

  void cmp_narrow_oop(Register src1, int32_t imm32, RelocationHolder const& rspec);
  void cmp_narrow_oop(Address src1, int32_t imm32, RelocationHolder const& rspec);

  void mov_narrow_oop(Register dst, int32_t imm32, RelocationHolder const& rspec);
  void mov_narrow_oop(Address dst, int32_t imm32, RelocationHolder const& rspec);
#endif // _LP64

  // These are unique in that we are ensured by the caller that the 32bit
  // relative in these instructions will always be able to reach the potentially
  // 64bit address described by entry. Since they can take a 64bit address they
  // don't have the 32 suffix like the other instructions in this class.

  void call_literal(address entry, RelocationHolder const& rspec);
  void jmp_literal(address entry, RelocationHolder const& rspec);

  // Avoid using directly section
  // Instructions in this section are actually usable by anyone without danger
  // of failure but have performance issues that are addressed my enhanced
  // instructions which will do the proper thing base on the particular cpu.
  // We protect them because we don't trust you...

  // Don't use next inc() and dec() methods directly. INC & DEC instructions
  // could cause a partial flag stall since they don't set CF flag.
  // Use MacroAssembler::decrement() & MacroAssembler::increment() methods
  // which call inc() & dec() or add() & sub() in accordance with
  // the product flag UseIncDec value.

  void decl(Register dst);
  void decl(Address dst);
  void decq(Register dst);
  void decq(Address dst);

  void incl(Register dst);
  void incl(Address dst);
  void incq(Register dst);
  void incq(Address dst);

  // New cpus require use of movsd and movss to avoid partial register stall
  // when loading from memory. But for old Opteron use movlpd instead of movsd.
  // The selection is done in MacroAssembler::movdbl() and movflt().

  // Move Scalar Single-Precision Floating-Point Values
  void movss(XMMRegister dst, Address src);
  void movss(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src);
  void movss(Address dst, XMMRegister src);

  // Move Scalar Double-Precision Floating-Point Values
  void movsd(XMMRegister dst, Address src);
  void movsd(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src);
  void movsd(Address dst, XMMRegister src);
  void movlpd(XMMRegister dst, Address src);

  // New cpus require use of movaps and movapd to avoid partial register stall
  // when moving between registers.
  void movaps(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src);
  void movapd(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src);

  // End avoid using directly


  // Instruction prefixes
  void prefix(Prefix p);

  public:

  // Creation
  Assembler(CodeBuffer* code) : AbstractAssembler(code) {}

  // Decoding
  static address locate_operand(address inst, WhichOperand which);
  static address locate_next_instruction(address inst);

  // Utilities

#ifdef _LP64
 static bool is_simm(int64_t x, int nbits) { return -(CONST64(1) << (nbits-1)) <= x &&
                                                    x < (CONST64(1) << (nbits-1)); }
 static bool is_simm32(int64_t x) { return x == (int64_t)(int32_t)x; }
#else
 static bool is_simm(int32_t x, int nbits) { return -(1 << (nbits-1)) <= x &&
                                                    x < (1 << (nbits-1)); }
 static bool is_simm32(int32_t x) { return true; }
#endif // _LP64

  // Generic instructions
  // Does 32bit or 64bit as needed for the platform. In some sense these
  // belong in macro assembler but there is no need for both varieties to exist

  void lea(Register dst, Address src);

  void mov(Register dst, Register src);

  void pusha();
  void popa();

  void pushf();
  void popf();

  void push(int32_t imm32);

  void push(Register src);

  void pop(Register dst);

  // These are dummies to prevent surprise implicit conversions to Register
  void push(void* v);
  void pop(void* v);

  // These do register sized moves/scans
  void rep_mov();
  void rep_set();
  void repne_scan();
#ifdef _LP64
  void repne_scanl();
#endif

  // Vanilla instructions in lexical order

  void adcl(Address dst, int32_t imm32);
  void adcl(Address dst, Register src);
  void adcl(Register dst, int32_t imm32);
  void adcl(Register dst, Address src);
  void adcl(Register dst, Register src);

  void adcq(Register dst, int32_t imm32);
  void adcq(Register dst, Address src);
  void adcq(Register dst, Register src);

  void addl(Address dst, int32_t imm32);
  void addl(Address dst, Register src);
  void addl(Register dst, int32_t imm32);
  void addl(Register dst, Address src);
  void addl(Register dst, Register src);

  void addq(Address dst, int32_t imm32);
  void addq(Address dst, Register src);
  void addq(Register dst, int32_t imm32);
  void addq(Register dst, Address src);
  void addq(Register dst, Register src);

  void addr_nop_4();
  void addr_nop_5();
  void addr_nop_7();
  void addr_nop_8();

  // Add Scalar Double-Precision Floating-Point Values
  void addsd(XMMRegister dst, Address src);
  void addsd(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src);

  // Add Scalar Single-Precision Floating-Point Values
  void addss(XMMRegister dst, Address src);
  void addss(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src);

  void andl(Register dst, int32_t imm32);
  void andl(Register dst, Address src);
  void andl(Register dst, Register src);

  void andq(Register dst, int32_t imm32);
  void andq(Register dst, Address src);
  void andq(Register dst, Register src);

  // Bitwise Logical AND of Packed Double-Precision Floating-Point Values
  void andpd(XMMRegister dst, Address src);
  void andpd(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src);

  void bsfl(Register dst, Register src);
  void bsrl(Register dst, Register src);

#ifdef _LP64
  void bsfq(Register dst, Register src);
  void bsrq(Register dst, Register src);
#endif

  void bswapl(Register reg);

  void bswapq(Register reg);

  void call(Label& L, relocInfo::relocType rtype);
  void call(Register reg);  // push pc; pc <- reg
  void call(Address adr);   // push pc; pc <- adr

  void cdql();

  void cdqq();

  void cld() { emit_byte(0xfc); }

  void clflush(Address adr);

  void cmovl(Condition cc, Register dst, Register src);
  void cmovl(Condition cc, Register dst, Address src);

  void cmovq(Condition cc, Register dst, Register src);
  void cmovq(Condition cc, Register dst, Address src);


  void cmpb(Address dst, int imm8);

  void cmpl(Address dst, int32_t imm32);

  void cmpl(Register dst, int32_t imm32);
  void cmpl(Register dst, Register src);
  void cmpl(Register dst, Address src);

  void cmpq(Address dst, int32_t imm32);
  void cmpq(Address dst, Register src);

  void cmpq(Register dst, int32_t imm32);
  void cmpq(Register dst, Register src);
  void cmpq(Register dst, Address src);

  // these are dummies used to catch attempting to convert NULL to Register
  void cmpl(Register dst, void* junk); // dummy
  void cmpq(Register dst, void* junk); // dummy

  void cmpw(Address dst, int imm16);

  void cmpxchg8 (Address adr);

  void cmpxchgl(Register reg, Address adr);

  void cmpxchgq(Register reg, Address adr);

  // Ordered Compare Scalar Double-Precision Floating-Point Values and set EFLAGS
  void comisd(XMMRegister dst, Address src);

  // Ordered Compare Scalar Single-Precision Floating-Point Values and set EFLAGS
  void comiss(XMMRegister dst, Address src);

  // Identify processor type and features
  void cpuid() {
    emit_byte(0x0F);
    emit_byte(0xA2);
  }

  // Convert Scalar Double-Precision Floating-Point Value to Scalar Single-Precision Floating-Point Value
  void cvtsd2ss(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src);

  // Convert Doubleword Integer to Scalar Double-Precision Floating-Point Value
  void cvtsi2sdl(XMMRegister dst, Register src);
  void cvtsi2sdq(XMMRegister dst, Register src);

  // Convert Doubleword Integer to Scalar Single-Precision Floating-Point Value
  void cvtsi2ssl(XMMRegister dst, Register src);
  void cvtsi2ssq(XMMRegister dst, Register src);

  // Convert Packed Signed Doubleword Integers to Packed Double-Precision Floating-Point Value
  void cvtdq2pd(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src);

  // Convert Packed Signed Doubleword Integers to Packed Single-Precision Floating-Point Value
  void cvtdq2ps(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src);

  // Convert Scalar Single-Precision Floating-Point Value to Scalar Double-Precision Floating-Point Value
  void cvtss2sd(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src);

  // Convert with Truncation Scalar Double-Precision Floating-Point Value to Doubleword Integer
  void cvttsd2sil(Register dst, Address src);
  void cvttsd2sil(Register dst, XMMRegister src);
  void cvttsd2siq(Register dst, XMMRegister src);

  // Convert with Truncation Scalar Single-Precision Floating-Point Value to Doubleword Integer
  void cvttss2sil(Register dst, XMMRegister src);
  void cvttss2siq(Register dst, XMMRegister src);

  // Divide Scalar Double-Precision Floating-Point Values
  void divsd(XMMRegister dst, Address src);
  void divsd(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src);

  // Divide Scalar Single-Precision Floating-Point Values
  void divss(XMMRegister dst, Address src);
  void divss(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src);

  void emms();

  void fabs();

  void fadd(int i);

  void fadd_d(Address src);
  void fadd_s(Address src);

  // "Alternate" versions of x87 instructions place result down in FPU
  // stack instead of on TOS

  void fadda(int i); // "alternate" fadd
  void faddp(int i = 1);

  void fchs();

  void fcom(int i);

  void fcomp(int i = 1);
  void fcomp_d(Address src);
  void fcomp_s(Address src);

  void fcompp();

  void fcos();

  void fdecstp();

  void fdiv(int i);
  void fdiv_d(Address src);
  void fdivr_s(Address src);
  void fdiva(int i);  // "alternate" fdiv
  void fdivp(int i = 1);

  void fdivr(int i);
  void fdivr_d(Address src);
  void fdiv_s(Address src);

  void fdivra(int i); // "alternate" reversed fdiv

  void fdivrp(int i = 1);

  void ffree(int i = 0);

  void fild_d(Address adr);
  void fild_s(Address adr);

  void fincstp();

  void finit();

  void fist_s (Address adr);
  void fistp_d(Address adr);
  void fistp_s(Address adr);

  void fld1();

  void fld_d(Address adr);
  void fld_s(Address adr);
  void fld_s(int index);
  void fld_x(Address adr);  // extended-precision (80-bit) format

  void fldcw(Address src);

  void fldenv(Address src);

  void fldlg2();

  void fldln2();

  void fldz();

  void flog();
  void flog10();

  void fmul(int i);

  void fmul_d(Address src);
  void fmul_s(Address src);

  void fmula(int i);  // "alternate" fmul

  void fmulp(int i = 1);

  void fnsave(Address dst);

  void fnstcw(Address src);

  void fnstsw_ax();

  void fprem();
  void fprem1();

  void frstor(Address src);

  void fsin();

  void fsqrt();

  void fst_d(Address adr);
  void fst_s(Address adr);

  void fstp_d(Address adr);
  void fstp_d(int index);
  void fstp_s(Address adr);
  void fstp_x(Address adr); // extended-precision (80-bit) format

  void fsub(int i);
  void fsub_d(Address src);
  void fsub_s(Address src);

  void fsuba(int i);  // "alternate" fsub

  void fsubp(int i = 1);

  void fsubr(int i);
  void fsubr_d(Address src);
  void fsubr_s(Address src);

  void fsubra(int i); // "alternate" reversed fsub

  void fsubrp(int i = 1);

  void ftan();

  void ftst();

  void fucomi(int i = 1);
  void fucomip(int i = 1);

  void fwait();

  void fxch(int i = 1);

  void fxrstor(Address src);

  void fxsave(Address dst);

  void fyl2x();

  void hlt();

  void idivl(Register src);
  void divl(Register src); // Unsigned division

  void idivq(Register src);

  void imull(Register dst, Register src);
  void imull(Register dst, Register src, int value);

  void imulq(Register dst, Register src);
  void imulq(Register dst, Register src, int value);


  // jcc is the generic conditional branch generator to run-
  // time routines, jcc is used for branches to labels. jcc
  // takes a branch opcode (cc) and a label (L) and generates
  // either a backward branch or a forward branch and links it
  // to the label fixup chain. Usage:
  //
  // Label L;      // unbound label
  // jcc(cc, L);   // forward branch to unbound label
  // bind(L);      // bind label to the current pc
  // jcc(cc, L);   // backward branch to bound label
  // bind(L);      // illegal: a label may be bound only once
  //
  // Note: The same Label can be used for forward and backward branches
  // but it may be bound only once.

  void jcc(Condition cc, Label& L,
           relocInfo::relocType rtype = relocInfo::none);

  // Conditional jump to a 8-bit offset to L.
  // WARNING: be very careful using this for forward jumps.  If the label is
  // not bound within an 8-bit offset of this instruction, a run-time error
  // will occur.
  void jccb(Condition cc, Label& L);

  void jmp(Address entry);    // pc <- entry

  // Label operations & relative jumps (PPUM Appendix D)
  void jmp(Label& L, relocInfo::relocType rtype = relocInfo::none);   // unconditional jump to L

  void jmp(Register entry); // pc <- entry

  // Unconditional 8-bit offset jump to L.
  // WARNING: be very careful using this for forward jumps.  If the label is
  // not bound within an 8-bit offset of this instruction, a run-time error
  // will occur.
  void jmpb(Label& L);

  void ldmxcsr( Address src );

  void leal(Register dst, Address src);

  void leaq(Register dst, Address src);

  void lfence() {
    emit_byte(0x0F);
    emit_byte(0xAE);
    emit_byte(0xE8);
  }

  void lock();

  void lzcntl(Register dst, Register src);

#ifdef _LP64
  void lzcntq(Register dst, Register src);
#endif

  enum Membar_mask_bits {
    StoreStore = 1 << 3,
    LoadStore  = 1 << 2,
    StoreLoad  = 1 << 1,
    LoadLoad   = 1 << 0
  };

  // Serializes memory and blows flags
  void membar(Membar_mask_bits order_constraint) {
    if (os::is_MP()) {
      // We only have to handle StoreLoad
      if (order_constraint & StoreLoad) {
        // All usable chips support "locked" instructions which suffice
        // as barriers, and are much faster than the alternative of
        // using cpuid instruction. We use here a locked add [esp],0.
        // This is conveniently otherwise a no-op except for blowing
        // flags.
        // Any change to this code may need to revisit other places in
        // the code where this idiom is used, in particular the
        // orderAccess code.
        lock();
        addl(Address(rsp, 0), 0);// Assert the lock# signal here
      }
    }
  }

  void mfence();

  // Moves

  void mov64(Register dst, int64_t imm64);

  void movb(Address dst, Register src);
  void movb(Address dst, int imm8);
  void movb(Register dst, Address src);

  void movdl(XMMRegister dst, Register src);
  void movdl(Register dst, XMMRegister src);
  void movdl(XMMRegister dst, Address src);

  // Move Double Quadword
  void movdq(XMMRegister dst, Register src);
  void movdq(Register dst, XMMRegister src);

  // Move Aligned Double Quadword
  void movdqa(Address     dst, XMMRegister src);
  void movdqa(XMMRegister dst, Address src);
  void movdqa(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src);

  // Move Unaligned Double Quadword
  void movdqu(Address     dst, XMMRegister src);
  void movdqu(XMMRegister dst, Address src);
  void movdqu(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src);

  void movl(Register dst, int32_t imm32);
  void movl(Address dst, int32_t imm32);
  void movl(Register dst, Register src);
  void movl(Register dst, Address src);
  void movl(Address dst, Register src);

  // These dummies prevent using movl from converting a zero (like NULL) into Register
  // by giving the compiler two choices it can't resolve

  void movl(Address  dst, void* junk);
  void movl(Register dst, void* junk);

#ifdef _LP64
  void movq(Register dst, Register src);
  void movq(Register dst, Address src);
  void movq(Address  dst, Register src);
#endif

  void movq(Address     dst, MMXRegister src );
  void movq(MMXRegister dst, Address src );

#ifdef _LP64
  // These dummies prevent using movq from converting a zero (like NULL) into Register
  // by giving the compiler two choices it can't resolve

  void movq(Address  dst, void* dummy);
  void movq(Register dst, void* dummy);
#endif

  // Move Quadword
  void movq(Address     dst, XMMRegister src);
  void movq(XMMRegister dst, Address src);

  void movsbl(Register dst, Address src);
  void movsbl(Register dst, Register src);

#ifdef _LP64
  void movsbq(Register dst, Address src);
  void movsbq(Register dst, Register src);

  // Move signed 32bit immediate to 64bit extending sign
  void movslq(Address  dst, int32_t imm64);
  void movslq(Register dst, int32_t imm64);

  void movslq(Register dst, Address src);
  void movslq(Register dst, Register src);
  void movslq(Register dst, void* src); // Dummy declaration to cause NULL to be ambiguous
#endif

  void movswl(Register dst, Address src);
  void movswl(Register dst, Register src);

#ifdef _LP64
  void movswq(Register dst, Address src);
  void movswq(Register dst, Register src);
#endif

  void movw(Address dst, int imm16);
  void movw(Register dst, Address src);
  void movw(Address dst, Register src);

  void movzbl(Register dst, Address src);
  void movzbl(Register dst, Register src);

#ifdef _LP64
  void movzbq(Register dst, Address src);
  void movzbq(Register dst, Register src);
#endif

  void movzwl(Register dst, Address src);
  void movzwl(Register dst, Register src);

#ifdef _LP64
  void movzwq(Register dst, Address src);
  void movzwq(Register dst, Register src);
#endif

  void mull(Address src);
  void mull(Register src);

  // Multiply Scalar Double-Precision Floating-Point Values
  void mulsd(XMMRegister dst, Address src);
  void mulsd(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src);

  // Multiply Scalar Single-Precision Floating-Point Values
  void mulss(XMMRegister dst, Address src);
  void mulss(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src);

  void negl(Register dst);

#ifdef _LP64
  void negq(Register dst);
#endif

  void nop(int i = 1);

  void notl(Register dst);

#ifdef _LP64
  void notq(Register dst);
#endif

  void orl(Address dst, int32_t imm32);
  void orl(Register dst, int32_t imm32);
  void orl(Register dst, Address src);
  void orl(Register dst, Register src);

  void orq(Address dst, int32_t imm32);
  void orq(Register dst, int32_t imm32);
  void orq(Register dst, Address src);
  void orq(Register dst, Register src);

  // SSE4.2 string instructions
  void pcmpestri(XMMRegister xmm1, XMMRegister xmm2, int imm8);
  void pcmpestri(XMMRegister xmm1, Address src, int imm8);

#ifndef _LP64 // no 32bit push/pop on amd64
  void popl(Address dst);
#endif

#ifdef _LP64
  void popq(Address dst);
#endif

  void popcntl(Register dst, Address src);
  void popcntl(Register dst, Register src);

#ifdef _LP64
  void popcntq(Register dst, Address src);
  void popcntq(Register dst, Register src);
#endif

  // Prefetches (SSE, SSE2, 3DNOW only)

  void prefetchnta(Address src);
  void prefetchr(Address src);
  void prefetcht0(Address src);
  void prefetcht1(Address src);
  void prefetcht2(Address src);
  void prefetchw(Address src);

  // POR - Bitwise logical OR
  void por(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src);

  // Shuffle Packed Doublewords
  void pshufd(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src, int mode);
  void pshufd(XMMRegister dst, Address src,     int mode);

  // Shuffle Packed Low Words
  void pshuflw(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src, int mode);
  void pshuflw(XMMRegister dst, Address src,     int mode);

  // Shift Right by bits Logical Quadword Immediate
  void psrlq(XMMRegister dst, int shift);

  // Shift Right by bytes Logical DoubleQuadword Immediate
  void psrldq(XMMRegister dst, int shift);

  // Logical Compare Double Quadword
  void ptest(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src);
  void ptest(XMMRegister dst, Address src);

  // Interleave Low Bytes
  void punpcklbw(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src);

#ifndef _LP64 // no 32bit push/pop on amd64
  void pushl(Address src);
#endif

  void pushq(Address src);

  // Xor Packed Byte Integer Values
  void pxor(XMMRegister dst, Address src);
  void pxor(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src);

  void rcll(Register dst, int imm8);

  void rclq(Register dst, int imm8);

  void ret(int imm16);

  void sahf();

  void sarl(Register dst, int imm8);
  void sarl(Register dst);

  void sarq(Register dst, int imm8);
  void sarq(Register dst);

  void sbbl(Address dst, int32_t imm32);
  void sbbl(Register dst, int32_t imm32);
  void sbbl(Register dst, Address src);
  void sbbl(Register dst, Register src);

  void sbbq(Address dst, int32_t imm32);
  void sbbq(Register dst, int32_t imm32);
  void sbbq(Register dst, Address src);
  void sbbq(Register dst, Register src);

  void setb(Condition cc, Register dst);

  void shldl(Register dst, Register src);

  void shll(Register dst, int imm8);
  void shll(Register dst);

  void shlq(Register dst, int imm8);
  void shlq(Register dst);

  void shrdl(Register dst, Register src);

  void shrl(Register dst, int imm8);
  void shrl(Register dst);

  void shrq(Register dst, int imm8);
  void shrq(Register dst);

  void smovl(); // QQQ generic?

  // Compute Square Root of Scalar Double-Precision Floating-Point Value
  void sqrtsd(XMMRegister dst, Address src);
  void sqrtsd(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src);

  // Compute Square Root of Scalar Single-Precision Floating-Point Value
  void sqrtss(XMMRegister dst, Address src);
  void sqrtss(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src);

  void std() { emit_byte(0xfd); }

  void stmxcsr( Address dst );

  void subl(Address dst, int32_t imm32);
  void subl(Address dst, Register src);
  void subl(Register dst, int32_t imm32);
  void subl(Register dst, Address src);
  void subl(Register dst, Register src);

  void subq(Address dst, int32_t imm32);
  void subq(Address dst, Register src);
  void subq(Register dst, int32_t imm32);
  void subq(Register dst, Address src);
  void subq(Register dst, Register src);


  // Subtract Scalar Double-Precision Floating-Point Values
  void subsd(XMMRegister dst, Address src);
  void subsd(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src);

  // Subtract Scalar Single-Precision Floating-Point Values
  void subss(XMMRegister dst, Address src);
  void subss(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src);

  void testb(Register dst, int imm8);

  void testl(Register dst, int32_t imm32);
  void testl(Register dst, Register src);
  void testl(Register dst, Address src);

  void testq(Register dst, int32_t imm32);
  void testq(Register dst, Register src);


  // Unordered Compare Scalar Double-Precision Floating-Point Values and set EFLAGS
  void ucomisd(XMMRegister dst, Address src);
  void ucomisd(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src);

  // Unordered Compare Scalar Single-Precision Floating-Point Values and set EFLAGS
  void ucomiss(XMMRegister dst, Address src);
  void ucomiss(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src);

  void xaddl(Address dst, Register src);

  void xaddq(Address dst, Register src);

  void xchgl(Register reg, Address adr);
  void xchgl(Register dst, Register src);

  void xchgq(Register reg, Address adr);
  void xchgq(Register dst, Register src);

  void xorl(Register dst, int32_t imm32);
  void xorl(Register dst, Address src);
  void xorl(Register dst, Register src);

  void xorq(Register dst, Address src);
  void xorq(Register dst, Register src);

  // Bitwise Logical XOR of Packed Double-Precision Floating-Point Values
  void xorpd(XMMRegister dst, Address src);
  void xorpd(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src);

  // Bitwise Logical XOR of Packed Single-Precision Floating-Point Values
  void xorps(XMMRegister dst, Address src);
  void xorps(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src);

  void set_byte_if_not_zero(Register dst); // sets reg to 1 if not zero, otherwise 0
};


// MacroAssembler extends Assembler by frequently used macros.
//
// Instructions for which a 'better' code sequence exists depending
// on arguments should also go in here.

class MacroAssembler: public Assembler {
  friend class LIR_Assembler;
  friend class Runtime1;      // as_Address()

 protected:

  Address as_Address(AddressLiteral adr);
  Address as_Address(ArrayAddress adr);

  // Support for VM calls
  //
  // This is the base routine called by the different versions of call_VM_leaf. The interpreter
  // may customize this version by overriding it for its purposes (e.g., to save/restore
  // additional registers when doing a VM call).
#ifdef CC_INTERP
  // c++ interpreter never wants to use interp_masm version of call_VM
  #define VIRTUAL
#else
  #define VIRTUAL virtual
#endif

  VIRTUAL void call_VM_leaf_base(
    address entry_point,               // the entry point
    int     number_of_arguments        // the number of arguments to pop after the call
  );

  // This is the base routine called by the different versions of call_VM. The interpreter
  // may customize this version by overriding it for its purposes (e.g., to save/restore
  // additional registers when doing a VM call).
  //
  // If no java_thread register is specified (noreg) than rdi will be used instead. call_VM_base
  // returns the register which contains the thread upon return. If a thread register has been
  // specified, the return value will correspond to that register. If no last_java_sp is specified
  // (noreg) than rsp will be used instead.
  VIRTUAL void call_VM_base(           // returns the register containing the thread upon return
    Register oop_result,               // where an oop-result ends up if any; use noreg otherwise
    Register java_thread,              // the thread if computed before     ; use noreg otherwise
    Register last_java_sp,             // to set up last_Java_frame in stubs; use noreg otherwise
    address  entry_point,              // the entry point
    int      number_of_arguments,      // the number of arguments (w/o thread) to pop after the call
    bool     check_exceptions          // whether to check for pending exceptions after return
  );

  // These routines should emit JVMTI PopFrame and ForceEarlyReturn handling code.
  // The implementation is only non-empty for the InterpreterMacroAssembler,
  // as only the interpreter handles PopFrame and ForceEarlyReturn requests.
  virtual void check_and_handle_popframe(Register java_thread);
  virtual void check_and_handle_earlyret(Register java_thread);

  void call_VM_helper(Register oop_result, address entry_point, int number_of_arguments, bool check_exceptions = true);

  // helpers for FPU flag access
  // tmp is a temporary register, if none is available use noreg
  void save_rax   (Register tmp);
  void restore_rax(Register tmp);

 public:
  MacroAssembler(CodeBuffer* code) : Assembler(code) {}

  // Support for NULL-checks
  //
  // Generates code that causes a NULL OS exception if the content of reg is NULL.
  // If the accessed location is M[reg + offset] and the offset is known, provide the
  // offset. No explicit code generation is needed if the offset is within a certain
  // range (0 <= offset <= page_size).

  void null_check(Register reg, int offset = -1);
  static bool needs_explicit_null_check(intptr_t offset);

  // Required platform-specific helpers for Label::patch_instructions.
  // They _shadow_ the declarations in AbstractAssembler, which are undefined.
  void pd_patch_instruction(address branch, address target);
#ifndef PRODUCT
  static void pd_print_patched_instruction(address branch);
#endif

  // The following 4 methods return the offset of the appropriate move instruction

  // Support for fast byte/short loading with zero extension (depending on particular CPU)
  int load_unsigned_byte(Register dst, Address src);
  int load_unsigned_short(Register dst, Address src);

  // Support for fast byte/short loading with sign extension (depending on particular CPU)
  int load_signed_byte(Register dst, Address src);
  int load_signed_short(Register dst, Address src);

  // Support for sign-extension (hi:lo = extend_sign(lo))
  void extend_sign(Register hi, Register lo);

  // Load and store values by size and signed-ness
  void load_sized_value(Register dst, Address src, size_t size_in_bytes, bool is_signed, Register dst2 = noreg);
  void store_sized_value(Address dst, Register src, size_t size_in_bytes, Register src2 = noreg);

  // Support for inc/dec with optimal instruction selection depending on value

  void increment(Register reg, int value = 1) { LP64_ONLY(incrementq(reg, value)) NOT_LP64(incrementl(reg, value)) ; }
  void decrement(Register reg, int value = 1) { LP64_ONLY(decrementq(reg, value)) NOT_LP64(decrementl(reg, value)) ; }

  void decrementl(Address dst, int value = 1);
  void decrementl(Register reg, int value = 1);

  void decrementq(Register reg, int value = 1);
  void decrementq(Address dst, int value = 1);

  void incrementl(Address dst, int value = 1);
  void incrementl(Register reg, int value = 1);

  void incrementq(Register reg, int value = 1);
  void incrementq(Address dst, int value = 1);


  // Support optimal SSE move instructions.
  void movflt(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src) {
    if (UseXmmRegToRegMoveAll) { movaps(dst, src); return; }
    else                       { movss (dst, src); return; }
  }
  void movflt(XMMRegister dst, Address src) { movss(dst, src); }
  void movflt(XMMRegister dst, AddressLiteral src);
  void movflt(Address dst, XMMRegister src) { movss(dst, src); }

  void movdbl(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src) {
    if (UseXmmRegToRegMoveAll) { movapd(dst, src); return; }
    else                       { movsd (dst, src); return; }
  }

  void movdbl(XMMRegister dst, AddressLiteral src);

  void movdbl(XMMRegister dst, Address src) {
    if (UseXmmLoadAndClearUpper) { movsd (dst, src); return; }
    else                         { movlpd(dst, src); return; }
  }
  void movdbl(Address dst, XMMRegister src) { movsd(dst, src); }

  void incrementl(AddressLiteral dst);
  void incrementl(ArrayAddress dst);

  // Alignment
  void align(int modulus);

  // Misc
  void fat_nop(); // 5 byte nop

  // Stack frame creation/removal
  void enter();
  void leave();

  // Support for getting the JavaThread pointer (i.e.; a reference to thread-local information)
  // The pointer will be loaded into the thread register.
  void get_thread(Register thread);


  // Support for VM calls
  //
  // It is imperative that all calls into the VM are handled via the call_VM macros.
  // They make sure that the stack linkage is setup correctly. call_VM's correspond
  // to ENTRY/ENTRY_X entry points while call_VM_leaf's correspond to LEAF entry points.


  void call_VM(Register oop_result,
               address entry_point,
               bool check_exceptions = true);
  void call_VM(Register oop_result,
               address entry_point,
               Register arg_1,
               bool check_exceptions = true);
  void call_VM(Register oop_result,
               address entry_point,
               Register arg_1, Register arg_2,
               bool check_exceptions = true);
  void call_VM(Register oop_result,
               address entry_point,
               Register arg_1, Register arg_2, Register arg_3,
               bool check_exceptions = true);

  // Overloadings with last_Java_sp
  void call_VM(Register oop_result,
               Register last_java_sp,
               address entry_point,
               int number_of_arguments = 0,
               bool check_exceptions = true);
  void call_VM(Register oop_result,
               Register last_java_sp,
               address entry_point,
               Register arg_1, bool
               check_exceptions = true);
  void call_VM(Register oop_result,
               Register last_java_sp,
               address entry_point,
               Register arg_1, Register arg_2,
               bool check_exceptions = true);
  void call_VM(Register oop_result,
               Register last_java_sp,
               address entry_point,
               Register arg_1, Register arg_2, Register arg_3,
               bool check_exceptions = true);

  void call_VM_leaf(address entry_point,
                    int number_of_arguments = 0);
  void call_VM_leaf(address entry_point,
                    Register arg_1);
  void call_VM_leaf(address entry_point,
                    Register arg_1, Register arg_2);
  void call_VM_leaf(address entry_point,
                    Register arg_1, Register arg_2, Register arg_3);

  // last Java Frame (fills frame anchor)
  void set_last_Java_frame(Register thread,
                           Register last_java_sp,
                           Register last_java_fp,
                           address last_java_pc);

  // thread in the default location (r15_thread on 64bit)
  void set_last_Java_frame(Register last_java_sp,
                           Register last_java_fp,
                           address last_java_pc);

  void reset_last_Java_frame(Register thread, bool clear_fp, bool clear_pc);

  // thread in the default location (r15_thread on 64bit)
  void reset_last_Java_frame(bool clear_fp, bool clear_pc);

  // Stores
  void store_check(Register obj);                // store check for obj - register is destroyed afterwards
  void store_check(Register obj, Address dst);   // same as above, dst is exact store location (reg. is destroyed)

#ifndef SERIALGC

  void g1_write_barrier_pre(Register obj,
                            Register pre_val,
                            Register thread,
                            Register tmp,
                            bool tosca_live,
                            bool expand_call);

  void g1_write_barrier_post(Register store_addr,
                             Register new_val,
                             Register thread,
                             Register tmp,
                             Register tmp2);

#endif // SERIALGC

  // split store_check(Register obj) to enhance instruction interleaving
  void store_check_part_1(Register obj);
  void store_check_part_2(Register obj);

  // C 'boolean' to Java boolean: x == 0 ? 0 : 1
  void c2bool(Register x);

  // C++ bool manipulation

  void movbool(Register dst, Address src);
  void movbool(Address dst, bool boolconst);
  void movbool(Address dst, Register src);
  void testbool(Register dst);

  // oop manipulations
  void load_klass(Register dst, Register src);
  void store_klass(Register dst, Register src);

  void load_heap_oop(Register dst, Address src);
  void store_heap_oop(Address dst, Register src);

  // Used for storing NULL. All other oop constants should be
  // stored using routines that take a jobject.
  void store_heap_oop_null(Address dst);

  void load_prototype_header(Register dst, Register src);

#ifdef _LP64
  void store_klass_gap(Register dst, Register src);

  // This dummy is to prevent a call to store_heap_oop from
  // converting a zero (like NULL) into a Register by giving
  // the compiler two choices it can't resolve

  void store_heap_oop(Address dst, void* dummy);

  void encode_heap_oop(Register r);
  void decode_heap_oop(Register r);
  void encode_heap_oop_not_null(Register r);
  void decode_heap_oop_not_null(Register r);
  void encode_heap_oop_not_null(Register dst, Register src);
  void decode_heap_oop_not_null(Register dst, Register src);

  void set_narrow_oop(Register dst, jobject obj);
  void set_narrow_oop(Address dst, jobject obj);
  void cmp_narrow_oop(Register dst, jobject obj);
  void cmp_narrow_oop(Address dst, jobject obj);

  // if heap base register is used - reinit it with the correct value
  void reinit_heapbase();

  DEBUG_ONLY(void verify_heapbase(const char* msg);)

#endif // _LP64

  // Int division/remainder for Java
  // (as idivl, but checks for special case as described in JVM spec.)
  // returns idivl instruction offset for implicit exception handling
  int corrected_idivl(Register reg);

  // Long division/remainder for Java
  // (as idivq, but checks for special case as described in JVM spec.)
  // returns idivq instruction offset for implicit exception handling
  int corrected_idivq(Register reg);

  void int3();

  // Long operation macros for a 32bit cpu
  // Long negation for Java
  void lneg(Register hi, Register lo);

  // Long multiplication for Java
  // (destroys contents of eax, ebx, ecx and edx)
  void lmul(int x_rsp_offset, int y_rsp_offset); // rdx:rax = x * y

  // Long shifts for Java
  // (semantics as described in JVM spec.)
  void lshl(Register hi, Register lo);                               // hi:lo << (rcx & 0x3f)
  void lshr(Register hi, Register lo, bool sign_extension = false);  // hi:lo >> (rcx & 0x3f)

  // Long compare for Java
  // (semantics as described in JVM spec.)
  void lcmp2int(Register x_hi, Register x_lo, Register y_hi, Register y_lo); // x_hi = lcmp(x, y)


  // misc

  // Sign extension
  void sign_extend_short(Register reg);
  void sign_extend_byte(Register reg);

  // Division by power of 2, rounding towards 0
  void division_with_shift(Register reg, int shift_value);

  // Compares the top-most stack entries on the FPU stack and sets the eflags as follows:
  //
  // CF (corresponds to C0) if x < y
  // PF (corresponds to C2) if unordered
  // ZF (corresponds to C3) if x = y
  //
  // The arguments are in reversed order on the stack (i.e., top of stack is first argument).
  // tmp is a temporary register, if none is available use noreg (only matters for non-P6 code)
  void fcmp(Register tmp);
  // Variant of the above which allows y to be further down the stack
  // and which only pops x and y if specified. If pop_right is
  // specified then pop_left must also be specified.
  void fcmp(Register tmp, int index, bool pop_left, bool pop_right);

  // Floating-point comparison for Java
  // Compares the top-most stack entries on the FPU stack and stores the result in dst.
  // The arguments are in reversed order on the stack (i.e., top of stack is first argument).
  // (semantics as described in JVM spec.)
  void fcmp2int(Register dst, bool unordered_is_less);
  // Variant of the above which allows y to be further down the stack
  // and which only pops x and y if specified. If pop_right is
  // specified then pop_left must also be specified.
  void fcmp2int(Register dst, bool unordered_is_less, int index, bool pop_left, bool pop_right);

  // Floating-point remainder for Java (ST0 = ST0 fremr ST1, ST1 is empty afterwards)
  // tmp is a temporary register, if none is available use noreg
  void fremr(Register tmp);


  // same as fcmp2int, but using SSE2
  void cmpss2int(XMMRegister opr1, XMMRegister opr2, Register dst, bool unordered_is_less);
  void cmpsd2int(XMMRegister opr1, XMMRegister opr2, Register dst, bool unordered_is_less);

  // Inlined sin/cos generator for Java; must not use CPU instruction
  // directly on Intel as it does not have high enough precision
  // outside of the range [-pi/4, pi/4]. Extra argument indicate the
  // number of FPU stack slots in use; all but the topmost will
  // require saving if a slow case is necessary. Assumes argument is
  // on FP TOS; result is on FP TOS.  No cpu registers are changed by
  // this code.
  void trigfunc(char trig, int num_fpu_regs_in_use = 1);

  // branch to L if FPU flag C2 is set/not set
  // tmp is a temporary register, if none is available use noreg
  void jC2 (Register tmp, Label& L);
  void jnC2(Register tmp, Label& L);

  // Pop ST (ffree & fincstp combined)
  void fpop();

  // pushes double TOS element of FPU stack on CPU stack; pops from FPU stack
  void push_fTOS();

  // pops double TOS element from CPU stack and pushes on FPU stack
  void pop_fTOS();

  void empty_FPU_stack();

  void push_IU_state();
  void pop_IU_state();

  void push_FPU_state();
  void pop_FPU_state();

  void push_CPU_state();
  void pop_CPU_state();

  // Round up to a power of two
  void round_to(Register reg, int modulus);

  // Callee saved registers handling
  void push_callee_saved_registers();
  void pop_callee_saved_registers();

  // allocation
  void eden_allocate(
    Register obj,                      // result: pointer to object after successful allocation
    Register var_size_in_bytes,        // object size in bytes if unknown at compile time; invalid otherwise
    int      con_size_in_bytes,        // object size in bytes if   known at compile time
    Register t1,                       // temp register
    Label&   slow_case                 // continuation point if fast allocation fails
  );
  void tlab_allocate(
    Register obj,                      // result: pointer to object after successful allocation
    Register var_size_in_bytes,        // object size in bytes if unknown at compile time; invalid otherwise
    int      con_size_in_bytes,        // object size in bytes if   known at compile time
    Register t1,                       // temp register
    Register t2,                       // temp register
    Label&   slow_case                 // continuation point if fast allocation fails
  );
  Register tlab_refill(Label& retry_tlab, Label& try_eden, Label& slow_case); // returns TLS address
  void incr_allocated_bytes(Register thread,
                            Register var_size_in_bytes, int con_size_in_bytes,
                            Register t1 = noreg);

  // interface method calling
  void lookup_interface_method(Register recv_klass,
                               Register intf_klass,
                               RegisterOrConstant itable_index,
                               Register method_result,
                               Register scan_temp,
                               Label& no_such_interface);

  // Test sub_klass against super_klass, with fast and slow paths.

  // The fast path produces a tri-state answer: yes / no / maybe-slow.
  // One of the three labels can be NULL, meaning take the fall-through.
  // If super_check_offset is -1, the value is loaded up from super_klass.
  // No registers are killed, except temp_reg.
  void check_klass_subtype_fast_path(Register sub_klass,
                                     Register super_klass,
                                     Register temp_reg,
                                     Label* L_success,
                                     Label* L_failure,
                                     Label* L_slow_path,
                RegisterOrConstant super_check_offset = RegisterOrConstant(-1));

  // The rest of the type check; must be wired to a corresponding fast path.
  // It does not repeat the fast path logic, so don't use it standalone.
  // The temp_reg and temp2_reg can be noreg, if no temps are available.
  // Updates the sub's secondary super cache as necessary.
  // If set_cond_codes, condition codes will be Z on success, NZ on failure.
  void check_klass_subtype_slow_path(Register sub_klass,
                                     Register super_klass,
                                     Register temp_reg,
                                     Register temp2_reg,
                                     Label* L_success,
                                     Label* L_failure,
                                     bool set_cond_codes = false);

  // Simplified, combined version, good for typical uses.
  // Falls through on failure.
  void check_klass_subtype(Register sub_klass,
                           Register super_klass,
                           Register temp_reg,
                           Label& L_success);

  // method handles (JSR 292)
  void check_method_handle_type(Register mtype_reg, Register mh_reg,
                                Register temp_reg,
                                Label& wrong_method_type);
  void load_method_handle_vmslots(Register vmslots_reg, Register mh_reg,
                                  Register temp_reg);
  void jump_to_method_handle_entry(Register mh_reg, Register temp_reg);
  Address argument_address(RegisterOrConstant arg_slot, int extra_slot_offset = 0);


  //----
  void set_word_if_not_zero(Register reg); // sets reg to 1 if not zero, otherwise 0

  // Debugging

  // only if +VerifyOops
  void verify_oop(Register reg, const char* s = "broken oop");
  void verify_oop_addr(Address addr, const char * s = "broken oop addr");

  // only if +VerifyFPU
  void verify_FPU(int stack_depth, const char* s = "illegal FPU state");

  // prints msg, dumps registers and stops execution
  void stop(const char* msg);

  // prints msg and continues
  void warn(const char* msg);

  static void debug32(int rdi, int rsi, int rbp, int rsp, int rbx, int rdx, int rcx, int rax, int eip, char* msg);
  static void debug64(char* msg, int64_t pc, int64_t regs[]);

  void os_breakpoint();

  void untested()                                { stop("untested"); }

  void unimplemented(const char* what = "")      { char* b = new char[1024];  jio_snprintf(b, 1024, "unimplemented: %s", what);  stop(b); }

  void should_not_reach_here()                   { stop("should not reach here"); }

  void print_CPU_state();

  // Stack overflow checking
  void bang_stack_with_offset(int offset) {
    // stack grows down, caller passes positive offset
    assert(offset > 0, "must bang with negative offset");
    movl(Address(rsp, (-offset)), rax);
  }

  // Writes to stack successive pages until offset reached to check for
  // stack overflow + shadow pages.  Also, clobbers tmp
  void bang_stack_size(Register size, Register tmp);

  virtual RegisterOrConstant delayed_value_impl(intptr_t* delayed_value_addr,
                                                Register tmp,
                                                int offset);

  // Support for serializing memory accesses between threads
  void serialize_memory(Register thread, Register tmp);

  void verify_tlab();

  // Biased locking support
  // lock_reg and obj_reg must be loaded up with the appropriate values.
  // swap_reg must be rax, and is killed.
  // tmp_reg is optional. If it is supplied (i.e., != noreg) it will
  // be killed; if not supplied, push/pop will be used internally to
  // allocate a temporary (inefficient, avoid if possible).
  // Optional slow case is for implementations (interpreter and C1) which branch to
  // slow case directly. Leaves condition codes set for C2's Fast_Lock node.
  // Returns offset of first potentially-faulting instruction for null
  // check info (currently consumed only by C1). If
  // swap_reg_contains_mark is true then returns -1 as it is assumed
  // the calling code has already passed any potential faults.
  int biased_locking_enter(Register lock_reg, Register obj_reg,
                           Register swap_reg, Register tmp_reg,
                           bool swap_reg_contains_mark,
                           Label& done, Label* slow_case = NULL,
                           BiasedLockingCounters* counters = NULL);
  void biased_locking_exit (Register obj_reg, Register temp_reg, Label& done);


  Condition negate_condition(Condition cond);

  // Instructions that use AddressLiteral operands. These instruction can handle 32bit/64bit
  // operands. In general the names are modified to avoid hiding the instruction in Assembler
  // so that we don't need to implement all the varieties in the Assembler with trivial wrappers
  // here in MacroAssembler. The major exception to this rule is call

  // Arithmetics


  void addptr(Address dst, int32_t src) { LP64_ONLY(addq(dst, src)) NOT_LP64(addl(dst, src)) ; }
  void addptr(Address dst, Register src);

  void addptr(Register dst, Address src) { LP64_ONLY(addq(dst, src)) NOT_LP64(addl(dst, src)); }
  void addptr(Register dst, int32_t src);
  void addptr(Register dst, Register src);

  void andptr(Register dst, int32_t src);
  void andptr(Register src1, Register src2) { LP64_ONLY(andq(src1, src2)) NOT_LP64(andl(src1, src2)) ; }

  void cmp8(AddressLiteral src1, int imm);

  // renamed to drag out the casting of address to int32_t/intptr_t
  void cmp32(Register src1, int32_t imm);

  void cmp32(AddressLiteral src1, int32_t imm);
  // compare reg - mem, or reg - &mem
  void cmp32(Register src1, AddressLiteral src2);

  void cmp32(Register src1, Address src2);

#ifndef _LP64
  void cmpoop(Address dst, jobject obj);
  void cmpoop(Register dst, jobject obj);
#endif // _LP64

  // NOTE src2 must be the lval. This is NOT an mem-mem compare
  void cmpptr(Address src1, AddressLiteral src2);

  void cmpptr(Register src1, AddressLiteral src2);

  void cmpptr(Register src1, Register src2) { LP64_ONLY(cmpq(src1, src2)) NOT_LP64(cmpl(src1, src2)) ; }
  void cmpptr(Register src1, Address src2) { LP64_ONLY(cmpq(src1, src2)) NOT_LP64(cmpl(src1, src2)) ; }
  // void cmpptr(Address src1, Register src2) { LP64_ONLY(cmpq(src1, src2)) NOT_LP64(cmpl(src1, src2)) ; }

  void cmpptr(Register src1, int32_t src2) { LP64_ONLY(cmpq(src1, src2)) NOT_LP64(cmpl(src1, src2)) ; }
  void cmpptr(Address src1, int32_t src2) { LP64_ONLY(cmpq(src1, src2)) NOT_LP64(cmpl(src1, src2)) ; }

  // cmp64 to avoild hiding cmpq
  void cmp64(Register src1, AddressLiteral src);

  void cmpxchgptr(Register reg, Address adr);

  void locked_cmpxchgptr(Register reg, AddressLiteral adr);


  void imulptr(Register dst, Register src) { LP64_ONLY(imulq(dst, src)) NOT_LP64(imull(dst, src)); }


  void negptr(Register dst) { LP64_ONLY(negq(dst)) NOT_LP64(negl(dst)); }

  void notptr(Register dst) { LP64_ONLY(notq(dst)) NOT_LP64(notl(dst)); }

  void shlptr(Register dst, int32_t shift);
  void shlptr(Register dst) { LP64_ONLY(shlq(dst)) NOT_LP64(shll(dst)); }

  void shrptr(Register dst, int32_t shift);
  void shrptr(Register dst) { LP64_ONLY(shrq(dst)) NOT_LP64(shrl(dst)); }

  void sarptr(Register dst) { LP64_ONLY(sarq(dst)) NOT_LP64(sarl(dst)); }
  void sarptr(Register dst, int32_t src) { LP64_ONLY(sarq(dst, src)) NOT_LP64(sarl(dst, src)); }

  void subptr(Address dst, int32_t src) { LP64_ONLY(subq(dst, src)) NOT_LP64(subl(dst, src)); }

  void subptr(Register dst, Address src) { LP64_ONLY(subq(dst, src)) NOT_LP64(subl(dst, src)); }
  void subptr(Register dst, int32_t src);
  void subptr(Register dst, Register src);


  void sbbptr(Address dst, int32_t src) { LP64_ONLY(sbbq(dst, src)) NOT_LP64(sbbl(dst, src)); }
  void sbbptr(Register dst, int32_t src) { LP64_ONLY(sbbq(dst, src)) NOT_LP64(sbbl(dst, src)); }

  void xchgptr(Register src1, Register src2) { LP64_ONLY(xchgq(src1, src2)) NOT_LP64(xchgl(src1, src2)) ; }
  void xchgptr(Register src1, Address src2) { LP64_ONLY(xchgq(src1, src2)) NOT_LP64(xchgl(src1, src2)) ; }

  void xaddptr(Address src1, Register src2) { LP64_ONLY(xaddq(src1, src2)) NOT_LP64(xaddl(src1, src2)) ; }



  // Helper functions for statistics gathering.
  // Conditionally (atomically, on MPs) increments passed counter address, preserving condition codes.
  void cond_inc32(Condition cond, AddressLiteral counter_addr);
  // Unconditional atomic increment.
  void atomic_incl(AddressLiteral counter_addr);

  void lea(Register dst, AddressLiteral adr);
  void lea(Address dst, AddressLiteral adr);
  void lea(Register dst, Address adr) { Assembler::lea(dst, adr); }

  void leal32(Register dst, Address src) { leal(dst, src); }

  void test32(Register src1, AddressLiteral src2);

  void orptr(Register dst, Address src) { LP64_ONLY(orq(dst, src)) NOT_LP64(orl(dst, src)); }
  void orptr(Register dst, Register src) { LP64_ONLY(orq(dst, src)) NOT_LP64(orl(dst, src)); }
  void orptr(Register dst, int32_t src) { LP64_ONLY(orq(dst, src)) NOT_LP64(orl(dst, src)); }

  void testptr(Register src, int32_t imm32) {  LP64_ONLY(testq(src, imm32)) NOT_LP64(testl(src, imm32)); }
  void testptr(Register src1, Register src2);

  void xorptr(Register dst, Register src) { LP64_ONLY(xorq(dst, src)) NOT_LP64(xorl(dst, src)); }
  void xorptr(Register dst, Address src) { LP64_ONLY(xorq(dst, src)) NOT_LP64(xorl(dst, src)); }

  // Calls

  void call(Label& L, relocInfo::relocType rtype);
  void call(Register entry);

  // NOTE: this call tranfers to the effective address of entry NOT
  // the address contained by entry. This is because this is more natural
  // for jumps/calls.
  void call(AddressLiteral entry);

  // Jumps

  // NOTE: these jumps tranfer to the effective address of dst NOT
  // the address contained by dst. This is because this is more natural
  // for jumps/calls.
  void jump(AddressLiteral dst);
  void jump_cc(Condition cc, AddressLiteral dst);

  // 32bit can do a case table jump in one instruction but we no longer allow the base
  // to be installed in the Address class. This jump will tranfers to the address
  // contained in the location described by entry (not the address of entry)
  void jump(ArrayAddress entry);

  // Floating

  void andpd(XMMRegister dst, Address src) { Assembler::andpd(dst, src); }
  void andpd(XMMRegister dst, AddressLiteral src);

  void comiss(XMMRegister dst, Address src) { Assembler::comiss(dst, src); }
  void comiss(XMMRegister dst, AddressLiteral src);

  void comisd(XMMRegister dst, Address src) { Assembler::comisd(dst, src); }
  void comisd(XMMRegister dst, AddressLiteral src);

  void fadd_s(Address src)        { Assembler::fadd_s(src); }
  void fadd_s(AddressLiteral src) { Assembler::fadd_s(as_Address(src)); }

  void fldcw(Address src) { Assembler::fldcw(src); }
  void fldcw(AddressLiteral src);

  void fld_s(int index)   { Assembler::fld_s(index); }
  void fld_s(Address src) { Assembler::fld_s(src); }
  void fld_s(AddressLiteral src);

  void fld_d(Address src) { Assembler::fld_d(src); }
  void fld_d(AddressLiteral src);

  void fld_x(Address src) { Assembler::fld_x(src); }
  void fld_x(AddressLiteral src);

  void fmul_s(Address src)        { Assembler::fmul_s(src); }
  void fmul_s(AddressLiteral src) { Assembler::fmul_s(as_Address(src)); }

  void ldmxcsr(Address src) { Assembler::ldmxcsr(src); }
  void ldmxcsr(AddressLiteral src);

private:
  // these are private because users should be doing movflt/movdbl

  void movss(Address dst, XMMRegister src)     { Assembler::movss(dst, src); }
  void movss(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src) { Assembler::movss(dst, src); }
  void movss(XMMRegister dst, Address src)     { Assembler::movss(dst, src); }
  void movss(XMMRegister dst, AddressLiteral src);

  void movlpd(XMMRegister dst, Address src)      {Assembler::movlpd(dst, src); }
  void movlpd(XMMRegister dst, AddressLiteral src);

public:

  void addsd(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src)    { Assembler::addsd(dst, src); }
  void addsd(XMMRegister dst, Address src)        { Assembler::addsd(dst, src); }
  void addsd(XMMRegister dst, AddressLiteral src) { Assembler::addsd(dst, as_Address(src)); }

  void addss(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src)    { Assembler::addss(dst, src); }
  void addss(XMMRegister dst, Address src)        { Assembler::addss(dst, src); }
  void addss(XMMRegister dst, AddressLiteral src) { Assembler::addss(dst, as_Address(src)); }

  void divsd(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src)    { Assembler::divsd(dst, src); }
  void divsd(XMMRegister dst, Address src)        { Assembler::divsd(dst, src); }
  void divsd(XMMRegister dst, AddressLiteral src) { Assembler::divsd(dst, as_Address(src)); }

  void divss(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src)    { Assembler::divss(dst, src); }
  void divss(XMMRegister dst, Address src)        { Assembler::divss(dst, src); }
  void divss(XMMRegister dst, AddressLiteral src) { Assembler::divss(dst, as_Address(src)); }

  void movsd(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src) { Assembler::movsd(dst, src); }
  void movsd(Address dst, XMMRegister src)     { Assembler::movsd(dst, src); }
  void movsd(XMMRegister dst, Address src)     { Assembler::movsd(dst, src); }
  void movsd(XMMRegister dst, AddressLiteral src) { Assembler::movsd(dst, as_Address(src)); }

  void mulsd(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src)    { Assembler::mulsd(dst, src); }
  void mulsd(XMMRegister dst, Address src)        { Assembler::mulsd(dst, src); }
  void mulsd(XMMRegister dst, AddressLiteral src) { Assembler::mulsd(dst, as_Address(src)); }

  void mulss(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src)    { Assembler::mulss(dst, src); }
  void mulss(XMMRegister dst, Address src)        { Assembler::mulss(dst, src); }
  void mulss(XMMRegister dst, AddressLiteral src) { Assembler::mulss(dst, as_Address(src)); }

  void sqrtsd(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src)    { Assembler::sqrtsd(dst, src); }
  void sqrtsd(XMMRegister dst, Address src)        { Assembler::sqrtsd(dst, src); }
  void sqrtsd(XMMRegister dst, AddressLiteral src) { Assembler::sqrtsd(dst, as_Address(src)); }

  void sqrtss(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src)    { Assembler::sqrtss(dst, src); }
  void sqrtss(XMMRegister dst, Address src)        { Assembler::sqrtss(dst, src); }
  void sqrtss(XMMRegister dst, AddressLiteral src) { Assembler::sqrtss(dst, as_Address(src)); }

  void subsd(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src)    { Assembler::subsd(dst, src); }
  void subsd(XMMRegister dst, Address src)        { Assembler::subsd(dst, src); }
  void subsd(XMMRegister dst, AddressLiteral src) { Assembler::subsd(dst, as_Address(src)); }

  void subss(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src)    { Assembler::subss(dst, src); }
  void subss(XMMRegister dst, Address src)        { Assembler::subss(dst, src); }
  void subss(XMMRegister dst, AddressLiteral src) { Assembler::subss(dst, as_Address(src)); }

  void ucomiss(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src) { Assembler::ucomiss(dst, src); }
  void ucomiss(XMMRegister dst, Address src) { Assembler::ucomiss(dst, src); }
  void ucomiss(XMMRegister dst, AddressLiteral src);

  void ucomisd(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src) { Assembler::ucomisd(dst, src); }
  void ucomisd(XMMRegister dst, Address src) { Assembler::ucomisd(dst, src); }
  void ucomisd(XMMRegister dst, AddressLiteral src);

  // Bitwise Logical XOR of Packed Double-Precision Floating-Point Values
  void xorpd(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src) { Assembler::xorpd(dst, src); }
  void xorpd(XMMRegister dst, Address src)     { Assembler::xorpd(dst, src); }
  void xorpd(XMMRegister dst, AddressLiteral src);

  // Bitwise Logical XOR of Packed Single-Precision Floating-Point Values
  void xorps(XMMRegister dst, XMMRegister src) { Assembler::xorps(dst, src); }
  void xorps(XMMRegister dst, Address src)     { Assembler::xorps(dst, src); }
  void xorps(XMMRegister dst, AddressLiteral src);

  // Data

  void cmov(Condition cc, Register dst, Register src) { LP64_ONLY(cmovq(cc, dst, src)) NOT_LP64(cmovl(cc, dst, src)); }

  void cmovptr(Condition cc, Register dst, Address src) { LP64_ONLY(cmovq(cc, dst, src)) NOT_LP64(cmovl(cc, dst, src)); }
  void cmovptr(Condition cc, Register dst, Register src) { LP64_ONLY(cmovq(cc, dst, src)) NOT_LP64(cmovl(cc, dst, src)); }

  void movoop(Register dst, jobject obj);
  void movoop(Address dst, jobject obj);

  void movptr(ArrayAddress dst, Register src);
  // can this do an lea?
  void movptr(Register dst, ArrayAddress src);

  void movptr(Register dst, Address src);

  void movptr(Register dst, AddressLiteral src);

  void movptr(Register dst, intptr_t src);
  void movptr(Register dst, Register src);
  void movptr(Address dst, intptr_t src);

  void movptr(Address dst, Register src);

#ifdef _LP64
  // Generally the next two are only used for moving NULL
  // Although there are situations in initializing the mark word where
  // they could be used. They are dangerous.

  // They only exist on LP64 so that int32_t and intptr_t are not the same
  // and we have ambiguous declarations.

  void movptr(Address dst, int32_t imm32);
  void movptr(Register dst, int32_t imm32);
#endif // _LP64

  // to avoid hiding movl
  void mov32(AddressLiteral dst, Register src);
  void mov32(Register dst, AddressLiteral src);

  // to avoid hiding movb
  void movbyte(ArrayAddress dst, int src);

  // Can push value or effective address
  void pushptr(AddressLiteral src);

  void pushptr(Address src) { LP64_ONLY(pushq(src)) NOT_LP64(pushl(src)); }
  void popptr(Address src) { LP64_ONLY(popq(src)) NOT_LP64(popl(src)); }

  void pushoop(jobject obj);

  // sign extend as need a l to ptr sized element
  void movl2ptr(Register dst, Address src) { LP64_ONLY(movslq(dst, src)) NOT_LP64(movl(dst, src)); }
  void movl2ptr(Register dst, Register src) { LP64_ONLY(movslq(dst, src)) NOT_LP64(if (dst != src) movl(dst, src)); }

  // IndexOf strings.
  // Small strings are loaded through stack if they cross page boundary.
  void string_indexof(Register str1, Register str2,
                      Register cnt1, Register cnt2,
                      int int_cnt2,  Register result,
                      XMMRegister vec, Register tmp);

  // IndexOf for constant substrings with size >= 8 elements
  // which don't need to be loaded through stack.
  void string_indexofC8(Register str1, Register str2,
                      Register cnt1, Register cnt2,
                      int int_cnt2,  Register result,
                      XMMRegister vec, Register tmp);

    // Smallest code: we don't need to load through stack,
    // check string tail.

  // Compare strings.
  void string_compare(Register str1, Register str2,
                      Register cnt1, Register cnt2, Register result,
                      XMMRegister vec1);

  // Compare char[] arrays.
  void char_arrays_equals(bool is_array_equ, Register ary1, Register ary2,
                          Register limit, Register result, Register chr,
                          XMMRegister vec1, XMMRegister vec2);

  // Fill primitive arrays
  void generate_fill(BasicType t, bool aligned,
                     Register to, Register value, Register count,
                     Register rtmp, XMMRegister xtmp);

#undef VIRTUAL

};

/**
 * class SkipIfEqual:
 *
 * Instantiating this class will result in assembly code being output that will
 * jump around any code emitted between the creation of the instance and it's
 * automatic destruction at the end of a scope block, depending on the value of
 * the flag passed to the constructor, which will be checked at run-time.
 */
class SkipIfEqual {
 private:
  MacroAssembler* _masm;
  Label _label;

 public:
   SkipIfEqual(MacroAssembler*, const bool* flag_addr, bool value);
   ~SkipIfEqual();
};

#ifdef ASSERT
inline bool AbstractAssembler::pd_check_instruction_mark() { return true; }
#endif

#endif // CPU_X86_VM_ASSEMBLER_X86_HPP