diff test/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata/africa @ 9998:a89c75ba7881

8049343: (tz) Support tzdata2014g Reviewed-by: mfang, okutsu
author aefimov
date Sun, 07 Sep 2014 23:04:09 +0400
parents 33f4be874272
children 9c926f0dd726
line wrap: on
line diff
--- a/test/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata/africa	Tue Sep 09 19:02:36 2014 +0400
+++ b/test/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata/africa	Sun Sep 07 23:04:09 2014 +0400
@@ -21,13 +21,13 @@
 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
 # questions.
 #
-# <pre>
 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
 
-# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
+# This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
-# tz@iana.org for general use in the future).
+# tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
+# the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
 
 # From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21):
 #
@@ -49,8 +49,8 @@
 # I found in the UCLA library.
 #
 # For data circa 1899, a common source is:
-# Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94
-# <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>.
+# Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94.
+# http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359
 #
 # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
 # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
@@ -58,13 +58,13 @@
 # Previous editions of this database used WAT, CAT, SAT, and EAT
 # for +0:00 through +3:00, respectively,
 # but Mark R V Murray reports that
-# `SAST' is the official abbreviation for +2:00 in the country of South Africa,
-# `CAT' is commonly used for +2:00 in countries north of South Africa, and
-# `WAT' is probably the best name for +1:00, as the common phrase for
-# the area that includes Nigeria is ``West Africa''.
-# He has heard of ``Western Sahara Time'' for +0:00 but can find no reference.
+# 'SAST' is the official abbreviation for +2:00 in the country of South Africa,
+# 'CAT' is commonly used for +2:00 in countries north of South Africa, and
+# 'WAT' is probably the best name for +1:00, as the common phrase for
+# the area that includes Nigeria is "West Africa".
+# He has heard of "Western Sahara Time" for +0:00 but can find no reference.
 #
-# To make things confusing, `WAT' seems to have been used for -1:00 long ago;
+# To make things confusing, 'WAT' seems to have been used for -1:00 long ago;
 # I'd guess that this was because people needed _some_ name for -1:00,
 # and at the time, far west Africa was the only major land area in -1:00.
 # This usage is now obsolete, as the last use of -1:00 on the African
@@ -77,7 +77,7 @@
 #	 2:00	SAST	South Africa Standard Time
 # and Murray suggests the following abbreviation:
 #	 1:00	WAT	West Africa Time
-# I realize that this leads to `WAT' being used for both -1:00 and 1:00
+# I realize that this leads to 'WAT' being used for both -1:00 and 1:00
 # for times before 1976, but this is the best I can think of
 # until we get more information.
 #
@@ -117,9 +117,9 @@
 # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
 # more precise 0:09:21.
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Algiers	0:12:12 -	LMT	1891 Mar 15 0:01
-			0:09:21	-	PMT	1911 Mar 11    # Paris Mean Time
-			0:00	Algeria	WE%sT	1940 Feb 25 2:00
+Zone	Africa/Algiers	0:12:12 -	LMT	1891 Mar 15  0:01
+			0:09:21	-	PMT	1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
+			0:00	Algeria	WE%sT	1940 Feb 25  2:00
 			1:00	Algeria	CE%sT	1946 Oct  7
 			0:00	-	WET	1956 Jan 29
 			1:00	-	CET	1963 Apr 14
@@ -129,18 +129,8 @@
 			1:00	-	CET
 
 # Angola
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Luanda	0:52:56	-	LMT	1892
-			0:52:04	-	AOT	1911 May 26 # Angola Time
-			1:00	-	WAT
-
 # Benin
-# Whitman says they switched to 1:00 in 1946, not 1934;
-# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Africa/Porto-Novo	0:10:28	-	LMT	1912
-			0:00	-	GMT	1934 Feb 26
-			1:00	-	WAT
+# See Africa/Lagos.
 
 # Botswana
 # From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21):
@@ -149,14 +139,12 @@
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Africa/Gaborone	1:43:40 -	LMT	1885
 			1:30	-	SAST	1903 Mar
-			2:00	-	CAT	1943 Sep 19 2:00
-			2:00	1:00	CAST	1944 Mar 19 2:00
+			2:00	-	CAT	1943 Sep 19  2:00
+			2:00	1:00	CAST	1944 Mar 19  2:00
 			2:00	-	CAT
 
 # Burkina Faso
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Africa/Ouagadougou	-0:06:04 -	LMT	1912
-			 0:00	-	GMT
+# See Africa/Abidjan.
 
 # Burundi
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
@@ -164,52 +152,60 @@
 			2:00	-	CAT
 
 # Cameroon
-# Whitman says they switched to 1:00 in 1920; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Douala	0:38:48	-	LMT	1912
-			1:00	-	WAT
+# See Africa/Lagos.
 
 # Cape Verde
+#
+# Shanks gives 1907 for the transition to CVT.
+# Perhaps the 1911-05-26 Portuguese decree
+# http://dre.pt/pdf1sdip/1911/05/12500/23132313.pdf
+# merely made it official?
+#
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Atlantic/Cape_Verde -1:34:04 -	LMT	1907			# Praia
+Zone Atlantic/Cape_Verde -1:34:04 -	LMT	1907        # Praia
 			-2:00	-	CVT	1942 Sep
 			-2:00	1:00	CVST	1945 Oct 15
-			-2:00	-	CVT	1975 Nov 25 2:00
+			-2:00	-	CVT	1975 Nov 25  2:00
 			-1:00	-	CVT
 
 # Central African Republic
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Bangui	1:14:20	-	LMT	1912
-			1:00	-	WAT
+# See Africa/Lagos.
 
 # Chad
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Ndjamena	1:00:12 -	LMT	1912
+Zone	Africa/Ndjamena	1:00:12 -	LMT	1912        # N'Djamena
 			1:00	-	WAT	1979 Oct 14
 			1:00	1:00	WAST	1980 Mar  8
 			1:00	-	WAT
 
 # Comoros
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Indian/Comoro	2:53:04 -	LMT	1911 Jul   # Moroni, Gran Comoro
+Zone	Indian/Comoro	2:53:04 -	LMT	1911 Jul # Moroni, Gran Comoro
 			3:00	-	EAT
 
-# Democratic Republic of Congo
+# Democratic Republic of the Congo
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Africa/Kinshasa	1:01:12 -	LMT	1897 Nov 9
-			1:00	-	WAT
 Zone Africa/Lubumbashi	1:49:52 -	LMT	1897 Nov 9
 			2:00	-	CAT
+# The above is for the eastern part; see Africa/Lagos for the western part.
 
 # Republic of the Congo
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Africa/Brazzaville	1:01:08 -	LMT	1912
-			1:00	-	WAT
+# See Africa/Lagos.
 
-# Cote D'Ivoire
+# Côte d'Ivoire / Ivory Coast
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Africa/Abidjan	-0:16:08 -	LMT	1912
 			 0:00	-	GMT
+Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Bamako	# Mali
+Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Banjul	# Gambia
+Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Conakry	# Guinea
+Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Dakar	# Senegal
+Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Freetown	# Sierra Leone
+Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Lome		# Togo
+Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Nouakchott	# Mauritania
+Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Ouagadougou	# Burkina Faso
+Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Sao_Tome	# São Tomé and Príncipe
+Link Africa/Abidjan Atlantic/St_Helena	# St Helena
 
 # Djibouti
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
@@ -254,30 +250,26 @@
 # Egyptians would approve the cancellation."
 #
 # Egypt to cancel daylight saving time
-# <a href="http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/407168">
 # http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/407168
-# </a>
 # or
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt04.html">
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt04.html
-# </a>
 Rule	Egypt	1995	2010	-	Apr	lastFri	 0:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	1995	2005	-	Sep	lastThu	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	1995	2005	-	Sep	lastThu	24:00	0	-
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-09-19):
 # The Egyptian Gazette, issue 41,090 (2006-09-18), page 1, reports:
 # Egypt will turn back clocks by one hour at the midnight of Thursday
 # after observing the daylight saving time since May.
 # http://news.gom.com.eg/gazette/pdf/2006/09/18/01.pdf
-Rule	Egypt	2006	only	-	Sep	21	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	2006	only	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
 # From Dirk Losch (2007-08-14):
 # I received a mail from an airline which says that the daylight
 # saving time in Egypt will end in the night of 2007-09-06 to 2007-09-07.
-# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2007-08-15): [The following agree:]
+# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2007-08-15): [The following agree:]
 # http://www.nentjes.info/Bill/bill5.htm
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=53
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-09-04): The official information...:
 # http://www.sis.gov.eg/En/EgyptOnline/Miscellaneous/000002/0207000000000000001580.htm
-Rule	Egypt	2007	only	-	Sep	Thu>=1	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	2007	only	-	Sep	Thu>=1	24:00	0	-
 # From Abdelrahman Hassan (2007-09-06):
 # Due to the Hijri (lunar Islamic calendar) year being 11 days shorter
 # than the year of the Gregorian calendar, Ramadan shifts earlier each
@@ -311,15 +303,9 @@
 #
 # timeanddate[2] and another site I've found[3] also support that.
 #
-# [1] <a href="https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=492263">
-# https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=492263
-# </a>
-# [2] <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/clockchange.html?n=53">
-# http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/clockchange.html?n=53
-# </a>
-# [3] <a href="http://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/time-zone/africa/egypt/">
-# http://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/time-zone/africa/egypt/
-# </a>
+# [1] https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=492263
+# [2] http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/clockchange.html?n=53
+# [3] http://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/time-zone/africa/egypt/
 
 # From Arthur David Olson (2009-04-20):
 # In 2009 (and for the next several years), Ramadan ends before the fourth
@@ -329,14 +315,10 @@
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-08-11):
 # We have been able to confirm the August change with the Egyptian Cabinet
 # Information and Decision Support Center:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/egypt-dst-ends-2009.html">
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/egypt-dst-ends-2009.html
-# </a>
 #
 # The Middle East News Agency
-# <a href="http://www.mena.org.eg/index.aspx">
 # http://www.mena.org.eg/index.aspx
-# </a>
 # also reports "Egypt starts winter time on August 21"
 # today in article numbered "71, 11/08/2009 12:25 GMT."
 # Only the title above is available without a subscription to their service,
@@ -344,19 +326,14 @@
 # (at least today).
 
 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-07-20):
-# According to News from Egypt -  Al-Masry Al-Youm Egypt's cabinet has
+# According to News from Egypt - Al-Masry Al-Youm Egypt's cabinet has
 # decided that Daylight Saving Time will not be used in Egypt during
 # Ramadan.
 #
 # Arabic translation:
-# "Clocks to go back during Ramadan--and then forward again"
-# <a href="http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/news/clocks-go-back-during-ramadan-and-then-forward-again">
+# "Clocks to go back during Ramadan - and then forward again"
 # http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/news/clocks-go-back-during-ramadan-and-then-forward-again
-# </a>
-# or
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt02.html">
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt02.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Ahmad El-Dardiry (2014-05-07):
 # Egypt is to change back to Daylight system on May 15
@@ -365,46 +342,77 @@
 # From Gunther Vermier (2015-05-13):
 # our Egypt office confirms that the change will be at 15 May "midnight" (24:00)
 
-# From Paul Eggert (2014-05-13):
+# From Imed Chihi (2014-06-04):
+# We have finally "located" a precise official reference about the DST changes
+# in Egypt.  The Ministers Cabinet decision is explained at
+# http://www.cabinet.gov.eg/Media/CabinetMeetingsDetails.aspx?id=347 ...
+# [T]his (Arabic) site is not accessible outside Egypt, but the page ...
+# translates into: "With regard to daylight saving time, it is scheduled to
+# take effect at exactly twelve o'clock this evening, Thursday, 15 MAY 2014,
+# to be suspended by twelve o'clock on the evening of Thursday, 26 JUN 2014,
+# and re-established again at the end of the month of Ramadan, at twelve
+# o'clock on the evening of Thursday, 31 JUL 2014."  This statement has been
+# reproduced by other (more accessible) sites[, e.g.,]...
+# http://elgornal.net/news/news.aspx?id=4699258
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-04):
 # Sarah El Deeb and Lee Keath of AP report that the Egyptian government says
 # the change is because of blackouts in Cairo, even though Ahram Online (cited
-# above) says DST had no affect on electricity consumption.  The AP story says
-# DST will not be observed during Ramadan.  There is no information about when
-# DST will end.  See:
+# above) says DST had no affect on electricity consumption.  There is
+# no information about when DST will end this fall.  See:
 # http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/el-sissi-pushes-egyptians-line-23614833
 #
-# For now, guess that later transitions will use 2010's rules, and that
-# Egypt will agree with Morocco (see below) about the date Ramadan starts and
-# ends, though (unlike Morocco) it will switch at 00:00 standard time.  In
-# Egypt the spring-forward transitions are removed for 2020-2022, when the
-# guessed spring-forward date falls during the estimated Ramadan, and all
-# transitions removed for 2023-2038, where the estimated Ramadan falls entirely
-# outside the guessed daylight-saving time.  Ramadan intrudes on the guessed
-# DST starting in 2039, but that's beyond our somewhat-arbitrary cutoff.
-
-Rule	Egypt	2008	only	-	Aug	lastThu	23:00s	0	-
-Rule	Egypt	2009	only	-	Aug	20	23:00s	0	-
-Rule	Egypt	2010	only	-	Aug	11	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Egypt	2010	only	-	Sep	10	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	2010	only	-	Sep	lastThu	23:00s	0	-
+# For now, guess that later spring and fall transitions will use
+# 2010's rules, and guess that Egypt will switch to standard time at
+# 24:00 the last Thursday before Ramadan, and back to DST at 00:00 the
+# first Friday after Ramadan.  To implement this,
+# transition dates for 2015 through 2037 were determined by running
+# the following program under GNU Emacs 24.3, with the results integrated
+# by hand into the table below.  Ramadan again intrudes on the guessed
+# DST starting in 2038, but that's beyond our somewhat-arbitrary cutoff.
+# (let ((islamic-year 1436))
+#   (while (< islamic-year 1460)
+#     (let ((a (calendar-islamic-to-absolute (list 9 1 islamic-year)))
+#           (b (calendar-islamic-to-absolute (list 10 1 islamic-year)))
+#           (friday 5))
+#       (while (/= friday (mod a 7))
+#         (setq a (1- a)))
+#       (while (/= friday (mod b 7))
+#         (setq b (1+ b)))
+#       (setq a (1- a))
+#       (setq b (1- b))
+#       (setq a (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute a))
+#       (setq b (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute b))
+#       (insert
+#        (format
+#         (concat "Rule\tEgypt\t%d\tonly\t-\t%s\t%2d\t24:00\t0\t-\n"
+#                 "Rule\tEgypt\t%d\tonly\t-\t%s\t%2d\t24:00\t1:00\tS\n")
+#         (car (cdr (cdr a))) (calendar-month-name (car a) t) (car (cdr a))
+#         (car (cdr (cdr b))) (calendar-month-name (car b) t) (car (cdr b)))))
+#     (setq islamic-year (+ 1 islamic-year))))
+Rule	Egypt	2008	only	-	Aug	lastThu	24:00	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	2009	only	-	Aug	20	24:00	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	2010	only	-	Aug	10	24:00	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	2010	only	-	Sep	 9	24:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	2010	only	-	Sep	lastThu	24:00	0	-
 Rule	Egypt	2014	only	-	May	15	24:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	2014	only	-	Jun	29	 0:00s	0	-
-Rule	Egypt	2014	only	-	Jul	29	 0:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	2014	max	-	Sep	lastThu	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	2014	only	-	Jun	26	24:00	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	2014	only	-	Jul	31	24:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	2014	max	-	Sep	lastThu	24:00	0	-
 Rule	Egypt	2015	2019	-	Apr	lastFri	 0:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	2015	only	-	Jun	18	 0:00s	0	-
-Rule	Egypt	2015	only	-	Jul	18	 0:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	2016	only	-	Jun	 7	 0:00s	0	-
-Rule	Egypt	2016	only	-	Jul	 7	 0:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	2017	only	-	May	27	 0:00s	0	-
-Rule	Egypt	2017	only	-	Jun	26	 0:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	2018	only	-	May	16	 0:00s	0	-
-Rule	Egypt	2018	only	-	Jun	15	 0:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	2019	only	-	May	 6	 0:00s	0	-
-Rule	Egypt	2019	only	-	Jun	 5	 0:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	2020	only	-	May	24	 0:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	2021	only	-	May	13	 0:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	2022	only	-	May	 3	 0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	2015	only	-	Jun	11	24:00	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	2015	only	-	Jul	23	24:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	2016	only	-	Jun	 2	24:00	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	2016	only	-	Jul	 7	24:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	2017	only	-	May	25	24:00	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	2017	only	-	Jun	29	24:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	2018	only	-	May	10	24:00	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	2018	only	-	Jun	14	24:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	2019	only	-	May	 2	24:00	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	2019	only	-	Jun	 6	24:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	2020	only	-	May	28	24:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	2021	only	-	May	13	24:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	2022	only	-	May	 5	24:00	1:00	S
 Rule	Egypt	2023	max	-	Apr	lastFri	 0:00s	1:00	S
 
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
@@ -412,60 +420,63 @@
 			2:00	Egypt	EE%sT
 
 # Equatorial Guinea
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Malabo	0:35:08 -	LMT	1912
-			0:00	-	GMT	1963 Dec 15
-			1:00	-	WAT
+# See Africa/Lagos.
 
 # Eritrea
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Africa/Asmara	2:35:32 -	LMT	1870
-			2:35:32	-	AMT	1890	      # Asmara Mean Time
-			2:35:20	-	ADMT	1936 May 5    # Adis Dera MT
+			2:35:32	-	AMT	1890        # Asmara Mean Time
+			2:35:20	-	ADMT	1936 May  5 # Adis Dera MT
 			3:00	-	EAT
 
 # Ethiopia
-# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
-# Shanks & Pottenger write that Ethiopia had six narrowly-spaced time zones
-# between 1870 and 1890, and that they merged to 38E50 (2:35:20) in 1890.
-# We'll guess that 38E50 is for Adis Dera.
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-31):
+# Like the Swahili of Kenya and Tanzania, many Ethiopians keep a
+# 12-hour clock starting at our 06:00, so their "8 o'clock" is our
+# 02:00 or 14:00.  Keep this in mind when you ask the time in Amharic.
+#
+# Shanks & Pottenger write that Ethiopia had six narrowly-spaced time
+# zones between 1870 and 1890, that they merged to 38E50 (2:35:20) in
+# 1890, and that they switched to 3:00 on 1936-05-05.  Perhaps 38E50
+# was for Adis Dera.  Quite likely the Shanks data entries are wrong
+# anyway.
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone Africa/Addis_Ababa	2:34:48 -	LMT	1870
-			2:35:20	-	ADMT	1936 May 5    # Adis Dera MT
+			2:35:20	-	ADMT	1936 May  5 # Adis Dera MT
 			3:00	-	EAT
 
 # Gabon
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Africa/Libreville	0:37:48 -	LMT	1912
-			1:00	-	WAT
+# See Africa/Lagos.
 
 # Gambia
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Banjul	-1:06:36 -	LMT	1912
-			-1:06:36 -	BMT	1935	# Banjul Mean Time
-			-1:00	-	WAT	1964
-			 0:00	-	GMT
+# See Africa/Abidjan.
 
 # Ghana
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-# Whitman says DST was observed from 1931 to ``the present'';
-# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
-Rule	Ghana	1936	1942	-	Sep	 1	0:00	0:20	GHST
-Rule	Ghana	1936	1942	-	Dec	31	0:00	0	GMT
+# Whitman says DST was observed from 1931 to "the present";
+# Shanks & Pottenger say 1936 to 1942;
+# and September 1 to January 1 is given by:
+# Scott Keltie J, Epstein M (eds), The Statesman's Year-Book,
+# 57th ed. Macmillan, London (1920), OCLC 609408015, pp xxviii.
+# For lack of better info, assume DST was observed from 1920 to 1942.
+Rule	Ghana	1920	1942	-	Sep	 1	0:00	0:20	GHST
+Rule	Ghana	1920	1942	-	Dec	31	0:00	0	GMT
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Africa/Accra	-0:00:52 -	LMT	1918
 			 0:00	Ghana	%s
 
 # Guinea
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Conakry	-0:54:52 -	LMT	1912
-			 0:00	-	GMT	1934 Feb 26
-			-1:00	-	WAT	1960
-			 0:00	-	GMT
+# See Africa/Abidjan.
 
 # Guinea-Bissau
+#
+# Shanks gives 1911-05-26 for the transition to WAT,
+# evidently confusing the date of the Portuguese decree
+# http://dre.pt/pdf1sdip/1911/05/12500/23132313.pdf
+# with the date that it took effect, namely 1912-01-01.
+#
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Bissau	-1:02:20 -	LMT	1911 May 26
+Zone	Africa/Bissau	-1:02:20 -	LMT	1912 Jan  1
 			-1:00	-	WAT	1975
 			 0:00	-	GMT
 
@@ -480,8 +491,8 @@
 # Lesotho
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Africa/Maseru	1:50:00 -	LMT	1903 Mar
-			2:00	-	SAST	1943 Sep 19 2:00
-			2:00	1:00	SAST	1944 Mar 19 2:00
+			2:00	-	SAST	1943 Sep 19  2:00
+			2:00	1:00	SAST	1944 Mar 19  2:00
 			2:00	-	SAST
 
 # Liberia
@@ -549,11 +560,11 @@
 			2:00	-	EET	1982
 			1:00	Libya	CE%sT	1990 May  4
 # The 1996 and 1997 entries are from Shanks & Pottenger;
-# the IATA SSIM data contain some obvious errors.
+# the IATA SSIM data entries contain some obvious errors.
 			2:00	-	EET	1996 Sep 30
 			1:00	Libya	CE%sT	1997 Oct  4
-			2:00	-	EET	2012 Nov 10 2:00
-			1:00	Libya	CE%sT	2013 Oct 25 2:00
+			2:00	-	EET	2012 Nov 10  2:00
+			1:00	Libya	CE%sT	2013 Oct 25  2:00
 			2:00	-	EET
 
 # Madagascar
@@ -569,18 +580,8 @@
 			2:00	-	CAT
 
 # Mali
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Bamako	-0:32:00 -	LMT	1912
-			 0:00	-	GMT	1934 Feb 26
-			-1:00	-	WAT	1960 Jun 20
-			 0:00	-	GMT
-
 # Mauritania
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Africa/Nouakchott	-1:03:48 -	LMT	1912
-			 0:00	-	GMT	1934 Feb 26
-			-1:00	-	WAT	1960 Nov 28
-			 0:00	-	GMT
+# See Africa/Abidjan.
 
 # Mauritius
 
@@ -604,9 +605,7 @@
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-07-10):
 # According to
-# <a href="http://www.lexpress.mu/display_article.php?news_id=111216">
 # http://www.lexpress.mu/display_article.php?news_id=111216
-# </a>
 # (in French), Mauritius will start and end their DST a few days earlier
 # than previously announced (2008-11-01 to 2009-03-31).  The new start
 # date is 2008-10-26 at 02:00 and the new end date is 2009-03-27 (no time
@@ -621,22 +620,17 @@
 
 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-07-11):
 # Seems that English language article "The revival of daylight saving
-# time:  Energy conservation?"-# No. 16578 (07/11/2008) was originally
+# time: Energy conservation?"-# No. 16578 (07/11/2008) was originally
 # published on Monday, June 30, 2008...
 #
 # I guess that article in French "Le gouvernement avance l'introduction
-# de l'heure d'ete" stating that DST in Mauritius starting on October 26
-# and ending on March 27, 2009 is the most recent one.
-# ...
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_mauritius02.html">
+# de l'heure d'été" stating that DST in Mauritius starting on October 26
+# and ending on March 27, 2009 is the most recent one....
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_mauritius02.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Riad M. Hossen Ally (2008-08-03):
 # The Government of Mauritius weblink
-# <a href="http://www.gov.mu/portal/site/pmosite/menuitem.4ca0efdee47462e7440a600248a521ca/?content_id=4728ca68b2a5b110VgnVCM1000000a04a8c0RCRD">
 # http://www.gov.mu/portal/site/pmosite/menuitem.4ca0efdee47462e7440a600248a521ca/?content_id=4728ca68b2a5b110VgnVCM1000000a04a8c0RCRD
-# </a>
 # Cabinet Decision of July 18th, 2008 states as follows:
 #
 # 4. ...Cabinet has agreed to the introduction into the National Assembly
@@ -646,33 +640,25 @@
 # States of America. It will start at two o'clock in the morning on the
 # last Sunday of October and will end at two o'clock in the morning on
 # the last Sunday of March the following year. The summer time for the
-# year 2008 - 2009 will, therefore, be effective as from 26 October 2008
+# year 2008-2009 will, therefore, be effective as from 26 October 2008
 # and end on 29 March 2009.
 
 # From Ed Maste (2008-10-07):
 # THE TIME BILL (No. XXVII of 2008) Explanatory Memorandum states the
 # beginning / ending of summer time is 2 o'clock standard time in the
 # morning of the last Sunday of October / last Sunday of March.
-# <a href="http://www.gov.mu/portal/goc/assemblysite/file/bill2708.pdf">
 # http://www.gov.mu/portal/goc/assemblysite/file/bill2708.pdf
-# </a>
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-06-05):
 # According to several sources, Mauritius will not continue to observe
 # DST the coming summer...
 #
 # Some sources, in French:
-# <a href="http://www.defimedia.info/news/946/Rashid-Beebeejaun-:-%C2%AB-L%E2%80%99heure-d%E2%80%99%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ne-sera-pas-appliqu%C3%A9e-cette-ann%C3%A9e-%C2%BB">
 # http://www.defimedia.info/news/946/Rashid-Beebeejaun-:-%C2%AB-L%E2%80%99heure-d%E2%80%99%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ne-sera-pas-appliqu%C3%A9e-cette-ann%C3%A9e-%C2%BB
-# </a>
-# <a href="http://lexpress.mu/Story/3398~Beebeejaun---Les-objectifs-d-%C3%A9conomie-d-%C3%A9nergie-de-l-heure-d-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ont-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-atteints-">
 # http://lexpress.mu/Story/3398~Beebeejaun---Les-objectifs-d-%C3%A9conomie-d-%C3%A9nergie-de-l-heure-d-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ont-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-atteints-
-# </a>
 #
 # Our wrap-up:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat.html">
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Arthur David Olson (2009-07-11):
 # The "mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat" wrapup includes this:
@@ -685,18 +671,18 @@
 Rule Mauritius	2008	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	S
 Rule Mauritius	2009	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	0	-
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Indian/Mauritius	3:50:00 -	LMT	1907		# Port Louis
+Zone Indian/Mauritius	3:50:00 -	LMT	1907 # Port Louis
 			4:00 Mauritius	MU%sT	# Mauritius Time
 # Agalega Is, Rodriguez
 # no information; probably like Indian/Mauritius
 
 # Mayotte
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Indian/Mayotte	3:00:56 -	LMT	1911 Jul	# Mamoutzou
+Zone	Indian/Mayotte	3:00:56 -	LMT	1911 Jul # Mamoutzou
 			3:00	-	EAT
 
 # Morocco
-# See the `europe' file for Spanish Morocco (Africa/Ceuta).
+# See the 'europe' file for Spanish Morocco (Africa/Ceuta).
 
 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-09):
 # Here is an article that Morocco plan to introduce Daylight Saving Time between
@@ -704,60 +690,44 @@
 #
 # "... Morocco is to save energy by adjusting its clock during summer so it will
 # be one hour ahead of GMT between 1 June and 27 September, according to
-# Communication Minister and Gov ernment Spokesman, Khalid Naciri...."
+# Communication Minister and Government Spokesman, Khalid Naciri...."
 #
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.net/dst_news/dst_news_morocco01.html">
 # http://www.worldtimezone.net/dst_news/dst_news_morocco01.html
-# </a>
-# OR
-# <a href="http://en.afrik.com/news11892.html">
 # http://en.afrik.com/news11892.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-09):
-# The Morocco time change can be confirmed on Morocco web site Maghreb Arabe Presse:
-# <a href="http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/box3/morocco_shifts_to_da/view">
+# The Morocco time change can be confirmed on Morocco web site Maghreb Arabe
+# Presse:
 # http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/box3/morocco_shifts_to_da/view
-# </a>
 #
 # Morocco shifts to daylight time on June 1st through September 27, Govt.
 # spokesman.
 
 # From Patrice Scattolin (2008-05-09):
 # According to this article:
-# <a href="http://www.avmaroc.com/actualite/heure-dete-comment-a127896.html">
 # http://www.avmaroc.com/actualite/heure-dete-comment-a127896.html
-# </a>
-# (and republished here:
-# <a href="http://www.actu.ma/heure-dete-comment_i127896_0.html">
-# http://www.actu.ma/heure-dete-comment_i127896_0.html
-# </a>
-# )
-# the changes occurs at midnight:
+# (and republished here: <http://www.actu.ma/heure-dete-comment_i127896_0.html>)
+# the changes occur at midnight:
 #
-# saturday night may 31st at midnight (which in french is to be
-# intrepreted as the night between saturday and sunday)
-# sunday night the 28th  at midnight
+# Saturday night May 31st at midnight (which in French is to be
+# interpreted as the night between Saturday and Sunday)
+# Sunday night the 28th at midnight
 #
-# Seeing that the 28th is monday, I am guessing that she intends to say
-# the midnight of the 28th which is the midnight between sunday and
-# monday, which jives with other sources that say that it's inclusive
-# june1st to sept 27th.
+# Seeing that the 28th is Monday, I am guessing that she intends to say
+# the midnight of the 28th which is the midnight between Sunday and
+# Monday, which jives with other sources that say that it's inclusive
+# June 1st to Sept 27th.
 #
 # The decision was taken by decree *2-08-224 *but I can't find the decree
 # published on the web.
 #
 # It's also confirmed here:
-# <a href="http://www.maroc.ma/NR/exeres/FACF141F-D910-44B0-B7FA-6E03733425D1.htm">
 # http://www.maroc.ma/NR/exeres/FACF141F-D910-44B0-B7FA-6E03733425D1.htm
-# </a>
-# on a government portal as being  between june 1st and sept 27th (not yet
-# posted in english).
+# on a government portal as being between June 1st and Sept 27th (not yet
+# posted in English).
 #
-# The following google query will generate many relevant hits:
-# <a href="http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Conseil+de+gouvernement+maroc+heure+avance&btnG=Search">
+# The following Google query will generate many relevant hits:
 # http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Conseil+de+gouvernement+maroc+heure+avance&btnG=Search
-# </a>
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-08-27):
 # Morocco will change the clocks back on the midnight between August 31
@@ -765,47 +735,32 @@
 # of September:
 #
 # One article about it (in French):
-# <a href="http://www.menara.ma/fr/Actualites/Maroc/Societe/ci.retour_a_l_heure_gmt_a_partir_du_dimanche_31_aout_a_minuit_officiel_.default">
 # http://www.menara.ma/fr/Actualites/Maroc/Societe/ci.retour_a_l_heure_gmt_a_partir_du_dimanche_31_aout_a_minuit_officiel_.default
-# </a>
 #
 # We have some further details posted here:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-ends-dst-early-2008.html">
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-ends-dst-early-2008.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-17):
 # Morocco will observe DST from 2009-06-01 00:00 to 2009-08-21 00:00 according
 # to many sources, such as
-# <a href="http://news.marweb.com/morocco/entertainment/morocco-daylight-saving.html">
 # http://news.marweb.com/morocco/entertainment/morocco-daylight-saving.html
-# </a>
-# <a href="http://www.medi1sat.ma/fr/depeche.aspx?idp=2312">
 # http://www.medi1sat.ma/fr/depeche.aspx?idp=2312
-# </a>
 # (French)
 #
 # Our summary:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2009.html">
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2009.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-17):
 # Here is a link to official document from Royaume du Maroc Premier Ministre,
-# Ministere de la Modernisation des Secteurs Publics
+# Ministère de la Modernisation des Secteurs Publics
 #
 # Under Article 1 of Royal Decree No. 455-67 of Act 23 safar 1387 (2 june 1967)
 # concerning the amendment of the legal time, the Ministry of Modernization of
 # Public Sectors announced that the official time in the Kingdom will be
 # advanced 60 minutes from Sunday 31 May 2009 at midnight.
 #
-# <a href="http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/francais/Actualites_fr/PDF_Actualites_Fr/HeureEte_FR.pdf">
 # http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/francais/Actualites_fr/PDF_Actualites_Fr/HeureEte_FR.pdf
-# </a>
-#
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco03.html">
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco03.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-04-13):
 # Several news media in Morocco report that the Ministry of Modernization
@@ -813,51 +768,33 @@
 # 2010-05-02 to 2010-08-08.
 #
 # Example:
-# <a href="http://www.lavieeco.com/actualites/4099-le-maroc-passera-a-l-heure-d-ete-gmt1-le-2-mai.html">
 # http://www.lavieeco.com/actualites/4099-le-maroc-passera-a-l-heure-d-ete-gmt1-le-2-mai.html
-# </a>
 # (French)
 # Our page:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2010.html">
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2010.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Dan Abitol (2011-03-30):
 # ...Rules for Africa/Casablanca are the following (24h format)
-# The 3rd april 2011 at 00:00:00, [it] will be 3rd april 1:00:00
-# The 31th july 2011 at 00:59:59,  [it] will be 31th July 00:00:00
+# The 3rd April 2011 at 00:00:00, [it] will be 3rd April 01:00:00
+# The 31st July 2011 at 00:59:59, [it] will be 31st July 00:00:00
 # ...Official links of change in morocco
 # The change was broadcast on the FM Radio
 # I ve called ANRT (telecom regulations in Morocco) at
 # +212.537.71.84.00
-# <a href="http://www.anrt.net.ma/fr/">
 # http://www.anrt.net.ma/fr/
-# </a>
 # They said that
-# <a href="http://www.map.ma/fr/sections/accueil/l_heure_legale_au_ma/view">
 # http://www.map.ma/fr/sections/accueil/l_heure_legale_au_ma/view
-# </a>
 # is the official publication to look at.
 # They said that the decision was already taken.
 #
 # More articles in the press
-# <a href="http://www.yabiladi.com/articles/details/5058/secret-l-heure-d-ete-maroc-lev">
-# http://www.yabiladi.com/articles/details/5058/secret-l-heure-d-ete-maroc-lev
-# </a>
-# e.html
-# <a href="http://www.lematin.ma/Actualite/Express/Article.asp?id=148923">
+# http://www.yabiladi.com/articles/details/5058/secret-l-heure-d-ete-maroc-leve.html
 # http://www.lematin.ma/Actualite/Express/Article.asp?id=148923
-# </a>
-# <a href="http://www.lavieeco.com/actualite/Le-Maroc-passe-sur-GMT%2B1-a-partir-de-dim">
 # http://www.lavieeco.com/actualite/Le-Maroc-passe-sur-GMT%2B1-a-partir-de-dim
-# anche-prochain-5538.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Petr Machata (2011-03-30):
 # They have it written in English here:
-# <a href="http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/home/morocco_to_spring_fo/view">
 # http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/home/morocco_to_spring_fo/view
-# </a>
 #
 # It says there that "Morocco will resume its standard time on July 31,
 # 2011 at midnight." Now they don't say whether they mean midnight of
@@ -865,20 +802,16 @@
 # also been like that in the past.
 
 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2012-03-09):
-# According to Infom&eacute;diaire web site from Morocco (infomediaire.ma),
-# on March 9, 2012, (in French) Heure l&eacute;gale:
-# Le Maroc adopte officiellement l'heure d'&eacute;t&eacute;
-# <a href="http://www.infomediaire.ma/news/maroc/heure-l%C3%A9gale-le-maroc-adopte-officiellement-lheure-d%C3%A9t%C3%A9">
+# According to Infomédiaire web site from Morocco (infomediaire.ma),
+# on March 9, 2012, (in French) Heure légale:
+# Le Maroc adopte officiellement l'heure d'été
 # http://www.infomediaire.ma/news/maroc/heure-l%C3%A9gale-le-maroc-adopte-officiellement-lheure-d%C3%A9t%C3%A9
-# </a>
 # Governing Council adopted draft decree, that Morocco DST starts on
 # the last Sunday of March (March 25, 2012) and ends on
 # last Sunday of September (September 30, 2012)
 # except the month of Ramadan.
 # or (brief)
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco06.html">
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco06.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-10):
 # The infomediaire.ma source indicates that the system is to be in
@@ -889,17 +822,13 @@
 
 # From Christophe Tropamer (2012-03-16):
 # Seen Morocco change again:
-# <a href="http://www.le2uminutes.com/actualite.php">
 # http://www.le2uminutes.com/actualite.php
-# </a>
-# "...&agrave; partir du dernier dimance d'avril et non fins mars,
-# comme annonc&eacute; pr&eacute;c&eacute;demment."
+# "...à partir du dernier dimanche d'avril et non fins mars,
+# comme annoncé précédemment."
 
 # From Milamber Space Network (2012-07-17):
 # The official return to GMT is announced by the Moroccan government:
-# <a href="http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=288">
 # http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=288 [in French]
-# </a>
 #
 # Google translation, lightly edited:
 # Back to the standard time of the Kingdom (GMT)
@@ -917,7 +846,7 @@
 # announced a bit in advance.  On 2012-07-11 the Moroccan government
 # announced that year's Ramadan daylight-saving transitions would be
 # 2012-07-20 and 2012-08-20; see
-# <http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=288>.
+# http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=288
 
 # From Andrew Paprocki (2013-07-02):
 # Morocco announced that the year's Ramadan daylight-savings
@@ -937,39 +866,36 @@
 # From Sebastien Willemijns (2014-03-18):
 # http://www.afriquinfos.com/articles/2014/3/18/maroc-heure-dete-avancez-tous-horloges-247891.asp
 
-# From Paul Eggert (2014-03-19):
-# To estimate what the Moroccan government will do in future years,
-# transition dates for 2014 through 2038 were determined by running
-# the following program under GNU Emacs 24.3:
-#
-# (let ((islamic-year 1435))
-#   (while (< islamic-year 1461)
-#     (let ((a
-#	     (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute
-#	      (calendar-islamic-to-absolute (list 9 1 islamic-year))))
-#	    (b
-#	     (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute
-#	      (calendar-islamic-to-absolute (list 10 1 islamic-year)))))
-#	(insert
-#	 (format
-#	  (concat "Rule\tMorocco\t%d\tonly\t-\t%s\t %2d\t 3:00\t0\t-\n"
-#		  "Rule\tMorocco\t%d\tonly\t-\t%s\t %2d\t 2:00\t1:00\tS\n")
-#	  (car (cdr (cdr a))) (calendar-month-name (car a) t) (car (cdr a))
-#	  (car (cdr (cdr b))) (calendar-month-name (car b) t) (car (cdr b)))))
+# From Milamber Space Network (2014-06-05):
+# The Moroccan government has recently announced that the country will return
+# to standard time at 03:00 on Saturday, June 28, 2014 local time....  DST
+# will resume again at 02:00 on Saturday, August 2, 2014....
+# http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=586
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-05):
+# For now, guess that later spring and fall transitions will use 2014's rules,
+# and guess that Morocco will switch to standard time at 03:00 the last
+# Saturday before Ramadan, and back to DST at 02:00 the first Saturday after
+# Ramadan.  To implement this, transition dates for 2015 through 2037 were
+# determined by running the following program under GNU Emacs 24.3, with the
+# results integrated by hand into the table below.
+# (let ((islamic-year 1436))
+#   (while (< islamic-year 1460)
+#     (let ((a (calendar-islamic-to-absolute (list 9 1 islamic-year)))
+#           (b (calendar-islamic-to-absolute (list 10 1 islamic-year)))
+#           (saturday 6))
+#       (while (/= saturday (mod (setq a (1- a)) 7)))
+#       (while (/= saturday (mod b 7))
+#         (setq b (1+ b)))
+#       (setq a (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute a))
+#       (setq b (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute b))
+#       (insert
+#        (format
+#         (concat "Rule\tMorocco\t%d\tonly\t-\t%s\t%2d\t 3:00\t0\t-\n"
+#                 "Rule\tMorocco\t%d\tonly\t-\t%s\t%2d\t 2:00\t1:00\tS\n")
+#         (car (cdr (cdr a))) (calendar-month-name (car a) t) (car (cdr a))
+#         (car (cdr (cdr b))) (calendar-month-name (car b) t) (car (cdr b)))))
 #     (setq islamic-year (+ 1 islamic-year))))
-#
-# with spring-forward transitions removed for 2023-2025, when the
-# normal spring-forward date falls during the estimated Ramadan; with
-# all transitions removed for 2026-2035, where the estimated Ramadan
-# falls entirely outside daylight-saving time; and with fall-back
-# transitions removed for 2036-2037, where the normal fall-back
-# date falls during the estimated Ramadan.  Normally, the table would
-# stop after 2037 because 32-bit time_t values roll around early in 2038,
-# but that would imply a prediction of perpetual DST after March 2038
-# due to the year-2037 glitches.  So, this table instead stops after
-# 2038, the first non-glitchy year after the 32-bit rollover.
-# An advantage of stopping after 2038 is that it lets zic guess
-# TZ='WET0WEST,M3.5.0,M10.5.0/3' for time stamps far in the future.
 
 # RULE	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
 
@@ -991,46 +917,44 @@
 Rule	Morocco	2008	only	-	Jun	 1	 0:00	1:00	S
 Rule	Morocco	2008	only	-	Sep	 1	 0:00	0	-
 Rule	Morocco	2009	only	-	Jun	 1	 0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2009	only	-	Aug	 21	 0:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2009	only	-	Aug	21	 0:00	0	-
 Rule	Morocco	2010	only	-	May	 2	 0:00	1:00	S
 Rule	Morocco	2010	only	-	Aug	 8	 0:00	0	-
 Rule	Morocco	2011	only	-	Apr	 3	 0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2011	only	-	Jul	 31	 0	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2012	2013	-	Apr	 lastSun 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2012	only	-	Sep	 30	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2012	only	-	Jul	 20	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2012	only	-	Aug	 20	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2013	only	-	Jul	  7	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2013	only	-	Aug	 10	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2013	2035	-	Oct	 lastSun 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2014	2022	-	Mar	 lastSun 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2014	only	-	Jun	 29	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2014	only	-	Jul	 29	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2015	only	-	Jun	 18	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2015	only	-	Jul	 18	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2016	only	-	Jun	  7	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2016	only	-	Jul	  7	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2017	only	-	May	 27	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2017	only	-	Jun	 26	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2018	only	-	May	 16	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2018	only	-	Jun	 15	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2019	only	-	May	  6	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2019	only	-	Jun	  5	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2020	only	-	Apr	 24	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2020	only	-	May	 24	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2021	only	-	Apr	 13	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2021	only	-	May	 13	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2022	only	-	Apr	  3	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2022	only	-	May	  3	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2023	only	-	Apr	 22	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2024	only	-	Apr	 10	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2025	only	-	Mar	 31	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2026	max	-	Mar	 lastSun 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2036	only	-	Oct	 21	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2037	only	-	Oct	 11	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2038	only	-	Sep	 30	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2038	only	-	Oct	 30	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Morocco	2038	max	-	Oct	 lastSun 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2011	only	-	Jul	31	 0	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2012	2013	-	Apr	lastSun	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2012	only	-	Sep	30	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2012	only	-	Jul	20	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2012	only	-	Aug	20	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2013	only	-	Jul	 7	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2013	only	-	Aug	10	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2013	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2014	2022	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2014	only	-	Jun	28	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2014	only	-	Aug	 2	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2015	only	-	Jun	13	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2015	only	-	Jul	18	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2016	only	-	Jun	 4	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2016	only	-	Jul	 9	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2017	only	-	May	20	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2017	only	-	Jul	 1	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2018	only	-	May	12	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2018	only	-	Jun	16	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2019	only	-	May	 4	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2019	only	-	Jun	 8	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2020	only	-	Apr	18	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2020	only	-	May	30	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2021	only	-	Apr	10	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2021	only	-	May	15	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2022	only	-	Apr	 2	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2022	only	-	May	 7	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2023	only	-	Apr	22	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2024	only	-	Apr	13	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2025	only	-	Apr	 5	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2026	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2035	only	-	Oct	27	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2036	only	-	Oct	18	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2037	only	-	Oct	10	 3:00	0	-
 
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone Africa/Casablanca	-0:30:20 -	LMT	1913 Oct 26
@@ -1049,11 +973,17 @@
 # Assume that this has been true since Western Sahara switched to GMT,
 # since most of it was then controlled by Morocco.
 
-Zone Africa/El_Aaiun	-0:52:48 -	LMT	1934 Jan
+Zone Africa/El_Aaiun	-0:52:48 -	LMT	1934 Jan # El Aaiún
 			-1:00	-	WAT	1976 Apr 14
 			 0:00	Morocco	WE%sT
 
 # Mozambique
+#
+# Shanks gives 1903-03-01 for the transition to CAT.
+# Perhaps the 1911-05-26 Portuguese decree
+# http://dre.pt/pdf1sdip/1911/05/12500/23132313.pdf
+# merely made it official?
+#
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Africa/Maputo	2:10:20 -	LMT	1903 Mar
 			2:00	-	CAT
@@ -1062,8 +992,8 @@
 # The 1994-04-03 transition is from Shanks & Pottenger.
 # Shanks & Pottenger report no DST after 1998-04; go with IATA.
 
-# From Petronella Sibeene (2007-03-30) in
-# <http://allafrica.com/stories/200703300178.html>:
+# From Petronella Sibeene (2007-03-30):
+# http://allafrica.com/stories/200703300178.html
 # While the entire country changes its time, Katima Mulilo and other
 # settlements in Caprivi unofficially will not because the sun there
 # rises and sets earlier compared to other regions.  Chief of
@@ -1080,34 +1010,41 @@
 Rule	Namibia	1995	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	0	-
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Africa/Windhoek	1:08:24 -	LMT	1892 Feb 8
-			1:30	-	SWAT	1903 Mar	# SW Africa Time
-			2:00	-	SAST	1942 Sep 20 2:00
-			2:00	1:00	SAST	1943 Mar 21 2:00
+			1:30	-	SWAT	1903 Mar    # SW Africa Time
+			2:00	-	SAST	1942 Sep 20  2:00
+			2:00	1:00	SAST	1943 Mar 21  2:00
 			2:00	-	SAST	1990 Mar 21 # independence
 			2:00	-	CAT	1994 Apr  3
 			1:00	Namibia	WA%sT
 
 # Niger
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Niamey	 0:08:28 -	LMT	1912
-			-1:00	-	WAT	1934 Feb 26
-			 0:00	-	GMT	1960
-			 1:00	-	WAT
+# See Africa/Lagos.
 
 # Nigeria
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Africa/Lagos	0:13:36 -	LMT	1919 Sep
 			1:00	-	WAT
+Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Bangui	     # Central African Republic
+Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Brazzaville # Rep. of the Congo
+Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Douala	     # Cameroon
+Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Kinshasa    # Dem. Rep. of the Congo (west)
+Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Libreville  # Gabon
+Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Luanda	     # Angola
+Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Malabo	     # Equatorial Guinea
+Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Niamey	     # Niger
+Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Porto-Novo  # Benin
 
-# Reunion
+# Réunion
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Indian/Reunion	3:41:52 -	LMT	1911 Jun	# Saint-Denis
-			4:00	-	RET	# Reunion Time
+Zone	Indian/Reunion	3:41:52 -	LMT	1911 Jun # Saint-Denis
+			4:00	-	RET	# Réunion Time
 #
-# Scattered Islands (Iles Eparses) administered from Reunion are as follows.
+# Crozet Islands also observes Réunion time; see the 'antarctica' file.
+#
+# Scattered Islands (Îles Éparses) administered from Réunion are as follows.
 # The following information about them is taken from
-# Iles Eparses (www.outre-mer.gouv.fr/domtom/ile.htm, 1997-07-22, in French;
-# no longer available as of 1999-08-17).
+# Îles Éparses (<http://www.outre-mer.gouv.fr/domtom/ile.htm>, 1997-07-22,
+# in French; no longer available as of 1999-08-17).
 # We have no info about their time zone histories.
 #
 # Bassas da India - uninhabited
@@ -1122,32 +1059,21 @@
 			2:00	-	CAT
 
 # St Helena
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Atlantic/St_Helena	-0:22:48 -	LMT	1890		# Jamestown
-			-0:22:48 -	JMT	1951	# Jamestown Mean Time
-			 0:00	-	GMT
+# See Africa/Abidjan.
 # The other parts of the St Helena territory are similar:
 #	Tristan da Cunha: on GMT, say Whitman and the CIA
-#	Ascension: on GMT, says usno1995 and the CIA
+#	Ascension: on GMT, say the USNO (1995-12-21) and the CIA
 #	Gough (scientific station since 1955; sealers wintered previously):
 #		on GMT, says the CIA
-#	Inaccessible, Nightingale: no information, but probably GMT
+#	Inaccessible, Nightingale: uninhabited
 
-# Sao Tome and Principe
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Sao_Tome	 0:26:56 -	LMT	1884
-			-0:36:32 -	LMT	1912	# Lisbon Mean Time
-			 0:00	-	GMT
-
+# São Tomé and Príncipe
 # Senegal
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Dakar	-1:09:44 -	LMT	1912
-			-1:00	-	WAT	1941 Jun
-			 0:00	-	GMT
+# See Africa/Abidjan.
 
 # Seychelles
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Indian/Mahe	3:41:48 -	LMT	1906 Jun	# Victoria
+Zone	Indian/Mahe	3:41:48 -	LMT	1906 Jun # Victoria
 			4:00	-	SCT	# Seychelles Time
 # From Paul Eggert (2001-05-30):
 # Aldabra, Farquhar, and Desroches, originally dependencies of the
@@ -1157,17 +1083,7 @@
 # Possibly the islands were uninhabited.
 
 # Sierra Leone
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-# Whitman gives Mar 31 - Aug 31 for 1931 on; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
-Rule	SL	1935	1942	-	Jun	 1	0:00	0:40	SLST
-Rule	SL	1935	1942	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	WAT
-Rule	SL	1957	1962	-	Jun	 1	0:00	1:00	SLST
-Rule	SL	1957	1962	-	Sep	 1	0:00	0	GMT
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Freetown	-0:53:00 -	LMT	1882
-			-0:53:00 -	FMT	1913 Jun # Freetown Mean Time
-			-1:00	SL	%s	1957
-			 0:00	SL	%s
+# See Africa/Abidjan.
 
 # Somalia
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
@@ -1190,9 +1106,9 @@
 
 # Sudan
 #
-# From <a href="http://www.sunanews.net/sn13jane.html">
-# Sudan News Agency (2000-01-13)
-# </a>, also reported by Michael De Beukelaer-Dossche via Steffen Thorsen:
+# From <http://www.sunanews.net/sn13jane.html>
+# Sudan News Agency (2000-01-13),
+# also reported by Michaël De Beukelaer-Dossche via Steffen Thorsen:
 # Clocks will be moved ahead for 60 minutes all over the Sudan as of noon
 # Saturday....  This was announced Thursday by Caretaker State Minister for
 # Manpower Abdul-Rahman Nur-Eddin.
@@ -1223,14 +1139,12 @@
 			3:00	-	EAT
 
 # Togo
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Lome	0:04:52 -	LMT	1893
-			0:00	-	GMT
+# See Africa/Abidjan.
 
 # Tunisia
 
 # From Gwillim Law (2005-04-30):
-# My correspondent, Risto Nykanen, has alerted me to another adoption of DST,
+# My correspondent, Risto Nykänen, has alerted me to another adoption of DST,
 # this time in Tunisia.  According to Yahoo France News
 # <http://fr.news.yahoo.com/050426/5/4dumk.html>, in a story attributed to AP
 # and dated 2005-04-26, "Tunisia has decided to advance its official time by
@@ -1239,8 +1153,8 @@
 # Saturday."  (My translation)
 #
 # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-05-02):
-# LaPresse, the first national daily newspaper ...
-# <http://www.lapresse.tn/archives/archives280405/actualites/lheure.html>
+# La Presse, the first national daily newspaper ...
+# http://www.lapresse.tn/archives/archives280405/actualites/lheure.html
 # ... DST for 2005: on: Sun May 1 0h standard time, off: Fri Sept. 30,
 # 1h standard time.
 #
@@ -1253,18 +1167,12 @@
 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-16):
 # According to several news sources, Tunisia will not observe DST this year.
 # (Arabic)
-# <a href="http://www.elbashayer.com/?page=viewn&nid=42546">
 # http://www.elbashayer.com/?page=viewn&nid=42546
-# </a>
-# <a href="http://www.babnet.net/kiwidetail-15295.asp">
 # http://www.babnet.net/kiwidetail-15295.asp
-# </a>
 #
 # We have also confirmed this with the US embassy in Tunisia.
 # We have a wrap-up about this on the following page:
-# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/tunisia-cancels-dst-2009.html">
 # http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/tunisia-cancels-dst-2009.html
-# </a>
 
 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-17):
 # Here is a link to Tunis Afrique Presse News Agency
@@ -1272,20 +1180,17 @@
 # Standard time to be kept the whole year long (tap.info.tn):
 #
 # (in English)
-# <a href="http://www.tap.info.tn/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=26813&Itemid=157">
 # http://www.tap.info.tn/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=26813&Itemid=157
-# </a>
 #
 # (in Arabic)
-# <a href="http://www.tap.info.tn/ar/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=61240&Itemid=1">
 # http://www.tap.info.tn/ar/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=61240&Itemid=1
-# </a>
 
-# From Arthur David Olson (2009--3-18):
-# The Tunis Afrique Presse News Agency notice contains this: "This measure is due to the fact
-# that the fasting month of ramadan coincides with the period concerned by summer time.
-# Therefore, the standard time will be kept unchanged the whole year long."
-# So foregoing DST seems to be an exception (albeit one that may be repeated in the  future).
+# From Arthur David Olson (2009-03-18):
+# The Tunis Afrique Presse News Agency notice contains this: "This measure is
+# due to the fact that the fasting month of Ramadan coincides with the period
+# concerned by summer time.  Therefore, the standard time will be kept
+# unchanged the whole year long."  So foregoing DST seems to be an exception
+# (albeit one that may be repeated in the future).
 
 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-27):
 # According to some news reports Tunis confirmed not to use DST in 2010
@@ -1297,12 +1202,8 @@
 # coincided with the month of Ramadan..."
 #
 # (in Arabic)
-# <a href="http://www.moheet.com/show_news.aspx?nid=358861&pg=1">
 # http://www.moheet.com/show_news.aspx?nid=358861&pg=1
-# <a href="http://www.almadenahnews.com/newss/news.php?c=118&id=38036">
 # http://www.almadenahnews.com/newss/news.php?c=118&id=38036
-# or
-# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_tunis02.html">
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_tunis02.html
 
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
@@ -1337,7 +1238,7 @@
 # Shanks & Pottenger say the 1911 switch was on Mar 9; go with Howse's Mar 11.
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Africa/Tunis	0:40:44 -	LMT	1881 May 12
-			0:09:21	-	PMT	1911 Mar 11    # Paris Mean Time
+			0:09:21	-	PMT	1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
 			1:00	Tunisia	CE%sT
 
 # Uganda