changeset 1467:12e479399ced

6785442: ConcurrentLinkedQueue.remove() and poll() can both remove the same element 6493942: ConcurrentLinkedQueue.remove sometimes very slow Summary: new algorithm for handling concurrent linked lists Reviewed-by: martin
author dl
date Tue, 28 Jul 2009 13:24:52 -0700
parents 056c8e724015
children 49573ab3096a
files src/share/classes/java/util/concurrent/ConcurrentLinkedQueue.java test/java/util/concurrent/ConcurrentLinkedQueue/ConcurrentQueueLoops.java test/java/util/concurrent/ConcurrentLinkedQueue/LoopHelpers.java test/java/util/concurrent/ConcurrentQueues/ConcurrentQueueLoops.java test/java/util/concurrent/ConcurrentQueues/GCRetention.java test/java/util/concurrent/ConcurrentQueues/LoopHelpers.java test/java/util/concurrent/ConcurrentQueues/RemovePollRace.java test/java/util/concurrent/LinkedBlockingQueue/OfferRemoveLoops.java
diffstat 8 files changed, 1058 insertions(+), 461 deletions(-) [+]
line wrap: on
line diff
--- a/src/share/classes/java/util/concurrent/ConcurrentLinkedQueue.java	Tue Jul 28 11:15:49 2009 +0800
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/util/concurrent/ConcurrentLinkedQueue.java	Tue Jul 28 13:24:52 2009 -0700
@@ -34,9 +34,13 @@
  */
 
 package java.util.concurrent;
-import java.util.*;
-import java.util.concurrent.atomic.*;
 
+import java.util.AbstractQueue;
+import java.util.ArrayList;
+import java.util.Collection;
+import java.util.Iterator;
+import java.util.NoSuchElementException;
+import java.util.Queue;
 
 /**
  * An unbounded thread-safe {@linkplain Queue queue} based on linked nodes.
@@ -47,9 +51,9 @@
  * queue the shortest time. New elements
  * are inserted at the tail of the queue, and the queue retrieval
  * operations obtain elements at the head of the queue.
- * A <tt>ConcurrentLinkedQueue</tt> is an appropriate choice when
+ * A {@code ConcurrentLinkedQueue} is an appropriate choice when
  * many threads will share access to a common collection.
- * This queue does not permit <tt>null</tt> elements.
+ * This queue does not permit {@code null} elements.
  *
  * <p>This implementation employs an efficient &quot;wait-free&quot;
  * algorithm based on one described in <a
@@ -57,7 +61,7 @@
  * Fast, and Practical Non-Blocking and Blocking Concurrent Queue
  * Algorithms</a> by Maged M. Michael and Michael L. Scott.
  *
- * <p>Beware that, unlike in most collections, the <tt>size</tt> method
+ * <p>Beware that, unlike in most collections, the {@code size} method
  * is <em>NOT</em> a constant-time operation. Because of the
  * asynchronous nature of these queues, determining the current number
  * of elements requires a traversal of the elements.
@@ -87,51 +91,102 @@
     private static final long serialVersionUID = 196745693267521676L;
 
     /*
-     * This is a straight adaptation of Michael & Scott algorithm.
-     * For explanation, read the paper.  The only (minor) algorithmic
-     * difference is that this version supports lazy deletion of
-     * internal nodes (method remove(Object)) -- remove CAS'es item
-     * fields to null. The normal queue operations unlink but then
-     * pass over nodes with null item fields. Similarly, iteration
-     * methods ignore those with nulls.
+     * This is a modification of the Michael & Scott algorithm,
+     * adapted for a garbage-collected environment, with support for
+     * interior node deletion (to support remove(Object)).  For
+     * explanation, read the paper.
      *
-     * Also note that like most non-blocking algorithms in this
-     * package, this implementation relies on the fact that in garbage
+     * Note that like most non-blocking algorithms in this package,
+     * this implementation relies on the fact that in garbage
      * collected systems, there is no possibility of ABA problems due
      * to recycled nodes, so there is no need to use "counted
      * pointers" or related techniques seen in versions used in
      * non-GC'ed settings.
+     *
+     * The fundamental invariants are:
+     * - There is exactly one (last) Node with a null next reference,
+     *   which is CASed when enqueueing.  This last Node can be
+     *   reached in O(1) time from tail, but tail is merely an
+     *   optimization - it can always be reached in O(N) time from
+     *   head as well.
+     * - The elements contained in the queue are the non-null items in
+     *   Nodes that are reachable from head.  CASing the item
+     *   reference of a Node to null atomically removes it from the
+     *   queue.  Reachability of all elements from head must remain
+     *   true even in the case of concurrent modifications that cause
+     *   head to advance.  A dequeued Node may remain in use
+     *   indefinitely due to creation of an Iterator or simply a
+     *   poll() that has lost its time slice.
+     *
+     * The above might appear to imply that all Nodes are GC-reachable
+     * from a predecessor dequeued Node.  That would cause two problems:
+     * - allow a rogue Iterator to cause unbounded memory retention
+     * - cause cross-generational linking of old Nodes to new Nodes if
+     *   a Node was tenured while live, which generational GCs have a
+     *   hard time dealing with, causing repeated major collections.
+     * However, only non-deleted Nodes need to be reachable from
+     * dequeued Nodes, and reachability does not necessarily have to
+     * be of the kind understood by the GC.  We use the trick of
+     * linking a Node that has just been dequeued to itself.  Such a
+     * self-link implicitly means to advance to head.
+     *
+     * Both head and tail are permitted to lag.  In fact, failing to
+     * update them every time one could is a significant optimization
+     * (fewer CASes). This is controlled by local "hops" variables
+     * that only trigger helping-CASes after experiencing multiple
+     * lags.
+     *
+     * Since head and tail are updated concurrently and independently,
+     * it is possible for tail to lag behind head (why not)?
+     *
+     * CASing a Node's item reference to null atomically removes the
+     * element from the queue.  Iterators skip over Nodes with null
+     * items.  Prior implementations of this class had a race between
+     * poll() and remove(Object) where the same element would appear
+     * to be successfully removed by two concurrent operations.  The
+     * method remove(Object) also lazily unlinks deleted Nodes, but
+     * this is merely an optimization.
+     *
+     * When constructing a Node (before enqueuing it) we avoid paying
+     * for a volatile write to item by using lazySet instead of a
+     * normal write.  This allows the cost of enqueue to be
+     * "one-and-a-half" CASes.
+     *
+     * Both head and tail may or may not point to a Node with a
+     * non-null item.  If the queue is empty, all items must of course
+     * be null.  Upon creation, both head and tail refer to a dummy
+     * Node with null item.  Both head and tail are only updated using
+     * CAS, so they never regress, although again this is merely an
+     * optimization.
      */
 
     private static class Node<E> {
         private volatile E item;
         private volatile Node<E> next;
 
-        private static final
-            AtomicReferenceFieldUpdater<Node, Node>
-            nextUpdater =
-            AtomicReferenceFieldUpdater.newUpdater
-            (Node.class, Node.class, "next");
-        private static final
-            AtomicReferenceFieldUpdater<Node, Object>
-            itemUpdater =
-            AtomicReferenceFieldUpdater.newUpdater
-            (Node.class, Object.class, "item");
-
-        Node(E x) { item = x; }
-
-        Node(E x, Node<E> n) { item = x; next = n; }
+        Node(E item) {
+            // Piggyback on imminent casNext()
+            lazySetItem(item);
+        }
 
         E getItem() {
             return item;
         }
 
         boolean casItem(E cmp, E val) {
-            return itemUpdater.compareAndSet(this, cmp, val);
+            return UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject(this, itemOffset, cmp, val);
         }
 
         void setItem(E val) {
-            itemUpdater.set(this, val);
+            item = val;
+        }
+
+        void lazySetItem(E val) {
+            UNSAFE.putOrderedObject(this, itemOffset, val);
+        }
+
+        void lazySetNext(Node<E> val) {
+            UNSAFE.putOrderedObject(this, nextOffset, val);
         }
 
         Node<E> getNext() {
@@ -139,52 +194,55 @@
         }
 
         boolean casNext(Node<E> cmp, Node<E> val) {
-            return nextUpdater.compareAndSet(this, cmp, val);
+            return UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject(this, nextOffset, cmp, val);
         }
 
-        void setNext(Node<E> val) {
-            nextUpdater.set(this, val);
-        }
+        // Unsafe mechanics
 
+        private static final sun.misc.Unsafe UNSAFE =
+            sun.misc.Unsafe.getUnsafe();
+        private static final long nextOffset =
+            objectFieldOffset(UNSAFE, "next", Node.class);
+        private static final long itemOffset =
+            objectFieldOffset(UNSAFE, "item", Node.class);
     }
 
-    private static final
-        AtomicReferenceFieldUpdater<ConcurrentLinkedQueue, Node>
-        tailUpdater =
-        AtomicReferenceFieldUpdater.newUpdater
-        (ConcurrentLinkedQueue.class, Node.class, "tail");
-    private static final
-        AtomicReferenceFieldUpdater<ConcurrentLinkedQueue, Node>
-        headUpdater =
-        AtomicReferenceFieldUpdater.newUpdater
-        (ConcurrentLinkedQueue.class,  Node.class, "head");
-
-    private boolean casTail(Node<E> cmp, Node<E> val) {
-        return tailUpdater.compareAndSet(this, cmp, val);
-    }
-
-    private boolean casHead(Node<E> cmp, Node<E> val) {
-        return headUpdater.compareAndSet(this, cmp, val);
-    }
-
+    /**
+     * A node from which the first live (non-deleted) node (if any)
+     * can be reached in O(1) time.
+     * Invariants:
+     * - all live nodes are reachable from head via succ()
+     * - head != null
+     * - (tmp = head).next != tmp || tmp != head
+     * Non-invariants:
+     * - head.item may or may not be null.
+     * - it is permitted for tail to lag behind head, that is, for tail
+     *   to not be reachable from head!
+     */
+    private transient volatile Node<E> head = new Node<E>(null);
 
     /**
-     * Pointer to header node, initialized to a dummy node.  The first
-     * actual node is at head.getNext().
+     * A node from which the last node on list (that is, the unique
+     * node with node.next == null) can be reached in O(1) time.
+     * Invariants:
+     * - the last node is always reachable from tail via succ()
+     * - tail != null
+     * Non-invariants:
+     * - tail.item may or may not be null.
+     * - it is permitted for tail to lag behind head, that is, for tail
+     *   to not be reachable from head!
+     * - tail.next may or may not be self-pointing to tail.
      */
-    private transient volatile Node<E> head = new Node<E>(null, null);
-
-    /** Pointer to last node on list **/
     private transient volatile Node<E> tail = head;
 
 
     /**
-     * Creates a <tt>ConcurrentLinkedQueue</tt> that is initially empty.
+     * Creates a {@code ConcurrentLinkedQueue} that is initially empty.
      */
     public ConcurrentLinkedQueue() {}
 
     /**
-     * Creates a <tt>ConcurrentLinkedQueue</tt>
+     * Creates a {@code ConcurrentLinkedQueue}
      * initially containing the elements of the given collection,
      * added in traversal order of the collection's iterator.
      * @param c the collection of elements to initially contain
@@ -201,7 +259,7 @@
     /**
      * Inserts the specified element at the tail of this queue.
      *
-     * @return <tt>true</tt> (as specified by {@link Collection#add})
+     * @return {@code true} (as specified by {@link Collection#add})
      * @throws NullPointerException if the specified element is null
      */
     public boolean add(E e) {
@@ -209,107 +267,135 @@
     }
 
     /**
+     * We don't bother to update head or tail pointers if fewer than
+     * HOPS links from "true" location.  We assume that volatile
+     * writes are significantly more expensive than volatile reads.
+     */
+    private static final int HOPS = 1;
+
+    /**
+     * Try to CAS head to p. If successful, repoint old head to itself
+     * as sentinel for succ(), below.
+     */
+    final void updateHead(Node<E> h, Node<E> p) {
+        if (h != p && casHead(h, p))
+            h.lazySetNext(h);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns the successor of p, or the head node if p.next has been
+     * linked to self, which will only be true if traversing with a
+     * stale pointer that is now off the list.
+     */
+    final Node<E> succ(Node<E> p) {
+        Node<E> next = p.getNext();
+        return (p == next) ? head : next;
+    }
+
+    /**
      * Inserts the specified element at the tail of this queue.
      *
-     * @return <tt>true</tt> (as specified by {@link Queue#offer})
+     * @return {@code true} (as specified by {@link Queue#offer})
      * @throws NullPointerException if the specified element is null
      */
     public boolean offer(E e) {
         if (e == null) throw new NullPointerException();
-        Node<E> n = new Node<E>(e, null);
+        Node<E> n = new Node<E>(e);
+        retry:
         for (;;) {
             Node<E> t = tail;
-            Node<E> s = t.getNext();
-            if (t == tail) {
-                if (s == null) {
-                    if (t.casNext(s, n)) {
-                        casTail(t, n);
-                        return true;
-                    }
+            Node<E> p = t;
+            for (int hops = 0; ; hops++) {
+                Node<E> next = succ(p);
+                if (next != null) {
+                    if (hops > HOPS && t != tail)
+                        continue retry;
+                    p = next;
+                } else if (p.casNext(null, n)) {
+                    if (hops >= HOPS)
+                        casTail(t, n);  // Failure is OK.
+                    return true;
                 } else {
-                    casTail(t, s);
+                    p = succ(p);
                 }
             }
         }
     }
 
     public E poll() {
-        for (;;) {
-            Node<E> h = head;
-            Node<E> t = tail;
-            Node<E> first = h.getNext();
-            if (h == head) {
-                if (h == t) {
-                    if (first == null)
-                        return null;
-                    else
-                        casTail(t, first);
-                } else if (casHead(h, first)) {
-                    E item = first.getItem();
-                    if (item != null) {
-                        first.setItem(null);
-                        return item;
-                    }
-                    // else skip over deleted item, continue loop,
+        Node<E> h = head;
+        Node<E> p = h;
+        for (int hops = 0; ; hops++) {
+            E item = p.getItem();
+
+            if (item != null && p.casItem(item, null)) {
+                if (hops >= HOPS) {
+                    Node<E> q = p.getNext();
+                    updateHead(h, (q != null) ? q : p);
                 }
+                return item;
             }
+            Node<E> next = succ(p);
+            if (next == null) {
+                updateHead(h, p);
+                break;
+            }
+            p = next;
         }
+        return null;
     }
 
-    public E peek() { // same as poll except don't remove item
+    public E peek() {
+        Node<E> h = head;
+        Node<E> p = h;
+        E item;
         for (;;) {
-            Node<E> h = head;
-            Node<E> t = tail;
-            Node<E> first = h.getNext();
-            if (h == head) {
-                if (h == t) {
-                    if (first == null)
-                        return null;
-                    else
-                        casTail(t, first);
-                } else {
-                    E item = first.getItem();
-                    if (item != null)
-                        return item;
-                    else // remove deleted node and continue
-                        casHead(h, first);
-                }
+            item = p.getItem();
+            if (item != null)
+                break;
+            Node<E> next = succ(p);
+            if (next == null) {
+                break;
             }
+            p = next;
         }
+        updateHead(h, p);
+        return item;
     }
 
     /**
-     * Returns the first actual (non-header) node on list.  This is yet
-     * another variant of poll/peek; here returning out the first
-     * node, not element (so we cannot collapse with peek() without
-     * introducing race.)
+     * Returns the first live (non-deleted) node on list, or null if none.
+     * This is yet another variant of poll/peek; here returning the
+     * first node, not element.  We could make peek() a wrapper around
+     * first(), but that would cost an extra volatile read of item,
+     * and the need to add a retry loop to deal with the possibility
+     * of losing a race to a concurrent poll().
      */
     Node<E> first() {
+        Node<E> h = head;
+        Node<E> p = h;
+        Node<E> result;
         for (;;) {
-            Node<E> h = head;
-            Node<E> t = tail;
-            Node<E> first = h.getNext();
-            if (h == head) {
-                if (h == t) {
-                    if (first == null)
-                        return null;
-                    else
-                        casTail(t, first);
-                } else {
-                    if (first.getItem() != null)
-                        return first;
-                    else // remove deleted node and continue
-                        casHead(h, first);
-                }
+            E item = p.getItem();
+            if (item != null) {
+                result = p;
+                break;
             }
+            Node<E> next = succ(p);
+            if (next == null) {
+                result = null;
+                break;
+            }
+            p = next;
         }
+        updateHead(h, p);
+        return result;
     }
 
-
     /**
-     * Returns <tt>true</tt> if this queue contains no elements.
+     * Returns {@code true} if this queue contains no elements.
      *
-     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this queue contains no elements
+     * @return {@code true} if this queue contains no elements
      */
     public boolean isEmpty() {
         return first() == null;
@@ -317,8 +403,8 @@
 
     /**
      * Returns the number of elements in this queue.  If this queue
-     * contains more than <tt>Integer.MAX_VALUE</tt> elements, returns
-     * <tt>Integer.MAX_VALUE</tt>.
+     * contains more than {@code Integer.MAX_VALUE} elements, returns
+     * {@code Integer.MAX_VALUE}.
      *
      * <p>Beware that, unlike in most collections, this method is
      * <em>NOT</em> a constant-time operation. Because of the
@@ -329,7 +415,7 @@
      */
     public int size() {
         int count = 0;
-        for (Node<E> p = first(); p != null; p = p.getNext()) {
+        for (Node<E> p = first(); p != null; p = succ(p)) {
             if (p.getItem() != null) {
                 // Collections.size() spec says to max out
                 if (++count == Integer.MAX_VALUE)
@@ -340,16 +426,16 @@
     }
 
     /**
-     * Returns <tt>true</tt> if this queue contains the specified element.
-     * More formally, returns <tt>true</tt> if and only if this queue contains
-     * at least one element <tt>e</tt> such that <tt>o.equals(e)</tt>.
+     * Returns {@code true} if this queue contains the specified element.
+     * More formally, returns {@code true} if and only if this queue contains
+     * at least one element {@code e} such that {@code o.equals(e)}.
      *
      * @param o object to be checked for containment in this queue
-     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this queue contains the specified element
+     * @return {@code true} if this queue contains the specified element
      */
     public boolean contains(Object o) {
         if (o == null) return false;
-        for (Node<E> p = first(); p != null; p = p.getNext()) {
+        for (Node<E> p = first(); p != null; p = succ(p)) {
             E item = p.getItem();
             if (item != null &&
                 o.equals(item))
@@ -360,23 +446,29 @@
 
     /**
      * Removes a single instance of the specified element from this queue,
-     * if it is present.  More formally, removes an element <tt>e</tt> such
-     * that <tt>o.equals(e)</tt>, if this queue contains one or more such
+     * if it is present.  More formally, removes an element {@code e} such
+     * that {@code o.equals(e)}, if this queue contains one or more such
      * elements.
-     * Returns <tt>true</tt> if this queue contained the specified element
+     * Returns {@code true} if this queue contained the specified element
      * (or equivalently, if this queue changed as a result of the call).
      *
      * @param o element to be removed from this queue, if present
-     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this queue changed as a result of the call
+     * @return {@code true} if this queue changed as a result of the call
      */
     public boolean remove(Object o) {
         if (o == null) return false;
-        for (Node<E> p = first(); p != null; p = p.getNext()) {
+        Node<E> pred = null;
+        for (Node<E> p = first(); p != null; p = succ(p)) {
             E item = p.getItem();
             if (item != null &&
                 o.equals(item) &&
-                p.casItem(item, null))
+                p.casItem(item, null)) {
+                Node<E> next = succ(p);
+                if (pred != null && next != null)
+                    pred.casNext(p, next);
                 return true;
+            }
+            pred = p;
         }
         return false;
     }
@@ -397,7 +489,7 @@
     public Object[] toArray() {
         // Use ArrayList to deal with resizing.
         ArrayList<E> al = new ArrayList<E>();
-        for (Node<E> p = first(); p != null; p = p.getNext()) {
+        for (Node<E> p = first(); p != null; p = succ(p)) {
             E item = p.getItem();
             if (item != null)
                 al.add(item);
@@ -415,22 +507,22 @@
      * <p>If this queue fits in the specified array with room to spare
      * (i.e., the array has more elements than this queue), the element in
      * the array immediately following the end of the queue is set to
-     * <tt>null</tt>.
+     * {@code null}.
      *
      * <p>Like the {@link #toArray()} method, this method acts as bridge between
      * array-based and collection-based APIs.  Further, this method allows
      * precise control over the runtime type of the output array, and may,
      * under certain circumstances, be used to save allocation costs.
      *
-     * <p>Suppose <tt>x</tt> is a queue known to contain only strings.
+     * <p>Suppose {@code x} is a queue known to contain only strings.
      * The following code can be used to dump the queue into a newly
-     * allocated array of <tt>String</tt>:
+     * allocated array of {@code String}:
      *
      * <pre>
      *     String[] y = x.toArray(new String[0]);</pre>
      *
-     * Note that <tt>toArray(new Object[0])</tt> is identical in function to
-     * <tt>toArray()</tt>.
+     * Note that {@code toArray(new Object[0])} is identical in function to
+     * {@code toArray()}.
      *
      * @param a the array into which the elements of the queue are to
      *          be stored, if it is big enough; otherwise, a new array of the
@@ -441,11 +533,12 @@
      *         this queue
      * @throws NullPointerException if the specified array is null
      */
+    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
     public <T> T[] toArray(T[] a) {
         // try to use sent-in array
         int k = 0;
         Node<E> p;
-        for (p = first(); p != null && k < a.length; p = p.getNext()) {
+        for (p = first(); p != null && k < a.length; p = succ(p)) {
             E item = p.getItem();
             if (item != null)
                 a[k++] = (T)item;
@@ -458,7 +551,7 @@
 
         // If won't fit, use ArrayList version
         ArrayList<E> al = new ArrayList<E>();
-        for (Node<E> q = first(); q != null; q = q.getNext()) {
+        for (Node<E> q = first(); q != null; q = succ(q)) {
             E item = q.getItem();
             if (item != null)
                 al.add(item);
@@ -511,7 +604,15 @@
             lastRet = nextNode;
             E x = nextItem;
 
-            Node<E> p = (nextNode == null)? first() : nextNode.getNext();
+            Node<E> pred, p;
+            if (nextNode == null) {
+                p = first();
+                pred = null;
+            } else {
+                pred = nextNode;
+                p = succ(nextNode);
+            }
+
             for (;;) {
                 if (p == null) {
                     nextNode = null;
@@ -523,8 +624,13 @@
                     nextNode = p;
                     nextItem = item;
                     return x;
-                } else // skip over nulls
-                    p = p.getNext();
+                } else {
+                    // skip over nulls
+                    Node<E> next = succ(p);
+                    if (pred != null && next != null)
+                        pred.casNext(p, next);
+                    p = next;
+                }
             }
         }
 
@@ -549,7 +655,7 @@
     /**
      * Save the state to a stream (that is, serialize it).
      *
-     * @serialData All of the elements (each an <tt>E</tt>) in
+     * @serialData All of the elements (each an {@code E}) in
      * the proper order, followed by a null
      * @param s the stream
      */
@@ -560,7 +666,7 @@
         s.defaultWriteObject();
 
         // Write out all elements in the proper order.
-        for (Node<E> p = first(); p != null; p = p.getNext()) {
+        for (Node<E> p = first(); p != null; p = succ(p)) {
             Object item = p.getItem();
             if (item != null)
                 s.writeObject(item);
@@ -579,10 +685,11 @@
         throws java.io.IOException, ClassNotFoundException {
         // Read in capacity, and any hidden stuff
         s.defaultReadObject();
-        head = new Node<E>(null, null);
+        head = new Node<E>(null);
         tail = head;
         // Read in all elements and place in queue
         for (;;) {
+            @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
             E item = (E)s.readObject();
             if (item == null)
                 break;
@@ -591,4 +698,35 @@
         }
     }
 
+    // Unsafe mechanics
+
+    private static final sun.misc.Unsafe UNSAFE = sun.misc.Unsafe.getUnsafe();
+    private static final long headOffset =
+        objectFieldOffset(UNSAFE, "head", ConcurrentLinkedQueue.class);
+    private static final long tailOffset =
+        objectFieldOffset(UNSAFE, "tail", ConcurrentLinkedQueue.class);
+
+    private boolean casTail(Node<E> cmp, Node<E> val) {
+        return UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject(this, tailOffset, cmp, val);
+    }
+
+    private boolean casHead(Node<E> cmp, Node<E> val) {
+        return UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject(this, headOffset, cmp, val);
+    }
+
+    private void lazySetHead(Node<E> val) {
+        UNSAFE.putOrderedObject(this, headOffset, val);
+    }
+
+    static long objectFieldOffset(sun.misc.Unsafe UNSAFE,
+                                  String field, Class<?> klazz) {
+        try {
+            return UNSAFE.objectFieldOffset(klazz.getDeclaredField(field));
+        } catch (NoSuchFieldException e) {
+            // Convert Exception to corresponding Error
+            NoSuchFieldError error = new NoSuchFieldError(field);
+            error.initCause(e);
+            throw error;
+        }
+    }
 }
--- a/test/java/util/concurrent/ConcurrentLinkedQueue/ConcurrentQueueLoops.java	Tue Jul 28 11:15:49 2009 +0800
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,146 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
- *
- * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
- * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
- * published by the Free Software Foundation.
- *
- * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
- * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
- * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
- * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
- * accompanied this code).
- *
- * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
- * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
- * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
- *
- * Please contact Sun Microsystems, Inc., 4150 Network Circle, Santa Clara,
- * CA 95054 USA or visit www.sun.com if you need additional information or
- * have any questions.
- */
-
-/*
- * This file is available under and governed by the GNU General Public
- * License version 2 only, as published by the Free Software Foundation.
- * However, the following notice accompanied the original version of this
- * file:
- *
- * Written by Doug Lea with assistance from members of JCP JSR-166
- * Expert Group and released to the public domain, as explained at
- * http://creativecommons.org/licenses/publicdomain
- */
-
-/*
- * @test
- * @bug 4486658
- * @compile -source 1.5 ConcurrentQueueLoops.java
- * @run main/timeout=230 ConcurrentQueueLoops
- * @summary Checks that a set of threads can repeatedly get and modify items
- */
-
-import java.util.*;
-import java.util.concurrent.*;
-import java.util.concurrent.atomic.*;
-
-public class ConcurrentQueueLoops {
-    static final ExecutorService pool = Executors.newCachedThreadPool();
-    static AtomicInteger totalItems;
-    static boolean print = false;
-
-    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
-        int maxStages = 8;
-        int items = 100000;
-
-        if (args.length > 0)
-            maxStages = Integer.parseInt(args[0]);
-
-        print = false;
-        System.out.println("Warmup...");
-        oneRun(1, items);
-        Thread.sleep(100);
-        oneRun(1, items);
-        Thread.sleep(100);
-        print = true;
-
-        for (int i = 1; i <= maxStages; i += (i+1) >>> 1) {
-            oneRun(i, items);
-        }
-        pool.shutdown();
-        if (! pool.awaitTermination(Long.MAX_VALUE, TimeUnit.NANOSECONDS))
-            throw new Error();
-   }
-
-    static class Stage implements Callable<Integer> {
-        final Queue<Integer> queue;
-        final CyclicBarrier barrier;
-        int items;
-        Stage (Queue<Integer> q, CyclicBarrier b, int items) {
-            queue = q;
-            barrier = b;
-            this.items = items;
-        }
-
-        public Integer call() {
-            // Repeatedly take something from queue if possible,
-            // transform it, and put back in.
-            try {
-                barrier.await();
-                int l = 4321;
-                int takes = 0;
-                for (;;) {
-                    Integer item = queue.poll();
-                    if (item != null) {
-                        ++takes;
-                        l = LoopHelpers.compute2(item.intValue());
-                    }
-                    else if (takes != 0) {
-                        totalItems.getAndAdd(-takes);
-                        takes = 0;
-                    }
-                    else if (totalItems.get() <= 0)
-                        break;
-                    l = LoopHelpers.compute1(l);
-                    if (items > 0) {
-                        --items;
-                        queue.offer(new Integer(l));
-                    }
-                    else if ( (l & (3 << 5)) == 0) // spinwait
-                        Thread.sleep(1);
-                }
-                return new Integer(l);
-            }
-            catch (Exception ie) {
-                ie.printStackTrace();
-                throw new Error("Call loop failed");
-            }
-        }
-    }
-
-    static void oneRun(int n, int items) throws Exception {
-        Queue<Integer> q = new ConcurrentLinkedQueue<Integer>();
-        LoopHelpers.BarrierTimer timer = new LoopHelpers.BarrierTimer();
-        CyclicBarrier barrier = new CyclicBarrier(n + 1, timer);
-        totalItems = new AtomicInteger(n * items);
-        ArrayList<Future<Integer>> results = new ArrayList<Future<Integer>>(n);
-        for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i)
-            results.add(pool.submit(new Stage(q, barrier, items)));
-
-        if (print)
-            System.out.print("Threads: " + n + "\t:");
-        barrier.await();
-        int total = 0;
-        for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
-            Future<Integer> f = results.get(i);
-            Integer r = f.get();
-            total += r.intValue();
-        }
-        long endTime = System.nanoTime();
-        long time = endTime - timer.startTime;
-        if (print)
-            System.out.println(LoopHelpers.rightJustify(time / (items * n)) + " ns per item");
-        if (total == 0) // avoid overoptimization
-            System.out.println("useless result: " + total);
-
-    }
-}
--- a/test/java/util/concurrent/ConcurrentLinkedQueue/LoopHelpers.java	Tue Jul 28 11:15:49 2009 +0800
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,129 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
- *
- * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
- * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
- * published by the Free Software Foundation.
- *
- * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
- * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
- * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
- * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
- * accompanied this code).
- *
- * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
- * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
- * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
- *
- * Please contact Sun Microsystems, Inc., 4150 Network Circle, Santa Clara,
- * CA 95054 USA or visit www.sun.com if you need additional information or
- * have any questions.
- */
-
-/*
- * This file is available under and governed by the GNU General Public
- * License version 2 only, as published by the Free Software Foundation.
- * However, the following notice accompanied the original version of this
- * file:
- *
- * Written by Doug Lea with assistance from members of JCP JSR-166
- * Expert Group and released to the public domain, as explained at
- * http://creativecommons.org/licenses/publicdomain
- */
-
-/**
- * Misc utilities in JSR166 performance tests
- */
-
-import java.util.concurrent.*;
-import java.util.concurrent.atomic.*;
-
-class LoopHelpers {
-
-    // Some mindless computation to do between synchronizations...
-
-    /**
-     * generates 32 bit pseudo-random numbers.
-     * Adapted from http://www.snippets.org
-     */
-    public static int compute1(int x) {
-        int lo = 16807 * (x & 0xFFFF);
-        int hi = 16807 * (x >>> 16);
-        lo += (hi & 0x7FFF) << 16;
-        if ((lo & 0x80000000) != 0) {
-            lo &= 0x7fffffff;
-            ++lo;
-        }
-        lo += hi >>> 15;
-        if (lo == 0 || (lo & 0x80000000) != 0) {
-            lo &= 0x7fffffff;
-            ++lo;
-        }
-        return lo;
-    }
-
-    /**
-     *  Computes a linear congruential random number a random number
-     *  of times.
-     */
-    public static int compute2(int x) {
-        int loops = (x >>> 4) & 7;
-        while (loops-- > 0) {
-            x = (x * 2147483647) % 16807;
-        }
-        return x;
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * An actually useful random number generator, but unsynchronized.
-     * Basically same as java.util.Random.
-     */
-    public static class SimpleRandom {
-        private final static long multiplier = 0x5DEECE66DL;
-        private final static long addend = 0xBL;
-        private final static long mask = (1L << 48) - 1;
-        static final AtomicLong seq = new AtomicLong(1);
-        private long seed = System.nanoTime() + seq.getAndIncrement();
-
-        public void setSeed(long s) {
-            seed = s;
-        }
-
-        public int next() {
-            long nextseed = (seed * multiplier + addend) & mask;
-            seed = nextseed;
-            return ((int)(nextseed >>> 17)) & 0x7FFFFFFF;
-        }
-    }
-
-    public static class BarrierTimer implements Runnable {
-        public volatile long startTime;
-        public volatile long endTime;
-        public void run() {
-            long t = System.nanoTime();
-            if (startTime == 0)
-                startTime = t;
-            else
-                endTime = t;
-        }
-        public void clear() {
-            startTime = 0;
-            endTime = 0;
-        }
-        public long getTime() {
-            return endTime - startTime;
-        }
-    }
-
-    public static String rightJustify(long n) {
-        // There's probably a better way to do this...
-        String field = "         ";
-        String num = Long.toString(n);
-        if (num.length() >= field.length())
-            return num;
-        StringBuffer b = new StringBuffer(field);
-        b.replace(b.length()-num.length(), b.length(), num);
-        return b.toString();
-    }
-
-}
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/test/java/util/concurrent/ConcurrentQueues/ConcurrentQueueLoops.java	Tue Jul 28 13:24:52 2009 -0700
@@ -0,0 +1,198 @@
+/*
+ * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+ *
+ * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+ * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ *
+ * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+ * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+ * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
+ * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+ * accompanied this code).
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+ * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+ * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+ *
+ * Please contact Sun Microsystems, Inc., 4150 Network Circle, Santa Clara,
+ * CA 95054 USA or visit www.sun.com if you need additional information or
+ * have any questions.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * This file is available under and governed by the GNU General Public
+ * License version 2 only, as published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ * However, the following notice accompanied the original version of this
+ * file:
+ *
+ * Written by Doug Lea with assistance from members of JCP JSR-166
+ * Expert Group and released to the public domain, as explained at
+ * http://creativecommons.org/licenses/publicdomain
+ */
+
+/*
+ * @test
+ * @bug 4486658 6785442
+ * @run main ConcurrentQueueLoops 8 123456
+ * @summary Checks that a set of threads can repeatedly get and modify items
+ */
+
+import java.util.*;
+import java.util.concurrent.*;
+import java.util.concurrent.atomic.*;
+
+public class ConcurrentQueueLoops {
+    ExecutorService pool;
+    AtomicInteger totalItems;
+    boolean print;
+
+    // Suitable for benchmarking.  Overriden by args[0] for testing.
+    int maxStages = 20;
+
+    // Suitable for benchmarking.  Overriden by args[1] for testing.
+    int items = 1024 * 1024;
+
+    Collection<Queue<Integer>> concurrentQueues() {
+        List<Queue<Integer>> queues = new ArrayList<Queue<Integer>>();
+        queues.add(new ConcurrentLinkedQueue<Integer>());
+        queues.add(new ArrayBlockingQueue<Integer>(items, false));
+        //queues.add(new ArrayBlockingQueue<Integer>(count, true));
+        queues.add(new LinkedBlockingQueue<Integer>());
+        queues.add(new LinkedBlockingDeque<Integer>());
+
+        try {
+            queues.add((Queue<Integer>)
+                       Class.forName("java.util.concurrent.LinkedTransferQueue")
+                       .newInstance());
+        } catch (IllegalAccessException e) {
+        } catch (InstantiationException e) {
+        } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
+            // OK; not yet added to JDK
+        }
+
+        // Following additional implementations are available from:
+        // http://gee.cs.oswego.edu/dl/concurrency-interest/index.html
+        // queues.add(new LinkedTransferQueue<Integer>());
+        // queues.add(new SynchronizedLinkedListQueue<Integer>());
+
+        // Avoid "first fast, second slow" benchmark effect.
+        Collections.shuffle(queues);
+        return queues;
+    }
+
+    void test(String[] args) throws Throwable {
+        if (args.length > 0)
+            maxStages = Integer.parseInt(args[0]);
+        if (args.length > 1)
+            items = Integer.parseInt(args[1]);
+
+        for (Queue<Integer> queue : concurrentQueues())
+            test(queue);
+    }
+
+    void test(final Queue<Integer> q) throws Throwable {
+        System.out.println(q.getClass().getSimpleName());
+        pool = Executors.newCachedThreadPool();
+        print = false;
+
+        print = false;
+        System.out.println("Warmup...");
+        oneRun(1, items, q);
+        //Thread.sleep(100);
+        oneRun(3, items, q);
+        Thread.sleep(100);
+        print = true;
+
+        for (int i = 1; i <= maxStages; i += (i+1) >>> 1) {
+            oneRun(i, items, q);
+        }
+        pool.shutdown();
+        check(pool.awaitTermination(Long.MAX_VALUE, TimeUnit.NANOSECONDS));
+   }
+
+    class Stage implements Callable<Integer> {
+        final Queue<Integer> queue;
+        final CyclicBarrier barrier;
+        int items;
+        Stage (Queue<Integer> q, CyclicBarrier b, int items) {
+            queue = q;
+            barrier = b;
+            this.items = items;
+        }
+
+        public Integer call() {
+            // Repeatedly take something from queue if possible,
+            // transform it, and put back in.
+            try {
+                barrier.await();
+                int l = 4321;
+                int takes = 0;
+                for (;;) {
+                    Integer item = queue.poll();
+                    if (item != null) {
+                        ++takes;
+                        l = LoopHelpers.compute2(item.intValue());
+                    }
+                    else if (takes != 0) {
+                        totalItems.getAndAdd(-takes);
+                        takes = 0;
+                    }
+                    else if (totalItems.get() <= 0)
+                        break;
+                    l = LoopHelpers.compute1(l);
+                    if (items > 0) {
+                        --items;
+                        queue.offer(new Integer(l));
+                    }
+                    else if ( (l & (3 << 5)) == 0) // spinwait
+                        Thread.sleep(1);
+                }
+                return new Integer(l);
+            }
+            catch (Throwable t) { unexpected(t); return null; }
+        }
+    }
+
+    void oneRun(int n, int items, final Queue<Integer> q) throws Exception {
+        LoopHelpers.BarrierTimer timer = new LoopHelpers.BarrierTimer();
+        CyclicBarrier barrier = new CyclicBarrier(n + 1, timer);
+        totalItems = new AtomicInteger(n * items);
+        ArrayList<Future<Integer>> results = new ArrayList<Future<Integer>>(n);
+        for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i)
+            results.add(pool.submit(new Stage(q, barrier, items)));
+
+        if (print)
+            System.out.print("Threads: " + n + "\t:");
+        barrier.await();
+        int total = 0;
+        for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
+            Future<Integer> f = results.get(i);
+            Integer r = f.get();
+            total += r.intValue();
+        }
+        long endTime = System.nanoTime();
+        long time = endTime - timer.startTime;
+        if (print)
+            System.out.println(LoopHelpers.rightJustify(time / (items * n)) + " ns per item");
+        if (total == 0) // avoid overoptimization
+            System.out.println("useless result: " + total);
+    }
+
+    //--------------------- Infrastructure ---------------------------
+    volatile int passed = 0, failed = 0;
+    void pass() {passed++;}
+    void fail() {failed++; Thread.dumpStack();}
+    void fail(String msg) {System.err.println(msg); fail();}
+    void unexpected(Throwable t) {failed++; t.printStackTrace();}
+    void check(boolean cond) {if (cond) pass(); else fail();}
+    void equal(Object x, Object y) {
+        if (x == null ? y == null : x.equals(y)) pass();
+        else fail(x + " not equal to " + y);}
+    public static void main(String[] args) throws Throwable {
+        new ConcurrentQueueLoops().instanceMain(args);}
+    public void instanceMain(String[] args) throws Throwable {
+        try {test(args);} catch (Throwable t) {unexpected(t);}
+        System.out.printf("%nPassed = %d, failed = %d%n%n", passed, failed);
+        if (failed > 0) throw new AssertionError("Some tests failed");}
+}
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/test/java/util/concurrent/ConcurrentQueues/GCRetention.java	Tue Jul 28 13:24:52 2009 -0700
@@ -0,0 +1,165 @@
+/*
+ * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+ *
+ * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+ * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ *
+ * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+ * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+ * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
+ * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+ * accompanied this code).
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+ * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+ * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+ *
+ * Please contact Sun Microsystems, Inc., 4150 Network Circle, Santa Clara,
+ * CA 95054 USA or visit www.sun.com if you need additional information or
+ * have any questions.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * This file is available under and governed by the GNU General Public
+ * License version 2 only, as published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ * However, the following notice accompanied the original version of this
+ * file:
+ *
+ * Written by Doug Lea with assistance from members of JCP JSR-166
+ * Expert Group and released to the public domain, as explained at
+ * http://creativecommons.org/licenses/publicdomain
+ */
+/*
+ * @test
+ * @bug 6785442
+ * @summary Benchmark that tries to GC-tenure head, followed by
+ * many add/remove operations.
+ * @run main GCRetention 12345
+ */
+
+import java.util.concurrent.ArrayBlockingQueue;
+import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentHashMap;
+import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentLinkedQueue;
+import java.util.concurrent.LinkedBlockingQueue;
+import java.util.concurrent.LinkedBlockingDeque;
+import java.util.concurrent.PriorityBlockingQueue;
+import java.util.LinkedList;
+import java.util.PriorityQueue;
+import java.util.ArrayList;
+import java.util.Collection;
+import java.util.Collections;
+import java.util.List;
+import java.util.Queue;
+import java.util.Map;
+
+public class GCRetention {
+    // Suitable for benchmarking.  Overriden by args[0] for testing.
+    int count = 1024 * 1024;
+
+    final Map<String,String> results = new ConcurrentHashMap<String,String>();
+
+    Collection<Queue<Boolean>> queues() {
+        List<Queue<Boolean>> queues = new ArrayList<Queue<Boolean>>();
+        queues.add(new ConcurrentLinkedQueue<Boolean>());
+        queues.add(new ArrayBlockingQueue<Boolean>(count, false));
+        queues.add(new ArrayBlockingQueue<Boolean>(count, true));
+        queues.add(new LinkedBlockingQueue<Boolean>());
+        queues.add(new LinkedBlockingDeque<Boolean>());
+        queues.add(new PriorityBlockingQueue<Boolean>());
+        queues.add(new PriorityQueue<Boolean>());
+        queues.add(new LinkedList<Boolean>());
+
+        try {
+            queues.add((Queue<Boolean>)
+                       Class.forName("java.util.concurrent.LinkedTransferQueue")
+                       .newInstance());
+        } catch (IllegalAccessException e) {
+        } catch (InstantiationException e) {
+        } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
+            // OK; not yet added to JDK
+        }
+
+        // Following additional implementations are available from:
+        // http://gee.cs.oswego.edu/dl/concurrency-interest/index.html
+        // queues.add(new LinkedTransferQueue<Boolean>());
+        // queues.add(new SynchronizedLinkedListQueue<Boolean>());
+
+        // Avoid "first fast, second slow" benchmark effect.
+        Collections.shuffle(queues);
+        return queues;
+    }
+
+    void prettyPrintResults() {
+        List<String> classNames = new ArrayList<String>(results.keySet());
+        Collections.sort(classNames);
+        int maxClassNameLength = 0;
+        int maxNanosLength = 0;
+        for (String name : classNames) {
+            if (maxClassNameLength < name.length())
+                maxClassNameLength = name.length();
+            if (maxNanosLength < results.get(name).length())
+                maxNanosLength = results.get(name).length();
+        }
+        String format = String.format("%%%ds %%%ds nanos/item%%n",
+                                      maxClassNameLength, maxNanosLength);
+        for (String name : classNames)
+            System.out.printf(format, name, results.get(name));
+    }
+
+    void test(String[] args) {
+        if (args.length > 0)
+            count = Integer.valueOf(args[0]);
+        // Warmup
+        for (Queue<Boolean> queue : queues())
+            test(queue);
+        results.clear();
+        for (Queue<Boolean> queue : queues())
+            test(queue);
+
+        prettyPrintResults();
+    }
+
+    void test(Queue<Boolean> q) {
+        long t0 = System.nanoTime();
+        for (int i = 0; i < count; i++)
+            check(q.add(Boolean.TRUE));
+        System.gc();
+        System.gc();
+        Boolean x;
+        while ((x = q.poll()) != null)
+            equal(x, Boolean.TRUE);
+        check(q.isEmpty());
+
+        for (int i = 0; i < 10 * count; i++) {
+            for (int k = 0; k < 3; k++)
+                check(q.add(Boolean.TRUE));
+            for (int k = 0; k < 3; k++)
+                if (q.poll() != Boolean.TRUE)
+                    fail();
+        }
+        check(q.isEmpty());
+
+        String className = q.getClass().getSimpleName();
+        long elapsed = System.nanoTime() - t0;
+        int nanos = (int) ((double) elapsed / (10 * 3 * count));
+        results.put(className, String.valueOf(nanos));
+    }
+
+    //--------------------- Infrastructure ---------------------------
+    volatile int passed = 0, failed = 0;
+    void pass() {passed++;}
+    void fail() {failed++; Thread.dumpStack();}
+    void fail(String msg) {System.err.println(msg); fail();}
+    void unexpected(Throwable t) {failed++; t.printStackTrace();}
+    void check(boolean cond) {if (cond) pass(); else fail();}
+    void equal(Object x, Object y) {
+        if (x == null ? y == null : x.equals(y)) pass();
+        else fail(x + " not equal to " + y);}
+    public static void main(String[] args) throws Throwable {
+        new GCRetention().instanceMain(args);}
+    public void instanceMain(String[] args) throws Throwable {
+        try {test(args);} catch (Throwable t) {unexpected(t);}
+        System.out.printf("%nPassed = %d, failed = %d%n%n", passed, failed);
+        if (failed > 0) throw new AssertionError("Some tests failed");}
+}
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/test/java/util/concurrent/ConcurrentQueues/LoopHelpers.java	Tue Jul 28 13:24:52 2009 -0700
@@ -0,0 +1,129 @@
+/*
+ * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+ *
+ * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+ * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ *
+ * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+ * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+ * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
+ * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+ * accompanied this code).
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+ * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+ * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+ *
+ * Please contact Sun Microsystems, Inc., 4150 Network Circle, Santa Clara,
+ * CA 95054 USA or visit www.sun.com if you need additional information or
+ * have any questions.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * This file is available under and governed by the GNU General Public
+ * License version 2 only, as published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ * However, the following notice accompanied the original version of this
+ * file:
+ *
+ * Written by Doug Lea with assistance from members of JCP JSR-166
+ * Expert Group and released to the public domain, as explained at
+ * http://creativecommons.org/licenses/publicdomain
+ */
+
+/**
+ * Misc utilities in JSR166 performance tests
+ */
+
+import java.util.concurrent.*;
+import java.util.concurrent.atomic.*;
+
+class LoopHelpers {
+
+    // Some mindless computation to do between synchronizations...
+
+    /**
+     * generates 32 bit pseudo-random numbers.
+     * Adapted from http://www.snippets.org
+     */
+    public static int compute1(int x) {
+        int lo = 16807 * (x & 0xFFFF);
+        int hi = 16807 * (x >>> 16);
+        lo += (hi & 0x7FFF) << 16;
+        if ((lo & 0x80000000) != 0) {
+            lo &= 0x7fffffff;
+            ++lo;
+        }
+        lo += hi >>> 15;
+        if (lo == 0 || (lo & 0x80000000) != 0) {
+            lo &= 0x7fffffff;
+            ++lo;
+        }
+        return lo;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     *  Computes a linear congruential random number a random number
+     *  of times.
+     */
+    public static int compute2(int x) {
+        int loops = (x >>> 4) & 7;
+        while (loops-- > 0) {
+            x = (x * 2147483647) % 16807;
+        }
+        return x;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * An actually useful random number generator, but unsynchronized.
+     * Basically same as java.util.Random.
+     */
+    public static class SimpleRandom {
+        private final static long multiplier = 0x5DEECE66DL;
+        private final static long addend = 0xBL;
+        private final static long mask = (1L << 48) - 1;
+        static final AtomicLong seq = new AtomicLong(1);
+        private long seed = System.nanoTime() + seq.getAndIncrement();
+
+        public void setSeed(long s) {
+            seed = s;
+        }
+
+        public int next() {
+            long nextseed = (seed * multiplier + addend) & mask;
+            seed = nextseed;
+            return ((int)(nextseed >>> 17)) & 0x7FFFFFFF;
+        }
+    }
+
+    public static class BarrierTimer implements Runnable {
+        public volatile long startTime;
+        public volatile long endTime;
+        public void run() {
+            long t = System.nanoTime();
+            if (startTime == 0)
+                startTime = t;
+            else
+                endTime = t;
+        }
+        public void clear() {
+            startTime = 0;
+            endTime = 0;
+        }
+        public long getTime() {
+            return endTime - startTime;
+        }
+    }
+
+    public static String rightJustify(long n) {
+        // There's probably a better way to do this...
+        String field = "         ";
+        String num = Long.toString(n);
+        if (num.length() >= field.length())
+            return num;
+        StringBuffer b = new StringBuffer(field);
+        b.replace(b.length()-num.length(), b.length(), num);
+        return b.toString();
+    }
+
+}
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/test/java/util/concurrent/ConcurrentQueues/RemovePollRace.java	Tue Jul 28 13:24:52 2009 -0700
@@ -0,0 +1,230 @@
+/*
+ * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+ *
+ * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+ * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ *
+ * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+ * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+ * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
+ * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+ * accompanied this code).
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+ * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+ * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+ *
+ * Please contact Sun Microsystems, Inc., 4150 Network Circle, Santa Clara,
+ * CA 95054 USA or visit www.sun.com if you need additional information or
+ * have any questions.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * This file is available under and governed by the GNU General Public
+ * License version 2 only, as published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ * However, the following notice accompanied the original version of this
+ * file:
+ *
+ * Written by Doug Lea with assistance from members of JCP JSR-166
+ * Expert Group and released to the public domain, as explained at
+ * http://creativecommons.org/licenses/publicdomain
+ */
+
+/*
+ * @test
+ * @bug 6785442
+ * @summary Checks race between poll and remove(Object), while
+ * occasionally moonlighting as a microbenchmark.
+ * @run main RemovePollRace 12345
+ */
+
+import java.util.concurrent.ArrayBlockingQueue;
+import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentHashMap;
+import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentLinkedQueue;
+import java.util.concurrent.CountDownLatch;
+import java.util.concurrent.LinkedBlockingDeque;
+import java.util.concurrent.LinkedBlockingQueue;
+import java.util.concurrent.atomic.AtomicLong;
+import java.util.ArrayList;
+import java.util.Collection;
+import java.util.Collections;
+import java.util.List;
+import java.util.Queue;
+import java.util.Map;
+
+public class RemovePollRace {
+    // Suitable for benchmarking.  Overriden by args[0] for testing.
+    int count = 1024 * 1024;
+
+    final Map<String,String> results = new ConcurrentHashMap<String,String>();
+
+    Collection<Queue<Boolean>> concurrentQueues() {
+        List<Queue<Boolean>> queues = new ArrayList<Queue<Boolean>>();
+        queues.add(new ConcurrentLinkedQueue<Boolean>());
+        queues.add(new ArrayBlockingQueue<Boolean>(count, false));
+        queues.add(new ArrayBlockingQueue<Boolean>(count, true));
+        queues.add(new LinkedBlockingQueue<Boolean>());
+        queues.add(new LinkedBlockingDeque<Boolean>());
+
+        try {
+            queues.add((Queue<Boolean>)
+                       Class.forName("java.util.concurrent.LinkedTransferQueue")
+                       .newInstance());
+        } catch (IllegalAccessException e) {
+        } catch (InstantiationException e) {
+        } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
+            // OK; not yet added to JDK
+        }
+
+        // Following additional implementations are available from:
+        // http://gee.cs.oswego.edu/dl/concurrency-interest/index.html
+        // queues.add(new LinkedTransferQueue<Boolean>());
+        // queues.add(new SynchronizedLinkedListQueue<Boolean>());
+
+        // Avoid "first fast, second slow" benchmark effect.
+        Collections.shuffle(queues);
+        return queues;
+    }
+
+    void prettyPrintResults() {
+        List<String> classNames = new ArrayList<String>(results.keySet());
+        Collections.sort(classNames);
+        int maxClassNameLength = 0;
+        int maxNanosLength = 0;
+        for (String name : classNames) {
+            if (maxClassNameLength < name.length())
+                maxClassNameLength = name.length();
+            if (maxNanosLength < results.get(name).length())
+                maxNanosLength = results.get(name).length();
+        }
+        String format = String.format("%%%ds %%%ds nanos/item%%n",
+                                      maxClassNameLength, maxNanosLength);
+        for (String name : classNames)
+            System.out.printf(format, name, results.get(name));
+    }
+
+    void test(String[] args) throws Throwable {
+        if (args.length > 0)
+            count = Integer.valueOf(args[0]);
+        // Warmup
+        for (Queue<Boolean> queue : concurrentQueues())
+            test(queue);
+        results.clear();
+        for (Queue<Boolean> queue : concurrentQueues())
+            test(queue);
+
+        prettyPrintResults();
+    }
+
+    void await(CountDownLatch latch) {
+        try { latch.await(); }
+        catch (InterruptedException e) { unexpected(e); }
+    }
+
+    void test(final Queue<Boolean> q) throws Throwable {
+        long t0 = System.nanoTime();
+        final int SPINS = 5;
+        final AtomicLong removes = new AtomicLong(0);
+        final AtomicLong polls = new AtomicLong(0);
+        final int adderCount =
+            Math.max(1, Runtime.getRuntime().availableProcessors() / 4);
+        final int removerCount =
+            Math.max(1, Runtime.getRuntime().availableProcessors() / 4);
+        final int pollerCount = removerCount;
+        final int threadCount = adderCount + removerCount + pollerCount;
+        final CountDownLatch startingGate = new CountDownLatch(1);
+        final CountDownLatch addersDone = new CountDownLatch(adderCount);
+        final Runnable remover = new Runnable() {
+            public void run() {
+                await(startingGate);
+                int spins = 0;
+                for (;;) {
+                    boolean quittingTime = (addersDone.getCount() == 0);
+                    if (q.remove(Boolean.TRUE))
+                        removes.getAndIncrement();
+                    else if (quittingTime)
+                        break;
+                    else if (++spins > SPINS) {
+                        Thread.yield();
+                        spins = 0;
+                    }}}};
+        final Runnable poller = new Runnable() {
+            public void run() {
+                await(startingGate);
+                int spins = 0;
+                for (;;) {
+                    boolean quittingTime = (addersDone.getCount() == 0);
+                    if (q.poll() == Boolean.TRUE)
+                        polls.getAndIncrement();
+                    else if (quittingTime)
+                        break;
+                    else if (++spins > SPINS) {
+                        Thread.yield();
+                        spins = 0;
+                    }}}};
+        final Runnable adder = new Runnable() {
+            public void run() {
+                await(startingGate);
+                for (int i = 0; i < count; i++) {
+                    for (;;) {
+                        try { q.add(Boolean.TRUE); break; }
+                        catch (IllegalStateException e) { Thread.yield(); }
+                    }
+                }
+                addersDone.countDown();
+            }};
+
+        final List<Thread> adders   = new ArrayList<Thread>();
+        final List<Thread> removers = new ArrayList<Thread>();
+        final List<Thread> pollers  = new ArrayList<Thread>();
+        for (int i = 0; i < adderCount; i++)
+            adders.add(checkedThread(adder));
+        for (int i = 0; i < removerCount; i++)
+            removers.add(checkedThread(remover));
+        for (int i = 0; i < pollerCount; i++)
+            pollers.add(checkedThread(poller));
+
+        final List<Thread> allThreads = new ArrayList<Thread>();
+        allThreads.addAll(removers);
+        allThreads.addAll(pollers);
+        allThreads.addAll(adders);
+
+        for (Thread t : allThreads)
+            t.start();
+        startingGate.countDown();
+        for (Thread t : allThreads)
+            t.join();
+
+        String className = q.getClass().getSimpleName();
+        long elapsed = System.nanoTime() - t0;
+        int nanos = (int) ((double) elapsed / (adderCount * count));
+        results.put(className, String.valueOf(nanos));
+        if (removes.get() + polls.get() != adderCount * count) {
+            String msg = String.format
+                ("class=%s removes=%s polls=%d count=%d",
+                 className, removes.get(), polls.get(), count);
+            fail(msg);
+        }
+    }
+
+    //--------------------- Infrastructure ---------------------------
+    volatile int passed = 0, failed = 0;
+    void pass() {passed++;}
+    void fail() {failed++; Thread.dumpStack();}
+    void fail(String msg) {System.err.println(msg); fail();}
+    void unexpected(Throwable t) {failed++; t.printStackTrace();}
+    void check(boolean cond) {if (cond) pass(); else fail();}
+    void equal(Object x, Object y) {
+        if (x == null ? y == null : x.equals(y)) pass();
+        else fail(x + " not equal to " + y);}
+    public static void main(String[] args) throws Throwable {
+        new RemovePollRace().instanceMain(args);}
+    public void instanceMain(String[] args) throws Throwable {
+        try {test(args);} catch (Throwable t) {unexpected(t);}
+        System.out.printf("%nPassed = %d, failed = %d%n%n", passed, failed);
+        if (failed > 0) throw new AssertionError("Some tests failed");}
+    Thread checkedThread(final Runnable r) {
+        return new Thread() {public void run() {
+            try {r.run();} catch (Throwable t) {unexpected(t);}}};}
+}
--- a/test/java/util/concurrent/LinkedBlockingQueue/OfferRemoveLoops.java	Tue Jul 28 11:15:49 2009 +0800
+++ b/test/java/util/concurrent/LinkedBlockingQueue/OfferRemoveLoops.java	Tue Jul 28 13:24:52 2009 -0700
@@ -28,62 +28,74 @@
  * @author Martin Buchholz
  */
 
+import java.util.*;
 import java.util.concurrent.*;
 
 public class OfferRemoveLoops {
-    private static void realMain(String[] args) throws Throwable {
+    void test(String[] args) throws Throwable {
         testQueue(new LinkedBlockingQueue<String>(10));
         testQueue(new LinkedBlockingQueue<String>());
         testQueue(new LinkedBlockingDeque<String>(10));
         testQueue(new LinkedBlockingDeque<String>());
         testQueue(new ArrayBlockingQueue<String>(10));
         testQueue(new PriorityBlockingQueue<String>(10));
+        testQueue(new ConcurrentLinkedQueue<String>());
     }
 
-    private abstract static class ControlledThread extends Thread {
+    abstract class CheckedThread extends Thread {
         abstract protected void realRun();
         public void run() {
             try { realRun(); } catch (Throwable t) { unexpected(t); }
         }
     }
 
-    private static void testQueue(final BlockingQueue<String> q) throws Throwable {
-        System.out.println(q.getClass());
-        final int count = 10000;
-        final long quittingTime = System.nanoTime() + 1L * 1000L * 1000L * 1000L;
-        Thread t1 = new ControlledThread() {
-                protected void realRun() {
-                    for (int i = 0, j = 0; i < count; i++)
-                        while (! q.remove(String.valueOf(i))
-                               && System.nanoTime() - quittingTime < 0)
-                            Thread.yield();}};
-        Thread t2 = new ControlledThread() {
-                protected void realRun() {
-                    for (int i = 0, j = 0; i < count; i++)
-                        while (! q.offer(String.valueOf(i))
-                               && System.nanoTime() - quittingTime < 0)
-                            Thread.yield();}};
+    void testQueue(final Queue<String> q) throws Throwable {
+        System.out.println(q.getClass().getSimpleName());
+        final int count = 1000 * 1000;
+        final long testDurationSeconds = 1L;
+        final long testDurationMillis = testDurationSeconds * 1000L;
+        final long quittingTimeNanos
+            = System.nanoTime() + testDurationSeconds * 1000L * 1000L * 1000L;
+        Thread t1 = new CheckedThread() {
+            protected void realRun() {
+                for (int i = 0; i < count; i++) {
+                    if ((i % 1024) == 0 &&
+                        System.nanoTime() - quittingTimeNanos > 0)
+                        return;
+                    while (! q.remove(String.valueOf(i)))
+                        Thread.yield();
+                }}};
+        Thread t2 = new CheckedThread() {
+            protected void realRun() {
+                for (int i = 0; i < count; i++) {
+                    if ((i % 1024) == 0 &&
+                        System.nanoTime() - quittingTimeNanos > 0)
+                        return;
+                    while (! q.offer(String.valueOf(i)))
+                        Thread.yield();
+                    }}};
         t1.setDaemon(true); t2.setDaemon(true);
         t1.start(); t2.start();
-        t1.join(10000); t2.join(10000);
+        t1.join(10 * testDurationMillis);
+        t2.join(10 * testDurationMillis);
         check(! t1.isAlive());
         check(! t2.isAlive());
     }
 
     //--------------------- Infrastructure ---------------------------
-    static volatile int passed = 0, failed = 0;
-    static void pass() { passed++; }
-    static void fail() { failed++; Thread.dumpStack(); }
-    static void unexpected(Throwable t) { failed++; t.printStackTrace(); }
-    static void check(boolean cond) { if (cond) pass(); else fail(); }
-    static void equal(Object x, Object y) {
+    volatile int passed = 0, failed = 0;
+    void pass() {passed++;}
+    void fail() {failed++; Thread.dumpStack();}
+    void fail(String msg) {System.err.println(msg); fail();}
+    void unexpected(Throwable t) {failed++; t.printStackTrace();}
+    void check(boolean cond) {if (cond) pass(); else fail();}
+    void equal(Object x, Object y) {
         if (x == null ? y == null : x.equals(y)) pass();
-        else {System.out.println(x + " not equal to " + y); fail(); }}
-
+        else fail(x + " not equal to " + y);}
     public static void main(String[] args) throws Throwable {
-        try { realMain(args); } catch (Throwable t) { unexpected(t); }
-
+        new OfferRemoveLoops().instanceMain(args);}
+    public void instanceMain(String[] args) throws Throwable {
+        try {test(args);} catch (Throwable t) {unexpected(t);}
         System.out.printf("%nPassed = %d, failed = %d%n%n", passed, failed);
-        if (failed > 0) throw new Exception("Some tests failed");
-    }
+        if (failed > 0) throw new AssertionError("Some tests failed");}
 }