view src/cpu/sparc/vm/assembler_sparc.hpp @ 5820:87ee5ee27509

Added tag jdk8-b132 for changeset 0c94c41dcd70
author katleman
date Tue, 04 Mar 2014 11:51:03 -0800
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/*
 * Copyright (c) 1997, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
 *
 * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
 * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
 * published by the Free Software Foundation.
 *
 * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
 * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
 * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
 * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
 * accompanied this code).
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
 * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
 * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
 *
 * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
 * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
 * questions.
 *
 */

#ifndef CPU_SPARC_VM_ASSEMBLER_SPARC_HPP
#define CPU_SPARC_VM_ASSEMBLER_SPARC_HPP

#include "asm/register.hpp"

// The SPARC Assembler: Pure assembler doing NO optimizations on the instruction
// level; i.e., what you write
// is what you get. The Assembler is generating code into a CodeBuffer.

class Assembler : public AbstractAssembler  {
  friend class AbstractAssembler;
  friend class AddressLiteral;

  // code patchers need various routines like inv_wdisp()
  friend class NativeInstruction;
  friend class NativeGeneralJump;
  friend class Relocation;
  friend class Label;

 public:
  // op carries format info; see page 62 & 267

  enum ops {
    call_op   = 1, // fmt 1
    branch_op = 0, // also sethi (fmt2)
    arith_op  = 2, // fmt 3, arith & misc
    ldst_op   = 3  // fmt 3, load/store
  };

  enum op2s {
    bpr_op2   = 3,
    fb_op2    = 6,
    fbp_op2   = 5,
    br_op2    = 2,
    bp_op2    = 1,
    sethi_op2 = 4
  };

  enum op3s {
    // selected op3s
    add_op3      = 0x00,
    and_op3      = 0x01,
    or_op3       = 0x02,
    xor_op3      = 0x03,
    sub_op3      = 0x04,
    andn_op3     = 0x05,
    orn_op3      = 0x06,
    xnor_op3     = 0x07,
    addc_op3     = 0x08,
    mulx_op3     = 0x09,
    umul_op3     = 0x0a,
    smul_op3     = 0x0b,
    subc_op3     = 0x0c,
    udivx_op3    = 0x0d,
    udiv_op3     = 0x0e,
    sdiv_op3     = 0x0f,

    addcc_op3    = 0x10,
    andcc_op3    = 0x11,
    orcc_op3     = 0x12,
    xorcc_op3    = 0x13,
    subcc_op3    = 0x14,
    andncc_op3   = 0x15,
    orncc_op3    = 0x16,
    xnorcc_op3   = 0x17,
    addccc_op3   = 0x18,
    umulcc_op3   = 0x1a,
    smulcc_op3   = 0x1b,
    subccc_op3   = 0x1c,
    udivcc_op3   = 0x1e,
    sdivcc_op3   = 0x1f,

    taddcc_op3   = 0x20,
    tsubcc_op3   = 0x21,
    taddcctv_op3 = 0x22,
    tsubcctv_op3 = 0x23,
    mulscc_op3   = 0x24,
    sll_op3      = 0x25,
    sllx_op3     = 0x25,
    srl_op3      = 0x26,
    srlx_op3     = 0x26,
    sra_op3      = 0x27,
    srax_op3     = 0x27,
    rdreg_op3    = 0x28,
    membar_op3   = 0x28,

    flushw_op3   = 0x2b,
    movcc_op3    = 0x2c,
    sdivx_op3    = 0x2d,
    popc_op3     = 0x2e,
    movr_op3     = 0x2f,

    sir_op3      = 0x30,
    wrreg_op3    = 0x30,
    saved_op3    = 0x31,

    fpop1_op3    = 0x34,
    fpop2_op3    = 0x35,
    impdep1_op3  = 0x36,
    impdep2_op3  = 0x37,
    jmpl_op3     = 0x38,
    rett_op3     = 0x39,
    trap_op3     = 0x3a,
    flush_op3    = 0x3b,
    save_op3     = 0x3c,
    restore_op3  = 0x3d,
    done_op3     = 0x3e,
    retry_op3    = 0x3e,

    lduw_op3     = 0x00,
    ldub_op3     = 0x01,
    lduh_op3     = 0x02,
    ldd_op3      = 0x03,
    stw_op3      = 0x04,
    stb_op3      = 0x05,
    sth_op3      = 0x06,
    std_op3      = 0x07,
    ldsw_op3     = 0x08,
    ldsb_op3     = 0x09,
    ldsh_op3     = 0x0a,
    ldx_op3      = 0x0b,

    stx_op3      = 0x0e,
    swap_op3     = 0x0f,

    stwa_op3     = 0x14,
    stxa_op3     = 0x1e,

    ldf_op3      = 0x20,
    ldfsr_op3    = 0x21,
    ldqf_op3     = 0x22,
    lddf_op3     = 0x23,
    stf_op3      = 0x24,
    stfsr_op3    = 0x25,
    stqf_op3     = 0x26,
    stdf_op3     = 0x27,

    prefetch_op3 = 0x2d,

    casa_op3     = 0x3c,
    casxa_op3    = 0x3e,

    mftoi_op3    = 0x36,

    alt_bit_op3  = 0x10,
     cc_bit_op3  = 0x10
  };

  enum opfs {
    // selected opfs
    fmovs_opf   = 0x01,
    fmovd_opf   = 0x02,

    fnegs_opf   = 0x05,
    fnegd_opf   = 0x06,

    fadds_opf   = 0x41,
    faddd_opf   = 0x42,
    fsubs_opf   = 0x45,
    fsubd_opf   = 0x46,

    fmuls_opf   = 0x49,
    fmuld_opf   = 0x4a,
    fdivs_opf   = 0x4d,
    fdivd_opf   = 0x4e,

    fcmps_opf   = 0x51,
    fcmpd_opf   = 0x52,

    fstox_opf   = 0x81,
    fdtox_opf   = 0x82,
    fxtos_opf   = 0x84,
    fxtod_opf   = 0x88,
    fitos_opf   = 0xc4,
    fdtos_opf   = 0xc6,
    fitod_opf   = 0xc8,
    fstod_opf   = 0xc9,
    fstoi_opf   = 0xd1,
    fdtoi_opf   = 0xd2,

    mdtox_opf   = 0x110,
    mstouw_opf  = 0x111,
    mstosw_opf  = 0x113,
    mxtod_opf   = 0x118,
    mwtos_opf   = 0x119
  };

  enum RCondition {  rc_z = 1,  rc_lez = 2,  rc_lz = 3, rc_nz = 5, rc_gz = 6, rc_gez = 7, rc_last = rc_gez  };

  enum Condition {
     // for FBfcc & FBPfcc instruction
    f_never                     = 0,
    f_notEqual                  = 1,
    f_notZero                   = 1,
    f_lessOrGreater             = 2,
    f_unorderedOrLess           = 3,
    f_less                      = 4,
    f_unorderedOrGreater        = 5,
    f_greater                   = 6,
    f_unordered                 = 7,
    f_always                    = 8,
    f_equal                     = 9,
    f_zero                      = 9,
    f_unorderedOrEqual          = 10,
    f_greaterOrEqual            = 11,
    f_unorderedOrGreaterOrEqual = 12,
    f_lessOrEqual               = 13,
    f_unorderedOrLessOrEqual    = 14,
    f_ordered                   = 15,

    // V8 coproc, pp 123 v8 manual

    cp_always  = 8,
    cp_never   = 0,
    cp_3       = 7,
    cp_2       = 6,
    cp_2or3    = 5,
    cp_1       = 4,
    cp_1or3    = 3,
    cp_1or2    = 2,
    cp_1or2or3 = 1,
    cp_0       = 9,
    cp_0or3    = 10,
    cp_0or2    = 11,
    cp_0or2or3 = 12,
    cp_0or1    = 13,
    cp_0or1or3 = 14,
    cp_0or1or2 = 15,


    // for integers

    never                 =  0,
    equal                 =  1,
    zero                  =  1,
    lessEqual             =  2,
    less                  =  3,
    lessEqualUnsigned     =  4,
    lessUnsigned          =  5,
    carrySet              =  5,
    negative              =  6,
    overflowSet           =  7,
    always                =  8,
    notEqual              =  9,
    notZero               =  9,
    greater               =  10,
    greaterEqual          =  11,
    greaterUnsigned       =  12,
    greaterEqualUnsigned  =  13,
    carryClear            =  13,
    positive              =  14,
    overflowClear         =  15
  };

  enum CC {
    icc  = 0,  xcc  = 2,
    // ptr_cc is the correct condition code for a pointer or intptr_t:
    ptr_cc = NOT_LP64(icc) LP64_ONLY(xcc),
    fcc0 = 0,  fcc1 = 1, fcc2 = 2, fcc3 = 3
  };

  enum PrefetchFcn {
    severalReads = 0,  oneRead = 1,  severalWritesAndPossiblyReads = 2, oneWrite = 3, page = 4
  };

 public:
  // Helper functions for groups of instructions

  enum Predict { pt = 1, pn = 0 }; // pt = predict taken

  enum Membar_mask_bits { // page 184, v9
    StoreStore = 1 << 3,
    LoadStore  = 1 << 2,
    StoreLoad  = 1 << 1,
    LoadLoad   = 1 << 0,

    Sync       = 1 << 6,
    MemIssue   = 1 << 5,
    Lookaside  = 1 << 4
  };

  static bool is_in_wdisp_range(address a, address b, int nbits) {
    intptr_t d = intptr_t(b) - intptr_t(a);
    return is_simm(d, nbits + 2);
  }

  address target_distance(Label& L) {
    // Assembler::target(L) should be called only when
    // a branch instruction is emitted since non-bound
    // labels record current pc() as a branch address.
    if (L.is_bound()) return target(L);
    // Return current address for non-bound labels.
    return pc();
  }

  // test if label is in simm16 range in words (wdisp16).
  bool is_in_wdisp16_range(Label& L) {
    return is_in_wdisp_range(target_distance(L), pc(), 16);
  }
  // test if the distance between two addresses fits in simm30 range in words
  static bool is_in_wdisp30_range(address a, address b) {
    return is_in_wdisp_range(a, b, 30);
  }

  enum ASIs { // page 72, v9
    ASI_PRIMARY            = 0x80,
    ASI_PRIMARY_NOFAULT    = 0x82,
    ASI_PRIMARY_LITTLE     = 0x88,
    // Block initializing store
    ASI_ST_BLKINIT_PRIMARY = 0xE2,
    // Most-Recently-Used (MRU) BIS variant
    ASI_ST_BLKINIT_MRU_PRIMARY = 0xF2
    // add more from book as needed
  };

 protected:
  // helpers

  // x is supposed to fit in a field "nbits" wide
  // and be sign-extended. Check the range.

  static void assert_signed_range(intptr_t x, int nbits) {
    assert(nbits == 32 || (-(1 << nbits-1) <= x  &&  x < ( 1 << nbits-1)),
           err_msg("value out of range: x=" INTPTR_FORMAT ", nbits=%d", x, nbits));
  }

  static void assert_signed_word_disp_range(intptr_t x, int nbits) {
    assert( (x & 3) == 0, "not word aligned");
    assert_signed_range(x, nbits + 2);
  }

  static void assert_unsigned_const(int x, int nbits) {
    assert( juint(x)  <  juint(1 << nbits), "unsigned constant out of range");
  }

  // fields: note bits numbered from LSB = 0,
  //  fields known by inclusive bit range

  static int fmask(juint hi_bit, juint lo_bit) {
    assert( hi_bit >= lo_bit  &&  0 <= lo_bit  &&  hi_bit < 32, "bad bits");
    return (1 << ( hi_bit-lo_bit + 1 )) - 1;
  }

  // inverse of u_field

  static int inv_u_field(int x, int hi_bit, int lo_bit) {
    juint r = juint(x) >> lo_bit;
    r &= fmask( hi_bit, lo_bit);
    return int(r);
  }


  // signed version: extract from field and sign-extend

  static int inv_s_field(int x, int hi_bit, int lo_bit) {
    int sign_shift = 31 - hi_bit;
    return inv_u_field( ((x << sign_shift) >> sign_shift), hi_bit, lo_bit);
  }

  // given a field that ranges from hi_bit to lo_bit (inclusive,
  // LSB = 0), and an unsigned value for the field,
  // shift it into the field

#ifdef ASSERT
  static int u_field(int x, int hi_bit, int lo_bit) {
    assert( ( x & ~fmask(hi_bit, lo_bit))  == 0,
            "value out of range");
    int r = x << lo_bit;
    assert( inv_u_field(r, hi_bit, lo_bit) == x, "just checking");
    return r;
  }
#else
  // make sure this is inlined as it will reduce code size significantly
  #define u_field(x, hi_bit, lo_bit)   ((x) << (lo_bit))
#endif

  static int inv_op(  int x ) { return inv_u_field(x, 31, 30); }
  static int inv_op2( int x ) { return inv_u_field(x, 24, 22); }
  static int inv_op3( int x ) { return inv_u_field(x, 24, 19); }
  static int inv_cond( int x ){ return inv_u_field(x, 28, 25); }

  static bool inv_immed( int x ) { return (x & Assembler::immed(true)) != 0; }

  static Register inv_rd(  int x ) { return as_Register(inv_u_field(x, 29, 25)); }
  static Register inv_rs1( int x ) { return as_Register(inv_u_field(x, 18, 14)); }
  static Register inv_rs2( int x ) { return as_Register(inv_u_field(x,  4,  0)); }

  static int op(       int         x)  { return  u_field(x,             31, 30); }
  static int rd(       Register    r)  { return  u_field(r->encoding(), 29, 25); }
  static int fcn(      int         x)  { return  u_field(x,             29, 25); }
  static int op3(      int         x)  { return  u_field(x,             24, 19); }
  static int rs1(      Register    r)  { return  u_field(r->encoding(), 18, 14); }
  static int rs2(      Register    r)  { return  u_field(r->encoding(),  4,  0); }
  static int annul(    bool        a)  { return  u_field(a ? 1 : 0,     29, 29); }
  static int cond(     int         x)  { return  u_field(x,             28, 25); }
  static int cond_mov( int         x)  { return  u_field(x,             17, 14); }
  static int rcond(    RCondition  x)  { return  u_field(x,             12, 10); }
  static int op2(      int         x)  { return  u_field(x,             24, 22); }
  static int predict(  bool        p)  { return  u_field(p ? 1 : 0,     19, 19); }
  static int branchcc( CC       fcca)  { return  u_field(fcca,          21, 20); }
  static int cmpcc(    CC       fcca)  { return  u_field(fcca,          26, 25); }
  static int imm_asi(  int         x)  { return  u_field(x,             12,  5); }
  static int immed(    bool        i)  { return  u_field(i ? 1 : 0,     13, 13); }
  static int opf_low6( int         w)  { return  u_field(w,             10,  5); }
  static int opf_low5( int         w)  { return  u_field(w,              9,  5); }
  static int trapcc(   CC         cc)  { return  u_field(cc,            12, 11); }
  static int sx(       int         i)  { return  u_field(i,             12, 12); } // shift x=1 means 64-bit
  static int opf(      int         x)  { return  u_field(x,             13,  5); }

  static bool is_cbcond( int x ) {
    return (VM_Version::has_cbcond() && (inv_cond(x) > rc_last) &&
            inv_op(x) == branch_op && inv_op2(x) == bpr_op2);
  }
  static bool is_cxb( int x ) {
    assert(is_cbcond(x), "wrong instruction");
    return (x & (1<<21)) != 0;
  }
  static int cond_cbcond( int         x)  { return  u_field((((x & 8)<<1) + 8 + (x & 7)), 29, 25); }
  static int inv_cond_cbcond(int      x)  {
    assert(is_cbcond(x), "wrong instruction");
    return inv_u_field(x, 27, 25) | (inv_u_field(x, 29, 29)<<3);
  }

  static int opf_cc(   CC          c, bool useFloat ) { return u_field((useFloat ? 0 : 4) + c, 13, 11); }
  static int mov_cc(   CC          c, bool useFloat ) { return u_field(useFloat ? 0 : 1,  18, 18) | u_field(c, 12, 11); }

  static int fd( FloatRegister r,  FloatRegisterImpl::Width fwa) { return u_field(r->encoding(fwa), 29, 25); };
  static int fs1(FloatRegister r,  FloatRegisterImpl::Width fwa) { return u_field(r->encoding(fwa), 18, 14); };
  static int fs2(FloatRegister r,  FloatRegisterImpl::Width fwa) { return u_field(r->encoding(fwa),  4,  0); };

  // some float instructions use this encoding on the op3 field
  static int alt_op3(int op, FloatRegisterImpl::Width w) {
    int r;
    switch(w) {
     case FloatRegisterImpl::S: r = op + 0;  break;
     case FloatRegisterImpl::D: r = op + 3;  break;
     case FloatRegisterImpl::Q: r = op + 2;  break;
     default: ShouldNotReachHere(); break;
    }
    return op3(r);
  }


  // compute inverse of simm
  static int inv_simm(int x, int nbits) {
    return (int)(x << (32 - nbits)) >> (32 - nbits);
  }

  static int inv_simm13( int x ) { return inv_simm(x, 13); }

  // signed immediate, in low bits, nbits long
  static int simm(int x, int nbits) {
    assert_signed_range(x, nbits);
    return x  &  (( 1 << nbits ) - 1);
  }

  // compute inverse of wdisp16
  static intptr_t inv_wdisp16(int x, intptr_t pos) {
    int lo = x & (( 1 << 14 ) - 1);
    int hi = (x >> 20) & 3;
    if (hi >= 2) hi |= ~1;
    return (((hi << 14) | lo) << 2) + pos;
  }

  // word offset, 14 bits at LSend, 2 bits at B21, B20
  static int wdisp16(intptr_t x, intptr_t off) {
    intptr_t xx = x - off;
    assert_signed_word_disp_range(xx, 16);
    int r =  (xx >> 2) & ((1 << 14) - 1)
           |  (  ( (xx>>(2+14)) & 3 )  <<  20 );
    assert( inv_wdisp16(r, off) == x,  "inverse is not inverse");
    return r;
  }

  // compute inverse of wdisp10
  static intptr_t inv_wdisp10(int x, intptr_t pos) {
    assert(is_cbcond(x), "wrong instruction");
    int lo = inv_u_field(x, 12, 5);
    int hi = (x >> 19) & 3;
    if (hi >= 2) hi |= ~1;
    return (((hi << 8) | lo) << 2) + pos;
  }

  // word offset for cbcond, 8 bits at [B12,B5], 2 bits at [B20,B19]
  static int wdisp10(intptr_t x, intptr_t off) {
    assert(VM_Version::has_cbcond(), "This CPU does not have CBCOND instruction");
    intptr_t xx = x - off;
    assert_signed_word_disp_range(xx, 10);
    int r =  ( ( (xx >>  2   ) & ((1 << 8) - 1) ) <<  5 )
           | ( ( (xx >> (2+8)) & 3              ) << 19 );
    // Have to fake cbcond instruction to pass assert in inv_wdisp10()
    assert(inv_wdisp10((r | op(branch_op) | cond_cbcond(rc_last+1) | op2(bpr_op2)), off) == x,  "inverse is not inverse");
    return r;
  }

  // word displacement in low-order nbits bits

  static intptr_t inv_wdisp( int x, intptr_t pos, int nbits ) {
    int pre_sign_extend = x & (( 1 << nbits ) - 1);
    int r =  pre_sign_extend >= ( 1 << (nbits-1) )
       ?   pre_sign_extend | ~(( 1 << nbits ) - 1)
       :   pre_sign_extend;
    return (r << 2) + pos;
  }

  static int wdisp( intptr_t x, intptr_t off, int nbits ) {
    intptr_t xx = x - off;
    assert_signed_word_disp_range(xx, nbits);
    int r =  (xx >> 2) & (( 1 << nbits ) - 1);
    assert( inv_wdisp( r, off, nbits )  ==  x, "inverse not inverse");
    return r;
  }


  // Extract the top 32 bits in a 64 bit word
  static int32_t hi32( int64_t x ) {
    int32_t r = int32_t( (uint64_t)x >> 32 );
    return r;
  }

  // given a sethi instruction, extract the constant, left-justified
  static int inv_hi22( int x ) {
    return x << 10;
  }

  // create an imm22 field, given a 32-bit left-justified constant
  static int hi22( int x ) {
    int r = int( juint(x) >> 10 );
    assert( (r & ~((1 << 22) - 1))  ==  0, "just checkin'");
    return r;
  }

  // create a low10 __value__ (not a field) for a given a 32-bit constant
  static int low10( int x ) {
    return x & ((1 << 10) - 1);
  }

  // instruction only in VIS3
  static void vis3_only() { assert( VM_Version::has_vis3(), "This instruction only works on SPARC with VIS3"); }

  // instruction only in v9
  static void v9_only() { } // do nothing

  // instruction deprecated in v9
  static void v9_dep()  { } // do nothing for now

  // v8 has no CC field
  static void v8_no_cc(CC cc)  { if (cc)  v9_only(); }

 protected:
  // Simple delay-slot scheme:
  // In order to check the programmer, the assembler keeps track of deley slots.
  // It forbids CTIs in delay slots (conservative, but should be OK).
  // Also, when putting an instruction into a delay slot, you must say
  // asm->delayed()->add(...), in order to check that you don't omit
  // delay-slot instructions.
  // To implement this, we use a simple FSA

#ifdef ASSERT
  #define CHECK_DELAY
#endif
#ifdef CHECK_DELAY
  enum Delay_state { no_delay, at_delay_slot, filling_delay_slot } delay_state;
#endif

 public:
  // Tells assembler next instruction must NOT be in delay slot.
  // Use at start of multinstruction macros.
  void assert_not_delayed() {
    // This is a separate overloading to avoid creation of string constants
    // in non-asserted code--with some compilers this pollutes the object code.
#ifdef CHECK_DELAY
    assert_not_delayed("next instruction should not be a delay slot");
#endif
  }
  void assert_not_delayed(const char* msg) {
#ifdef CHECK_DELAY
    assert(delay_state == no_delay, msg);
#endif
  }

 protected:
  // Delay slot helpers
  // cti is called when emitting control-transfer instruction,
  // BEFORE doing the emitting.
  // Only effective when assertion-checking is enabled.
  void cti() {
#ifdef CHECK_DELAY
    assert_not_delayed("cti should not be in delay slot");
#endif
  }

  // called when emitting cti with a delay slot, AFTER emitting
  void has_delay_slot() {
#ifdef CHECK_DELAY
    assert_not_delayed("just checking");
    delay_state = at_delay_slot;
#endif
  }

  // cbcond instruction should not be generated one after an other
  bool cbcond_before() {
    if (offset() == 0) return false; // it is first instruction
    int x = *(int*)(intptr_t(pc()) - 4); // previous instruction
    return is_cbcond(x);
  }

  void no_cbcond_before() {
    assert(offset() == 0 || !cbcond_before(), "cbcond should not follow an other cbcond");
  }

public:

  bool use_cbcond(Label& L) {
    if (!UseCBCond || cbcond_before()) return false;
    intptr_t x = intptr_t(target_distance(L)) - intptr_t(pc());
    assert( (x & 3) == 0, "not word aligned");
    return is_simm12(x);
  }

  // Tells assembler you know that next instruction is delayed
  Assembler* delayed() {
#ifdef CHECK_DELAY
    assert ( delay_state == at_delay_slot, "delayed instruction is not in delay slot");
    delay_state = filling_delay_slot;
#endif
    return this;
  }

  void flush() {
#ifdef CHECK_DELAY
    assert ( delay_state == no_delay, "ending code with a delay slot");
#endif
    AbstractAssembler::flush();
  }

  inline void emit_int32(int);  // shadows AbstractAssembler::emit_int32
  inline void emit_data(int x) { emit_int32(x); }
  inline void emit_data(int, RelocationHolder const&);
  inline void emit_data(int, relocInfo::relocType rtype);
  // helper for above fcns
  inline void check_delay();


 public:
  // instructions, refer to page numbers in the SPARC Architecture Manual, V9

  // pp 135 (addc was addx in v8)

  inline void add(Register s1, Register s2, Register d );
  inline void add(Register s1, int simm13a, Register d );

  void addcc(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(add_op3  | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void addcc(  Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(add_op3  | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void addc(   Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(addc_op3             ) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void addc(   Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(addc_op3             ) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void addccc( Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(addc_op3 | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void addccc( Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(addc_op3 | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }


  // pp 136

  inline void bpr(RCondition c, bool a, Predict p, Register s1, address d, relocInfo::relocType rt = relocInfo::none);
  inline void bpr(RCondition c, bool a, Predict p, Register s1, Label& L);

  // compare and branch
  inline void cbcond(Condition c, CC cc, Register s1, Register s2, Label& L);
  inline void cbcond(Condition c, CC cc, Register s1, int simm5, Label& L);

 protected: // use MacroAssembler::br instead

  // pp 138

  inline void fb( Condition c, bool a, address d, relocInfo::relocType rt = relocInfo::none );
  inline void fb( Condition c, bool a, Label& L );

  // pp 141

  inline void fbp( Condition c, bool a, CC cc, Predict p, address d, relocInfo::relocType rt = relocInfo::none );
  inline void fbp( Condition c, bool a, CC cc, Predict p, Label& L );

  // pp 144

  inline void br( Condition c, bool a, address d, relocInfo::relocType rt = relocInfo::none );
  inline void br( Condition c, bool a, Label& L );

  // pp 146

  inline void bp( Condition c, bool a, CC cc, Predict p, address d, relocInfo::relocType rt = relocInfo::none );
  inline void bp( Condition c, bool a, CC cc, Predict p, Label& L );

  // pp 149

  inline void call( address d,  relocInfo::relocType rt = relocInfo::runtime_call_type );
  inline void call( Label& L,   relocInfo::relocType rt = relocInfo::runtime_call_type );

 public:

  // pp 150

  // These instructions compare the contents of s2 with the contents of
  // memory at address in s1. If the values are equal, the contents of memory
  // at address s1 is swapped with the data in d. If the values are not equal,
  // the the contents of memory at s1 is loaded into d, without the swap.

  void casa(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d, int ia = -1 ) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(casa_op3 ) | rs1(s1) | (ia == -1  ? immed(true) : imm_asi(ia)) | rs2(s2)); }
  void casxa( Register s1, Register s2, Register d, int ia = -1 ) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(casxa_op3) | rs1(s1) | (ia == -1  ? immed(true) : imm_asi(ia)) | rs2(s2)); }

  // pp 152

  void udiv(   Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(udiv_op3             ) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2)); }
  void udiv(   Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(udiv_op3             ) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void sdiv(   Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sdiv_op3             ) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2)); }
  void sdiv(   Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sdiv_op3             ) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void udivcc( Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(udiv_op3 | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2)); }
  void udivcc( Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(udiv_op3 | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void sdivcc( Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sdiv_op3 | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2)); }
  void sdivcc( Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sdiv_op3 | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  // pp 155

  void done()  { v9_only();  cti();  emit_int32( op(arith_op) | fcn(0) | op3(done_op3) ); }
  void retry() { v9_only();  cti();  emit_int32( op(arith_op) | fcn(1) | op3(retry_op3) ); }

  // pp 156

  void fadd( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister s1, FloatRegister s2, FloatRegister d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | fd(d, w) | op3(fpop1_op3) | fs1(s1, w) | opf(0x40 + w) | fs2(s2, w)); }
  void fsub( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister s1, FloatRegister s2, FloatRegister d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | fd(d, w) | op3(fpop1_op3) | fs1(s1, w) | opf(0x44 + w) | fs2(s2, w)); }

  // pp 157

  void fcmp(  FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, CC cc, FloatRegister s1, FloatRegister s2) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | cmpcc(cc) | op3(fpop2_op3) | fs1(s1, w) | opf(0x50 + w) | fs2(s2, w)); }
  void fcmpe( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, CC cc, FloatRegister s1, FloatRegister s2) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | cmpcc(cc) | op3(fpop2_op3) | fs1(s1, w) | opf(0x54 + w) | fs2(s2, w)); }

  // pp 159

  void ftox( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister s, FloatRegister d ) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(arith_op) | fd(d, FloatRegisterImpl::D) | op3(fpop1_op3) | opf(0x80 + w) | fs2(s, w)); }
  void ftoi( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister s, FloatRegister d ) {             emit_int32( op(arith_op) | fd(d, FloatRegisterImpl::S) | op3(fpop1_op3) | opf(0xd0 + w) | fs2(s, w)); }

  // pp 160

  void ftof( FloatRegisterImpl::Width sw, FloatRegisterImpl::Width dw, FloatRegister s, FloatRegister d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | fd(d, dw) | op3(fpop1_op3) | opf(0xc0 + sw + dw*4) | fs2(s, sw)); }

  // pp 161

  void fxtof( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister s, FloatRegister d ) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(arith_op) | fd(d, w) | op3(fpop1_op3) | opf(0x80 + w*4) | fs2(s, FloatRegisterImpl::D)); }
  void fitof( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister s, FloatRegister d ) {             emit_int32( op(arith_op) | fd(d, w) | op3(fpop1_op3) | opf(0xc0 + w*4) | fs2(s, FloatRegisterImpl::S)); }

  // pp 162

  void fmov( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister s, FloatRegister d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | fd(d, w) | op3(fpop1_op3) | opf(0x00 + w) | fs2(s, w)); }

  void fneg( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister s, FloatRegister d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | fd(d, w) | op3(fpop1_op3) | opf(0x04 + w) | fs2(s, w)); }

  void fabs( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister s, FloatRegister d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | fd(d, w) | op3(fpop1_op3) | opf(0x08 + w) | fs2(s, w)); }

  // pp 163

  void fmul( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w,                            FloatRegister s1, FloatRegister s2, FloatRegister d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | fd(d, w)  | op3(fpop1_op3) | fs1(s1, w)  | opf(0x48 + w)         | fs2(s2, w)); }
  void fmul( FloatRegisterImpl::Width sw, FloatRegisterImpl::Width dw,  FloatRegister s1, FloatRegister s2, FloatRegister d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | fd(d, dw) | op3(fpop1_op3) | fs1(s1, sw) | opf(0x60 + sw + dw*4) | fs2(s2, sw)); }
  void fdiv( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w,                            FloatRegister s1, FloatRegister s2, FloatRegister d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | fd(d, w)  | op3(fpop1_op3) | fs1(s1, w)  | opf(0x4c + w)         | fs2(s2, w)); }

  // pp 164

  void fsqrt( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister s, FloatRegister d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | fd(d, w) | op3(fpop1_op3) | opf(0x28 + w) | fs2(s, w)); }

  // pp 165

  inline void flush( Register s1, Register s2 );
  inline void flush( Register s1, int simm13a);

  // pp 167

  void flushw() { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(arith_op) | op3(flushw_op3) ); }

  // pp 168

  void illtrap( int const22a) { if (const22a != 0) v9_only();  emit_int32( op(branch_op) | u_field(const22a, 21, 0) ); }
  // v8 unimp == illtrap(0)

  // pp 169

  void impdep1( int id1, int const19a ) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(arith_op) | fcn(id1) | op3(impdep1_op3) | u_field(const19a, 18, 0)); }
  void impdep2( int id1, int const19a ) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(arith_op) | fcn(id1) | op3(impdep2_op3) | u_field(const19a, 18, 0)); }

  // pp 170

  void jmpl( Register s1, Register s2, Register d );
  void jmpl( Register s1, int simm13a, Register d, RelocationHolder const& rspec = RelocationHolder() );

  // 171

  inline void ldf(FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, Register s1, Register s2, FloatRegister d);
  inline void ldf(FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, Register s1, int simm13a, FloatRegister d, RelocationHolder const& rspec = RelocationHolder());


  inline void ldfsr(  Register s1, Register s2 );
  inline void ldfsr(  Register s1, int simm13a);
  inline void ldxfsr( Register s1, Register s2 );
  inline void ldxfsr( Register s1, int simm13a);

  // 173

  void ldfa(  FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, Register s1, Register s2, int ia, FloatRegister d ) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | fd(d, w) | alt_op3(ldf_op3 | alt_bit_op3, w) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void ldfa(  FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, Register s1, int simm13a,         FloatRegister d ) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | fd(d, w) | alt_op3(ldf_op3 | alt_bit_op3, w) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  // pp 175, lduw is ld on v8

  inline void ldsb(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d );
  inline void ldsb(  Register s1, int simm13a, Register d);
  inline void ldsh(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d );
  inline void ldsh(  Register s1, int simm13a, Register d);
  inline void ldsw(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d );
  inline void ldsw(  Register s1, int simm13a, Register d);
  inline void ldub(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d );
  inline void ldub(  Register s1, int simm13a, Register d);
  inline void lduh(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d );
  inline void lduh(  Register s1, int simm13a, Register d);
  inline void lduw(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d );
  inline void lduw(  Register s1, int simm13a, Register d);
  inline void ldx(   Register s1, Register s2, Register d );
  inline void ldx(   Register s1, int simm13a, Register d);
  inline void ldd(   Register s1, Register s2, Register d );
  inline void ldd(   Register s1, int simm13a, Register d);

  // pp 177

  void ldsba(  Register s1, Register s2, int ia, Register d ) {             emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(ldsb_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void ldsba(  Register s1, int simm13a,         Register d ) {             emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(ldsb_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void ldsha(  Register s1, Register s2, int ia, Register d ) {             emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(ldsh_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void ldsha(  Register s1, int simm13a,         Register d ) {             emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(ldsh_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void ldswa(  Register s1, Register s2, int ia, Register d ) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(ldsw_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void ldswa(  Register s1, int simm13a,         Register d ) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(ldsw_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void lduba(  Register s1, Register s2, int ia, Register d ) {             emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(ldub_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void lduba(  Register s1, int simm13a,         Register d ) {             emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(ldub_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void lduha(  Register s1, Register s2, int ia, Register d ) {             emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(lduh_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void lduha(  Register s1, int simm13a,         Register d ) {             emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(lduh_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void lduwa(  Register s1, Register s2, int ia, Register d ) {             emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(lduw_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void lduwa(  Register s1, int simm13a,         Register d ) {             emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(lduw_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void ldxa(   Register s1, Register s2, int ia, Register d ) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(ldx_op3  | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void ldxa(   Register s1, int simm13a,         Register d ) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(ldx_op3  | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  // pp 181

  void and3(    Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(and_op3              ) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void and3(    Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(and_op3              ) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void andcc(   Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(and_op3  | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void andcc(   Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(and_op3  | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void andn(    Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(andn_op3             ) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void andn(    Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(andn_op3             ) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void andncc(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(andn_op3 | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void andncc(  Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(andn_op3 | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void or3(     Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(or_op3               ) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void or3(     Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(or_op3               ) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void orcc(    Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(or_op3   | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void orcc(    Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(or_op3   | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void orn(     Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(orn_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void orn(     Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(orn_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void orncc(   Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(orn_op3  | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void orncc(   Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(orn_op3  | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void xor3(    Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(xor_op3              ) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void xor3(    Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(xor_op3              ) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void xorcc(   Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(xor_op3  | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void xorcc(   Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(xor_op3  | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void xnor(    Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(xnor_op3             ) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void xnor(    Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(xnor_op3             ) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void xnorcc(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(xnor_op3 | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void xnorcc(  Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(xnor_op3 | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  // pp 183

  void membar( Membar_mask_bits const7a ) { v9_only(); emit_int32( op(arith_op) | op3(membar_op3) | rs1(O7) | immed(true) | u_field( int(const7a), 6, 0)); }

  // pp 185

  void fmov( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, Condition c,  bool floatCC, CC cca, FloatRegister s2, FloatRegister d ) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(arith_op) | fd(d, w) | op3(fpop2_op3) | cond_mov(c) | opf_cc(cca, floatCC) | opf_low6(w) | fs2(s2, w)); }

  // pp 189

  void fmov( FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, RCondition c, Register s1,  FloatRegister s2, FloatRegister d ) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(arith_op) | fd(d, w) | op3(fpop2_op3) | rs1(s1) | rcond(c) | opf_low5(4 + w) | fs2(s2, w)); }

  // pp 191

  void movcc( Condition c, bool floatCC, CC cca, Register s2, Register d ) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(movcc_op3) | mov_cc(cca, floatCC) | cond_mov(c) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void movcc( Condition c, bool floatCC, CC cca, int simm11a, Register d ) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(movcc_op3) | mov_cc(cca, floatCC) | cond_mov(c) | immed(true) | simm(simm11a, 11) ); }

  // pp 195

  void movr( RCondition c, Register s1, Register s2,  Register d ) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(movr_op3) | rs1(s1) | rcond(c) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void movr( RCondition c, Register s1, int simm10a,  Register d ) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(movr_op3) | rs1(s1) | rcond(c) | immed(true) | simm(simm10a, 10) ); }

  // pp 196

  void mulx(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { v9_only(); emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(mulx_op3 ) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void mulx(  Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { v9_only(); emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(mulx_op3 ) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void sdivx( Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { v9_only(); emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sdivx_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void sdivx( Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { v9_only(); emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sdivx_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void udivx( Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { v9_only(); emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(udivx_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void udivx( Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { v9_only(); emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(udivx_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  // pp 197

  void umul(   Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(umul_op3             ) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void umul(   Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(umul_op3             ) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void smul(   Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(smul_op3             ) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void smul(   Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(smul_op3             ) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void umulcc( Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(umul_op3 | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void umulcc( Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(umul_op3 | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void smulcc( Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(smul_op3 | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void smulcc( Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(smul_op3 | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  // pp 201

  void nop() { emit_int32( op(branch_op) | op2(sethi_op2) ); }


  // pp 202

  void popc( Register s,  Register d) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(popc_op3) | rs2(s)); }
  void popc( int simm13a, Register d) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(popc_op3) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13)); }

  // pp 203

  void prefetch(   Register s1, Register s2, PrefetchFcn f) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | fcn(f) | op3(prefetch_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void prefetch(   Register s1, int simm13a, PrefetchFcn f) { v9_only();  emit_data( op(ldst_op) | fcn(f) | op3(prefetch_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13)); }

  void prefetcha(  Register s1, Register s2, int ia, PrefetchFcn f ) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | fcn(f) | op3(prefetch_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void prefetcha(  Register s1, int simm13a,         PrefetchFcn f ) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | fcn(f) | op3(prefetch_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  // pp 208

  // not implementing read privileged register

  inline void rdy(    Register d) { v9_dep();  emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(rdreg_op3) | u_field(0, 18, 14)); }
  inline void rdccr(  Register d) { v9_only(); emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(rdreg_op3) | u_field(2, 18, 14)); }
  inline void rdasi(  Register d) { v9_only(); emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(rdreg_op3) | u_field(3, 18, 14)); }
  inline void rdtick( Register d) { v9_only(); emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(rdreg_op3) | u_field(4, 18, 14)); } // Spoon!
  inline void rdpc(   Register d) { v9_only(); emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(rdreg_op3) | u_field(5, 18, 14)); }
  inline void rdfprs( Register d) { v9_only(); emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(rdreg_op3) | u_field(6, 18, 14)); }

  // pp 213

  inline void rett( Register s1, Register s2);
  inline void rett( Register s1, int simm13a, relocInfo::relocType rt = relocInfo::none);

  // pp 214

  void save(    Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(save_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void save(    Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) {
    // make sure frame is at least large enough for the register save area
    assert(-simm13a >= 16 * wordSize, "frame too small");
    emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(save_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) );
  }

  void restore( Register s1 = G0,  Register s2 = G0, Register d = G0 ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(restore_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void restore( Register s1,       int simm13a,      Register d      ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(restore_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  // pp 216

  void saved()    { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(arith_op) | fcn(0) | op3(saved_op3)); }
  void restored() { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(arith_op) | fcn(1) | op3(saved_op3)); }

  // pp 217

  inline void sethi( int imm22a, Register d, RelocationHolder const& rspec = RelocationHolder() );
  // pp 218

  void sll(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sll_op3) | rs1(s1) | sx(0) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void sll(  Register s1, int imm5a,   Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sll_op3) | rs1(s1) | sx(0) | immed(true) | u_field(imm5a, 4, 0) ); }
  void srl(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(srl_op3) | rs1(s1) | sx(0) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void srl(  Register s1, int imm5a,   Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(srl_op3) | rs1(s1) | sx(0) | immed(true) | u_field(imm5a, 4, 0) ); }
  void sra(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sra_op3) | rs1(s1) | sx(0) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void sra(  Register s1, int imm5a,   Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sra_op3) | rs1(s1) | sx(0) | immed(true) | u_field(imm5a, 4, 0) ); }

  void sllx( Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sll_op3) | rs1(s1) | sx(1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void sllx( Register s1, int imm6a,   Register d ) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sll_op3) | rs1(s1) | sx(1) | immed(true) | u_field(imm6a, 5, 0) ); }
  void srlx( Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(srl_op3) | rs1(s1) | sx(1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void srlx( Register s1, int imm6a,   Register d ) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(srl_op3) | rs1(s1) | sx(1) | immed(true) | u_field(imm6a, 5, 0) ); }
  void srax( Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sra_op3) | rs1(s1) | sx(1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void srax( Register s1, int imm6a,   Register d ) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sra_op3) | rs1(s1) | sx(1) | immed(true) | u_field(imm6a, 5, 0) ); }

  // pp 220

  void sir( int simm13a ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | fcn(15) | op3(sir_op3) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13)); }

  // pp 221

  void stbar() { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | op3(membar_op3) | u_field(15, 18, 14)); }

  // pp 222

  inline void stf(    FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister d, Register s1, Register s2);
  inline void stf(    FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister d, Register s1, int simm13a);

  inline void stfsr(  Register s1, Register s2 );
  inline void stfsr(  Register s1, int simm13a);
  inline void stxfsr( Register s1, Register s2 );
  inline void stxfsr( Register s1, int simm13a);

  //  pp 224

  void stfa(  FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister d, Register s1, Register s2, int ia ) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | fd(d, w) | alt_op3(stf_op3 | alt_bit_op3, w) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void stfa(  FloatRegisterImpl::Width w, FloatRegister d, Register s1, int simm13a         ) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | fd(d, w) | alt_op3(stf_op3 | alt_bit_op3, w) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  // p 226

  inline void stb(  Register d, Register s1, Register s2 );
  inline void stb(  Register d, Register s1, int simm13a);
  inline void sth(  Register d, Register s1, Register s2 );
  inline void sth(  Register d, Register s1, int simm13a);
  inline void stw(  Register d, Register s1, Register s2 );
  inline void stw(  Register d, Register s1, int simm13a);
  inline void stx(  Register d, Register s1, Register s2 );
  inline void stx(  Register d, Register s1, int simm13a);
  inline void std(  Register d, Register s1, Register s2 );
  inline void std(  Register d, Register s1, int simm13a);

  // pp 177

  void stba(  Register d, Register s1, Register s2, int ia ) {             emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(stb_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void stba(  Register d, Register s1, int simm13a         ) {             emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(stb_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void stha(  Register d, Register s1, Register s2, int ia ) {             emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(sth_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void stha(  Register d, Register s1, int simm13a         ) {             emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(sth_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void stwa(  Register d, Register s1, Register s2, int ia ) {             emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(stw_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void stwa(  Register d, Register s1, int simm13a         ) {             emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(stw_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void stxa(  Register d, Register s1, Register s2, int ia ) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(stx_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void stxa(  Register d, Register s1, int simm13a         ) { v9_only();  emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(stx_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void stda(  Register d, Register s1, Register s2, int ia ) {             emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(std_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void stda(  Register d, Register s1, int simm13a         ) {             emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(std_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  // pp 230

  void sub(    Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sub_op3              ) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void sub(    Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sub_op3              ) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  void subcc(  Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sub_op3 | cc_bit_op3 ) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void subcc(  Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(sub_op3 | cc_bit_op3 ) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void subc(   Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(subc_op3             ) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void subc(   Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(subc_op3             ) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }
  void subccc( Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(subc_op3 | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void subccc( Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(subc_op3 | cc_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  // pp 231

  inline void swap( Register s1, Register s2, Register d );
  inline void swap( Register s1, int simm13a, Register d);

  // pp 232

  void swapa(   Register s1, Register s2, int ia, Register d ) { v9_dep();  emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(swap_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | imm_asi(ia) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void swapa(   Register s1, int simm13a,         Register d ) { v9_dep();  emit_int32( op(ldst_op) | rd(d) | op3(swap_op3 | alt_bit_op3) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  // pp 234, note op in book is wrong, see pp 268

  void taddcc(    Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) {            emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(taddcc_op3  ) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void taddcc(    Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) {            emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(taddcc_op3  ) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  // pp 235

  void tsubcc(    Register s1, Register s2, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(tsubcc_op3  ) | rs1(s1) | rs2(s2) ); }
  void tsubcc(    Register s1, int simm13a, Register d ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(tsubcc_op3  ) | rs1(s1) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13) ); }

  // pp 237

  void trap( Condition c, CC cc, Register s1, Register s2 ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | cond(c) | op3(trap_op3) | rs1(s1) | trapcc(cc) | rs2(s2)); }
  void trap( Condition c, CC cc, Register s1, int trapa   ) { emit_int32( op(arith_op) | cond(c) | op3(trap_op3) | rs1(s1) | trapcc(cc) | immed(true) | u_field(trapa, 6, 0)); }
  // simple uncond. trap
  void trap( int trapa ) { trap( always, icc, G0, trapa ); }

  // pp 239 omit write priv register for now

  inline void wry(    Register d) { v9_dep();  emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rs1(d) | op3(wrreg_op3) | u_field(0, 29, 25)); }
  inline void wrccr(Register s) { v9_only(); emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rs1(s) | op3(wrreg_op3) | u_field(2, 29, 25)); }
  inline void wrccr(Register s, int simm13a) { v9_only(); emit_int32( op(arith_op) |
                                                                           rs1(s) |
                                                                           op3(wrreg_op3) |
                                                                           u_field(2, 29, 25) |
                                                                           immed(true) |
                                                                           simm(simm13a, 13)); }
  inline void wrasi(Register d) { v9_only(); emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rs1(d) | op3(wrreg_op3) | u_field(3, 29, 25)); }
  // wrasi(d, imm) stores (d xor imm) to asi
  inline void wrasi(Register d, int simm13a) { v9_only(); emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rs1(d) | op3(wrreg_op3) |
                                               u_field(3, 29, 25) | immed(true) | simm(simm13a, 13)); }
  inline void wrfprs( Register d) { v9_only(); emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rs1(d) | op3(wrreg_op3) | u_field(6, 29, 25)); }


  // VIS3 instructions

  void movstosw( FloatRegister s, Register d ) { vis3_only();  emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(mftoi_op3) | opf(mstosw_opf) | fs2(s, FloatRegisterImpl::S)); }
  void movstouw( FloatRegister s, Register d ) { vis3_only();  emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(mftoi_op3) | opf(mstouw_opf) | fs2(s, FloatRegisterImpl::S)); }
  void movdtox(  FloatRegister s, Register d ) { vis3_only();  emit_int32( op(arith_op) | rd(d) | op3(mftoi_op3) | opf(mdtox_opf) | fs2(s, FloatRegisterImpl::D)); }

  void movwtos( Register s, FloatRegister d ) { vis3_only();  emit_int32( op(arith_op) | fd(d, FloatRegisterImpl::S) | op3(mftoi_op3) | opf(mwtos_opf) | rs2(s)); }
  void movxtod( Register s, FloatRegister d ) { vis3_only();  emit_int32( op(arith_op) | fd(d, FloatRegisterImpl::D) | op3(mftoi_op3) | opf(mxtod_opf) | rs2(s)); }

  // Creation
  Assembler(CodeBuffer* code) : AbstractAssembler(code) {
#ifdef CHECK_DELAY
    delay_state = no_delay;
#endif
  }
};

#endif // CPU_SPARC_VM_ASSEMBLER_SPARC_HPP