changeset 10492:87c95759b92b jdk8u60-b03

Merge
author lana
date Wed, 11 Feb 2015 18:55:05 -0800
parents 3178c42337a7 92b7d67ee862
children 81e87652146b 2745baf44012
files make/lib/Awt2dLibraries.gmk
diffstat 94 files changed, 15281 insertions(+), 9253 deletions(-) [+]
line wrap: on
line diff
--- a/make/data/tzdata/VERSION	Wed Feb 11 12:18:51 2015 -0800
+++ b/make/data/tzdata/VERSION	Wed Feb 11 18:55:05 2015 -0800
@@ -21,4 +21,4 @@
 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
 # questions.
 #
-tzdata2014j
+tzdata2015a
--- a/make/data/tzdata/antarctica	Wed Feb 11 12:18:51 2015 -0800
+++ b/make/data/tzdata/antarctica	Wed Feb 11 18:55:05 2015 -0800
@@ -70,8 +70,8 @@
 Rule	ChileAQ	2010	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	3:00u	0	-
 Rule	ChileAQ	2011	only	-	May	Sun>=2	3:00u	0	-
 Rule	ChileAQ	2011	only	-	Aug	Sun>=16	4:00u	1:00	S
-Rule	ChileAQ	2012	max	-	Apr	Sun>=23	3:00u	0	-
-Rule	ChileAQ	2012	max	-	Sep	Sun>=2	4:00u	1:00	S
+Rule	ChileAQ	2012	2015	-	Apr	Sun>=23	3:00u	0	-
+Rule	ChileAQ	2012	2014	-	Sep	Sun>=2	4:00u	1:00	S
 
 # Argentina - year-round bases
 # Belgrano II, Confin Coast, -770227-0343737, since 1972-02-05
@@ -377,9 +377,10 @@
 #
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone Antarctica/Palmer	0	-	zzz	1965
-			-4:00	ArgAQ	AR%sT	1969 Oct 5
+			-4:00	ArgAQ	AR%sT	1969 Oct  5
 			-3:00	ArgAQ	AR%sT	1982 May
-			-4:00	ChileAQ	CL%sT
+			-4:00	ChileAQ	CL%sT	2015 Apr 26 3:00u
+			-3:00	-	CLT
 #
 #
 # McMurdo Station, Ross Island, since 1955-12
--- a/make/data/tzdata/asia	Wed Feb 11 12:18:51 2015 -0800
+++ b/make/data/tzdata/asia	Wed Feb 11 18:55:05 2015 -0800
@@ -168,10 +168,7 @@
 			4:00	Azer	AZ%sT
 
 # Bahrain
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Bahrain	3:22:20 -	LMT	1920     # Manamah
-			4:00	-	GST	1972 Jun
-			3:00	-	AST
+# See Asia/Qatar.
 
 # Bangladesh
 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-05-13):
@@ -1754,9 +1751,7 @@
 ###############################################################################
 
 # Kuwait
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Kuwait	3:11:56 -	LMT	1950
-			3:00	-	AST
+# See Asia/Riyadh.
 
 # Laos
 # See Asia/Bangkok.
@@ -1977,12 +1972,7 @@
 			5:45	-	NPT	# Nepal Time
 
 # Oman
-
-# Milne says 3:54:24 was the meridian of the Muscat Tidal Observatory.
-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Muscat	3:54:24 -	LMT	1920
-			4:00	-	GST
+# See Asia/Dubai.
 
 # Pakistan
 
@@ -2476,6 +2466,7 @@
 Zone	Asia/Qatar	3:26:08 -	LMT	1920     # Al Dawhah / Doha
 			4:00	-	GST	1972 Jun
 			3:00	-	AST
+Link Asia/Qatar Asia/Bahrain
 
 # Saudi Arabia
 #
@@ -2502,6 +2493,8 @@
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Asia/Riyadh	3:06:52 -	LMT	1947 Mar 14
 			3:00	-	AST
+Link Asia/Riyadh Asia/Aden	# Yemen
+Link Asia/Riyadh Asia/Kuwait
 
 # Singapore
 # taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30)
@@ -2790,6 +2783,7 @@
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Asia/Dubai	3:41:12 -	LMT	1920
 			4:00	-	GST
+Link Asia/Dubai Asia/Muscat	# Oman
 
 # Uzbekistan
 # Byalokoz 1919 says Uzbekistan was 4:27:53.
@@ -2874,10 +2868,4 @@
 			7:00	-	ICT
 
 # Yemen
-
-# Milne says 2:59:54 was the meridian of the saluting battery at Aden,
-# and that Yemen was at 1:55:56, the meridian of the Hagia Sophia.
-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Aden	2:59:54	-	LMT	1950
-			3:00	-	AST
+# See Asia/Riyadh.
--- a/make/data/tzdata/backward	Wed Feb 11 12:18:51 2015 -0800
+++ b/make/data/tzdata/backward	Wed Feb 11 18:55:05 2015 -0800
@@ -28,7 +28,7 @@
 # and their old names.  Many names changed in late 1993.
 
 # Link	TARGET			LINK-NAME
-Link	Africa/Asmara		Africa/Asmera
+Link	Africa/Nairobi		Africa/Asmera
 Link	Africa/Abidjan		Africa/Timbuktu
 Link	America/Argentina/Catamarca	America/Argentina/ComodRivadavia
 Link	America/Adak		America/Atka
--- a/make/data/tzdata/europe	Wed Feb 11 12:18:51 2015 -0800
+++ b/make/data/tzdata/europe	Wed Feb 11 18:55:05 2015 -0800
@@ -1430,35 +1430,32 @@
 # might be a reference to the Julian calendar as opposed to Gregorian, or it
 # might mean something else (???).
 #
-# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
-# The Iceland Almanak, Shanks & Pottenger, and Whitman disagree on many points.
-# We go with the Almanak, except for one claim from Shanks & Pottenger, namely
-# that Reykavik was 21W57 from 1837 to 1908, local mean time before that.
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-11-22):
+# The information below is taken from the 1988 Almanak; see
+# http://www.almanak.hi.is/klukkan.html
 #
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Iceland	1917	1918	-	Feb	19	23:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Iceland	1917	1919	-	Feb	19	23:00	1:00	S
 Rule	Iceland	1917	only	-	Oct	21	 1:00	0	-
-Rule	Iceland	1918	only	-	Nov	16	 1:00	0	-
+Rule	Iceland	1918	1919	-	Nov	16	 1:00	0	-
+Rule	Iceland	1921	only	-	Mar	19	23:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Iceland	1921	only	-	Jun	23	 1:00	0	-
 Rule	Iceland	1939	only	-	Apr	29	23:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Iceland	1939	only	-	Nov	29	 2:00	0	-
+Rule	Iceland	1939	only	-	Oct	29	 2:00	0	-
 Rule	Iceland	1940	only	-	Feb	25	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Iceland	1940	only	-	Nov	 3	 2:00	0	-
-Rule	Iceland	1941	only	-	Mar	 2	 1:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Iceland	1941	only	-	Nov	 2	 1:00s	0	-
-Rule	Iceland	1942	only	-	Mar	 8	 1:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Iceland	1942	only	-	Oct	25	 1:00s	0	-
+Rule	Iceland	1940	1941	-	Nov	Sun>=2	 1:00s	0	-
+Rule	Iceland	1941	1942	-	Mar	Sun>=2	 1:00s	1:00	S
 # 1943-1946 - first Sunday in March until first Sunday in winter
 Rule	Iceland	1943	1946	-	Mar	Sun>=1	 1:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Iceland	1943	1948	-	Oct	Sun>=22	 1:00s	0	-
+Rule	Iceland	1942	1948	-	Oct	Sun>=22	 1:00s	0	-
 # 1947-1967 - first Sunday in April until first Sunday in winter
 Rule	Iceland	1947	1967	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 1:00s	1:00	S
-# 1949 Oct transition delayed by 1 week
+# 1949 and 1967 Oct transitions delayed by 1 week
 Rule	Iceland	1949	only	-	Oct	30	 1:00s	0	-
 Rule	Iceland	1950	1966	-	Oct	Sun>=22	 1:00s	0	-
 Rule	Iceland	1967	only	-	Oct	29	 1:00s	0	-
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik	-1:27:24 -	LMT	1837
-			-1:27:48 -	RMT	1908 # Reykjavik Mean Time?
+Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik	-1:28	-	LMT	1908
 			-1:00	Iceland	IS%sT	1968 Apr  7  1:00s
 			 0:00	-	GMT
 
--- a/make/data/tzdata/leapseconds	Wed Feb 11 12:18:51 2015 -0800
+++ b/make/data/tzdata/leapseconds	Wed Feb 11 18:55:05 2015 -0800
@@ -77,3 +77,7 @@
 Leap	2005	Dec	31	23:59:60	+	S
 Leap	2008	Dec	31	23:59:60	+	S
 Leap	2012	Jun	30	23:59:60	+	S
+Leap	2015	Jun	30	23:59:60	+	S
+
+#	Updated through IERS Bulletin C49
+#	File expires on:  28 December 2015
--- a/make/data/tzdata/northamerica	Wed Feb 11 12:18:51 2015 -0800
+++ b/make/data/tzdata/northamerica	Wed Feb 11 18:55:05 2015 -0800
@@ -147,7 +147,7 @@
 Rule	US	1918	1919	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
 Rule	US	1942	only	-	Feb	9	2:00	1:00	W # War
 Rule	US	1945	only	-	Aug	14	23:00u	1:00	P # Peace
-Rule	US	1945	only	-	Sep	30	2:00	0	S
+Rule	US	1945	only	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
 Rule	US	1967	2006	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
 Rule	US	1967	1973	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
 Rule	US	1974	only	-	Jan	6	2:00	1:00	D
@@ -2147,11 +2147,11 @@
 
 # Mexico
 
-# From Paul Eggert (2001-03-05):
+# From Paul Eggert (2014-12-07):
 # The Investigation and Analysis Service of the
 # Mexican Library of Congress (MLoC) has published a
 # history of Mexican local time (in Spanish)
-# http://www.cddhcu.gob.mx/bibliot/publica/inveyana/polisoc/horver/
+# http://www.diputados.gob.mx/bibliot/publica/inveyana/polisoc/horver/index.htm
 #
 # Here are the discrepancies between Shanks & Pottenger (S&P) and the MLoC.
 # (In all cases we go with the MLoC.)
@@ -2320,6 +2320,24 @@
 # efecto desde las dos horas del segundo domingo de marzo y concluirá a
 # las dos horas del primer domingo de noviembre.
 
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2014-12-08), translated by Gwillim Law:
+# The Mexican state of Quintana Roo will likely change to EST in 2015.
+#
+# http://www.unioncancun.mx/articulo/2014/12/04/medio-ambiente/congreso-aprueba-una-hora-mas-de-sol-en-qroo
+# "With this change, the time conflict that has existed between the municipios
+# of Quintana Roo and the municipio of Felipe Carrillo Puerto may come to an
+# end. The latter declared itself in rebellion 15 years ago when a time change
+# was initiated in Mexico, and since then it has refused to change its time
+# zone along with the rest of the country."
+#
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2015-01-14), translated by Gwillim Law:
+# http://sipse.com/novedades/confirman-aplicacion-de-nueva-zona-horaria-para-quintana-roo-132331.html
+# "...the new time zone will come into effect at two o'clock on the first Sunday
+# of February, when we will have to advance the clock one hour from its current
+# time..."
+#
+# Also, the new zone will not use DST.
+
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
 Rule	Mexico	1939	only	-	Feb	5	0:00	1:00	D
 Rule	Mexico	1939	only	-	Jun	25	0:00	0	S
@@ -2340,7 +2358,8 @@
 Zone America/Cancun	-5:47:04 -	LMT	1922 Jan  1  0:12:56
 			-6:00	-	CST	1981 Dec 23
 			-5:00	Mexico	E%sT	1998 Aug  2  2:00
-			-6:00	Mexico	C%sT
+			-6:00	Mexico	C%sT	2015 Feb  1  2:00
+			-5:00	-	EST
 # Campeche, Yucatán; represented by Mérida
 Zone America/Merida	-5:58:28 -	LMT	1922 Jan  1  0:01:32
 			-6:00	-	CST	1981 Dec 23
--- a/make/data/tzdata/southamerica	Wed Feb 11 12:18:51 2015 -0800
+++ b/make/data/tzdata/southamerica	Wed Feb 11 18:55:05 2015 -0800
@@ -1229,6 +1229,11 @@
 # DST Start: first Saturday of September 2014 (Sun 07 Sep 2014 04:00 UTC)
 # http://www.diariooficial.interior.gob.cl//media/2014/02/19/do-20140219.pdf
 
+# From Juan Correa (2015-01-28):
+# ... today the Ministry of Energy announced that Chile will drop DST, will keep
+# "summer time" (UTC -3 / UTC -5) all year round....
+# http://www.minenergia.cl/ministerio/noticias/generales/ministerio-de-energia-anuncia.html
+
 # NOTE: ChileAQ rules for Antarctic bases are stored separately in the
 # 'antarctica' file.
 
@@ -1270,8 +1275,8 @@
 Rule	Chile	2010	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	3:00u	0	-
 Rule	Chile	2011	only	-	May	Sun>=2	3:00u	0	-
 Rule	Chile	2011	only	-	Aug	Sun>=16	4:00u	1:00	S
-Rule	Chile	2012	max	-	Apr	Sun>=23	3:00u	0	-
-Rule	Chile	2012	max	-	Sep	Sun>=2	4:00u	1:00	S
+Rule	Chile	2012	2015	-	Apr	Sun>=23	3:00u	0	-
+Rule	Chile	2012	2014	-	Sep	Sun>=2	4:00u	1:00	S
 # IATA SSIM anomalies: (1992-02) says 1992-03-14;
 # (1996-09) says 1998-03-08.  Ignore these.
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
@@ -1282,11 +1287,13 @@
 			-4:00	-	CLT	1919 Jul  1 # Chile Time
 			-4:42:46 -	SMT	1927 Sep  1 # Santiago Mean Time
 			-5:00	Chile	CL%sT	1947 May 22 # Chile Time
-			-4:00	Chile	CL%sT
+			-4:00	Chile	CL%sT	2015 Apr 26  3:00u
+			-3:00	-	CLT
 Zone Pacific/Easter	-7:17:44 -	LMT	1890
 			-7:17:28 -	EMT	1932 Sep    # Easter Mean Time
-			-7:00	Chile	EAS%sT	1982 Mar 13 21:00 # Easter Time
-			-6:00	Chile	EAS%sT
+			-7:00	Chile	EAS%sT	1982 Mar 13 3:00u # Easter Time
+			-6:00	Chile	EAS%sT	2015 Apr 26 3:00u
+			-5:00	-	EAST
 #
 # Salas y Gómez Island is uninhabited.
 # Other Chilean locations, including Juan Fernández Is, Desventuradas Is,
--- a/make/data/tzdata/zone.tab	Wed Feb 11 12:18:51 2015 -0800
+++ b/make/data/tzdata/zone.tab	Wed Feb 11 18:55:05 2015 -0800
@@ -297,7 +297,7 @@
 MV	+0410+07330	Indian/Maldives
 MW	-1547+03500	Africa/Blantyre
 MX	+1924-09909	America/Mexico_City	Central Time - most locations
-MX	+2105-08646	America/Cancun	Central Time - Quintana Roo
+MX	+2105-08646	America/Cancun	Eastern Standard Time - Quintana Roo
 MX	+2058-08937	America/Merida	Central Time - Campeche, Yucatan
 MX	+2540-10019	America/Monterrey	Mexican Central Time - Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas away from US border
 MX	+2550-09730	America/Matamoros	US Central Time - Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas near US border
--- a/make/lib/Awt2dLibraries.gmk	Wed Feb 11 12:18:51 2015 -0800
+++ b/make/lib/Awt2dLibraries.gmk	Wed Feb 11 18:55:05 2015 -0800
@@ -825,8 +825,8 @@
         $(call SET_SHARED_LIBRARY_ORIGIN), \
     LDFLAGS_SUFFIX := $(BUILD_LIBFONTMANAGER_FONTLIB), \
     LDFLAGS_SUFFIX_linux := -lawt $(LIBM) $(LIBCXX) -ljava -ljvm -lc, \
-    LDFLAGS_SUFFIX_solaris := -lawt -lawt_xawt -lc $(LIBM) $(LIBCXX) -ljava -ljvm, \
-    LDFLAGS_SUFFIX_aix := -lawt -lawt_xawt $(LIBM) $(LIBCXX) -ljava -ljvm,\
+    LDFLAGS_SUFFIX_solaris := -lawt -lawt_headless -lc $(LIBM) $(LIBCXX) -ljava -ljvm, \
+    LDFLAGS_SUFFIX_aix := -lawt -lawt_headless $(LIBM) $(LIBCXX) -ljava -ljvm,\
     LDFLAGS_SUFFIX_macosx := -lawt $(LIBM) $(LIBCXX) -undefined dynamic_lookup \
         -ljava -ljvm, \
     LDFLAGS_SUFFIX_windows := $(WIN_JAVA_LIB) advapi32.lib user32.lib gdi32.lib \
--- a/src/aix/classes/sun/nio/fs/AixNativeDispatcher.java	Wed Feb 11 12:18:51 2015 -0800
+++ b/src/aix/classes/sun/nio/fs/AixNativeDispatcher.java	Wed Feb 11 18:55:05 2015 -0800
@@ -43,7 +43,7 @@
     static native UnixMountEntry[] getmntctl() throws UnixException;
 
     // initialize
-    private static native int init();
+    private static native void init();
 
     static {
         AccessController.doPrivileged(new PrivilegedAction<Void>() {
--- a/src/aix/native/sun/nio/fs/AixNativeDispatcher.c	Wed Feb 11 12:18:51 2015 -0800
+++ b/src/aix/native/sun/nio/fs/AixNativeDispatcher.c	Wed Feb 11 18:55:05 2015 -0800
@@ -56,23 +56,26 @@
 /**
  * Initialization
  */
-JNIEXPORT jint JNICALL
+JNIEXPORT void JNICALL
 Java_sun_nio_fs_AixNativeDispatcher_init(JNIEnv* env, jclass this)
 {
-    jint flags = 0;
     jclass clazz;
 
     clazz = (*env)->FindClass(env, "sun/nio/fs/UnixMountEntry");
-    if (clazz == NULL) {
-        return 0;
+    CHECK_NULL(clazz);
+    entry_name = (*env)->GetFieldID(env, clazz, "name", "[B");
+    CHECK_NULL(entry_name);
+    entry_dir = (*env)->GetFieldID(env, clazz, "dir", "[B");
+    CHECK_NULL(entry_dir);
+    entry_fstype = (*env)->GetFieldID(env, clazz, "fstype", "[B");
+    CHECK_NULL(entry_fstype);
+    entry_options = (*env)->GetFieldID(env, clazz, "opts", "[B");
+    CHECK_NULL(entry_options);
+    entry_cls = (*env)->NewGlobalRef(env, clazz);
+    if (entry_cls == NULL) {
+        JNU_ThrowOutOfMemoryError(env, NULL);
+        return;
     }
-    entry_name = (*env)->GetFieldID(env, clazz, "name", "[B");
-    entry_dir = (*env)->GetFieldID(env, clazz, "dir", "[B");
-    entry_fstype = (*env)->GetFieldID(env, clazz, "fstype", "[B");
-    entry_options = (*env)->GetFieldID(env, clazz, "opts", "[B");
-    entry_cls = (*env)->NewGlobalRef(env, clazz);
-
-    return 0;
 }
 
 /**
--- a/src/bsd/doc/man/java.1	Wed Feb 11 12:18:51 2015 -0800
+++ b/src/bsd/doc/man/java.1	Wed Feb 11 18:55:05 2015 -0800
@@ -1,2198 +1,3802 @@
 '\" t
-.\"  Copyright (c) 1994, 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
-.\"
-.\" DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
-.\"
-.\" This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
-.\" under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
-.\" published by the Free Software Foundation.
-.\"
-.\" This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
-.\" ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
-.\" FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License
-.\" version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
-.\" accompanied this code).
-.\"
-.\" You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
-.\" 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
-.\" Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
-.\"
-.\" Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
-.\" or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
-.\" questions.
-.\"
-.\"     Arch: generic
-.\"     Software: JDK 8
-.\"     Date: 03 March 2015
-.\"     SectDesc: Basic Tools
-.\"     Title: java.1
+.\" Copyright (c) 1994, 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+.\"
+.\" DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+.\"
+.\" This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+.\" under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+.\" published by the Free Software Foundation.
+.\"
+.\" This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+.\" ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+.\" FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License
+.\" version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+.\" accompanied this code).
+.\"
+.\" You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+.\" 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+.\" Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+.\"
+.\" Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
+.\" or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
+.\" questions.
+.\"
+.\" Title: java
+.\" Language: English
+.\" Date: 03 March 2015
+.\" SectDesc: Basic Tools
+.\" Software: JDK 8
+.\" Arch: generic
+.\" Part Number: E38207-04
+.\" Doc ID: JSSON
 .\"
 .if n .pl 99999
-.TH java 1 "03 March 2015" "JDK 8" "Basic Tools"
-.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
-.\" * Define some portability stuff
-.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
-.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-.\" http://bugs.debian.org/507673
-.\" http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/groff/2009-02/msg00013.html
-.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-.ie \n(.g .ds Aq \(aq
-.el       .ds Aq '
-.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
-.\" * set default formatting
-.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
-.\" disable hyphenation
-.nh
-.\" disable justification (adjust text to left margin only)
-.ad l
-.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
-.\" * MAIN CONTENT STARTS HERE *
-.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
-
-.SH NAME    
+.TH "java" "1" "03 March 2015" "JDK 8" "Basic Tools"
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * Define some portability stuff
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+.\" http://bugs.debian.org/507673
+.\" http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/groff/2009-02/msg00013.html
+.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+.ie \n(.g .ds Aq \(aq
+.el       .ds Aq '
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * set default formatting
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" disable hyphenation
+.nh
+.\" disable justification (adjust text to left margin only)
+.ad l
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * MAIN CONTENT STARTS HERE *
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.SH "NAME"
 java \- Launches a Java application\&.
-.SH SYNOPSIS    
-.sp     
-.nf     
-
+.SH "SYNOPSIS"
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
 \fBjava\fR [\fIoptions\fR] \fIclassname\fR [\fIargs\fR]
-.fi     
-.nf     
-
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
 \fBjava\fR [\fIoptions\fR] \fB\-jar\fR \fIfilename\fR [\fIargs\fR]
-.fi     
-.sp     
-.TP     
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.PP
 \fIoptions\fR
-Command-line options separated by spaces\&. See Options\&.
-.TP     
+.RS 4
+Command\-line options separated by spaces\&. See Options\&.
+.RE
+.PP
 \fIclassname\fR
+.RS 4
 The name of the class to be launched\&.
-.TP     
+.RE
+.PP
 \fIfilename\fR
-The name of the Java Archive (JAR) file to be called\&. Used only with the \f3-jar\fR option\&.
-.TP     
+.RS 4
+The name of the Java Archive (JAR) file to be called\&. Used only with the
+\fB\-jar\fR
+option\&.
+.RE
+.PP
 \fIargs\fR
-The arguments passed to the \f3main()\fR method separated by spaces\&.
-.SH DESCRIPTION    
-The \f3java\fR command starts a Java application\&. It does this by starting the Java Runtime Environment (JRE), loading the specified class, and calling that class\&'s \f3main()\fR method\&. The method must be declared \fIpublic\fR and \fIstatic\fR, it must not return any value, and it must accept a \f3String\fR array as a parameter\&. The method declaration has the following form:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3public static void main(String[] args)\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-The \f3java\fR command can be used to launch a JavaFX application by loading a class that either has a \f3main()\fR method or that extends \f3javafx\&.application\&.Application\fR\&. In the latter case, the launcher constructs an instance of the \f3Application\fR class, calls its \f3init()\fR method, and then calls the \f3start(javafx\&.stage\&.Stage)\fR method\&.
+.RS 4
+The arguments passed to the
+\fBmain()\fR
+method separated by spaces\&.
+.RE
+.SH "DESCRIPTION"
 .PP
-By default, the first argument that is not an option of the \f3java\fR command is the fully qualified name of the class to be called\&. If the \f3-jar\fR option is specified, its argument is the name of the JAR file containing class and resource files for the application\&. The startup class must be indicated by the \f3Main-Class\fR manifest header in its source code\&.
+The
+\fBjava\fR
+command starts a Java application\&. It does this by starting the Java Runtime Environment (JRE), loading the specified class, and calling that class\*(Aqs
+\fBmain()\fR
+method\&. The method must be declared
+\fIpublic\fR
+and
+\fIstatic\fR, it must not return any value, and it must accept a
+\fBString\fR
+array as a parameter\&. The method declaration has the following form:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fBpublic static void main(String[] args)\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.PP
+The
+\fBjava\fR
+command can be used to launch a JavaFX application by loading a class that either has a
+\fBmain()\fR
+method or that extends
+\fBjavafx\&.application\&.Application\fR\&. In the latter case, the launcher constructs an instance of the
+\fBApplication\fR
+class, calls its
+\fBinit()\fR
+method, and then calls the
+\fBstart(javafx\&.stage\&.Stage)\fR
+method\&.
+.PP
+By default, the first argument that is not an option of the
+\fBjava\fR
+command is the fully qualified name of the class to be called\&. If the
+\fB\-jar\fR
+option is specified, its argument is the name of the JAR file containing class and resource files for the application\&. The startup class must be indicated by the
+\fBMain\-Class\fR
+manifest header in its source code\&.
 .PP
 The JRE searches for the startup class (and other classes used by the application) in three sets of locations: the bootstrap class path, the installed extensions, and the user\(cqs class path\&.
 .PP
-Arguments after the class file name or the JAR file name are passed to the \f3main()\fR method\&.
-.SH OPTIONS    
-The \f3java\fR command supports a wide range of options that can be divided into the following categories:
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
+Arguments after the class file name or the JAR file name are passed to the
+\fBmain()\fR
+method\&.
+.SH "OPTIONS"
+.PP
+The
+\fBjava\fR
+command supports a wide range of options that can be divided into the following categories:
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
 Standard Options
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-Non-Standard Options
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+Non\-Standard Options
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
 Advanced Runtime Options
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
 Advanced JIT Compiler Options
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
 Advanced Serviceability Options
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
 Advanced Garbage Collection Options
+.RE
 .PP
 Standard options are guaranteed to be supported by all implementations of the Java Virtual Machine (JVM)\&. They are used for common actions, such as checking the version of the JRE, setting the class path, enabling verbose output, and so on\&.
 .PP
-Non-standard options are general purpose options that are specific to the Java HotSpot Virtual Machine, so they are not guaranteed to be supported by all JVM implementations, and are subject to change\&. These options start with \f3-X\fR\&.
+Non\-standard options are general purpose options that are specific to the Java HotSpot Virtual Machine, so they are not guaranteed to be supported by all JVM implementations, and are subject to change\&. These options start with
+\fB\-X\fR\&.
 .PP
-Advanced options are not recommended for casual use\&. These are developer options used for tuning specific areas of the Java HotSpot Virtual Machine operation that often have specific system requirements and may require privileged access to system configuration parameters\&. They are also not guaranteed to be supported by all JVM implementations, and are subject to change\&. Advanced options start with \f3-XX\fR\&.
+Advanced options are not recommended for casual use\&. These are developer options used for tuning specific areas of the Java HotSpot Virtual Machine operation that often have specific system requirements and may require privileged access to system configuration parameters\&. They are also not guaranteed to be supported by all JVM implementations, and are subject to change\&. Advanced options start with
+\fB\-XX\fR\&.
 .PP
 To keep track of the options that were deprecated or removed in the latest release, there is a section named Deprecated and Removed Options at the end of the document\&.
 .PP
-Boolean options are used to either enable a feature that is disabled by default or disable a feature that is enabled by default\&. Such options do not require a parameter\&. Boolean \f3-XX\fR options are enabled using the plus sign (\f3-XX:+\fR\fIOptionName\fR) and disabled using the minus sign (\f3-XX:-\fR\fIOptionName\fR)\&.
+Boolean options are used to either enable a feature that is disabled by default or disable a feature that is enabled by default\&. Such options do not require a parameter\&. Boolean
+\fB\-XX\fR
+options are enabled using the plus sign (\fB\-XX:+\fR\fIOptionName\fR) and disabled using the minus sign (\fB\-XX:\-\fR\fIOptionName\fR)\&.
 .PP
-For options that require an argument, the argument may be separated from the option name by a space, a colon (:), or an equal sign (=), or the argument may directly follow the option (the exact syntax differs for each option)\&. If you are expected to specify the size in bytes, you can use no suffix, or use the suffix \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR for kilobytes (KB), \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR for megabytes (MB), \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR for gigabytes (GB)\&. For example, to set the size to 8 GB, you can specify either \f38g\fR, \f38192m\fR, \f38388608k\fR, or \f38589934592\fR as the argument\&. If you are expected to specify the percentage, use a number from 0 to 1 (for example, specify \f30\&.25\fR for 25%)\&.
-.SS STANDARD\ OPTIONS    
+For options that require an argument, the argument may be separated from the option name by a space, a colon (:), or an equal sign (=), or the argument may directly follow the option (the exact syntax differs for each option)\&. If you are expected to specify the size in bytes, you can use no suffix, or use the suffix
+\fBk\fR
+or
+\fBK\fR
+for kilobytes (KB),
+\fBm\fR
+or
+\fBM\fR
+for megabytes (MB),
+\fBg\fR
+or
+\fBG\fR
+for gigabytes (GB)\&. For example, to set the size to 8 GB, you can specify either
+\fB8g\fR,
+\fB8192m\fR,
+\fB8388608k\fR, or
+\fB8589934592\fR
+as the argument\&. If you are expected to specify the percentage, use a number from 0 to 1 (for example, specify
+\fB0\&.25\fR
+for 25%)\&.
+.SS "Standard Options"
+.PP
 These are the most commonly used options that are supported by all implementations of the JVM\&.
-.TP
--agentlib:\fIlibname\fR[=\fIoptions\fR]
+.PP
+\-agentlib:\fIlibname\fR[=\fIoptions\fR]
+.RS 4
+Loads the specified native agent library\&. After the library name, a comma\-separated list of options specific to the library can be used\&.
+.sp
+If the option
+\fB\-agentlib:foo\fR
+is specified, then the JVM attempts to load the library named
+\fBlibfoo\&.so\fR
+in the location specified by the
+\fBLD_LIBRARY_PATH\fR
+system variable (on OS X this variable is
+\fBDYLD_LIBRARY_PATH\fR)\&.
+.sp
+The following example shows how to load the heap profiling tool (HPROF) library and get sample CPU information every 20 ms, with a stack depth of 3:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-agentlib:hprof=cpu=samples,interval=20,depth=3\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+The following example shows how to load the Java Debug Wire Protocol (JDWP) library and listen for the socket connection on port 8000, suspending the JVM before the main class loads:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-agentlib:jdwp=transport=dt_socket,server=y,address=8000\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+For more information about the native agent libraries, refer to the following:
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+The
+\fBjava\&.lang\&.instrument\fR
+package description at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/api/java/lang/instrument/package\-summary\&.html
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+Agent Command Line Options in the JVM Tools Interface guide at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/platform/jvmti/jvmti\&.html#starting
+.RE
+.RE
+.PP
+\-agentpath:\fIpathname\fR[=\fIoptions\fR]
+.RS 4
+Loads the native agent library specified by the absolute path name\&. This option is equivalent to
+\fB\-agentlib\fR
+but uses the full path and file name of the library\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-client
+.RS 4
+Selects the Java HotSpot Client VM\&. The 64\-bit version of the Java SE Development Kit (JDK) currently ignores this option and instead uses the Server JVM\&.
+.sp
+For default JVM selection, see Server\-Class Machine Detection at
+http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/vm/server\-class\&.html
+.RE
+.PP
+\-D\fIproperty\fR=\fIvalue\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets a system property value\&. The
+\fIproperty\fR
+variable is a string with no spaces that represents the name of the property\&. The
+\fIvalue\fR
+variable is a string that represents the value of the property\&. If
+\fIvalue\fR
+is a string with spaces, then enclose it in quotation marks (for example
+\fB\-Dfoo="foo bar"\fR)\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-d32
+.RS 4
+Runs the application in a 32\-bit environment\&. If a 32\-bit environment is not installed or is not supported, then an error will be reported\&. By default, the application is run in a 32\-bit environment unless a 64\-bit system is used\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-d64
+.RS 4
+Runs the application in a 64\-bit environment\&. If a 64\-bit environment is not installed or is not supported, then an error will be reported\&. By default, the application is run in a 32\-bit environment unless a 64\-bit system is used\&.
+.sp
+Currently only the Java HotSpot Server VM supports 64\-bit operation, and the
+\fB\-server\fR
+option is implicit with the use of
+\fB\-d64\fR\&. The
+\fB\-client\fR
+option is ignored with the use of
+\fB\-d64\fR\&. This is subject to change in a future release\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-disableassertions[:[\fIpackagename\fR]\&.\&.\&.|:\fIclassname\fR]
 .br
-Loads the specified native agent library\&. After the library name, a comma-separated list of options specific to the library can be used\&.
+\-da[:[\fIpackagename\fR]\&.\&.\&.|:\fIclassname\fR]
+.RS 4
+Disables assertions\&. By default, assertions are disabled in all packages and classes\&.
+.sp
+With no arguments,
+\fB\-disableassertions\fR
+(\fB\-da\fR) disables assertions in all packages and classes\&. With the
+\fIpackagename\fR
+argument ending in
+\fB\&.\&.\&.\fR, the switch disables assertions in the specified package and any subpackages\&. If the argument is simply
+\fB\&.\&.\&.\fR, then the switch disables assertions in the unnamed package in the current working directory\&. With the
+\fIclassname\fR
+argument, the switch disables assertions in the specified class\&.
+.sp
+The
+\fB\-disableassertions\fR
+(\fB\-da\fR) option applies to all class loaders and to system classes (which do not have a class loader)\&. There is one exception to this rule: if the option is provided with no arguments, then it does not apply to system classes\&. This makes it easy to disable assertions in all classes except for system classes\&. The
+\fB\-disablesystemassertions\fR
+option enables you to disable assertions in all system classes\&.
+.sp
+To explicitly enable assertions in specific packages or classes, use the
+\fB\-enableassertions\fR
+(\fB\-ea\fR) option\&. Both options can be used at the same time\&. For example, to run the
+\fBMyClass\fR
+application with assertions enabled in package
+\fBcom\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\fR
+(and any subpackages) but disabled in class
+\fBcom\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\&.Brickbat\fR, use the following command:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fBjava \-ea:com\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\&.\&.\&. \-da:com\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\&.Brickbat MyClass\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-disablesystemassertions
+.br
+\-dsa
+.RS 4
+Disables assertions in all system classes\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-enableassertions[:[\fIpackagename\fR]\&.\&.\&.|:\fIclassname\fR]
+.br
+\-ea[:[\fIpackagename\fR]\&.\&.\&.|:\fIclassname\fR]
+.RS 4
+Enables assertions\&. By default, assertions are disabled in all packages and classes\&.
+.sp
+With no arguments,
+\fB\-enableassertions\fR
+(\fB\-ea\fR) enables assertions in all packages and classes\&. With the
+\fIpackagename\fR
+argument ending in
+\fB\&.\&.\&.\fR, the switch enables assertions in the specified package and any subpackages\&. If the argument is simply
+\fB\&.\&.\&.\fR, then the switch enables assertions in the unnamed package in the current working directory\&. With the
+\fIclassname\fR
+argument, the switch enables assertions in the specified class\&.
+.sp
+The
+\fB\-enableassertions\fR
+(\fB\-ea\fR) option applies to all class loaders and to system classes (which do not have a class loader)\&. There is one exception to this rule: if the option is provided with no arguments, then it does not apply to system classes\&. This makes it easy to enable assertions in all classes except for system classes\&. The
+\fB\-enablesystemassertions\fR
+option provides a separate switch to enable assertions in all system classes\&.
+.sp
+To explicitly disable assertions in specific packages or classes, use the
+\fB\-disableassertions\fR
+(\fB\-da\fR) option\&. If a single command contains multiple instances of these switches, then they are processed in order before loading any classes\&. For example, to run the
+\fBMyClass\fR
+application with assertions enabled only in package
+\fBcom\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\fR
+(and any subpackages) but disabled in class
+\fBcom\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\&.Brickbat\fR, use the following command:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fBjava \-ea:com\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\&.\&.\&. \-da:com\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\&.Brickbat MyClass\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-enablesystemassertions
+.br
+\-esa
+.RS 4
+Enables assertions in all system classes\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-help
+.br
+\-?
+.RS 4
+Displays usage information for the
+\fBjava\fR
+command without actually running the JVM\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-jar \fIfilename\fR
+.RS 4
+Executes a program encapsulated in a JAR file\&. The
+\fIfilename\fR
+argument is the name of a JAR file with a manifest that contains a line in the form
+\fBMain\-Class:\fR\fIclassname\fR
+that defines the class with the
+\fBpublic static void main(String[] args)\fR
+method that serves as your application\*(Aqs starting point\&.
+.sp
+When you use the
+\fB\-jar\fR
+option, the specified JAR file is the source of all user classes, and other class path settings are ignored\&.
+.sp
+For more information about JAR files, see the following resources:
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+jar(1)
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+The Java Archive (JAR) Files guide at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/jar/index\&.html
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+Lesson: Packaging Programs in JAR Files at
 
-If the option \f3-agentlib:foo\fR is specified, then the JVM attempts to load the library named \f3libfoo\&.so\fR in the location specified by the \f3LD_LIBRARY_PATH\fR system variable (on OS X this variable is \f3DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH\fR)\&.
-
-The following example shows how to load the heap profiling tool (HPROF) library and get sample CPU information every 20 ms, with a stack depth of 3:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-agentlib:hprof=cpu=samples,interval=20,depth=3\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-The following example shows how to load the Java Debug Wire Protocol (JDWP) library and listen for the socket connection on port 8000, suspending the JVM before the main class loads:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-agentlib:jdwp=transport=dt_socket,server=y,address=8000\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-For more information about the native agent libraries, refer to the following:
-.RS     
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-The \f3java\&.lang\&.instrument\fR package description at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/api/java/lang/instrument/package-summary\&.html
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-Agent Command Line Options in the JVM Tools Interface guide at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/platform/jvmti/jvmti\&.html#starting
-.RE     
-
-.TP
--agentpath:\fIpathname\fR[=\fIoptions\fR]
-.br
-Loads the native agent library specified by the absolute path name\&. This option is equivalent to \f3-agentlib\fR but uses the full path and file name of the library\&.
-.TP
--client
-.br
-Selects the Java HotSpot Client VM\&. The 64-bit version of the Java SE Development Kit (JDK) currently ignores this option and instead uses the Server JVM\&.
-
-For default JVM selection, see Server-Class Machine Detection at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/vm/server-class\&.html
-.TP
--D\fIproperty\fR=\fIvalue\fR
-.br
-Sets a system property value\&. The \fIproperty\fR variable is a string with no spaces that represents the name of the property\&. The \fIvalue\fR variable is a string that represents the value of the property\&. If \fIvalue\fR is a string with spaces, then enclose it in quotation marks (for example \f3-Dfoo="foo bar"\fR)\&.
-.TP
--d32
-.br
-Runs the application in a 32-bit environment\&. If a 32-bit environment is not installed or is not supported, then an error will be reported\&. By default, the application is run in a 32-bit environment unless a 64-bit system is used\&.
-.TP
--d64
-.br
-Runs the application in a 64-bit environment\&. If a 64-bit environment is not installed or is not supported, then an error will be reported\&. By default, the application is run in a 32-bit environment unless a 64-bit system is used\&.
-
-Currently only the Java HotSpot Server VM supports 64-bit operation, and the \f3-server\fR option is implicit with the use of \f3-d64\fR\&. The \f3-client\fR option is ignored with the use of \f3-d64\fR\&. This is subject to change in a future release\&.
-.TP
+http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/tutorial/deployment/jar/index\&.html
+.RE
+.RE
+.PP
+\-javaagent:\fIjarpath\fR[=\fIoptions\fR]
+.RS 4
+Loads the specified Java programming language agent\&. For more information about instrumenting Java applications, see the
+\fBjava\&.lang\&.instrument\fR
+package description in the Java API documentation at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/api/java/lang/instrument/package\-summary\&.html
+.RE
+.PP
+\-jre\-restrict\-search
+.RS 4
+Includes user\-private JREs in the version search\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-no\-jre\-restrict\-search
+.RS 4
+Excludes user\-private JREs from the version search\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-server
+.RS 4
+Selects the Java HotSpot Server VM\&. The 64\-bit version of the JDK supports only the Server VM, so in that case the option is implicit\&.
+.sp
+For default JVM selection, see Server\-Class Machine Detection at
+http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/vm/server\-class\&.html
+.RE
+.PP
+\-showversion
+.RS 4
+Displays version information and continues execution of the application\&. This option is equivalent to the
+\fB\-version\fR
+option except that the latter instructs the JVM to exit after displaying version information\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-splash:\fIimgname\fR
+.RS 4
+Shows the splash screen with the image specified by
+\fIimgname\fR\&. For example, to show the
+\fBsplash\&.gif\fR
+file from the
+\fBimages\fR
+directory when starting your application, use the following option:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
 .nf
--disableassertions[:[\fIpackagename\fR]\&.\&.\&.|:\fIclassname\fR], -da[:[\fIpackagename\fR]\&.\&.\&.|:\fIclassname\fR]
-.br
+\fB\-splash:images/splash\&.gif\fR
+ 
 .fi
-Disables assertions\&. By default, assertions are disabled in all packages and classes\&.
-
-With no arguments, \f3-disableassertions\fR (\f3-da\fR) disables assertions in all packages and classes\&. With the \fIpackagename\fR argument ending in \f3\&.\&.\&.\fR, the switch disables assertions in the specified package and any subpackages\&. If the argument is simply \f3\&.\&.\&.\fR, then the switch disables assertions in the unnamed package in the current working directory\&. With the \fIclassname\fR argument\f3\fR, the switch disables assertions in the specified class\&.
-
-The \f3-disableassertions\fR (\f3-da\fR) option applies to all class loaders and to system classes (which do not have a class loader)\&. There is one exception to this rule: if the option is provided with no arguments, then it does not apply to system classes\&. This makes it easy to disable assertions in all classes except for system classes\&. The \f3-disablesystemassertions\fR option enables you to disable assertions in all system classes\&.
-
-To explicitly enable assertions in specific packages or classes, use the \f3-enableassertions\fR (\f3-ea\fR) option\&. Both options can be used at the same time\&. For example, to run the \f3MyClass\fR application with assertions enabled in package \f3com\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\fR (and any subpackages) but disabled in class \f3com\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\&.Brickbat\fR, use the following command:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3java \-ea:com\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\&.\&.\&. \-da:com\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\&.Brickbat MyClass\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--disablesystemassertions, -dsa
-.br
-Disables assertions in all system classes\&.
-.TP
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-verbose:class
+.RS 4
+Displays information about each loaded class\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-verbose:gc
+.RS 4
+Displays information about each garbage collection (GC) event\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-verbose:jni
+.RS 4
+Displays information about the use of native methods and other Java Native Interface (JNI) activity\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-version
+.RS 4
+Displays version information and then exits\&. This option is equivalent to the
+\fB\-showversion\fR
+option except that the latter does not instruct the JVM to exit after displaying version information\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-version:\fIrelease\fR
+.RS 4
+Specifies the release version to be used for running the application\&. If the version of the
+\fBjava\fR
+command called does not meet this specification and an appropriate implementation is found on the system, then the appropriate implementation will be used\&.
+.sp
+The
+\fIrelease\fR
+argument specifies either the exact version string, or a list of version strings and ranges separated by spaces\&. A
+\fIversion string\fR
+is the developer designation of the version number in the following form:
+\fB1\&.\fR\fIx\fR\fB\&.0_\fR\fIu\fR
+(where
+\fIx\fR
+is the major version number, and
+\fIu\fR
+is the update version number)\&. A
+\fIversion range\fR
+is made up of a version string followed by a plus sign (\fB+\fR) to designate this version or later, or a part of a version string followed by an asterisk (\fB*\fR) to designate any version string with a matching prefix\&. Version strings and ranges can be combined using a space for a logical
+\fIOR\fR
+combination, or an ampersand (\fB&\fR) for a logical
+\fIAND\fR
+combination of two version strings/ranges\&. For example, if running the class or JAR file requires either JRE 6u13 (1\&.6\&.0_13), or any JRE 6 starting from 6u10 (1\&.6\&.0_10), specify the following:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
 .nf
--enableassertions[:[\fIpackagename\fR]\&.\&.\&.|:\fIclassname\fR], -ea[:[\fIpackagename\fR]\&.\&.\&.|:\fIclassname\fR]
-.br
+\fB\-version:"1\&.6\&.0_13 1\&.6* & 1\&.6\&.0_10+"\fR
+ 
 .fi
-Enables assertions\&. By default, assertions are disabled in all packages and classes\&.
-
-With no arguments, \f3-enableassertions\fR (\f3-ea\fR) enables assertions in all packages and classes\&. With the \fIpackagename\fR argument ending in \f3\&.\&.\&.\fR, the switch enables assertions in the specified package and any subpackages\&. If the argument is simply \f3\&.\&.\&.\fR, then the switch enables assertions in the unnamed package in the current working directory\&. With the \fIclassname\fR argument\f3\fR, the switch enables assertions in the specified class\&.
-
-The \f3-enableassertions\fR (\f3-ea\fR) option applies to all class loaders and to system classes (which do not have a class loader)\&. There is one exception to this rule: if the option is provided with no arguments, then it does not apply to system classes\&. This makes it easy to enable assertions in all classes except for system classes\&. The \f3-enablesystemassertions\fR option provides a separate switch to enable assertions in all system classes\&.
-
-To explicitly disable assertions in specific packages or classes, use the \f3-disableassertions\fR (\f3-da\fR) option\&. If a single command contains multiple instances of these switches, then they are processed in order before loading any classes\&. For example, to run the \f3MyClass\fR application with assertions enabled only in package \f3com\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\fR (and any subpackages) but disabled in class \f3com\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\&.Brickbat\fR, use the following command:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3java \-ea:com\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\&.\&.\&. \-da:com\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\&.Brickbat MyClass\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--enablesystemassertions, -esa
-.br
-Enables assertions in all system classes\&.
-.TP
--help, -?
-.br
-Displays usage information for the \f3java\fR command without actually running the JVM\&.
-.TP
--jar \fIfilename\fR
-.br
-Executes a program encapsulated in a JAR file\&. The \fIfilename\fR argument is the name of a JAR file with a manifest that contains a line in the form \f3Main-Class:\fR\fIclassname\fR that defines the class with the \f3public static void main(String[] args)\fR method that serves as your application\&'s starting point\&.
-
-When you use the \f3-jar\fR option, the specified JAR file is the source of all user classes, and other class path settings are ignored\&.
-
-For more information about JAR files, see the following resources:
-.RS     
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-jar(1)
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-The Java Archive (JAR) Files guide at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/jar/index\&.html
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-Lesson: Packaging Programs in JAR Files at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/tutorial/deployment/jar/index\&.html
-.RE     
-
-.TP
--javaagent:\fIjarpath\fR[=\fIoptions\fR]
-.br
-Loads the specified Java programming language agent\&. For more information about instrumenting Java applications, see the \f3java\&.lang\&.instrument\fR package description in the Java API documentation at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/api/java/lang/instrument/package-summary\&.html
-.TP
--jre-restrict-search
-.br
-Includes user-private JREs in the version search\&.
-.TP
--no-jre-restrict-search
-.br
-Excludes user-private JREs from the version search\&.
-.TP
--server
-.br
-Selects the Java HotSpot Server VM\&. The 64-bit version of the JDK supports only the Server VM, so in that case the option is implicit\&.
-
-For default JVM selection, see Server-Class Machine Detection at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/vm/server-class\&.html
-.TP
--showversion
-.br
-Displays version information and continues execution of the application\&. This option is equivalent to the \f3-version\fR option except that the latter instructs the JVM to exit after displaying version information\&.
-.TP
--splash:\fIimgname\fR
-.br
-Shows the splash screen with the image specified by \fIimgname\fR\&. For example, to show the \f3splash\&.gif\fR file from the \f3images\fR directory when starting your application, use the following option:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-splash:images/splash\&.gif\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--verbose:class
-.br
-Displays information about each loaded class\&.
-.TP
--verbose:gc
-.br
-Displays information about each garbage collection (GC) event\&.
-.TP
--verbose:jni
-.br
-Displays information about the use of native methods and other Java Native Interface (JNI) activity\&.
-.TP
--version
-.br
-Displays version information and then exits\&. This option is equivalent to the \f3-showversion\fR option except that the latter does not instruct the JVM to exit after displaying version information\&.
-.TP
--version:\fIrelease\fR
-.br
-Specifies the release version to be used for running the application\&. If the version of the \f3java\fR command called does not meet this specification and an appropriate implementation is found on the system, then the appropriate implementation will be used\&.
-
-The \fIrelease\fR argument specifies either the exact version string, or a list of version strings and ranges separated by spaces\&. A \fIversion string\fR is the developer designation of the version number in the following form: \f31\&.\fR\fIx\fR\f3\&.0_\fR\fIu\fR (where \fIx\fR is the major version number, and \fIu\fR is the update version number)\&. A \fIversion range\fR is made up of a version string followed by a plus sign (\f3+\fR) to designate this version or later, or a part of a version string followed by an asterisk (\f3*\fR) to designate any version string with a matching prefix\&. Version strings and ranges can be combined using a space for a logical \fIOR\fR combination, or an ampersand (\f3&\fR) for a logical \fIAND\fR combination of two version strings/ranges\&. For example, if running the class or JAR file requires either JRE 6u13 (1\&.6\&.0_13), or any JRE 6 starting from 6u10 (1\&.6\&.0_10), specify the following:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-version:"1\&.6\&.0_13 1\&.6* & 1\&.6\&.0_10+"\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-Quotation marks are necessary only if there are spaces in the \fIrelease\fR parameter\&.
-
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+Quotation marks are necessary only if there are spaces in the
+\fIrelease\fR
+parameter\&.
+.sp
 For JAR files, the preference is to specify version requirements in the JAR file manifest rather than on the command line\&.
-.SS NON-STANDARD\ OPTIONS    
+.RE
+.SS "Non\-Standard Options"
+.PP
 These options are general purpose options that are specific to the Java HotSpot Virtual Machine\&.
-.TP
--X
-.br
-Displays help for all available \f3-X\fR options\&.
-.TP
--Xbatch
-.br
-Disables background compilation\&. By default, the JVM compiles the method as a background task, running the method in interpreter mode until the background compilation is finished\&. The \f3-Xbatch\fR flag disables background compilation so that compilation of all methods proceeds as a foreground task until completed\&.
-
-This option is equivalent to \f3-XX:-BackgroundCompilation\fR\&.
-.TP
--Xbootclasspath:\fIpath\fR
-.br
+.PP
+\-X
+.RS 4
+Displays help for all available
+\fB\-X\fR
+options\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xbatch
+.RS 4
+Disables background compilation\&. By default, the JVM compiles the method as a background task, running the method in interpreter mode until the background compilation is finished\&. The
+\fB\-Xbatch\fR
+flag disables background compilation so that compilation of all methods proceeds as a foreground task until completed\&.
+.sp
+This option is equivalent to
+\fB\-XX:\-BackgroundCompilation\fR\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xbootclasspath:\fIpath\fR
+.RS 4
 Specifies a list of directories, JAR files, and ZIP archives separated by colons (:) to search for boot class files\&. These are used in place of the boot class files included in the JDK\&.
-
-\fI\fRDo not deploy applications that use this option to override a class in \f3rt\&.jar\fR, because this violates the JRE binary code license\&.
-.TP
--Xbootclasspath/a:\fIpath\fR
-.br
+.sp
+Do not deploy applications that use this option to override a class in
+\fBrt\&.jar\fR, because this violates the JRE binary code license\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xbootclasspath/a:\fIpath\fR
+.RS 4
 Specifies a list of directories, JAR files, and ZIP archives separated by colons (:) to append to the end of the default bootstrap class path\&.
-
-Do not deploy applications that use this option to override a class in \f3rt\&.jar\fR, because this violates the JRE binary code license\&.
-.TP
--Xbootclasspath/p:\fIpath\fR
-.br
+.sp
+Do not deploy applications that use this option to override a class in
+\fBrt\&.jar\fR, because this violates the JRE binary code license\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xbootclasspath/p:\fIpath\fR
+.RS 4
 Specifies a list of directories, JAR files, and ZIP archives separated by colons (:) to prepend to the front of the default bootstrap class path\&.
-
-Do not deploy applications that use this option to override a class in \f3rt\&.jar\fR, because this violates the JRE binary code license\&.
-.TP
--Xcheck:jni
-.br
+.sp
+Do not deploy applications that use this option to override a class in
+\fBrt\&.jar\fR, because this violates the JRE binary code license\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xcheck:jni
+.RS 4
 Performs additional checks for Java Native Interface (JNI) functions\&. Specifically, it validates the parameters passed to the JNI function and the runtime environment data before processing the JNI request\&. Any invalid data encountered indicates a problem in the native code, and the JVM will terminate with an irrecoverable error in such cases\&. Expect a performance degradation when this option is used\&.
-.TP
--Xcomp
-.br
-Forces compilation of methods on first invocation\&. By default, the Client VM (\f3-client\fR) performs 1,000 interpreted method invocations and the Server VM (\f3-server\fR) performs 10,000 interpreted method invocations to gather information for efficient compilation\&. Specifying the \f3-Xcomp\fR option disables interpreted method invocations to increase compilation performance at the expense of efficiency\&.
-
-You can also change the number of interpreted method invocations before compilation using the \f3-XX:CompileThreshold\fR option\&.
-.TP
--Xdebug
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xcomp
+.RS 4
+Forces compilation of methods on first invocation\&. By default, the Client VM (\fB\-client\fR) performs 1,000 interpreted method invocations and the Server VM (\fB\-server\fR) performs 10,000 interpreted method invocations to gather information for efficient compilation\&. Specifying the
+\fB\-Xcomp\fR
+option disables interpreted method invocations to increase compilation performance at the expense of efficiency\&.
+.sp
+You can also change the number of interpreted method invocations before compilation using the
+\fB\-XX:CompileThreshold\fR
+option\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xdebug
+.RS 4
 Does nothing\&. Provided for backward compatibility\&.
-.TP
--Xdiag
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xdiag
+.RS 4
 Shows additional diagnostic messages\&.
-.TP
--Xfuture
-.br
-Enables strict class-file format checks that enforce close conformance to the class-file format specification\&. Developers are encouraged to use this flag when developing new code because the stricter checks will become the default in future releases\&.
-.TP
--Xint
-.br
-Runs the application in interpreted-only mode\&. Compilation to native code is disabled, and all bytecode is executed by the interpreter\&. The performance benefits offered by the just in time (JIT) compiler are not present in this mode\&.
-.TP
--Xinternalversion
-.br
-Displays more detailed JVM version information than the \f3-version\fR option, and then exits\&.
-.TP
--Xloggc:\fIfilename\fR
-.br
-Sets the file to which verbose GC events information should be redirected for logging\&. The information written to this file is similar to the output of \f3-verbose:gc\fR with the time elapsed since the first GC event preceding each logged event\&. The \f3-Xloggc\fR option overrides \f3-verbose:gc\fR if both are given with the same \f3java\fR command\&.
-
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xfuture
+.RS 4
+Enables strict class\-file format checks that enforce close conformance to the class\-file format specification\&. Developers are encouraged to use this flag when developing new code because the stricter checks will become the default in future releases\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xint
+.RS 4
+Runs the application in interpreted\-only mode\&. Compilation to native code is disabled, and all bytecode is executed by the interpreter\&. The performance benefits offered by the just in time (JIT) compiler are not present in this mode\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xinternalversion
+.RS 4
+Displays more detailed JVM version information than the
+\fB\-version\fR
+option, and then exits\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xloggc:\fIfilename\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the file to which verbose GC events information should be redirected for logging\&. The information written to this file is similar to the output of
+\fB\-verbose:gc\fR
+with the time elapsed since the first GC event preceding each logged event\&. The
+\fB\-Xloggc\fR
+option overrides
+\fB\-verbose:gc\fR
+if both are given with the same
+\fBjava\fR
+command\&.
+.sp
 Example:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-Xloggc:garbage\-collection\&.log\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--Xmaxjitcodesize=\fIsize\fR
-.br
-Specifies the maximum code cache size (in bytes) for JIT-compiled code\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. By default, the value is set to 48 MB:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-Xmaxjitcodesize=48m\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-This option is equivalent to \f3-XX:ReservedCodeCacheSize\fR\&.
-.TP
--Xmixed
-.br
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-Xloggc:garbage\-collection\&.log\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xmaxjitcodesize=\fIsize\fR
+.RS 4
+Specifies the maximum code cache size (in bytes) for JIT\-compiled code\&. Append the letter
+\fBk\fR
+or
+\fBK\fR
+to indicate kilobytes,
+\fBm\fR
+or
+\fBM\fR
+to indicate megabytes,
+\fBg\fR
+or
+\fBG\fR
+to indicate gigabytes\&. The default maximum code cache size is 240 MB; if you disable tiered compilation with the option
+\fB\-XX:\-TieredCompilation\fR, then the default size is 48 MB:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-Xmaxjitcodesize=240m\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+This option is equivalent to
+\fB\-XX:ReservedCodeCacheSize\fR\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xmixed
+.RS 4
 Executes all bytecode by the interpreter except for hot methods, which are compiled to native code\&.
-.TP
--Xmn\fIsize\fR
-.br
-Sets the initial and maximum size (in bytes) of the heap for the young generation (nursery)\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&.
-
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xmn\fIsize\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the initial and maximum size (in bytes) of the heap for the young generation (nursery)\&. Append the letter
+\fBk\fR
+or
+\fBK\fR
+to indicate kilobytes,
+\fBm\fR
+or
+\fBM\fR
+to indicate megabytes,
+\fBg\fR
+or
+\fBG\fR
+to indicate gigabytes\&.
+.sp
 The young generation region of the heap is used for new objects\&. GC is performed in this region more often than in other regions\&. If the size for the young generation is too small, then a lot of minor garbage collections will be performed\&. If the size is too large, then only full garbage collections will be performed, which can take a long time to complete\&. Oracle recommends that you keep the size for the young generation between a half and a quarter of the overall heap size\&.
-
+.sp
 The following examples show how to set the initial and maximum size of young generation to 256 MB using various units:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-Xmn256m\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\-Xmn262144k\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\-Xmn268435456\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-Instead of the \f3-Xmn\fR option to set both the initial and maximum size of the heap for the young generation, you can use \f3-XX:NewSize\fR to set the initial size and \f3-XX:MaxNewSize\fR to set the maximum size\&.
-.TP
--Xms\fIsize\fR
-.br
-Sets the initial size (in bytes) of the heap\&. This value must be a multiple of 1024 and greater than 1 MB\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&.
-
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-Xmn256m\fR
+\fB\-Xmn262144k\fR
+\fB\-Xmn268435456\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+Instead of the
+\fB\-Xmn\fR
+option to set both the initial and maximum size of the heap for the young generation, you can use
+\fB\-XX:NewSize\fR
+to set the initial size and
+\fB\-XX:MaxNewSize\fR
+to set the maximum size\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xms\fIsize\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the initial size (in bytes) of the heap\&. This value must be a multiple of 1024 and greater than 1 MB\&. Append the letter
+\fBk\fR
+or
+\fBK\fR
+to indicate kilobytes,
+\fBm\fR
+or
+\fBM\fR
+to indicate megabytes,
+\fBg\fR
+or
+\fBG\fR
+to indicate gigabytes\&.
+.sp
 The following examples show how to set the size of allocated memory to 6 MB using various units:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-Xms6291456\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\-Xms6144k\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\-Xms6m\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-If you do not set this option, then the initial size will be set as the sum of the sizes allocated for the old generation and the young generation\&. The initial size of the heap for the young generation can be set using the \f3-Xmn\fR option or the \f3-XX:NewSize\fR option\&.
-.TP
--Xmx\fIsize\fR
-.br
-Specifies the maximum size (in bytes) of the memory allocation pool in bytes\&. This value must be a multiple of 1024 and greater than 2 MB\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. The default value is chosen at runtime based on system configuration\&. For server deployments, \f3-Xms\fR and \f3-Xmx\fR are often set to the same value\&. See the section "Ergonomics" in \fIJava SE HotSpot Virtual Machine Garbage Collection Tuning Guide\fR at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/vm/gctuning/index\&.html\&.
-
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-Xms6291456\fR
+\fB\-Xms6144k\fR
+\fB\-Xms6m\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+If you do not set this option, then the initial size will be set as the sum of the sizes allocated for the old generation and the young generation\&. The initial size of the heap for the young generation can be set using the
+\fB\-Xmn\fR
+option or the
+\fB\-XX:NewSize\fR
+option\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xmx\fIsize\fR
+.RS 4
+Specifies the maximum size (in bytes) of the memory allocation pool in bytes\&. This value must be a multiple of 1024 and greater than 2 MB\&. Append the letter
+\fBk\fR
+or
+\fBK\fR
+to indicate kilobytes,
+\fBm\fR
+or
+\fBM\fR
+to indicate megabytes,
+\fBg\fR
+or
+\fBG\fR
+to indicate gigabytes\&. The default value is chosen at runtime based on system configuration\&. For server deployments,
+\fB\-Xms\fR
+and
+\fB\-Xmx\fR
+are often set to the same value\&. See the section "Ergonomics" in
+\fIJava SE HotSpot Virtual Machine Garbage Collection Tuning Guide\fR
+at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/vm/gctuning/index\&.html\&.
+.sp
 The following examples show how to set the maximum allowed size of allocated memory to 80 MB using various units:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-Xmx83886080\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\-Xmx81920k\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\-Xmx80m\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-The \f3-Xmx\fR option is equivalent to \f3-XX:MaxHeapSize\fR\&.
-.TP
--Xnoclassgc
-.br
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-Xmx83886080\fR
+\fB\-Xmx81920k\fR
+\fB\-Xmx80m\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+The
+\fB\-Xmx\fR
+option is equivalent to
+\fB\-XX:MaxHeapSize\fR\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xnoclassgc
+.RS 4
 Disables garbage collection (GC) of classes\&. This can save some GC time, which shortens interruptions during the application run\&.
-
-When you specify \f3-Xnoclassgc\fR at startup, the class objects in the application will be left untouched during GC and will always be considered live\&. This can result in more memory being permanently occupied which, if not used carefully, will throw an out of memory exception\&.
-.TP
--Xprof
-.br
+.sp
+When you specify
+\fB\-Xnoclassgc\fR
+at startup, the class objects in the application will be left untouched during GC and will always be considered live\&. This can result in more memory being permanently occupied which, if not used carefully, will throw an out of memory exception\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xprof
+.RS 4
 Profiles the running program and sends profiling data to standard output\&. This option is provided as a utility that is useful in program development and is not intended to be used in production systems\&.
-.TP
--Xrs
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xrs
+.RS 4
 Reduces the use of operating system signals by the JVM\&.
-
+.sp
 Shutdown hooks enable orderly shutdown of a Java application by running user cleanup code (such as closing database connections) at shutdown, even if the JVM terminates abruptly\&.
-
-The JVM catches signals to implement shutdown hooks for unexpected termination\&. The JVM uses \f3SIGHUP\fR, \f3SIGINT\fR, and \f3SIGTERM\fR to initiate the running of shutdown hooks\&.
-
-The JVM uses a similar mechanism to implement the feature of dumping thread stacks for debugging purposes\&. The JVM uses \f3SIGQUIT\fR to perform thread dumps\&.
-
-Applications embedding the JVM frequently need to trap signals such as \f3SIGINT\fR or \f3SIGTERM\fR, which can lead to interference with the JVM signal handlers\&. The \f3-Xrs\fR option is available to address this issue\&. When \f3-Xrs\fR is used, the signal masks for \f3SIGINT\fR, \f3SIGTERM\fR, \f3SIGHUP\fR, and \f3SIGQUIT\fR are not changed by the JVM, and signal handlers for these signals are not installed\&.
-
-There are two consequences of specifying \f3-Xrs\fR:
-.RS     
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-\f3SIGQUIT\fR thread dumps are not available\&.
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-User code is responsible for causing shutdown hooks to run, for example, by calling \f3System\&.exit()\fR when the JVM is to be terminated\&.
-.RE     
-
-.TP
--Xshare:\fImode\fR
-.br
-Sets the class data sharing mode\&. Possible \fImode\fR arguments for this option include the following:
-.RS     
-.TP     
+.sp
+The JVM catches signals to implement shutdown hooks for unexpected termination\&. The JVM uses
+\fBSIGHUP\fR,
+\fBSIGINT\fR, and
+\fBSIGTERM\fR
+to initiate the running of shutdown hooks\&.
+.sp
+The JVM uses a similar mechanism to implement the feature of dumping thread stacks for debugging purposes\&. The JVM uses
+\fBSIGQUIT\fR
+to perform thread dumps\&.
+.sp
+Applications embedding the JVM frequently need to trap signals such as
+\fBSIGINT\fR
+or
+\fBSIGTERM\fR, which can lead to interference with the JVM signal handlers\&. The
+\fB\-Xrs\fR
+option is available to address this issue\&. When
+\fB\-Xrs\fR
+is used, the signal masks for
+\fBSIGINT\fR,
+\fBSIGTERM\fR,
+\fBSIGHUP\fR, and
+\fBSIGQUIT\fR
+are not changed by the JVM, and signal handlers for these signals are not installed\&.
+.sp
+There are two consequences of specifying
+\fB\-Xrs\fR:
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+\fBSIGQUIT\fR
+thread dumps are not available\&.
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+User code is responsible for causing shutdown hooks to run, for example, by calling
+\fBSystem\&.exit()\fR
+when the JVM is to be terminated\&.
+.RE
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xshare:\fImode\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the class data sharing (CDS) mode\&. Possible
+\fImode\fR
+arguments for this option include the following:
+.PP
 auto
-Use shared class data if possible\&. This is the default value for Java HotSpot 32-Bit Client VM\&.
-.TP     
+.RS 4
+Use CDS if possible\&. This is the default value for Java HotSpot 32\-Bit Client VM\&.
+.RE
+.PP
 on
-Require the use of class data sharing\&. Print an error message and exit if class data sharing cannot be used\&.
-.TP     
+.RS 4
+Require the use of CDS\&. Print an error message and exit if class data sharing cannot be used\&.
+.RE
+.PP
 off
-Do not use shared class data\&. This is the default value for Java HotSpot 32-Bit Server VM, Java HotSpot 64-Bit Client VM, and Java HotSpot 64-Bit Server VM\&.
-.TP     
+.RS 4
+Do not use CDS\&. This is the default value for Java HotSpot 32\-Bit Server VM, Java HotSpot 64\-Bit Client VM, and Java HotSpot 64\-Bit Server VM\&.
+.RE
+.PP
 dump
-Manually generate the class data sharing archive\&.
-.RE     
-
-.TP
--XshowSettings:\fIcategory\fR
-.br
-Shows settings and continues\&. Possible \fIcategory\fR arguments for this option include the following:
-.RS     
-.TP     
+.RS 4
+Manually generate the CDS archive\&. Specify the application class path as described in "Setting the Class Path "\&.
+.sp
+You should regenerate the CDS archive with each new JDK release\&.
+.RE
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XshowSettings:\fIcategory\fR
+.RS 4
+Shows settings and continues\&. Possible
+\fIcategory\fR
+arguments for this option include the following:
+.PP
 all
+.RS 4
 Shows all categories of settings\&. This is the default value\&.
-.TP     
+.RE
+.PP
 locale
+.RS 4
 Shows settings related to locale\&.
-.TP     
+.RE
+.PP
 properties
+.RS 4
 Shows settings related to system properties\&.
-.TP     
+.RE
+.PP
 vm
+.RS 4
 Shows the settings of the JVM\&.
-.RE     
-
-.TP
--Xss\fIsize\fR
-.br
-Sets the thread stack size (in bytes)\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate KB, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate MB, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate GB\&. The default value depends on the platform:
-.RS     
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-Linux/ARM (32-bit): 320 KB
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-Linux/i386 (32-bit): 320 KB
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-Linux/x64 (64-bit): 1024 KB
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-OS X (64-bit): 1024 KB
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-Oracle Solaris/i386 (32-bit): 320 KB
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-Oracle Solaris/x64 (64-bit): 1024 KB
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-Windows: depends on virtual memory
-.RE     
-
-
+.RE
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xss\fIsize\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the thread stack size (in bytes)\&. Append the letter
+\fBk\fR
+or
+\fBK\fR
+to indicate KB,
+\fBm\fR
+or
+\fBM\fR
+to indicate MB,
+\fBg\fR
+or
+\fBG\fR
+to indicate GB\&. The default value depends on the platform:
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+Linux/ARM (32\-bit): 320 KB
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+Linux/i386 (32\-bit): 320 KB
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+Linux/x64 (64\-bit): 1024 KB
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+OS X (64\-bit): 1024 KB
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+Oracle Solaris/i386 (32\-bit): 320 KB
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+Oracle Solaris/x64 (64\-bit): 1024 KB
+.RE
+.sp
 The following examples set the thread stack size to 1024 KB in different units:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-Xss1m\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\-Xss1024k\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\-Xss1048576\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-This option is equivalent to \f3-XX:ThreadStackSize\fR\&.
-.TP
--Xusealtsigs
-.br
-Use alternative signals instead of \f3SIGUSR1\fR and \f3SIGUSR2\fR for JVM internal signals\&. This option is equivalent to \f3-XX:+UseAltSigs\fR\&.
-.TP
--Xverify:\fImode\fR
-.br
-Sets the mode of the bytecode verifier\&. Bytecode verification helps to troubleshoot some problems, but it also adds overhead to the running application\&. Possible \fImode\fR arguments for this option include the following:
-.RS     
-.TP     
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-Xss1m\fR
+\fB\-Xss1024k\fR
+\fB\-Xss1048576\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+This option is equivalent to
+\fB\-XX:ThreadStackSize\fR\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xusealtsigs
+.RS 4
+Use alternative signals instead of
+\fBSIGUSR1\fR
+and
+\fBSIGUSR2\fR
+for JVM internal signals\&. This option is equivalent to
+\fB\-XX:+UseAltSigs\fR\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xverify:\fImode\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the mode of the bytecode verifier\&. Bytecode verification helps to troubleshoot some problems, but it also adds overhead to the running application\&. Possible
+\fImode\fR
+arguments for this option include the following:
+.PP
 none
+.RS 4
 Do not verify the bytecode\&. This reduces startup time and also reduces the protection provided by Java\&.
-.TP     
+.RE
+.PP
 remote
-Verify those classes that are not loaded by the bootstrap class loader\&. This is the default behavior if you do not specify the \f3-Xverify\fR option\&.
-.TP     
+.RS 4
+Verify those classes that are not loaded by the bootstrap class loader\&. This is the default behavior if you do not specify the
+\fB\-Xverify\fR
+option\&.
+.RE
+.PP
 all
+.RS 4
 Verify all classes\&.
-.RE     
-
-.SS ADVANCED\ RUNTIME\ OPTIONS    
+.RE
+.RE
+.SS "Advanced Runtime Options"
+.PP
 These options control the runtime behavior of the Java HotSpot VM\&.
-.TP
--XX:+DisableAttachMechanism
-.br
-Enables the option that disables the mechanism that lets tools attach to the JVM\&. By default, this option is disabled, meaning that the attach mechanism is enabled and you can use tools such as \f3jcmd\fR, \f3jstack\fR, \f3jmap\fR, and \f3jinfo\fR\&.
-.TP
--XX:ErrorFile=\fIfilename\fR
-.br
-Specifies the path and file name to which error data is written when an irrecoverable error occurs\&. By default, this file is created in the current working directory and named \f3hs_err_pid\fR\fIpid\fR\f3\&.log\fR where \fIpid\fR is the identifier of the process that caused the error\&. The following example shows how to set the default log file (note that the identifier of the process is specified as \f3%p\fR):
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:ErrorFile=\&./hs_err_pid%p\&.log\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-The following example shows how to set the error log to \f3/var/log/java/java_error\&.log\fR:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:ErrorFile=/var/log/java/java_error\&.log\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-If the file cannot be created in the specified directory (due to insufficient space, permission problem, or another issue), then the file is created in the temporary directory for the operating system\&. The temporary directory is \f3/tmp\fR\&.
-.TP
--XX:+FailOverToOldVerifier
-.br
+.PP
+\-XX:+CheckEndorsedAndExtDirs
+.RS 4
+Enables the option to prevent the
+\fBjava\fR
+command from running a Java application if it uses the endorsed\-standards override mechanism or the extension mechanism\&. This option checks if an application is using one of these mechanisms by checking the following:
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+The
+\fBjava\&.ext\&.dirs\fR
+or
+\fBjava\&.endorsed\&.dirs\fR
+system property is set\&.
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+The
+\fBlib/endorsed\fR
+directory exists and is not empty\&.
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+The
+\fBlib/ext\fR
+directory contains any JAR files other than those of the JDK\&.
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+The system\-wide platform\-specific extension directory contains any JAR files\&.
+.RE
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+DisableAttachMechanism
+.RS 4
+Enables the option that disables the mechanism that lets tools attach to the JVM\&. By default, this option is disabled, meaning that the attach mechanism is enabled and you can use tools such as
+\fBjcmd\fR,
+\fBjstack\fR,
+\fBjmap\fR, and
+\fBjinfo\fR\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:ErrorFile=\fIfilename\fR
+.RS 4
+Specifies the path and file name to which error data is written when an irrecoverable error occurs\&. By default, this file is created in the current working directory and named
+\fBhs_err_pid\fR\fIpid\fR\fB\&.log\fR
+where
+\fIpid\fR
+is the identifier of the process that caused the error\&. The following example shows how to set the default log file (note that the identifier of the process is specified as
+\fB%p\fR):
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:ErrorFile=\&./hs_err_pid%p\&.log\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+The following example shows how to set the error log to
+\fB/var/log/java/java_error\&.log\fR:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:ErrorFile=/var/log/java/java_error\&.log\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+If the file cannot be created in the specified directory (due to insufficient space, permission problem, or another issue), then the file is created in the temporary directory for the operating system\&. The temporary directory is
+\fB/tmp\fR\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+FailOverToOldVerifier
+.RS 4
 Enables automatic failover to the old verifier when the new type checker fails\&. By default, this option is disabled and it is ignored (that is, treated as disabled) for classes with a recent bytecode version\&. You can enable it for classes with older versions of the bytecode\&.
-.TP
--XX:LargePageSizeInBytes=\fIsize\fR
-.br
-On Solaris, sets the maximum size (in bytes) for large pages used for Java heap\&. The \fIsize\fR argument must be a power of 2 (2, 4, 8, 16, \&.\&.\&.)\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. By default, the size is set to 0, meaning that the JVM chooses the size for large pages automatically\&.
-
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:LargePageSizeInBytes=\fIsize\fR
+.RS 4
+On Solaris, sets the maximum size (in bytes) for large pages used for Java heap\&. The
+\fIsize\fR
+argument must be a power of 2 (2, 4, 8, 16, \&.\&.\&.)\&. Append the letter
+\fBk\fR
+or
+\fBK\fR
+to indicate kilobytes,
+\fBm\fR
+or
+\fBM\fR
+to indicate megabytes,
+\fBg\fR
+or
+\fBG\fR
+to indicate gigabytes\&. By default, the size is set to 0, meaning that the JVM chooses the size for large pages automatically\&.
+.sp
 The following example illustrates how to set the large page size to 4 megabytes (MB):
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:LargePageSizeInBytes=4m\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:MaxDirectMemorySize=\fIsize\fR
-.br
-Sets the maximum total size (in bytes) of the New I/O (the \f3java\&.nio\fR package) direct-buffer allocations\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. By default, the size is set to 0, meaning that the JVM chooses the size for NIO direct-buffer allocations automatically\&.
-
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:LargePageSizeInBytes=4m\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:MaxDirectMemorySize=\fIsize\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the maximum total size (in bytes) of the New I/O (the
+\fBjava\&.nio\fR
+package) direct\-buffer allocations\&. Append the letter
+\fBk\fR
+or
+\fBK\fR
+to indicate kilobytes,
+\fBm\fR
+or
+\fBM\fR
+to indicate megabytes,
+\fBg\fR
+or
+\fBG\fR
+to indicate gigabytes\&. By default, the size is set to 0, meaning that the JVM chooses the size for NIO direct\-buffer allocations automatically\&.
+.sp
 The following examples illustrate how to set the NIO size to 1024 KB in different units:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:MaxDirectMemorySize=1m\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:MaxDirectMemorySize=1024k\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:MaxDirectMemorySize=1048576\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:NativeMemoryTracking=\fImode\fR
-.br
-Specifies the mode for tracking JVM native memory usage\&. Possible \fImode\fR arguments for this option include the following:
-.RS     
-.TP     
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:MaxDirectMemorySize=1m\fR
+\fB\-XX:MaxDirectMemorySize=1024k\fR
+\fB\-XX:MaxDirectMemorySize=1048576\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:NativeMemoryTracking=\fImode\fR
+.RS 4
+Specifies the mode for tracking JVM native memory usage\&. Possible
+\fImode\fR
+arguments for this option include the following:
+.PP
 off
-Do not track JVM native memory usage\&. This is the default behavior if you do not specify the \f3-XX:NativeMemoryTracking\fR option\&.
-.TP     
+.RS 4
+Do not track JVM native memory usage\&. This is the default behavior if you do not specify the
+\fB\-XX:NativeMemoryTracking\fR
+option\&.
+.RE
+.PP
 summary
+.RS 4
 Only track memory usage by JVM subsystems, such as Java heap, class, code, and thread\&.
-.TP     
+.RE
+.PP
 detail
-In addition to tracking memory usage by JVM subsystems, track memory usage by individual \f3CallSite\fR, individual virtual memory region and its committed regions\&.
-.RE     
-
-.TP
--XX:ObjectAlignmentInBytes=\fIalignment\fR
-.br
+.RS 4
+In addition to tracking memory usage by JVM subsystems, track memory usage by individual
+\fBCallSite\fR, individual virtual memory region and its committed regions\&.
+.RE
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:ObjectAlignmentInBytes=\fIalignment\fR
+.RS 4
 Sets the memory alignment of Java objects (in bytes)\&. By default, the value is set to 8 bytes\&. The specified value should be a power of two, and must be within the range of 8 and 256 (inclusive)\&. This option makes it possible to use compressed pointers with large Java heap sizes\&.
-
+.sp
 The heap size limit in bytes is calculated as:
-
-\f34GB * ObjectAlignmentInBytes\fR
-
+.sp
+\fB4GB * ObjectAlignmentInBytes\fR
+.sp
 Note: As the alignment value increases, the unused space between objects will also increase\&. As a result, you may not realize any benefits from using compressed pointers with large Java heap sizes\&.
-.TP
--XX:OnError=\fIstring\fR
-.br
-Sets a custom command or a series of semicolon-separated commands to run when an irrecoverable error occurs\&. If the string contains spaces, then it must be enclosed in quotation marks\&.
-
-\fI\fRThe following example shows how the \f3-XX:OnError\fR option can be used to run the \f3gcore\fR command to create the core image, and the debugger is started to attach to the process in case of an irrecoverable error (the \f3%p\fR designates the current process):
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:OnError="gcore %p;dbx \- %p"\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:OnOutOfMemoryError=\fIstring\fR
-.br
-Sets a custom command or a series of semicolon-separated commands to run when an \f3OutOfMemoryError\fR exception is first thrown\&. If the string contains spaces, then it must be enclosed in quotation marks\&. For an example of a command string, see the description of the \f3-XX:OnError\fR option\&.
-.TP
--XX:+PerfDataSaveToFile
-.br
-If enabled, saves jstat(1) binary data when the Java application exits\&. This binary data is saved in a file named \f3hsperfdata_\fR\fI<pid>\fR, where \fI<pid>\fR is the process identifier of the Java application you ran\&. Use \f3jstat\fR to display the performance data contained in this file as follows:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3jstat \-class file:///\fI<path>\fR/hsperfdata_\fI<pid>\fR\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3jstat \-gc file:///\fI<path>\fR/hsperfdata_\fI<pid>\fR\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:+PrintCommandLineFlags
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:OnError=\fIstring\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets a custom command or a series of semicolon\-separated commands to run when an irrecoverable error occurs\&. If the string contains spaces, then it must be enclosed in quotation marks\&.
+.sp
+The following example shows how the
+\fB\-XX:OnError\fR
+option can be used to run the
+\fBgcore\fR
+command to create the core image, and the debugger is started to attach to the process in case of an irrecoverable error (the
+\fB%p\fR
+designates the current process):
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:OnError="gcore %p;dbx \- %p"\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:OnOutOfMemoryError=\fIstring\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets a custom command or a series of semicolon\-separated commands to run when an
+\fBOutOfMemoryError\fR
+exception is first thrown\&. If the string contains spaces, then it must be enclosed in quotation marks\&. For an example of a command string, see the description of the
+\fB\-XX:OnError\fR
+option\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+PerfDataSaveToFile
+.RS 4
+If enabled, saves
+jstat(1) binary data when the Java application exits\&. This binary data is saved in a file named
+\fBhsperfdata_\fR\fI<pid>\fR, where
+\fI<pid>\fR
+is the process identifier of the Java application you ran\&. Use
+\fBjstat\fR
+to display the performance data contained in this file as follows:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fBjstat \-class file:///\fR\fB\fI<path>\fR\fR\fB/hsperfdata_\fR\fB\fI<pid>\fR\fR
+\fBjstat \-gc file:///\fR\fB\fI<path>\fR\fR\fB/hsperfdata_\fR\fB\fI<pid>\fR\fR
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+PrintCommandLineFlags
+.RS 4
 Enables printing of ergonomically selected JVM flags that appeared on the command line\&. It can be useful to know the ergonomic values set by the JVM, such as the heap space size and the selected garbage collector\&. By default, this option is disabled and flags are not printed\&.
-.TP
--XX:+PrintNMTStatistics
-.br
-Enables printing of collected native memory tracking data at JVM exit when native memory tracking is enabled (see \f3-XX:NativeMemoryTracking\fR)\&. By default, this option is disabled and native memory tracking data is not printed\&.
-.TP
--XX:+RelaxAccessControlCheck
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+PrintNMTStatistics
+.RS 4
+Enables printing of collected native memory tracking data at JVM exit when native memory tracking is enabled (see
+\fB\-XX:NativeMemoryTracking\fR)\&. By default, this option is disabled and native memory tracking data is not printed\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+RelaxAccessControlCheck
+.RS 4
 Decreases the amount of access control checks in the verifier\&. By default, this option is disabled, and it is ignored (that is, treated as disabled) for classes with a recent bytecode version\&. You can enable it for classes with older versions of the bytecode\&.
-.TP
--XX:+ShowMessageBoxOnError
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+ShowMessageBoxOnError
+.RS 4
 Enables displaying of a dialog box when the JVM experiences an irrecoverable error\&. This prevents the JVM from exiting and keeps the process active so that you can attach a debugger to it to investigate the cause of the error\&. By default, this option is disabled\&.
-.TP
--XX:ThreadStackSize=\fIsize\fR
-.br
-Sets the thread stack size (in bytes)\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. The default value depends on the platform:
-.RS     
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-Linux/ARM (32-bit): 320 KB
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-Linux/i386 (32-bit): 320 KB
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-Linux/x64 (64-bit): 1024 KB
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-OS X (64-bit): 1024 KB
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-Oracle Solaris/i386 (32-bit): 320 KB
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-Oracle Solaris/x64 (64-bit): 1024 KB
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-Windows: depends on virtual memory
-.RE     
-
-
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:ThreadStackSize=\fIsize\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the thread stack size (in bytes)\&. Append the letter
+\fBk\fR
+or
+\fBK\fR
+to indicate kilobytes,
+\fBm\fR
+or
+\fBM\fR
+to indicate megabytes,
+\fBg\fR
+or
+\fBG\fR
+to indicate gigabytes\&. The default value depends on the platform:
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+Linux/ARM (32\-bit): 320 KB
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+Linux/i386 (32\-bit): 320 KB
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+Linux/x64 (64\-bit): 1024 KB
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+OS X (64\-bit): 1024 KB
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+Oracle Solaris/i386 (32\-bit): 320 KB
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+Oracle Solaris/x64 (64\-bit): 1024 KB
+.RE
+.sp
 The following examples show how to set the thread stack size to 1024 KB in different units:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:ThreadStackSize=1m\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:ThreadStackSize=1024k\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:ThreadStackSize=1048576\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-This option is equivalent to \f3-Xss\fR\&.
-.TP
--XX:+TraceClassLoading
-.br
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:ThreadStackSize=1m\fR
+\fB\-XX:ThreadStackSize=1024k\fR
+\fB\-XX:ThreadStackSize=1048576\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+This option is equivalent to
+\fB\-Xss\fR\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+TraceClassLoading
+.RS 4
 Enables tracing of classes as they are loaded\&. By default, this option is disabled and classes are not traced\&.
-.TP
--XX:+TraceClassLoadingPreorder
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+TraceClassLoadingPreorder
+.RS 4
 Enables tracing of all loaded classes in the order in which they are referenced\&. By default, this option is disabled and classes are not traced\&.
-.TP
--XX:+TraceClassResolution
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+TraceClassResolution
+.RS 4
 Enables tracing of constant pool resolutions\&. By default, this option is disabled and constant pool resolutions are not traced\&.
-.TP
--XX:+TraceClassUnloading
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+TraceClassUnloading
+.RS 4
 Enables tracing of classes as they are unloaded\&. By default, this option is disabled and classes are not traced\&.
-.TP
--XX:+TraceLoaderConstraints
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+TraceLoaderConstraints
+.RS 4
 Enables tracing of the loader constraints recording\&. By default, this option is disabled and loader constraints recording is not traced\&.
-.TP
--XX:+UseAltSigs
-.br
-Enables the use of alternative signals instead of \f3SIGUSR1\fR and \f3SIGUSR2\fR for JVM internal signals\&. By default, this option is disabled and alternative signals are not used\&. This option is equivalent to \f3-Xusealtsigs\fR\&.
-.TP
--XX:-UseBiasedLocking
-.br
-Disables the use of biased locking\&. Some applications with significant amounts of uncontended synchronization may attain significant speedups with this flag enabled, whereas applications with certain patterns of locking may see slowdowns\&. For more information about the biased locking technique, see the example in Java Tuning White Paper at http://www\&.oracle\&.com/technetwork/java/tuning-139912\&.html#section4\&.2\&.5
-
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UseAltSigs
+.RS 4
+Enables the use of alternative signals instead of
+\fBSIGUSR1\fR
+and
+\fBSIGUSR2\fR
+for JVM internal signals\&. By default, this option is disabled and alternative signals are not used\&. This option is equivalent to
+\fB\-Xusealtsigs\fR\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:\-UseBiasedLocking
+.RS 4
+Disables the use of biased locking\&. Some applications with significant amounts of uncontended synchronization may attain significant speedups with this flag enabled, whereas applications with certain patterns of locking may see slowdowns\&. For more information about the biased locking technique, see the example in Java Tuning White Paper at http://www\&.oracle\&.com/technetwork/java/tuning\-139912\&.html#section4\&.2\&.5
+.sp
 By default, this option is enabled\&.
-.TP
--XX:-UseCompressedOops
-.br
-Disables the use of compressed pointers\&. By default, this option is enabled, and compressed pointers are used when Java heap sizes are less than 32 GB\&. When this option is enabled, object references are represented as 32-bit offsets instead of 64-bit pointers, which typically increases performance when running the application with Java heap sizes less than 32 GB\&. This option works only for 64-bit JVMs\&.
-
-It is also possible to use compressed pointers when Java heap sizes are greater than 32GB\&. See the \f3-XX:ObjectAlignmentInBytes\fR option\&.
-.TP
--XX:+UseHugeTLBFS
-.br
-This option for Linux is the equivalent of specifying \f3-XX:+UseLargePages\fR\&. This option is disabled by default\&. This option pre-allocates all large pages up-front, when memory is reserved; consequently the JVM cannot dynamically grow or shrink large pages memory areas; see \f3-XX:UseTransparentHugePages\fR if you want this behavior\&.
-
-For more information, see Large Pages\&.
-.TP
--XX:+UseLargePages
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:\-UseCompressedOops
+.RS 4
+Disables the use of compressed pointers\&. By default, this option is enabled, and compressed pointers are used when Java heap sizes are less than 32 GB\&. When this option is enabled, object references are represented as 32\-bit offsets instead of 64\-bit pointers, which typically increases performance when running the application with Java heap sizes less than 32 GB\&. This option works only for 64\-bit JVMs\&.
+.sp
+It is also possible to use compressed pointers when Java heap sizes are greater than 32GB\&. See the
+\fB\-XX:ObjectAlignmentInBytes\fR
+option\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UseHugeTLBFS
+.RS 4
+This option for Linux is the equivalent of specifying
+\fB\-XX:+UseLargePages\fR\&. This option is disabled by default\&. This option pre\-allocates all large pages up\-front, when memory is reserved; consequently the JVM cannot dynamically grow or shrink large pages memory areas; see
+\fB\-XX:UseTransparentHugePages\fR
+if you want this behavior\&.
+.sp
+For more information, see "Large Pages"\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UseLargePages
+.RS 4
 Enables the use of large page memory\&. By default, this option is disabled and large page memory is not used\&.
-
-For more information, see Large Pages\&.
-.TP
--XX:+UseMembar
-.br
+.sp
+For more information, see "Large Pages"\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UseMembar
+.RS 4
 Enables issuing of membars on thread state transitions\&. This option is disabled by default on all platforms except ARM servers, where it is enabled\&. (It is recommended that you do not disable this option on ARM servers\&.)
-.TP
--XX:+UsePerfData
-.br
-Enables the \f3perfdata\fR feature\&. This option is enabled by default to allow JVM monitoring and performance testing\&. Disabling it suppresses the creation of the \f3hsperfdata_userid\fR directories\&. To disable the \f3perfdata\fR feature, specify \f3-XX:-UsePerfData\fR\&.
-.TP
--XX:+UseTransparentHugePages
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UsePerfData
+.RS 4
+Enables the
+\fBperfdata\fR
+feature\&. This option is enabled by default to allow JVM monitoring and performance testing\&. Disabling it suppresses the creation of the
+\fBhsperfdata_userid\fR
+directories\&. To disable the
+\fBperfdata\fR
+feature, specify
+\fB\-XX:\-UsePerfData\fR\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UseTransparentHugePages
+.RS 4
 On Linux, enables the use of large pages that can dynamically grow or shrink\&. This option is disabled by default\&. You may encounter performance problems with transparent huge pages as the OS moves other pages around to create huge pages; this option is made available for experimentation\&.
-
-For more information, see Large Pages\&.
-.TP
--XX:+AllowUserSignalHandlers
-.br
+.sp
+For more information, see "Large Pages"\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+AllowUserSignalHandlers
+.RS 4
 Enables installation of signal handlers by the application\&. By default, this option is disabled and the application is not allowed to install signal handlers\&.
-.SS ADVANCED\ JIT\ COMPILER\ OPTIONS    
-These options control the dynamic just-in-time (JIT) compilation performed by the Java HotSpot VM\&.
-.TP
--XX:+AggressiveOpts
-.br
+.RE
+.SS "Advanced JIT Compiler Options"
+.PP
+These options control the dynamic just\-in\-time (JIT) compilation performed by the Java HotSpot VM\&.
+.PP
+\-XX:+AggressiveOpts
+.RS 4
 Enables the use of aggressive performance optimization features, which are expected to become default in upcoming releases\&. By default, this option is disabled and experimental performance features are not used\&.
-.TP
--XX:AllocateInstancePrefetchLines=\fIlines\fR
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:AllocateInstancePrefetchLines=\fIlines\fR
+.RS 4
 Sets the number of lines to prefetch ahead of the instance allocation pointer\&. By default, the number of lines to prefetch is set to 1:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:AllocateInstancePrefetchLines=1\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:AllocateInstancePrefetchLines=1\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
 Only the Java HotSpot Server VM supports this option\&.
-.TP
--XX:AllocatePrefetchDistance=\fIsize\fR
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:AllocatePrefetchDistance=\fIsize\fR
+.RS 4
 Sets the size (in bytes) of the prefetch distance for object allocation\&. Memory about to be written with the value of new objects is prefetched up to this distance starting from the address of the last allocated object\&. Each Java thread has its own allocation point\&.
-
-Negative values denote that prefetch distance is chosen based on the platform\&. Positive values are bytes to prefetch\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. The default value is set to -1\&.
-
+.sp
+Negative values denote that prefetch distance is chosen based on the platform\&. Positive values are bytes to prefetch\&. Append the letter
+\fBk\fR
+or
+\fBK\fR
+to indicate kilobytes,
+\fBm\fR
+or
+\fBM\fR
+to indicate megabytes,
+\fBg\fR
+or
+\fBG\fR
+to indicate gigabytes\&. The default value is set to \-1\&.
+.sp
 The following example shows how to set the prefetch distance to 1024 bytes:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:AllocatePrefetchDistance=1024\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:AllocatePrefetchDistance=1024\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
 Only the Java HotSpot Server VM supports this option\&.
-.TP
--XX:AllocatePrefetchInstr=\fIinstruction\fR
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:AllocatePrefetchInstr=\fIinstruction\fR
+.RS 4
 Sets the prefetch instruction to prefetch ahead of the allocation pointer\&. Only the Java HotSpot Server VM supports this option\&. Possible values are from 0 to 3\&. The actual instructions behind the values depend on the platform\&. By default, the prefetch instruction is set to 0:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:AllocatePrefetchInstr=0\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:AllocatePrefetchInstr=0\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
 Only the Java HotSpot Server VM supports this option\&.
-.TP
--XX:AllocatePrefetchLines=\fIlines\fR
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:AllocatePrefetchLines=\fIlines\fR
+.RS 4
 Sets the number of cache lines to load after the last object allocation by using the prefetch instructions generated in compiled code\&. The default value is 1 if the last allocated object was an instance, and 3 if it was an array\&.
-
+.sp
 The following example shows how to set the number of loaded cache lines to 5:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:AllocatePrefetchLines=5\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:AllocatePrefetchLines=5\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
 Only the Java HotSpot Server VM supports this option\&.
-.TP
--XX:AllocatePrefetchStepSize=\fIsize\fR
-.br
-Sets the step size (in bytes) for sequential prefetch instructions\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. By default, the step size is set to 16 bytes:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:AllocatePrefetchStepSize=16\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:AllocatePrefetchStepSize=\fIsize\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the step size (in bytes) for sequential prefetch instructions\&. Append the letter
+\fBk\fR
+or
+\fBK\fR
+to indicate kilobytes,
+\fBm\fR
+or
+\fBM\fR
+to indicate megabytes,
+\fBg\fR
+or
+\fBG\fR
+to indicate gigabytes\&. By default, the step size is set to 16 bytes:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:AllocatePrefetchStepSize=16\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
 Only the Java HotSpot Server VM supports this option\&.
-.TP
--XX:AllocatePrefetchStyle=\fIstyle\fR
-.br
-Sets the generated code style for prefetch instructions\&. The \fIstyle\fR argument is an integer from 0 to 3:
-.RS     
-.TP     
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:AllocatePrefetchStyle=\fIstyle\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the generated code style for prefetch instructions\&. The
+\fIstyle\fR
+argument is an integer from 0 to 3:
+.PP
 0
+.RS 4
 Do not generate prefetch instructions\&.
-.TP     
+.RE
+.PP
 1
+.RS 4
 Execute prefetch instructions after each allocation\&. This is the default parameter\&.
-.TP     
+.RE
+.PP
 2
-Use the thread-local allocation block (TLAB) watermark pointer to determine when prefetch instructions are executed\&.
-.TP     
+.RS 4
+Use the thread\-local allocation block (TLAB) watermark pointer to determine when prefetch instructions are executed\&.
+.RE
+.PP
 3
+.RS 4
 Use BIS instruction on SPARC for allocation prefetch\&.
-.RE     
-
-
+.RE
+.sp
 Only the Java HotSpot Server VM supports this option\&.
-.TP
--XX:+BackgroundCompilation
-.br
-Enables background compilation\&. This option is enabled by default\&. To disable background compilation, specify \f3-XX:-BackgroundCompilation\fR (this is equivalent to specifying \f3-Xbatch\fR)\&.
-.TP
--XX:CICompilerCount=\fIthreads\fR
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+BackgroundCompilation
+.RS 4
+Enables background compilation\&. This option is enabled by default\&. To disable background compilation, specify
+\fB\-XX:\-BackgroundCompilation\fR
+(this is equivalent to specifying
+\fB\-Xbatch\fR)\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:CICompilerCount=\fIthreads\fR
+.RS 4
 Sets the number of compiler threads to use for compilation\&. By default, the number of threads is set to 2 for the server JVM, to 1 for the client JVM, and it scales to the number of cores if tiered compilation is used\&. The following example shows how to set the number of threads to 2:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:CICompilerCount=2\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:CodeCacheMinimumFreeSpace=\fIsize\fR
-.br
-Sets the minimum free space (in bytes) required for compilation\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. When less than the minimum free space remains, compiling stops\&. By default, this option is set to 500 KB\&. The following example shows how to set the minimum free space to 1024 MB:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:CodeCacheMinimumFreeSpace=1024m\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:CompileCommand=\fIcommand\fR,\fImethod\fR[,\fIoption\fR]
-.br
-Specifies a command to perform on a method\&. For example, to exclude the \f3indexOf()\fR method of the \f3String\fR class from being compiled, use the following:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:CompileCommand=exclude,java/lang/String\&.indexOf\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-Note that the full class name is specified, including all packages and subpackages separated by a slash (\f3/\fR)\&. For easier cut and paste operations, it is also possible to use the method name format produced by the \f3-XX:+PrintCompilation\fR and \f3-XX:+LogCompilation\fR options:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:CompileCommand=exclude,java\&.lang\&.String::indexOf\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-If the method is specified without the signature, the command will be applied to all methods with the specified name\&. However, you can also specify the signature of the method in the class file format\&. In this case, you should enclose the arguments in quotation marks, because otherwise the shell treats the semicolon as command end\&. For example, if you want to exclude only the \f3indexOf(String)\fR method of the \f3String\fR class from being compiled, use the following:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:CompileCommand="exclude,java/lang/String\&.indexOf,(Ljava/lang/String;)I"\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-You can also use the asterisk (*) as a wildcard for class and method names\&. For example, to exclude all \f3indexOf()\fR methods in all classes from being compiled, use the following:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:CompileCommand=exclude,*\&.indexOf\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-The commas and periods are aliases for spaces, making it easier to pass compiler commands through a shell\&. You can pass arguments to \f3-XX:CompileCommand\fR using spaces as separators by enclosing the argument in quotation marks:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:CompileCommand="exclude java/lang/String indexOf"\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-Note that after parsing the commands passed on the command line using the \f3-XX:CompileCommand\fR options, the JIT compiler then reads commands from the \f3\&.hotspot_compiler\fR file\&. You can add commands to this file or specify a different file using the \f3-XX:CompileCommandFile\fR option\&.
-
-To add several commands, either specify the \f3-XX:CompileCommand\fR option multiple times, or separate each argument with the newline separator (\f3\en\fR)\&. The following commands are available:
-.RS     
-.TP     
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:CICompilerCount=2\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:CodeCacheMinimumFreeSpace=\fIsize\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the minimum free space (in bytes) required for compilation\&. Append the letter
+\fBk\fR
+or
+\fBK\fR
+to indicate kilobytes,
+\fBm\fR
+or
+\fBM\fR
+to indicate megabytes,
+\fBg\fR
+or
+\fBG\fR
+to indicate gigabytes\&. When less than the minimum free space remains, compiling stops\&. By default, this option is set to 500 KB\&. The following example shows how to set the minimum free space to 1024 MB:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:CodeCacheMinimumFreeSpace=1024m\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:CompileCommand=\fIcommand\fR,\fImethod\fR[,\fIoption\fR]
+.RS 4
+Specifies a command to perform on a method\&. For example, to exclude the
+\fBindexOf()\fR
+method of the
+\fBString\fR
+class from being compiled, use the following:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:CompileCommand=exclude,java/lang/String\&.indexOf\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+Note that the full class name is specified, including all packages and subpackages separated by a slash (\fB/\fR)\&. For easier cut and paste operations, it is also possible to use the method name format produced by the
+\fB\-XX:+PrintCompilation\fR
+and
+\fB\-XX:+LogCompilation\fR
+options:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:CompileCommand=exclude,java\&.lang\&.String::indexOf\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+If the method is specified without the signature, the command will be applied to all methods with the specified name\&. However, you can also specify the signature of the method in the class file format\&. In this case, you should enclose the arguments in quotation marks, because otherwise the shell treats the semicolon as command end\&. For example, if you want to exclude only the
+\fBindexOf(String)\fR
+method of the
+\fBString\fR
+class from being compiled, use the following:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:CompileCommand="exclude,java/lang/String\&.indexOf,(Ljava/lang/String;)I"\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+You can also use the asterisk (*) as a wildcard for class and method names\&. For example, to exclude all
+\fBindexOf()\fR
+methods in all classes from being compiled, use the following:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:CompileCommand=exclude,*\&.indexOf\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+The commas and periods are aliases for spaces, making it easier to pass compiler commands through a shell\&. You can pass arguments to
+\fB\-XX:CompileCommand\fR
+using spaces as separators by enclosing the argument in quotation marks:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:CompileCommand="exclude java/lang/String indexOf"\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+Note that after parsing the commands passed on the command line using the
+\fB\-XX:CompileCommand\fR
+options, the JIT compiler then reads commands from the
+\fB\&.hotspot_compiler\fR
+file\&. You can add commands to this file or specify a different file using the
+\fB\-XX:CompileCommandFile\fR
+option\&.
+.sp
+To add several commands, either specify the
+\fB\-XX:CompileCommand\fR
+option multiple times, or separate each argument with the newline separator (\fB\en\fR)\&. The following commands are available:
+.PP
 break
+.RS 4
 Set a breakpoint when debugging the JVM to stop at the beginning of compilation of the specified method\&.
-.TP     
+.RE
+.PP
 compileonly
-Exclude all methods from compilation except for the specified method\&. As an alternative, you can use the \f3-XX:CompileOnly\fR option, which allows to specify several methods\&.
-.TP     
+.RS 4
+Exclude all methods from compilation except for the specified method\&. As an alternative, you can use the
+\fB\-XX:CompileOnly\fR
+option, which allows to specify several methods\&.
+.RE
+.PP
 dontinline
+.RS 4
 Prevent inlining of the specified method\&.
-.TP     
+.RE
+.PP
 exclude
+.RS 4
 Exclude the specified method from compilation\&.
-.TP     
+.RE
+.PP
 help
-Print a help message for the \f3-XX:CompileCommand\fR option\&.
-.TP     
+.RS 4
+Print a help message for the
+\fB\-XX:CompileCommand\fR
+option\&.
+.RE
+.PP
 inline
+.RS 4
 Attempt to inline the specified method\&.
-.TP     
+.RE
+.PP
 log
-Exclude compilation logging (with the \f3-XX:+LogCompilation\fR option) for all methods except for the specified method\&. By default, logging is performed for all compiled methods\&.
-.TP     
+.RS 4
+Exclude compilation logging (with the
+\fB\-XX:+LogCompilation\fR
+option) for all methods except for the specified method\&. By default, logging is performed for all compiled methods\&.
+.RE
+.PP
 option
-This command can be used to pass a JIT compilation option to the specified method in place of the last argument (\fIoption\fR)\&. The compilation option is set at the end, after the method name\&. For example, to enable the \f3BlockLayoutByFrequency\fR option for the \f3append()\fR method of the \f3StringBuffer\fR class, use the following:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:CompileCommand=option,java/lang/StringBuffer\&.append,BlockLayoutByFrequency\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
+.RS 4
+This command can be used to pass a JIT compilation option to the specified method in place of the last argument (\fIoption\fR)\&. The compilation option is set at the end, after the method name\&. For example, to enable the
+\fBBlockLayoutByFrequency\fR
+option for the
+\fBappend()\fR
+method of the
+\fBStringBuffer\fR
+class, use the following:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:CompileCommand=option,java/lang/StringBuffer\&.append,BlockLayoutByFrequency\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
 You can specify multiple compilation options, separated by commas or spaces\&.
-.TP     
+.RE
+.PP
 print
+.RS 4
 Print generated assembler code after compilation of the specified method\&.
-.TP     
+.RE
+.PP
 quiet
-Do not print the compile commands\&. By default, the commands that you specify with the -\f3XX:CompileCommand\fR option are printed; for example, if you exclude from compilation the \f3indexOf()\fR method of the \f3String\fR class, then the following will be printed to standard output:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3CompilerOracle: exclude java/lang/String\&.indexOf\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-You can suppress this by specifying the \f3-XX:CompileCommand=quiet\fR option before other \f3-XX:CompileCommand\fR options\&.
-.RE     
-
-.TP
--XX:CompileCommandFile=\fIfilename\fR
-.br
-Sets the file from which JIT compiler commands are read\&. By default, the \f3\&.hotspot_compiler\fR file is used to store commands performed by the JIT compiler\&.
-
-Each line in the command file represents a command, a class name, and a method name for which the command is used\&. For example, this line prints assembly code for the \f3toString()\fR method of the \f3String\fR class:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3print java/lang/String toString\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-For more information about specifying the commands for the JIT compiler to perform on methods, see the \f3-XX:CompileCommand\fR option\&.
-.TP
--XX:CompileOnly=\fImethods\fR
-.br
-Sets the list of methods (separated by commas) to which compilation should be restricted\&. Only the specified methods will be compiled\&. Specify each method with the full class name (including the packages and subpackages)\&. For example, to compile only the \f3length()\fR method of the \f3String\fR class and the \f3size()\fR method of the \f3List\fR class, use the following:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:CompileOnly=java/lang/String\&.length,java/util/List\&.size\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-Note that the full class name is specified, including all packages and subpackages separated by a slash (\f3/\fR)\&. For easier cut and paste operations, it is also possible to use the method name format produced by the \f3-XX:+PrintCompilation\fR and \f3-XX:+LogCompilation\fR options:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:CompileOnly=java\&.lang\&.String::length,java\&.util\&.List::size\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
+.RS 4
+Do not print the compile commands\&. By default, the commands that you specify with the \-\fBXX:CompileCommand\fR
+option are printed; for example, if you exclude from compilation the
+\fBindexOf()\fR
+method of the
+\fBString\fR
+class, then the following will be printed to standard output:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fBCompilerOracle: exclude java/lang/String\&.indexOf\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+You can suppress this by specifying the
+\fB\-XX:CompileCommand=quiet\fR
+option before other
+\fB\-XX:CompileCommand\fR
+options\&.
+.RE
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:CompileCommandFile=\fIfilename\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the file from which JIT compiler commands are read\&. By default, the
+\fB\&.hotspot_compiler\fR
+file is used to store commands performed by the JIT compiler\&.
+.sp
+Each line in the command file represents a command, a class name, and a method name for which the command is used\&. For example, this line prints assembly code for the
+\fBtoString()\fR
+method of the
+\fBString\fR
+class:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fBprint java/lang/String toString\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+For more information about specifying the commands for the JIT compiler to perform on methods, see the
+\fB\-XX:CompileCommand\fR
+option\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:CompileOnly=\fImethods\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the list of methods (separated by commas) to which compilation should be restricted\&. Only the specified methods will be compiled\&. Specify each method with the full class name (including the packages and subpackages)\&. For example, to compile only the
+\fBlength()\fR
+method of the
+\fBString\fR
+class and the
+\fBsize()\fR
+method of the
+\fBList\fR
+class, use the following:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:CompileOnly=java/lang/String\&.length,java/util/List\&.size\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+Note that the full class name is specified, including all packages and subpackages separated by a slash (\fB/\fR)\&. For easier cut and paste operations, it is also possible to use the method name format produced by the
+\fB\-XX:+PrintCompilation\fR
+and
+\fB\-XX:+LogCompilation\fR
+options:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:CompileOnly=java\&.lang\&.String::length,java\&.util\&.List::size\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
 Although wildcards are not supported, you can specify only the class or package name to compile all methods in that class or package, as well as specify just the method to compile methods with this name in any class:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:CompileOnly=java/lang/String\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:CompileOnly=java/lang\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:CompileOnly=\&.length\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:CompileThreshold=\fIinvocations\fR
-.br
-Sets the number of interpreted method invocations before compilation\&. By default, in the server JVM, the JIT compiler performs 10,000 interpreted method invocations to gather information for efficient compilation\&. For the client JVM, the default setting is 1,500 invocations\&. This option is ignored when tiered compilation is enabled; see the option \f3-XX:+TieredCompilation\fR\&. The following example shows how to set the number of interpreted method invocations to 5,000:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:CompileThreshold=5000\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-You can completely disable interpretation of Java methods before compilation by specifying the \f3-Xcomp\fR option\&.
-.TP
--XX:+DoEscapeAnalysis
-.br
-Enables the use of escape analysis\&. This option is enabled by default\&. To disable the use of escape analysis, specify \f3-XX:-DoEscapeAnalysis\fR\&. Only the Java HotSpot Server VM supports this option\&.
-.TP
--XX:InitialCodeCacheSize=\fIsize\fR
-.br
-Sets the initial code cache size (in bytes)\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. The default value is set to 500 KB\&. The initial code cache size should be not less than the system\&'s minimal memory page size\&. The following example shows how to set the initial code cache size to 32 KB:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:InitialCodeCacheSize=32k\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:+Inline
-.br
-Enables method inlining\&. This option is enabled by default to increase performance\&. To disable method inlining, specify \f3-XX:-Inline\fR\&.
-.TP
--XX:InlineSmallCode=\fIsize\fR
-.br
-Sets the maximum code size (in bytes) for compiled methods that should be inlined\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. Only compiled methods with the size smaller than the specified size will be inlined\&. By default, the maximum code size is set to 1000 bytes:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:InlineSmallCode=1000\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:+LogCompilation
-.br
-Enables logging of compilation activity to a file named \f3hotspot\&.log\fR in the current working directory\&. You can specify a different log file path and name using the \f3-XX:LogFile\fR option\&.
-
-By default, this option is disabled and compilation activity is not logged\&. The \f3-XX:+LogCompilation\fR option has to be used together with the \f3-XX:UnlockDiagnosticVMOptions\fR option that unlocks diagnostic JVM options\&.
-
-You can enable verbose diagnostic output with a message printed to the console every time a method is compiled by using the \f3-XX:+PrintCompilation\fR option\&.
-.TP
--XX:MaxInlineSize=\fIsize\fR
-.br
-Sets the maximum bytecode size (in bytes) of a method to be inlined\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. By default, the maximum bytecode size is set to 35 bytes:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:MaxInlineSize=35\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:MaxNodeLimit=\fInodes\fR
-.br
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:CompileOnly=java/lang/String\fR
+\fB\-XX:CompileOnly=java/lang\fR
+\fB\-XX:CompileOnly=\&.length\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:CompileThreshold=\fIinvocations\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the number of interpreted method invocations before compilation\&. By default, in the server JVM, the JIT compiler performs 10,000 interpreted method invocations to gather information for efficient compilation\&. For the client JVM, the default setting is 1,500 invocations\&. This option is ignored when tiered compilation is enabled; see the option
+\fB\-XX:+TieredCompilation\fR\&. The following example shows how to set the number of interpreted method invocations to 5,000:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:CompileThreshold=5000\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+You can completely disable interpretation of Java methods before compilation by specifying the
+\fB\-Xcomp\fR
+option\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+DoEscapeAnalysis
+.RS 4
+Enables the use of escape analysis\&. This option is enabled by default\&. To disable the use of escape analysis, specify
+\fB\-XX:\-DoEscapeAnalysis\fR\&. Only the Java HotSpot Server VM supports this option\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:InitialCodeCacheSize=\fIsize\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the initial code cache size (in bytes)\&. Append the letter
+\fBk\fR
+or
+\fBK\fR
+to indicate kilobytes,
+\fBm\fR
+or
+\fBM\fR
+to indicate megabytes,
+\fBg\fR
+or
+\fBG\fR
+to indicate gigabytes\&. The default value is set to 500 KB\&. The initial code cache size should be not less than the system\*(Aqs minimal memory page size\&. The following example shows how to set the initial code cache size to 32 KB:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:InitialCodeCacheSize=32k\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+Inline
+.RS 4
+Enables method inlining\&. This option is enabled by default to increase performance\&. To disable method inlining, specify
+\fB\-XX:\-Inline\fR\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:InlineSmallCode=\fIsize\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the maximum code size (in bytes) for compiled methods that should be inlined\&. Append the letter
+\fBk\fR
+or
+\fBK\fR
+to indicate kilobytes,
+\fBm\fR
+or
+\fBM\fR
+to indicate megabytes,
+\fBg\fR
+or
+\fBG\fR
+to indicate gigabytes\&. Only compiled methods with the size smaller than the specified size will be inlined\&. By default, the maximum code size is set to 1000 bytes:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:InlineSmallCode=1000\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+LogCompilation
+.RS 4
+Enables logging of compilation activity to a file named
+\fBhotspot\&.log\fR
+in the current working directory\&. You can specify a different log file path and name using the
+\fB\-XX:LogFile\fR
+option\&.
+.sp
+By default, this option is disabled and compilation activity is not logged\&. The
+\fB\-XX:+LogCompilation\fR
+option has to be used together with the
+\fB\-XX:UnlockDiagnosticVMOptions\fR
+option that unlocks diagnostic JVM options\&.
+.sp
+You can enable verbose diagnostic output with a message printed to the console every time a method is compiled by using the
+\fB\-XX:+PrintCompilation\fR
+option\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:MaxInlineSize=\fIsize\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the maximum bytecode size (in bytes) of a method to be inlined\&. Append the letter
+\fBk\fR
+or
+\fBK\fR
+to indicate kilobytes,
+\fBm\fR
+or
+\fBM\fR
+to indicate megabytes,
+\fBg\fR
+or
+\fBG\fR
+to indicate gigabytes\&. By default, the maximum bytecode size is set to 35 bytes:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:MaxInlineSize=35\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:MaxNodeLimit=\fInodes\fR
+.RS 4
 Sets the maximum number of nodes to be used during single method compilation\&. By default, the maximum number of nodes is set to 65,000:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:MaxNodeLimit=65000\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:MaxTrivialSize=\fIsize\fR
-.br
-Sets the maximum bytecode size (in bytes) of a trivial method to be inlined\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. By default, the maximum bytecode size of a trivial method is set to 6 bytes:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:MaxTrivialSize=6\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:+OptimizeStringConcat
-.br
-Enables the optimization of \f3String\fR concatenation operations\&. This option is enabled by default\&. To disable the optimization of \f3String\fR concatenation operations, specify \f3-XX:-OptimizeStringConcat\fR\&. Only the Java HotSpot Server VM supports this option\&.
-.TP
--XX:+PrintAssembly
-.br
-Enables printing of assembly code for bytecoded and native methods by using the external \f3disassembler\&.so\fR library\&. This enables you to see the generated code, which may help you to diagnose performance issues\&.
-
-By default, this option is disabled and assembly code is not printed\&. The \f3-XX:+PrintAssembly\fR option has to be used together with the \f3-XX:UnlockDiagnosticVMOptions\fR option that unlocks diagnostic JVM options\&.
-.TP
--XX:+PrintCompilation
-.br
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:MaxNodeLimit=65000\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:MaxTrivialSize=\fIsize\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the maximum bytecode size (in bytes) of a trivial method to be inlined\&. Append the letter
+\fBk\fR
+or
+\fBK\fR
+to indicate kilobytes,
+\fBm\fR
+or
+\fBM\fR
+to indicate megabytes,
+\fBg\fR
+or
+\fBG\fR
+to indicate gigabytes\&. By default, the maximum bytecode size of a trivial method is set to 6 bytes:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:MaxTrivialSize=6\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+OptimizeStringConcat
+.RS 4
+Enables the optimization of
+\fBString\fR
+concatenation operations\&. This option is enabled by default\&. To disable the optimization of
+\fBString\fR
+concatenation operations, specify
+\fB\-XX:\-OptimizeStringConcat\fR\&. Only the Java HotSpot Server VM supports this option\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+PrintAssembly
+.RS 4
+Enables printing of assembly code for bytecoded and native methods by using the external
+\fBdisassembler\&.so\fR
+library\&. This enables you to see the generated code, which may help you to diagnose performance issues\&.
+.sp
+By default, this option is disabled and assembly code is not printed\&. The
+\fB\-XX:+PrintAssembly\fR
+option has to be used together with the
+\fB\-XX:UnlockDiagnosticVMOptions\fR
+option that unlocks diagnostic JVM options\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+PrintCompilation
+.RS 4
 Enables verbose diagnostic output from the JVM by printing a message to the console every time a method is compiled\&. This enables you to see which methods actually get compiled\&. By default, this option is disabled and diagnostic output is not printed\&.
-
-You can also log compilation activity to a file by using the \f3-XX:+LogCompilation\fR option\&.
-.TP
--XX:+PrintInlining
-.br
+.sp
+You can also log compilation activity to a file by using the
+\fB\-XX:+LogCompilation\fR
+option\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+PrintInlining
+.RS 4
 Enables printing of inlining decisions\&. This enables you to see which methods are getting inlined\&.
-
-By default, this option is disabled and inlining information is not printed\&. The \f3-XX:+PrintInlining\fR option has to be used together with the \f3-XX:+UnlockDiagnosticVMOptions\fR option that unlocks diagnostic JVM options\&.
-.TP
--XX:ReservedCodeCacheSize=\fIsize\fR
-.br
-Sets the maximum code cache size (in bytes) for JIT-compiled code\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. This option has a limit of 2 GB; otherwise, an error is generated\&. The maximum code cache size should not be less than the initial code cache size; see the option \f3-XX:InitialCodeCacheSize\fR\&. This option is equivalent to \f3-Xmaxjitcodesize\fR\&.
-.TP
--XX:RTMAbortRatio=\fIabort_ratio\fR
-.br
-The RTM abort ratio is specified as a percentage (%) of all executed RTM transactions\&. If a number of aborted transactions becomes greater than this ratio, then the compiled code will be deoptimized\&. This ratio is used when the \f3-XX:+UseRTMDeopt\fR option is enabled\&. The default value of this option is 50\&. This means that the compiled code will be deoptimized if 50% of all transactions are aborted\&.
-.TP
--XX:RTMRetryCount=\fInumber_of_retries\fR
-.br
-RTM locking code will be retried, when it is aborted or busy, the number of times specified by this option before falling back to the normal locking mechanism\&. The default value for this option is 5\&. The \f3-XX:UseRTMLocking\fR option must be enabled\&.
-.TP
--XX:+TieredCompilation
-.br
-Enables the use of tiered compilation\&. By default, this option is enabled\&. Only the Java HotSpot Server VM supports this option\&.
-.TP
--XX:+UseAES
-.br
-Enables hardware-based AES intrinsics for Intel, AMD, and SPARC hardware\&. Intel Westmere (2010 and newer), AMD Bulldozer (2011 and newer), and SPARC (T4 and newer) are the supported hardware\&. UseAES is used in conjunction with UseAESIntrinsics\&.
-.TP
--XX:+UseAESIntrinsics
-.br
-UseAES and UseAESIntrinsics flags are enabled by default and are supported only for Java HotSpot Server VM 32-bit and 64-bit\&. To disable hardware-based AES intrinsics, specify \f3-XX:-UseAES -XX:-UseAESIntrinsics\fR\&. For example, to enable hardware AES, use the following flags:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:+UseAES \-XX:+UseAESIntrinsics\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-To support UseAES and UseAESIntrinsics flags for 32-bit and 64-bit use \f3-server\fR option to choose Java HotSpot Server VM\&. These flags are not supported on Client VM\&.
-.TP
--XX:+UseCodeCacheFlushing
-.br
-Enables flushing of the code cache before shutting down the compiler\&. This option is enabled by default\&. To disable flushing of the code cache before shutting down the compiler, specify \f3-XX:-UseCodeCacheFlushing\fR\&.
-.TP
--XX:+UseCondCardMark
-.br
+.sp
+By default, this option is disabled and inlining information is not printed\&. The
+\fB\-XX:+PrintInlining\fR
+option has to be used together with the
+\fB\-XX:+UnlockDiagnosticVMOptions\fR
+option that unlocks diagnostic JVM options\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:ReservedCodeCacheSize=\fIsize\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the maximum code cache size (in bytes) for JIT\-compiled code\&. Append the letter
+\fBk\fR
+or
+\fBK\fR
+to indicate kilobytes,
+\fBm\fR
+or
+\fBM\fR
+to indicate megabytes,
+\fBg\fR
+or
+\fBG\fR
+to indicate gigabytes\&. The default maximum code cache size is 240 MB; if you disable tiered compilation with the option
+\fB\-XX:\-TieredCompilation\fR, then the default size is 48 MB\&. This option has a limit of 2 GB; otherwise, an error is generated\&. The maximum code cache size should not be less than the initial code cache size; see the option
+\fB\-XX:InitialCodeCacheSize\fR\&. This option is equivalent to
+\fB\-Xmaxjitcodesize\fR\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:RTMAbortRatio=\fIabort_ratio\fR
+.RS 4
+The RTM abort ratio is specified as a percentage (%) of all executed RTM transactions\&. If a number of aborted transactions becomes greater than this ratio, then the compiled code will be deoptimized\&. This ratio is used when the
+\fB\-XX:+UseRTMDeopt\fR
+option is enabled\&. The default value of this option is 50\&. This means that the compiled code will be deoptimized if 50% of all transactions are aborted\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:RTMRetryCount=\fInumber_of_retries\fR
+.RS 4
+RTM locking code will be retried, when it is aborted or busy, the number of times specified by this option before falling back to the normal locking mechanism\&. The default value for this option is 5\&. The
+\fB\-XX:UseRTMLocking\fR
+option must be enabled\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:\-TieredCompilation
+.RS 4
+Disables the use of tiered compilation\&. By default, this option is enabled\&. Only the Java HotSpot Server VM supports this option\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UseAES
+.RS 4
+Enables hardware\-based AES intrinsics for Intel, AMD, and SPARC hardware\&. Intel Westmere (2010 and newer), AMD Bulldozer (2011 and newer), and SPARC (T4 and newer) are the supported hardware\&. UseAES is used in conjunction with UseAESIntrinsics\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UseAESIntrinsics
+.RS 4
+UseAES and UseAESIntrinsics flags are enabled by default and are supported only for Java HotSpot Server VM 32\-bit and 64\-bit\&. To disable hardware\-based AES intrinsics, specify
+\fB\-XX:\-UseAES \-XX:\-UseAESIntrinsics\fR\&. For example, to enable hardware AES, use the following flags:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:+UseAES \-XX:+UseAESIntrinsics\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+To support UseAES and UseAESIntrinsics flags for 32\-bit and 64\-bit use
+\fB\-server\fR
+option to choose Java HotSpot Server VM\&. These flags are not supported on Client VM\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UseCodeCacheFlushing
+.RS 4
+Enables flushing of the code cache before shutting down the compiler\&. This option is enabled by default\&. To disable flushing of the code cache before shutting down the compiler, specify
+\fB\-XX:\-UseCodeCacheFlushing\fR\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UseCondCardMark
+.RS 4
 Enables checking of whether the card is already marked before updating the card table\&. This option is disabled by default and should only be used on machines with multiple sockets, where it will increase performance of Java applications that rely heavily on concurrent operations\&. Only the Java HotSpot Server VM supports this option\&.
-.TP
--XX:+UseRTMDeopt
-.br
-Auto-tunes RTM locking depending on the abort ratio\&. This ratio is specified by \f3-XX:RTMAbortRatio\fR option\&. If the number of aborted transactions exceeds the abort ratio, then the method containing the lock will be deoptimized and recompiled with all locks as normal locks\&. This option is disabled by default\&. The \f3-XX:+UseRTMLocking\fR option must be enabled\&.
-.TP
--XX:+UseRTMLocking
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UseRTMDeopt
+.RS 4
+Auto\-tunes RTM locking depending on the abort ratio\&. This ratio is specified by
+\fB\-XX:RTMAbortRatio\fR
+option\&. If the number of aborted transactions exceeds the abort ratio, then the method containing the lock will be deoptimized and recompiled with all locks as normal locks\&. This option is disabled by default\&. The
+\fB\-XX:+UseRTMLocking\fR
+option must be enabled\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UseRTMLocking
+.RS 4
 Generate Restricted Transactional Memory (RTM) locking code for all inflated locks, with the normal locking mechanism as the fallback handler\&. This option is disabled by default\&. Options related to RTM are only available for the Java HotSpot Server VM on x86 CPUs that support Transactional Synchronization Extensions (TSX)\&.
-
-RTM is part of Intel\&'s TSX, which is an x86 instruction set extension and facilitates the creation of multithreaded applications\&. RTM introduces the new instructions \f3XBEGIN\fR, \f3XABORT\fR, \f3XEND\fR, and \f3XTEST\fR\&. The \f3XBEGIN\fR and \f3XEND\fR instructions enclose a set of instructions to run as a transaction\&. If no conflict is found when running the transaction, the memory and register modifications are committed together at the \f3XEND\fR instruction\&. The \f3XABORT\fR instruction can be used to explicitly abort a transaction and the \f3XEND\fR instruction to check if a set of instructions are being run in a transaction\&.
-
-A lock on a transaction is inflated when another thread tries to access the same transaction, thereby blocking the thread that did not originally request access to the transaction\&. RTM requires that a fallback set of operations be specified in case a transaction aborts or fails\&. An RTM lock is a lock that has been delegated to the TSX\&'s system\&.
-
-RTM improves performance for highly contended locks with low conflict in a critical region (which is code that must not be accessed by more than one thread concurrently)\&. RTM also improves the performance of coarse-grain locking, which typically does not perform well in multithreaded applications\&. (Coarse-grain locking is the strategy of holding locks for long periods to minimize the overhead of taking and releasing locks, while fine-grained locking is the strategy of trying to achieve maximum parallelism by locking only when necessary and unlocking as soon as possible\&.) Also, for lightly contended locks that are used by different threads, RTM can reduce false cache line sharing, also known as cache line ping-pong\&. This occurs when multiple threads from different processors are accessing different resources, but the resources share the same cache line\&. As a result, the processors repeatedly invalidate the cache lines of other processors, which forces them to read from main memory instead of their cache\&.
-.TP
--XX:+UseSHA
-.br
-Enables hardware-based intrinsics for SHA crypto hash functions for SPARC hardware\&. \f3UseSHA\fR is used in conjunction with the \f3UseSHA1Intrinsics\fR, \f3UseSHA256Intrinsics\fR, and \f3UseSHA512Intrinsics\fR options\&.
-
-The \f3UseSHA\fR and \f3UseSHA*Intrinsics\fR flags are enabled by default, and are supported only for Java HotSpot Server VM 64-bit on SPARC T4 and newer\&.
-
-This feature is only applicable when using the \f3sun\&.security\&.provider\&.Sun\fR provider for SHA operations\&.
-
-To disable all hardware-based SHA intrinsics, specify \f3-XX:-UseSHA\fR\&. To disable only a particular SHA intrinsic, use the appropriate corresponding option\&. For example: \f3-XX:-UseSHA256Intrinsics\fR\&.
-.TP
--XX:+UseSHA1Intrinsics
-.br
-Enables intrinsics for SHA-1 crypto hash function\&.
-.TP
--XX:+UseSHA256Intrinsics
-.br
-Enables intrinsics for SHA-224 and SHA-256 crypto hash functions\&.
-.TP
--XX:+UseSHA512Intrinsics
-.br
-Enables intrinsics for SHA-384 and SHA-512 crypto hash functions\&.
-.TP
--XX:+UseSuperWord
-.br
-Enables the transformation of scalar operations into superword operations\&. This option is enabled by default\&. To disable the transformation of scalar operations into superword operations, specify \f3-XX:-UseSuperWord\fR\&. Only the Java HotSpot Server VM supports this option\&.
-.SS ADVANCED\ SERVICEABILITY\ OPTIONS    
+.sp
+RTM is part of Intel\*(Aqs TSX, which is an x86 instruction set extension and facilitates the creation of multithreaded applications\&. RTM introduces the new instructions
+\fBXBEGIN\fR,
+\fBXABORT\fR,
+\fBXEND\fR, and
+\fBXTEST\fR\&. The
+\fBXBEGIN\fR
+and
+\fBXEND\fR
+instructions enclose a set of instructions to run as a transaction\&. If no conflict is found when running the transaction, the memory and register modifications are committed together at the
+\fBXEND\fR
+instruction\&. The
+\fBXABORT\fR
+instruction can be used to explicitly abort a transaction and the
+\fBXEND\fR
+instruction to check if a set of instructions are being run in a transaction\&.
+.sp
+A lock on a transaction is inflated when another thread tries to access the same transaction, thereby blocking the thread that did not originally request access to the transaction\&. RTM requires that a fallback set of operations be specified in case a transaction aborts or fails\&. An RTM lock is a lock that has been delegated to the TSX\*(Aqs system\&.
+.sp
+RTM improves performance for highly contended locks with low conflict in a critical region (which is code that must not be accessed by more than one thread concurrently)\&. RTM also improves the performance of coarse\-grain locking, which typically does not perform well in multithreaded applications\&. (Coarse\-grain locking is the strategy of holding locks for long periods to minimize the overhead of taking and releasing locks, while fine\-grained locking is the strategy of trying to achieve maximum parallelism by locking only when necessary and unlocking as soon as possible\&.) Also, for lightly contended locks that are used by different threads, RTM can reduce false cache line sharing, also known as cache line ping\-pong\&. This occurs when multiple threads from different processors are accessing different resources, but the resources share the same cache line\&. As a result, the processors repeatedly invalidate the cache lines of other processors, which forces them to read from main memory instead of their cache\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UseSHA
+.RS 4
+Enables hardware\-based intrinsics for SHA crypto hash functions for SPARC hardware\&.
+\fBUseSHA\fR
+is used in conjunction with the
+\fBUseSHA1Intrinsics\fR,
+\fBUseSHA256Intrinsics\fR, and
+\fBUseSHA512Intrinsics\fR
+options\&.
+.sp
+The
+\fBUseSHA\fR
+and
+\fBUseSHA*Intrinsics\fR
+flags are enabled by default, and are supported only for Java HotSpot Server VM 64\-bit on SPARC T4 and newer\&.
+.sp
+This feature is only applicable when using the
+\fBsun\&.security\&.provider\&.Sun\fR
+provider for SHA operations\&.
+.sp
+To disable all hardware\-based SHA intrinsics, specify
+\fB\-XX:\-UseSHA\fR\&. To disable only a particular SHA intrinsic, use the appropriate corresponding option\&. For example:
+\fB\-XX:\-UseSHA256Intrinsics\fR\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UseSHA1Intrinsics
+.RS 4
+Enables intrinsics for SHA\-1 crypto hash function\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UseSHA256Intrinsics
+.RS 4
+Enables intrinsics for SHA\-224 and SHA\-256 crypto hash functions\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UseSHA512Intrinsics
+.RS 4
+Enables intrinsics for SHA\-384 and SHA\-512 crypto hash functions\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UseSuperWord
+.RS 4
+Enables the transformation of scalar operations into superword operations\&. This option is enabled by default\&. To disable the transformation of scalar operations into superword operations, specify
+\fB\-XX:\-UseSuperWord\fR\&. Only the Java HotSpot Server VM supports this option\&.
+.RE
+.SS "Advanced Serviceability Options"
+.PP
 These options provide the ability to gather system information and perform extensive debugging\&.
-.TP
--XX:+ExtendedDTraceProbes
-.br
-Enables additional \f3dtrace\fR tool probes that impact the performance\&. By default, this option is disabled and \f3dtrace\fR performs only standard probes\&.
-.TP
--XX:+HeapDumpOnOutOfMemory
-.br
-Enables the dumping of the Java heap to a file in the current directory by using the heap profiler (HPROF) when a \f3java\&.lang\&.OutOfMemoryError\fR exception is thrown\&. You can explicitly set the heap dump file path and name using the \f3-XX:HeapDumpPath\fR option\&. By default, this option is disabled and the heap is not dumped when an \f3OutOfMemoryError\fR exception is thrown\&.
-.TP
--XX:HeapDumpPath=\fIpath\fR
-.br
-Sets the path and file name for writing the heap dump provided by the heap profiler (HPROF) when the \f3-XX:+HeapDumpOnOutOfMemoryError\fR option is set\&. By default, the file is created in the current working directory, and it is named \f3java_pid\fR\fIpid\fR\f3\&.hprof\fR where \fIpid\fR is the identifier of the process that caused the error\&. The following example shows how to set the default file explicitly (\f3%p\fR represents the current process identificator):
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:HeapDumpPath=\&./java_pid%p\&.hprof\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-\fI\fRThe following example shows how to set the heap dump file to \f3/var/log/java/java_heapdump\&.hprof\fR:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:HeapDumpPath=/var/log/java/java_heapdump\&.hprof\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:LogFile=\fIpath\fR
-.br
-Sets the path and file name where log data is written\&. By default, the file is created in the current working directory, and it is named \f3hotspot\&.log\fR\&.
-
-\fI\fRThe following example shows how to set the log file to \f3/var/log/java/hotspot\&.log\fR:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:LogFile=/var/log/java/hotspot\&.log\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:+PrintClassHistogram
-.br
-\fI\fREnables printing of a class instance histogram after a \f3Control+C\fR event (\f3SIGTERM\fR)\&. By default, this option is disabled\&.
-
-Setting this option is equivalent to running the \f3jmap -histo\fR command, or the \f3jcmd\fR\fIpid\fR\f3GC\&.class_histogram\fR command, where \fIpid\fR is the current Java process identifier\&.
-.TP     
--XX:+PrintConcurrentLocks
-
-
-Enables printing of \f3java\&.util\&.concurrent\fR locks after a \f3Control+C\fR event (\f3SIGTERM\fR)\&. By default, this option is disabled\&.
-
-Setting this option is equivalent to running the \f3jstack -l\fR command or the \f3jcmd\fR\fIpid\fR\f3Thread\&.print -l\fR command, where \fIpid\fR is the current Java process identifier\&.
-.TP
--XX:+UnlockDiagnosticVMOptions
-.br
+.PP
+\-XX:+ExtendedDTraceProbes
+.RS 4
+Enables additional
+\fBdtrace\fR
+tool probes that impact the performance\&. By default, this option is disabled and
+\fBdtrace\fR
+performs only standard probes\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+HeapDumpOnOutOfMemory
+.RS 4
+Enables the dumping of the Java heap to a file in the current directory by using the heap profiler (HPROF) when a
+\fBjava\&.lang\&.OutOfMemoryError\fR
+exception is thrown\&. You can explicitly set the heap dump file path and name using the
+\fB\-XX:HeapDumpPath\fR
+option\&. By default, this option is disabled and the heap is not dumped when an
+\fBOutOfMemoryError\fR
+exception is thrown\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:HeapDumpPath=\fIpath\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the path and file name for writing the heap dump provided by the heap profiler (HPROF) when the
+\fB\-XX:+HeapDumpOnOutOfMemoryError\fR
+option is set\&. By default, the file is created in the current working directory, and it is named
+\fBjava_pid\fR\fIpid\fR\fB\&.hprof\fR
+where
+\fIpid\fR
+is the identifier of the process that caused the error\&. The following example shows how to set the default file explicitly (\fB%p\fR
+represents the current process identificator):
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:HeapDumpPath=\&./java_pid%p\&.hprof\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+The following example shows how to set the heap dump file to
+\fB/var/log/java/java_heapdump\&.hprof\fR:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:HeapDumpPath=/var/log/java/java_heapdump\&.hprof\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:LogFile=\fIpath\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the path and file name where log data is written\&. By default, the file is created in the current working directory, and it is named
+\fBhotspot\&.log\fR\&.
+.sp
+The following example shows how to set the log file to
+\fB/var/log/java/hotspot\&.log\fR:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:LogFile=/var/log/java/hotspot\&.log\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+PrintClassHistogram
+.RS 4
+Enables printing of a class instance histogram after a
+\fBControl+C\fR
+event (\fBSIGTERM\fR)\&. By default, this option is disabled\&.
+.sp
+Setting this option is equivalent to running the
+\fBjmap \-histo\fR
+command, or the
+\fBjcmd \fR\fIpid\fR\fB GC\&.class_histogram\fR
+command, where
+\fIpid\fR
+is the current Java process identifier\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+PrintConcurrentLocks
+.RS 4
+Enables printing of locks after a event\&. By default, this option is disabled\&.
+.sp
+Enables printing of
+\fBjava\&.util\&.concurrent\fR
+locks after a
+\fBControl+C\fR
+event (\fBSIGTERM\fR)\&. By default, this option is disabled\&.
+.sp
+Setting this option is equivalent to running the
+\fBjstack \-l\fR
+command or the
+\fBjcmd \fR\fIpid\fR\fB Thread\&.print \-l\fR
+command, where
+\fIpid\fR
+is the current Java process identifier\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UnlockDiagnosticVMOptions
+.RS 4
 Unlocks the options intended for diagnosing the JVM\&. By default, this option is disabled and diagnostic options are not available\&.
-.SS ADVANCED\ GARBAGE\ COLLECTION\ OPTIONS    
+.RE
+.SS "Advanced Garbage Collection Options"
+.PP
 These options control how garbage collection (GC) is performed by the Java HotSpot VM\&.
-.TP
--XX:+AggressiveHeap
-.br
-Enables Java heap optimization\&. This sets various parameters to be optimal for long-running jobs with intensive memory allocation, based on the configuration of the computer (RAM and CPU)\&. By default, the option is disabled and the heap is not optimized\&.
-.TP
--XX:+AlwaysPreTouch
-.br
-Enables touching of every page on the Java heap during JVM initialization\&. This gets all pages into the memory before entering the \f3main()\fR method\&. The option can be used in testing to simulate a long-running system with all virtual memory mapped to physical memory\&. By default, this option is disabled and all pages are committed as JVM heap space fills\&.
-.TP
--XX:+CMSClassUnloadingEnabled
-.br
-Enables class unloading when using the concurrent mark-sweep (CMS) garbage collector\&. This option is enabled by default\&. To disable class unloading for the CMS garbage collector, specify \f3-XX:-CMSClassUnloadingEnabled\fR\&.
-.TP
--XX:CMSExpAvgFactor=\fIpercent\fR
-.br
+.PP
+\-XX:+AggressiveHeap
+.RS 4
+Enables Java heap optimization\&. This sets various parameters to be optimal for long\-running jobs with intensive memory allocation, based on the configuration of the computer (RAM and CPU)\&. By default, the option is disabled and the heap is not optimized\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+AlwaysPreTouch
+.RS 4
+Enables touching of every page on the Java heap during JVM initialization\&. This gets all pages into the memory before entering the
+\fBmain()\fR
+method\&. The option can be used in testing to simulate a long\-running system with all virtual memory mapped to physical memory\&. By default, this option is disabled and all pages are committed as JVM heap space fills\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+CMSClassUnloadingEnabled
+.RS 4
+Enables class unloading when using the concurrent mark\-sweep (CMS) garbage collector\&. This option is enabled by default\&. To disable class unloading for the CMS garbage collector, specify
+\fB\-XX:\-CMSClassUnloadingEnabled\fR\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:CMSExpAvgFactor=\fIpercent\fR
+.RS 4
 Sets the percentage of time (0 to 100) used to weight the current sample when computing exponential averages for the concurrent collection statistics\&. By default, the exponential averages factor is set to 25%\&. The following example shows how to set the factor to 15%:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:CMSExpAvgFactor=15\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:CMSInitiatingOccupancyFraction=\fIpercent\fR
-.br
-Sets the percentage of the old generation occupancy (0 to 100) at which to start a CMS collection cycle\&. The default value is set to -1\&. Any negative value (including the default) implies that \f3-XX:CMSTriggerRatio\fR is used to define the value of the initiating occupancy fraction\&.
-
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:CMSExpAvgFactor=15\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:CMSInitiatingOccupancyFraction=\fIpercent\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the percentage of the old generation occupancy (0 to 100) at which to start a CMS collection cycle\&. The default value is set to \-1\&. Any negative value (including the default) implies that
+\fB\-XX:CMSTriggerRatio\fR
+is used to define the value of the initiating occupancy fraction\&.
+.sp
 The following example shows how to set the occupancy fraction to 20%:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:CMSInitiatingOccupancyFraction=20\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:+CMSScavengeBeforeRemark
-.br
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:CMSInitiatingOccupancyFraction=20\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+CMSScavengeBeforeRemark
+.RS 4
 Enables scavenging attempts before the CMS remark step\&. By default, this option is disabled\&.
-.TP
--XX:CMSTriggerRatio=\fIpercent\fR
-.br
-Sets the percentage (0 to 100) of the value specified by \f3-XX:MinHeapFreeRatio\fR that is allocated before a CMS collection cycle commences\&. The default value is set to 80%\&.
-
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:CMSTriggerRatio=\fIpercent\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the percentage (0 to 100) of the value specified by
+\fB\-XX:MinHeapFreeRatio\fR
+that is allocated before a CMS collection cycle commences\&. The default value is set to 80%\&.
+.sp
 The following example shows how to set the occupancy fraction to 75%:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:CMSTriggerRatio=75\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:ConcGCThreads=\fIthreads\fR
-.br
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:CMSTriggerRatio=75\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:ConcGCThreads=\fIthreads\fR
+.RS 4
 Sets the number of threads used for concurrent GC\&. The default value depends on the number of CPUs available to the JVM\&.
-
+.sp
 For example, to set the number of threads for concurrent GC to 2, specify the following option:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:ConcGCThreads=2\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:+DisableExplicitGC
-.br
-Enables the option that disables processing of calls to \f3System\&.gc()\fR\&. This option is disabled by default, meaning that calls to \f3System\&.gc()\fR are processed\&. If processing of calls to \f3System\&.gc()\fR is disabled, the JVM still performs GC when necessary\&.
-.TP
--XX:+ExplicitGCInvokesConcurrent
-.br
-Enables invoking of concurrent GC by using the \f3System\&.gc()\fR request\&. This option is disabled by default and can be enabled only together with the \f3-XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC\fR option\&.
-.TP
--XX:+ExplicitGCInvokesConcurrentAndUnloadsClasses
-.br
-Enables invoking of concurrent GC by using the \f3System\&.gc()\fR request and unloading of classes during the concurrent GC cycle\&. This option is disabled by default and can be enabled only together with the \f3-XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC\fR option\&.
-.TP
--XX:G1HeapRegionSize=\fIsize\fR
-.br
-Sets the size of the regions into which the Java heap is subdivided when using the garbage-first (G1) collector\&. The value can be between 1 MB and 32 MB\&. The default region size is determined ergonomically based on the heap size\&.
-
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:ConcGCThreads=2\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+DisableExplicitGC
+.RS 4
+Enables the option that disables processing of calls to
+\fBSystem\&.gc()\fR\&. This option is disabled by default, meaning that calls to
+\fBSystem\&.gc()\fR
+are processed\&. If processing of calls to
+\fBSystem\&.gc()\fR
+is disabled, the JVM still performs GC when necessary\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+ExplicitGCInvokesConcurrent
+.RS 4
+Enables invoking of concurrent GC by using the
+\fBSystem\&.gc()\fR
+request\&. This option is disabled by default and can be enabled only together with the
+\fB\-XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC\fR
+option\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+ExplicitGCInvokesConcurrentAndUnloadsClasses
+.RS 4
+Enables invoking of concurrent GC by using the
+\fBSystem\&.gc()\fR
+request and unloading of classes during the concurrent GC cycle\&. This option is disabled by default and can be enabled only together with the
+\fB\-XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC\fR
+option\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:G1HeapRegionSize=\fIsize\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the size of the regions into which the Java heap is subdivided when using the garbage\-first (G1) collector\&. The value can be between 1 MB and 32 MB\&. The default region size is determined ergonomically based on the heap size\&.
+.sp
 The following example shows how to set the size of the subdivisions to 16 MB:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:G1HeapRegionSize=16m\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:+G1PrintHeapRegions
-.br
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:G1HeapRegionSize=16m\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+G1PrintHeapRegions
+.RS 4
 Enables the printing of information about which regions are allocated and which are reclaimed by the G1 collector\&. By default, this option is disabled\&.
-.TP
--XX:G1ReservePercent=\fIpercent\fR
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:G1ReservePercent=\fIpercent\fR
+.RS 4
 Sets the percentage of the heap (0 to 50) that is reserved as a false ceiling to reduce the possibility of promotion failure for the G1 collector\&. By default, this option is set to 10%\&.
-
+.sp
 The following example shows how to set the reserved heap to 20%:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:G1ReservePercent=20\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:InitialHeapSize=\fIsize\fR
-.br
-Sets the initial size (in bytes) of the memory allocation pool\&. This value must be either 0, or a multiple of 1024 and greater than 1 MB\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. The default value is chosen at runtime based on system configuration\&. See the section "Ergonomics" in \fIJava SE HotSpot Virtual Machine Garbage Collection Tuning Guide\fR at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/vm/gctuning/index\&.html\&.
-
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:G1ReservePercent=20\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:InitialHeapSize=\fIsize\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the initial size (in bytes) of the memory allocation pool\&. This value must be either 0, or a multiple of 1024 and greater than 1 MB\&. Append the letter
+\fBk\fR
+or
+\fBK\fR
+to indicate kilobytes,
+\fBm\fR
+or
+\fBM\fR
+to indicate megabytes,
+\fBg\fR
+or
+\fBG\fR
+to indicate gigabytes\&. The default value is chosen at runtime based on system configuration\&. See the section "Ergonomics" in
+\fIJava SE HotSpot Virtual Machine Garbage Collection Tuning Guide\fR
+at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/vm/gctuning/index\&.html\&.
+.sp
 The following examples show how to set the size of allocated memory to 6 MB using various units:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:InitialHeapSize=6291456\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:InitialHeapSize=6144k\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:InitialHeapSize=6m\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-If you set this option to 0, then the initial size will be set as the sum of the sizes allocated for the old generation and the young generation\&. The size of the heap for the young generation can be set using the \f3-XX:NewSize\fR option\&.
-.TP
--XX:InitialSurvivorRatio=\fIratio\fR
-.br
-Sets the initial survivor space ratio used by the throughput garbage collector (which is enabled by the \f3-XX:+UseParallelGC\fR and/or -\f3XX:+UseParallelOldGC\fR options)\&. Adaptive sizing is enabled by default with the throughput garbage collector by using the \f3-XX:+UseParallelGC\fR and \f3-XX:+UseParallelOldGC\fR options, and survivor space is resized according to the application behavior, starting with the initial value\&. If adaptive sizing is disabled (using the \f3-XX:-UseAdaptiveSizePolicy\fR option), then the \f3-XX:SurvivorRatio\fR option should be used to set the size of the survivor space for the entire execution of the application\&.
-
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:InitialHeapSize=6291456\fR
+\fB\-XX:InitialHeapSize=6144k\fR
+\fB\-XX:InitialHeapSize=6m\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+If you set this option to 0, then the initial size will be set as the sum of the sizes allocated for the old generation and the young generation\&. The size of the heap for the young generation can be set using the
+\fB\-XX:NewSize\fR
+option\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:InitialSurvivorRatio=\fIratio\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the initial survivor space ratio used by the throughput garbage collector (which is enabled by the
+\fB\-XX:+UseParallelGC\fR
+and/or \-\fBXX:+UseParallelOldGC\fR
+options)\&. Adaptive sizing is enabled by default with the throughput garbage collector by using the
+\fB\-XX:+UseParallelGC\fR
+and
+\fB\-XX:+UseParallelOldGC\fR
+options, and survivor space is resized according to the application behavior, starting with the initial value\&. If adaptive sizing is disabled (using the
+\fB\-XX:\-UseAdaptiveSizePolicy\fR
+option), then the
+\fB\-XX:SurvivorRatio\fR
+option should be used to set the size of the survivor space for the entire execution of the application\&.
+.sp
 The following formula can be used to calculate the initial size of survivor space (S) based on the size of the young generation (Y), and the initial survivor space ratio (R):
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3S=Y/(R+2)\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fBS=Y/(R+2)\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
 The 2 in the equation denotes two survivor spaces\&. The larger the value specified as the initial survivor space ratio, the smaller the initial survivor space size\&.
-
+.sp
 By default, the initial survivor space ratio is set to 8\&. If the default value for the young generation space size is used (2 MB), the initial size of the survivor space will be 0\&.2 MB\&.
-
+.sp
 The following example shows how to set the initial survivor space ratio to 4:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:InitialSurvivorRatio=4\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:InitiatingHeapOccupancyPercent=\fIpercent\fR
-.br
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:InitialSurvivorRatio=4\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:InitiatingHeapOccupancyPercent=\fIpercent\fR
+.RS 4
 Sets the percentage of the heap occupancy (0 to 100) at which to start a concurrent GC cycle\&. It is used by garbage collectors that trigger a concurrent GC cycle based on the occupancy of the entire heap, not just one of the generations (for example, the G1 garbage collector)\&.
-
+.sp
 By default, the initiating value is set to 45%\&. A value of 0 implies nonstop GC cycles\&. The following example shows how to set the initiating heap occupancy to 75%:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:InitiatingHeapOccupancyPercent=75\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:MaxGCPauseMillis=\fItime\fR
-.br
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:InitiatingHeapOccupancyPercent=75\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:MaxGCPauseMillis=\fItime\fR
+.RS 4
 Sets a target for the maximum GC pause time (in milliseconds)\&. This is a soft goal, and the JVM will make its best effort to achieve it\&. By default, there is no maximum pause time value\&.
-
+.sp
 The following example shows how to set the maximum target pause time to 500 ms:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:MaxGCPauseMillis=500\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:MaxHeapSize=\fIsize\fR
-.br
-Sets the maximum size (in byes) of the memory allocation pool\&. This value must be a multiple of 1024 and greater than 2 MB\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. The default value is chosen at runtime based on system configuration\&. For server deployments, \f3-XX:InitialHeapSize\fR and \f3-XX:MaxHeapSize\fR are often set to the same value\&. See the section "Ergonomics" in \fIJava SE HotSpot Virtual Machine Garbage Collection Tuning Guide\fR at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/vm/gctuning/index\&.html\&.
-
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:MaxGCPauseMillis=500\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:MaxHeapSize=\fIsize\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the maximum size (in byes) of the memory allocation pool\&. This value must be a multiple of 1024 and greater than 2 MB\&. Append the letter
+\fBk\fR
+or
+\fBK\fR
+to indicate kilobytes,
+\fBm\fR
+or
+\fBM\fR
+to indicate megabytes,
+\fBg\fR
+or
+\fBG\fR
+to indicate gigabytes\&. The default value is chosen at runtime based on system configuration\&. For server deployments,
+\fB\-XX:InitialHeapSize\fR
+and
+\fB\-XX:MaxHeapSize\fR
+are often set to the same value\&. See the section "Ergonomics" in
+\fIJava SE HotSpot Virtual Machine Garbage Collection Tuning Guide\fR
+at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/vm/gctuning/index\&.html\&.
+.sp
 The following examples show how to set the maximum allowed size of allocated memory to 80 MB using various units:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:MaxHeapSize=83886080\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:MaxHeapSize=81920k\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:MaxHeapSize=80m\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:MaxHeapSize=83886080\fR
+\fB\-XX:MaxHeapSize=81920k\fR
+\fB\-XX:MaxHeapSize=80m\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
 On Oracle Solaris 7 and Oracle Solaris 8 SPARC platforms, the upper limit for this value is approximately 4,000 MB minus overhead amounts\&. On Oracle Solaris 2\&.6 and x86 platforms, the upper limit is approximately 2,000 MB minus overhead amounts\&. On Linux platforms, the upper limit is approximately 2,000 MB minus overhead amounts\&.
-
-The \f3-XX:MaxHeapSize\fR option is equivalent to \f3-Xmx\fR\&.
-.TP
--XX:MaxHeapFreeRatio=\fIpercent\fR
-.br
+.sp
+The
+\fB\-XX:MaxHeapSize\fR
+option is equivalent to
+\fB\-Xmx\fR\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:MaxHeapFreeRatio=\fIpercent\fR
+.RS 4
 Sets the maximum allowed percentage of free heap space (0 to 100) after a GC event\&. If free heap space expands above this value, then the heap will be shrunk\&. By default, this value is set to 70%\&.
-
+.sp
 The following example shows how to set the maximum free heap ratio to 75%:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:MaxHeapFreeRatio=75\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:MaxMetaspaceSize=\fIsize\fR
-.br
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:MaxHeapFreeRatio=75\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:MaxMetaspaceSize=\fIsize\fR
+.RS 4
 Sets the maximum amount of native memory that can be allocated for class metadata\&. By default, the size is not limited\&. The amount of metadata for an application depends on the application itself, other running applications, and the amount of memory available on the system\&.
-
+.sp
 The following example shows how to set the maximum class metadata size to 256 MB:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:MaxMetaspaceSize=256m\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:MaxNewSize=\fIsize\fR
-.br
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:MaxMetaspaceSize=256m\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:MaxNewSize=\fIsize\fR
+.RS 4
 Sets the maximum size (in bytes) of the heap for the young generation (nursery)\&. The default value is set ergonomically\&.
-.TP
--XX:MaxTenuringThreshold=\fIthreshold\fR
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:MaxTenuringThreshold=\fIthreshold\fR
+.RS 4
 Sets the maximum tenuring threshold for use in adaptive GC sizing\&. The largest value is 15\&. The default value is 15 for the parallel (throughput) collector, and 6 for the CMS collector\&.
-
+.sp
 The following example shows how to set the maximum tenuring threshold to 10:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:MaxTenuringThreshold=10\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:MetaspaceSize=\fIsize\fR
-.br
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:MaxTenuringThreshold=10\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:MetaspaceSize=\fIsize\fR
+.RS 4
 Sets the size of the allocated class metadata space that will trigger a garbage collection the first time it is exceeded\&. This threshold for a garbage collection is increased or decreased depending on the amount of metadata used\&. The default size depends on the platform\&.
-.TP
--XX:MinHeapFreeRatio=\fIpercent\fR
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:MinHeapFreeRatio=\fIpercent\fR
+.RS 4
 Sets the minimum allowed percentage of free heap space (0 to 100) after a GC event\&. If free heap space falls below this value, then the heap will be expanded\&. By default, this value is set to 40%\&.
-
+.sp
 The following example shows how to set the minimum free heap ratio to 25%:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:MinHeapFreeRatio=25\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:NewRatio=\fIratio\fR
-.br
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:MinHeapFreeRatio=25\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:NewRatio=\fIratio\fR
+.RS 4
 Sets the ratio between young and old generation sizes\&. By default, this option is set to 2\&. The following example shows how to set the young/old ratio to 1:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:NewRatio=1\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:NewSize=\fIsize\fR
-.br
-Sets the initial size (in bytes) of the heap for the young generation (nursery)\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&.
-
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:NewRatio=1\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:NewSize=\fIsize\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the initial size (in bytes) of the heap for the young generation (nursery)\&. Append the letter
+\fBk\fR
+or
+\fBK\fR
+to indicate kilobytes,
+\fBm\fR
+or
+\fBM\fR
+to indicate megabytes,
+\fBg\fR
+or
+\fBG\fR
+to indicate gigabytes\&.
+.sp
 The young generation region of the heap is used for new objects\&. GC is performed in this region more often than in other regions\&. If the size for the young generation is too low, then a large number of minor GCs will be performed\&. If the size is too high, then only full GCs will be performed, which can take a long time to complete\&. Oracle recommends that you keep the size for the young generation between a half and a quarter of the overall heap size\&.
-
+.sp
 The following examples show how to set the initial size of young generation to 256 MB using various units:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:NewSize=256m\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:NewSize=262144k\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:NewSize=268435456\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-The \f3-XX:NewSize\fR option is equivalent to \f3-Xmn\fR\&.
-.TP
--XX:ParallelGCThreads=\fIthreads\fR
-.br
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:NewSize=256m\fR
+\fB\-XX:NewSize=262144k\fR
+\fB\-XX:NewSize=268435456\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+The
+\fB\-XX:NewSize\fR
+option is equivalent to
+\fB\-Xmn\fR\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:ParallelGCThreads=\fIthreads\fR
+.RS 4
 Sets the number of threads used for parallel garbage collection in the young and old generations\&. The default value depends on the number of CPUs available to the JVM\&.
-
+.sp
 For example, to set the number of threads for parallel GC to 2, specify the following option:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:ParallelGCThreads=2\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:+ParallelRefProcEnabled
-.br
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:ParallelGCThreads=2\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+ParallelRefProcEnabled
+.RS 4
 Enables parallel reference processing\&. By default, this option is disabled\&.
-.TP
--XX:+PrintAdaptiveSizePolicy
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+PrintAdaptiveSizePolicy
+.RS 4
 Enables printing of information about adaptive generation sizing\&. By default, this option is disabled\&.
-.TP
--XX:+PrintGC
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+PrintGC
+.RS 4
 Enables printing of messages at every GC\&. By default, this option is disabled\&.
-.TP
--XX:+PrintGCApplicationConcurrentTime
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+PrintGCApplicationConcurrentTime
+.RS 4
 Enables printing of how much time elapsed since the last pause (for example, a GC pause)\&. By default, this option is disabled\&.
-.TP
--XX:+PrintGCApplicationStoppedTime
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+PrintGCApplicationStoppedTime
+.RS 4
 Enables printing of how much time the pause (for example, a GC pause) lasted\&. By default, this option is disabled\&.
-.TP
--XX:+PrintGCDateStamps
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+PrintGCDateStamps
+.RS 4
 Enables printing of a date stamp at every GC\&. By default, this option is disabled\&.
-.TP
--XX:+PrintGCDetails
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+PrintGCDetails
+.RS 4
 Enables printing of detailed messages at every GC\&. By default, this option is disabled\&.
-.TP
--XX:+PrintGCTaskTimeStamps
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+PrintGCTaskTimeStamps
+.RS 4
 Enables printing of time stamps for every individual GC worker thread task\&. By default, this option is disabled\&.
-.TP
--XX:+PrintGCTimeStamps
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+PrintGCTimeStamps
+.RS 4
 Enables printing of time stamps at every GC\&. By default, this option is disabled\&.
-.TP
--XX:+PrintStringDeduplicationStatistics
-.br
-Prints detailed deduplication statistics\&. By default, this option is disabled\&. See the \f3-XX:+UseStringDeduplication\fR option\&.
-.TP
--XX:+PrintTenuringDistribution
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+PrintStringDeduplicationStatistics
+.RS 4
+Prints detailed deduplication statistics\&. By default, this option is disabled\&. See the
+\fB\-XX:+UseStringDeduplication\fR
+option\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+PrintTenuringDistribution
+.RS 4
 Enables printing of tenuring age information\&. The following is an example of the output:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3Desired survivor size 48286924 bytes, new threshold 10 (max 10)\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\- age 1: 28992024 bytes, 28992024 total\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\- age 2: 1366864 bytes, 30358888 total\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\- age 3: 1425912 bytes, 31784800 total\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\&.\&.\&.\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fBDesired survivor size 48286924 bytes, new threshold 10 (max 10)\fR
+\fB\- age 1: 28992024 bytes, 28992024 total\fR
+\fB\- age 2: 1366864 bytes, 30358888 total\fR
+\fB\- age 3: 1425912 bytes, 31784800 total\fR
+\fB\&.\&.\&.\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
 Age 1 objects are the youngest survivors (they were created after the previous scavenge, survived the latest scavenge, and moved from eden to survivor space)\&. Age 2 objects have survived two scavenges (during the second scavenge they were copied from one survivor space to the next)\&. And so on\&.
-
+.sp
 In the preceding example, 28 992 024 bytes survived one scavenge and were copied from eden to survivor space, 1 366 864 bytes are occupied by age 2 objects, etc\&. The third value in each row is the cumulative size of objects of age n or less\&.
-
+.sp
 By default, this option is disabled\&.
-.TP
--XX:+ScavengeBeforeFullGC
-.br
-Enables GC of the young generation before each full GC\&. This option is enabled by default\&. Oracle recommends that you \fIdo not\fR disable it, because scavenging the young generation before a full GC can reduce the number of objects reachable from the old generation space into the young generation space\&. To disable GC of the young generation before each full GC, specify \f3-XX:-ScavengeBeforeFullGC\fR\&.
-.TP
--XX:SoftRefLRUPolicyMSPerMB=\fItime\fR
-.br
-Sets the amount of time (in milliseconds) a softly reachable object is kept active on the heap after the last time it was referenced\&. The default value is one second of lifetime per free megabyte in the heap\&. The \f3-XX:SoftRefLRUPolicyMSPerMB\fR option accepts integer values representing milliseconds per one megabyte of the current heap size (for Java HotSpot Client VM) or the maximum possible heap size (for Java HotSpot Server VM)\&. This difference means that the Client VM tends to flush soft references rather than grow the heap, whereas the Server VM tends to grow the heap rather than flush soft references\&. In the latter case, the value of the \f3-Xmx\fR option has a significant effect on how quickly soft references are garbage collected\&.
-
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+ScavengeBeforeFullGC
+.RS 4
+Enables GC of the young generation before each full GC\&. This option is enabled by default\&. Oracle recommends that you
+\fIdo not\fR
+disable it, because scavenging the young generation before a full GC can reduce the number of objects reachable from the old generation space into the young generation space\&. To disable GC of the young generation before each full GC, specify
+\fB\-XX:\-ScavengeBeforeFullGC\fR\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:SoftRefLRUPolicyMSPerMB=\fItime\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the amount of time (in milliseconds) a softly reachable object is kept active on the heap after the last time it was referenced\&. The default value is one second of lifetime per free megabyte in the heap\&. The
+\fB\-XX:SoftRefLRUPolicyMSPerMB\fR
+option accepts integer values representing milliseconds per one megabyte of the current heap size (for Java HotSpot Client VM) or the maximum possible heap size (for Java HotSpot Server VM)\&. This difference means that the Client VM tends to flush soft references rather than grow the heap, whereas the Server VM tends to grow the heap rather than flush soft references\&. In the latter case, the value of the
+\fB\-Xmx\fR
+option has a significant effect on how quickly soft references are garbage collected\&.
+.sp
 The following example shows how to set the value to 2\&.5 seconds:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:SoftRefLRUPolicyMSPerMB=2500\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:StringDeduplicationAgeThreshold=\fIthreshold\fR
-.br
-\f3String\fR objects reaching the specified age are considered candidates for deduplication\&. An object\&'s age is a measure of how many times it has survived garbage collection\&. This is sometimes referred to as tenuring; see the \f3-XX:+PrintTenuringDistribution\fR option\&. Note that \f3String\fR objects that are promoted to an old heap region before this age has been reached are always considered candidates for deduplication\&. The default value for this option is \f33\fR\&. See the \f3-XX:+UseStringDeduplication\fR option\&.
-.TP
--XX:SurvivorRatio=\fIratio\fR
-.br
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:SoftRefLRUPolicyMSPerMB=2500\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:StringDeduplicationAgeThreshold=\fIthreshold\fR
+.RS 4
+\fBString\fR
+objects reaching the specified age are considered candidates for deduplication\&. An object\*(Aqs age is a measure of how many times it has survived garbage collection\&. This is sometimes referred to as tenuring; see the
+\fB\-XX:+PrintTenuringDistribution\fR
+option\&. Note that
+\fBString\fR
+objects that are promoted to an old heap region before this age has been reached are always considered candidates for deduplication\&. The default value for this option is
+\fB3\fR\&. See the
+\fB\-XX:+UseStringDeduplication\fR
+option\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:SurvivorRatio=\fIratio\fR
+.RS 4
 Sets the ratio between eden space size and survivor space size\&. By default, this option is set to 8\&. The following example shows how to set the eden/survivor space ratio to 4:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:SurvivorRatio=4\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:TargetSurvivorRatio=\fIpercent\fR
-.br
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:SurvivorRatio=4\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:TargetSurvivorRatio=\fIpercent\fR
+.RS 4
 Sets the desired percentage of survivor space (0 to 100) used after young garbage collection\&. By default, this option is set to 50%\&.
-
+.sp
 The following example shows how to set the target survivor space ratio to 30%:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:TargetSurvivorRatio=30\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:TLABSize=\fIsize\fR
-.br
-Sets the initial size (in bytes) of a thread-local allocation buffer (TLAB)\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. If this option is set to 0, then the JVM chooses the initial size automatically\&.
-
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:TargetSurvivorRatio=30\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:TLABSize=\fIsize\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the initial size (in bytes) of a thread\-local allocation buffer (TLAB)\&. Append the letter
+\fBk\fR
+or
+\fBK\fR
+to indicate kilobytes,
+\fBm\fR
+or
+\fBM\fR
+to indicate megabytes,
+\fBg\fR
+or
+\fBG\fR
+to indicate gigabytes\&. If this option is set to 0, then the JVM chooses the initial size automatically\&.
+.sp
 The following example shows how to set the initial TLAB size to 512 KB:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-XX:TLABSize=512k\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--XX:+UseAdaptiveSizePolicy
-.br
-Enables the use of adaptive generation sizing\&. This option is enabled by default\&. To disable adaptive generation sizing, specify \f3-XX:-UseAdaptiveSizePolicy\fR and set the size of the memory allocation pool explicitly (see the \f3-XX:SurvivorRatio\fR option)\&.
-.TP
--XX:+UseCMSInitiatingOccupancyOnly
-.br
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-XX:TLABSize=512k\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UseAdaptiveSizePolicy
+.RS 4
+Enables the use of adaptive generation sizing\&. This option is enabled by default\&. To disable adaptive generation sizing, specify
+\fB\-XX:\-UseAdaptiveSizePolicy\fR
+and set the size of the memory allocation pool explicitly (see the
+\fB\-XX:SurvivorRatio\fR
+option)\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UseCMSInitiatingOccupancyOnly
+.RS 4
 Enables the use of the occupancy value as the only criterion for initiating the CMS collector\&. By default, this option is disabled and other criteria may be used\&.
-.TP
--XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC
-.br
-Enables the use of the CMS garbage collector for the old generation\&. Oracle recommends that you use the CMS garbage collector when application latency requirements cannot be met by the throughput (\f3-XX:+UseParallelGC\fR) garbage collector\&. The G1 garbage collector (\f3-XX:+UseG1GC\fR) is another alternative\&.
-
-By default, this option is disabled and the collector is chosen automatically based on the configuration of the machine and type of the JVM\&. When this option is enabled, the \f3-XX:+UseParNewGC\fR option is automatically set and you should not disable it, because the following combination of options has been deprecated in JDK 8: \f3-XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC -XX:-UseParNewGC\fR\&.
-.TP
--XX:+UseG1GC
-.br
-Enables the use of the garbage-first (G1) garbage collector\&. It is a server-style garbage collector, targeted for multiprocessor machines with a large amount of RAM\&. It meets GC pause time goals with high probability, while maintaining good throughput\&. The G1 collector is recommended for applications requiring large heaps (sizes of around 6 GB or larger) with limited GC latency requirements (stable and predictable pause time below 0\&.5 seconds)\&.
-
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC
+.RS 4
+Enables the use of the CMS garbage collector for the old generation\&. Oracle recommends that you use the CMS garbage collector when application latency requirements cannot be met by the throughput (\fB\-XX:+UseParallelGC\fR) garbage collector\&. The G1 garbage collector (\fB\-XX:+UseG1GC\fR) is another alternative\&.
+.sp
+By default, this option is disabled and the collector is chosen automatically based on the configuration of the machine and type of the JVM\&. When this option is enabled, the
+\fB\-XX:+UseParNewGC\fR
+option is automatically set and you should not disable it, because the following combination of options has been deprecated in JDK 8:
+\fB\-XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC \-XX:\-UseParNewGC\fR\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UseG1GC
+.RS 4
+Enables the use of the garbage\-first (G1) garbage collector\&. It is a server\-style garbage collector, targeted for multiprocessor machines with a large amount of RAM\&. It meets GC pause time goals with high probability, while maintaining good throughput\&. The G1 collector is recommended for applications requiring large heaps (sizes of around 6 GB or larger) with limited GC latency requirements (stable and predictable pause time below 0\&.5 seconds)\&.
+.sp
 By default, this option is disabled and the collector is chosen automatically based on the configuration of the machine and type of the JVM\&.
-.TP
--XX:+UseGCOverheadLimit
-.br
-Enables the use of a policy that limits the proportion of time spent by the JVM on GC before an \f3OutOfMemoryError\fR exception is thrown\&. This option is enabled, by default and the parallel GC will throw an \f3OutOfMemoryError\fR if more than 98% of the total time is spent on garbage collection and less than 2% of the heap is recovered\&. When the heap is small, this feature can be used to prevent applications from running for long periods of time with little or no progress\&. To disable this option, specify \f3-XX:-UseGCOverheadLimit\fR\&.
-.TP
--XX:+UseNUMA
-.br
-Enables performance optimization of an application on a machine with nonuniform memory architecture (NUMA) by increasing the application\&'s use of lower latency memory\&. By default, this option is disabled and no optimization for NUMA is made\&. The option is only available when the parallel garbage collector is used (\f3-XX:+UseParallelGC\fR)\&.
-.TP
--XX:+UseParallelGC
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UseGCOverheadLimit
+.RS 4
+Enables the use of a policy that limits the proportion of time spent by the JVM on GC before an
+\fBOutOfMemoryError\fR
+exception is thrown\&. This option is enabled, by default and the parallel GC will throw an
+\fBOutOfMemoryError\fR
+if more than 98% of the total time is spent on garbage collection and less than 2% of the heap is recovered\&. When the heap is small, this feature can be used to prevent applications from running for long periods of time with little or no progress\&. To disable this option, specify
+\fB\-XX:\-UseGCOverheadLimit\fR\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UseNUMA
+.RS 4
+Enables performance optimization of an application on a machine with nonuniform memory architecture (NUMA) by increasing the application\*(Aqs use of lower latency memory\&. By default, this option is disabled and no optimization for NUMA is made\&. The option is only available when the parallel garbage collector is used (\fB\-XX:+UseParallelGC\fR)\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UseParallelGC
+.RS 4
 Enables the use of the parallel scavenge garbage collector (also known as the throughput collector) to improve the performance of your application by leveraging multiple processors\&.
-
-By default, this option is disabled and the collector is chosen automatically based on the configuration of the machine and type of the JVM\&. If it is enabled, then the \f3-XX:+UseParallelOldGC\fR option is automatically enabled, unless you explicitly disable it\&.
-.TP
--XX:+UseParallelOldGC
-.br
-Enables the use of the parallel garbage collector for full GCs\&. By default, this option is disabled\&. Enabling it automatically enables the \f3-XX:+UseParallelGC\fR option\&.
-.TP
--XX:+UseParNewGC
-.br
-Enables the use of parallel threads for collection in the young generation\&. By default, this option is disabled\&. It is automatically enabled when you set the \f3-XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC\fR option\&. Using the \f3-XX:+UseParNewGC\fR option without the \f3-XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC\fR option was deprecated in JDK 8\&.
-.TP
--XX:+UseSerialGC
-.br
+.sp
+By default, this option is disabled and the collector is chosen automatically based on the configuration of the machine and type of the JVM\&. If it is enabled, then the
+\fB\-XX:+UseParallelOldGC\fR
+option is automatically enabled, unless you explicitly disable it\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UseParallelOldGC
+.RS 4
+Enables the use of the parallel garbage collector for full GCs\&. By default, this option is disabled\&. Enabling it automatically enables the
+\fB\-XX:+UseParallelGC\fR
+option\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UseParNewGC
+.RS 4
+Enables the use of parallel threads for collection in the young generation\&. By default, this option is disabled\&. It is automatically enabled when you set the
+\fB\-XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC\fR
+option\&. Using the
+\fB\-XX:+UseParNewGC\fR
+option without the
+\fB\-XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC\fR
+option was deprecated in JDK 8\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UseSerialGC
+.RS 4
 Enables the use of the serial garbage collector\&. This is generally the best choice for small and simple applications that do not require any special functionality from garbage collection\&. By default, this option is disabled and the collector is chosen automatically based on the configuration of the machine and type of the JVM\&.
-.TP
--XX:+UseSHM
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UseSHM
+.RS 4
 On Linux, enables the JVM to use shared memory to setup large pages\&.
-
-For more information, see Large Pages\&.
-.TP
--XX:+UseStringDeduplication
-.br
-Enables string deduplication\&. By default, this option is disabled\&. To use this option, you must enable the garbage-first (G1) garbage collector\&. See the \f3-XX:+UseG1GC\fR option\&.
-
-\fIString deduplication\fR reduces the memory footprint of \f3String\fR objects on the Java heap by taking advantage of the fact that many \f3String\fR objects are identical\&. Instead of each \f3String\fR object pointing to its own character array, identical \f3String\fR objects can point to and share the same character array\&.
-.TP
--XX:+UseTLAB
-.br
-Enables the use of thread-local allocation blocks (TLABs) in the young generation space\&. This option is enabled by default\&. To disable the use of TLABs, specify \f3-XX:-UseTLAB\fR\&.
-.SS DEPRECATED\ AND\ REMOVED\ OPTIONS    
+.sp
+For more information, see "Large Pages"\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UseStringDeduplication
+.RS 4
+Enables string deduplication\&. By default, this option is disabled\&. To use this option, you must enable the garbage\-first (G1) garbage collector\&. See the
+\fB\-XX:+UseG1GC\fR
+option\&.
+.sp
+\fIString deduplication\fR
+reduces the memory footprint of
+\fBString\fR
+objects on the Java heap by taking advantage of the fact that many
+\fBString\fR
+objects are identical\&. Instead of each
+\fBString\fR
+object pointing to its own character array, identical
+\fBString\fR
+objects can point to and share the same character array\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UseTLAB
+.RS 4
+Enables the use of thread\-local allocation blocks (TLABs) in the young generation space\&. This option is enabled by default\&. To disable the use of TLABs, specify
+\fB\-XX:\-UseTLAB\fR\&.
+.RE
+.SS "Deprecated and Removed Options"
+.PP
 These options were included in the previous release, but have since been considered unnecessary\&.
-.TP
--Xincgc
-.br
+.PP
+\-Xincgc
+.RS 4
 Enables incremental garbage collection\&. This option was deprecated in JDK 8 with no replacement\&.
-.TP
--Xrun\fIlibname\fR
-.br
-Loads the specified debugging/profiling library\&. This option was superseded by the \f3-agentlib\fR option\&.
-.TP
--XX:CMSIncrementalDutyCycle=\fIpercent\fR
-.br
-Sets the percentage of time (0 to 100) between minor collections that the concurrent collector is allowed to run\&. This option was deprecated in JDK 8 with no replacement, following the deprecation of the \f3-XX:+CMSIncrementalMode\fR option\&.
-.TP
--XX:CMSIncrementalDutyCycleMin=\fIpercent\fR
-.br
-Sets the percentage of time (0 to 100) between minor collections that is the lower bound for the duty cycle when \f3-XX:+CMSIncrementalPacing\fR is enabled\&. This option was deprecated in JDK 8 with no replacement, following the deprecation of the \f3-XX:+CMSIncrementalMode\fR option\&.
-.TP
--XX:+CMSIncrementalMode
-.br
-Enables the incremental mode for the CMS collector\&. This option was deprecated in JDK 8 with no replacement, along with other options that start with \f3CMSIncremental\fR\&.
-.TP
--XX:CMSIncrementalOffset=\fIpercent\fR
-.br
-Sets the percentage of time (0 to 100) by which the incremental mode duty cycle is shifted to the right within the period between minor collections\&. This option was deprecated in JDK 8 with no replacement, following the deprecation of the \f3-XX:+CMSIncrementalMode\fR option\&.
-.TP
--XX:+CMSIncrementalPacing
-.br
-Enables automatic adjustment of the incremental mode duty cycle based on statistics collected while the JVM is running\&. This option was deprecated in JDK 8 with no replacement, following the deprecation of the \f3-XX:+CMSIncrementalMode\fR option\&.
-.TP
--XX:CMSIncrementalSafetyFactor=\fIpercent\fR
-.br
-Sets the percentage of time (0 to 100) used to add conservatism when computing the duty cycle\&. This option was deprecated in JDK 8 with no replacement, following the deprecation of the \f3-XX:+CMSIncrementalMode\fR option\&.
-.TP
--XX:CMSInitiatingPermOccupancyFraction=\fIpercent\fR
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xrun\fIlibname\fR
+.RS 4
+Loads the specified debugging/profiling library\&. This option was superseded by the
+\fB\-agentlib\fR
+option\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:CMSIncrementalDutyCycle=\fIpercent\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the percentage of time (0 to 100) between minor collections that the concurrent collector is allowed to run\&. This option was deprecated in JDK 8 with no replacement, following the deprecation of the
+\fB\-XX:+CMSIncrementalMode\fR
+option\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:CMSIncrementalDutyCycleMin=\fIpercent\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the percentage of time (0 to 100) between minor collections that is the lower bound for the duty cycle when
+\fB\-XX:+CMSIncrementalPacing\fR
+is enabled\&. This option was deprecated in JDK 8 with no replacement, following the deprecation of the
+\fB\-XX:+CMSIncrementalMode\fR
+option\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+CMSIncrementalMode
+.RS 4
+Enables the incremental mode for the CMS collector\&. This option was deprecated in JDK 8 with no replacement, along with other options that start with
+\fBCMSIncremental\fR\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:CMSIncrementalOffset=\fIpercent\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the percentage of time (0 to 100) by which the incremental mode duty cycle is shifted to the right within the period between minor collections\&. This option was deprecated in JDK 8 with no replacement, following the deprecation of the
+\fB\-XX:+CMSIncrementalMode\fR
+option\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+CMSIncrementalPacing
+.RS 4
+Enables automatic adjustment of the incremental mode duty cycle based on statistics collected while the JVM is running\&. This option was deprecated in JDK 8 with no replacement, following the deprecation of the
+\fB\-XX:+CMSIncrementalMode\fR
+option\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:CMSIncrementalSafetyFactor=\fIpercent\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the percentage of time (0 to 100) used to add conservatism when computing the duty cycle\&. This option was deprecated in JDK 8 with no replacement, following the deprecation of the
+\fB\-XX:+CMSIncrementalMode\fR
+option\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:CMSInitiatingPermOccupancyFraction=\fIpercent\fR
+.RS 4
 Sets the percentage of the permanent generation occupancy (0 to 100) at which to start a GC\&. This option was deprecated in JDK 8 with no replacement\&.
-.TP
--XX:MaxPermSize=\fIsize\fR
-.br
-Sets the maximum permanent generation space size (in bytes)\&. This option was deprecated in JDK 8, and superseded by the \f3-XX:MaxMetaspaceSize\fR option\&.
-.TP
--XX:PermSize=\fIsize\fR
-.br
-Sets the space (in bytes) allocated to the permanent generation that triggers a garbage collection if it is exceeded\&. This option was deprecated un JDK 8, and superseded by the \f3-XX:MetaspaceSize\fR option\&.
-.TP
--XX:+UseSplitVerifier
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:MaxPermSize=\fIsize\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the maximum permanent generation space size (in bytes)\&. This option was deprecated in JDK 8, and superseded by the
+\fB\-XX:MaxMetaspaceSize\fR
+option\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:PermSize=\fIsize\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the space (in bytes) allocated to the permanent generation that triggers a garbage collection if it is exceeded\&. This option was deprecated un JDK 8, and superseded by the
+\fB\-XX:MetaspaceSize\fR
+option\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UseSplitVerifier
+.RS 4
 Enables splitting of the verification process\&. By default, this option was enabled in the previous releases, and verification was split into two phases: type referencing (performed by the compiler) and type checking (performed by the JVM runtime)\&. This option was deprecated in JDK 8, and verification is now split by default without a way to disable it\&.
-.TP
--XX:+UseStringCache
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-XX:+UseStringCache
+.RS 4
 Enables caching of commonly allocated strings\&. This option was removed from JDK 8 with no replacement\&.
-.SH PERFORMANCE\ TUNING\ EXAMPLES    
+.RE
+.SH "PERFORMANCE TUNING EXAMPLES"
+.PP
 The following examples show how to use experimental tuning flags to either optimize throughput or to provide lower response time\&.
 .PP
-\f3Example 1 Tuning for Higher Throughput\fR
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3java \-d64 \-server \-XX:+AggressiveOpts \-XX:+UseLargePages \-Xmn10g  \-Xms26g \-Xmx26g\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-\f3Example 2 Tuning for Lower Response Time\fR
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3java \-d64 \-XX:+UseG1GC \-Xms26g Xmx26g \-XX:MaxGCPauseMillis=500 \-XX:+PrintGCTimeStamp\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-.SH LARGE\ PAGES    
-Also known as huge pages, large pages are memory pages that are significantly larger than the standard memory page size (which varies depending on the processor and operating system)\&. Large pages optimize processor Translation-Lookaside Buffers\&.
+\fBExample 1 \fRTuning for Higher Throughput
+.RS 4
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fBjava \-d64 \-server \-XX:+AggressiveOpts \-XX:+UseLargePages \-Xmn10g  \-Xms26g \-Xmx26g\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
 .PP
-A Translation-Lookaside Buffer (TLB) is a page translation cache that holds the most-recently used virtual-to-physical address translations\&. TLB is a scarce system resource\&. A TLB miss can be costly as the processor must then read from the hierarchical page table, which may require multiple memory accesses\&. By using a larger memory page size, a single TLB entry can represent a larger memory range\&. There will be less pressure on TLB, and memory-intensive applications may have better performance\&.
+\fBExample 2 \fRTuning for Lower Response Time
+.RS 4
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fBjava \-d64 \-XX:+UseG1GC \-Xms26g Xmx26g \-XX:MaxGCPauseMillis=500 \-XX:+PrintGCTimeStamp\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.SH "LARGE PAGES"
+.PP
+Also known as huge pages, large pages are memory pages that are significantly larger than the standard memory page size (which varies depending on the processor and operating system)\&. Large pages optimize processor Translation\-Lookaside Buffers\&.
+.PP
+A Translation\-Lookaside Buffer (TLB) is a page translation cache that holds the most\-recently used virtual\-to\-physical address translations\&. TLB is a scarce system resource\&. A TLB miss can be costly as the processor must then read from the hierarchical page table, which may require multiple memory accesses\&. By using a larger memory page size, a single TLB entry can represent a larger memory range\&. There will be less pressure on TLB, and memory\-intensive applications may have better performance\&.
 .PP
 However, large pages page memory can negatively affect system performance\&. For example, when a large mount of memory is pinned by an application, it may create a shortage of regular memory and cause excessive paging in other applications and slow down the entire system\&. Also, a system that has been up for a long time could produce excessive fragmentation, which could make it impossible to reserve enough large page memory\&. When this happens, either the OS or JVM reverts to using regular pages\&.
-.SS LARGE\ PAGES\ SUPPORT    
+.SS "Large Pages Support"
+.PP
 Solaris and Linux support large pages\&.
+.sp
+.it 1 an-trap
+.nr an-no-space-flag 1
+.nr an-break-flag 1
+.br
+.ps +1
+\fBSolaris\fR
+.RS 4
 .PP
-Solaris 9 and later include Multiple Page Size Support (MPSS); no additional configuration is necessary\&. See http://www\&.oracle\&.com/technetwork/server-storage/solaris10/overview/solaris9-features-scalability-135663\&.html\&.
+Solaris 9 and later include Multiple Page Size Support (MPSS); no additional configuration is necessary\&. See http://www\&.oracle\&.com/technetwork/server\-storage/solaris10/overview/solaris9\-features\-scalability\-135663\&.html\&.
+.RE
+.sp
+.it 1 an-trap
+.nr an-no-space-flag 1
+.nr an-break-flag 1
+.br
+.ps +1
+\fBLinux\fR
+.RS 4
 .PP
-The 2\&.6 kernel supports large pages\&. Some vendors have backported the code to their 2\&.4-based releases\&. To check if your system can support large page memory, try the following:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3# cat /proc/meminfo | grep Huge\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3HugePages_Total: 0\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3HugePages_Free: 0\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3Hugepagesize: 2048 kB\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-If the output shows the three "Huge" variables, then your system can support large page memory but it needs to be configured\&. If the command prints nothing, then your system does not support large pages\&. To configure the system to use large page memory, login as \f3root\fR, and then follow these steps:
-.TP 0.4i    
-1\&.
-If you are using the option \f3-XX:+UseSHM\fR (instead of \f3-XX:+UseHugeTLBFS\fR), then increase the \f3SHMMAX\fR value\&. It must be larger than the Java heap size\&. On a system with 4 GB of physical RAM (or less), the following will make all the memory sharable:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3# echo 4294967295 > /proc/sys/kernel/shmmax\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP 0.4i    
-2\&.
-If you are using the option \f3-XX:+UseSHM\fR or \f3-XX:+UseHugeTLBFS\fR, then specify the number of large pages\&. In the following example, 3 GB of a 4 GB system are reserved for large pages (assuming a large page size of 2048kB, then 3 GB = 3 * 1024 MB = 3072 MB = 3072 * 1024 kB = 3145728 kB and 3145728 kB / 2048 kB = 1536):
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3# echo 1536 > /proc/sys/vm/nr_hugepages\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
+The 2\&.6 kernel supports large pages\&. Some vendors have backported the code to their 2\&.4\-based releases\&. To check if your system can support large page memory, try the following:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB# cat /proc/meminfo | grep Huge\fR
+\fBHugePages_Total: 0\fR
+\fBHugePages_Free: 0\fR
+\fBHugepagesize: 2048 kB\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
 .PP
-Note
+If the output shows the three "Huge" variables, then your system can support large page memory but it needs to be configured\&. If the command prints nothing, then your system does not support large pages\&. To configure the system to use large page memory, login as
+\fBroot\fR, and then follow these steps:
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04' 1.\h'+01'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP "  1." 4.2
+.\}
+If you are using the option
+\fB\-XX:+UseSHM\fR
+(instead of
+\fB\-XX:+UseHugeTLBFS\fR), then increase the
+\fBSHMMAX\fR
+value\&. It must be larger than the Java heap size\&. On a system with 4 GB of physical RAM (or less), the following will make all the memory sharable:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB# echo 4294967295 > /proc/sys/kernel/shmmax\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04' 2.\h'+01'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP "  2." 4.2
+.\}
+If you are using the option
+\fB\-XX:+UseSHM\fR
+or
+\fB\-XX:+UseHugeTLBFS\fR, then specify the number of large pages\&. In the following example, 3 GB of a 4 GB system are reserved for large pages (assuming a large page size of 2048kB, then 3 GB = 3 * 1024 MB = 3072 MB = 3072 * 1024 kB = 3145728 kB and 3145728 kB / 2048 kB = 1536):
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB# echo 1536 > /proc/sys/vm/nr_hugepages\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.if n \{\
+.sp
+.\}
+.RS 4
+.it 1 an-trap
+.nr an-no-space-flag 1
+.nr an-break-flag 1
+.br
+.ps +1
+\fBNote\fR
+.ps -1
+.br
+.TS
+allbox tab(:);
+l.
+T{
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+Note that the values contained in
+\fB/proc\fR
+will reset after you reboot your system, so may want to set them in an initialization script (for example,
+\fBrc\&.local\fR
+or
+\fBsysctl\&.conf\fR)\&.
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+If you configure (or resize) the OS kernel parameters
+\fB/proc/sys/kernel/shmmax\fR
+or
+\fB/proc/sys/vm/nr_hugepages\fR, Java processes may allocate large pages for areas in addition to the Java heap\&. These steps can allocate large pages for the following areas:
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+Java heap
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+Code cache
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+The marking bitmap data structure for the parallel GC
+.RE
+.sp
+Consequently, if you configure the
+\fBnr_hugepages\fR
+parameter to the size of the Java heap, then the JVM can fail in allocating the code cache areas on large pages because these areas are quite large in size\&.
+.RE
+T}
+.TE
+.sp 1
+.sp .5v
+.RE
+.RE
+.SH "EXIT STATUS"
 .PP
-Note that the values contained in \f3/proc\fR will reset after you reboot your system, so may want to set them in an initialization script (for example, \f3rc\&.local\fR or \f3sysctl\&.conf\fR)\&.
-.PP
-If you configure (or resize) the OS kernel parameters \f3/proc/sys/kernel/shmmax\fR or \f3/proc/sys/vm/nr_hugepages\fR, Java processes may allocate large pages for areas in addition to the Java heap\&. These steps can allocate large pages for the following areas:
-.PP
-Java heap
-.PP
-Permanent generation
-.PP
-Code cache
-.PP
-The marking bitmap data structure for the parallel GC
-.PP
-Consequently, if you configure the \f3nr_hugepages\fR parameter to the size of the Java heap, then the JVM can fail in allocating the permanent generation and code cache areas on large pages because these areas are quite large in size\&.
-.SH EXIT\ STATUS    
-The following exit values are typically returned by the launcher when the launcher is called with the wrong arguments, serious errors, or exceptions thrown by the JVM\&. However, a Java application may choose to return any value by using the API call \f3System\&.exit(exitValue)\fR\&. The values are:
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-\f30\fR: Successful completion
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-\f3>0\fR: An error occurred
-.SH SEE\ ALSO    
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
+The following exit values are typically returned by the launcher when the launcher is called with the wrong arguments, serious errors, or exceptions thrown by the JVM\&. However, a Java application may choose to return any value by using the API call
+\fBSystem\&.exit(exitValue)\fR\&. The values are:
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+\fB0\fR: Successful completion
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+\fB>0\fR: An error occurred
+.RE
+.SH "SEE ALSO"
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
 javac(1)
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
 jdb(1)
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
 javah(1)
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
 jar(1)
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
 jstat(1)
-.RE
-.br
-'pl 8.5i
-'bp
+.RE
+.br
+'pl 8.5i
+'bp
--- a/src/bsd/doc/man/jcmd.1	Wed Feb 11 12:18:51 2015 -0800
+++ b/src/bsd/doc/man/jcmd.1	Wed Feb 11 18:55:05 2015 -0800
@@ -1,114 +1,211 @@
 '\" t
-.\"  Copyright (c) 2012, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
-.\"
-.\" DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
-.\"
-.\" This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
-.\" under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
-.\" published by the Free Software Foundation.
-.\"
-.\" This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
-.\" ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
-.\" FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License
-.\" version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
-.\" accompanied this code).
-.\"
-.\" You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
-.\" 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
-.\" Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
-.\"
-.\" Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
-.\" or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
-.\" questions.
-.\"
-.\"     Arch: generic
-.\"     Software: JDK 8
-.\"     Date: 21 November 2013
-.\"     SectDesc: Troubleshooting Tools
-.\"     Title: jcmd.1
+.\" Copyright (c) 2012, 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+.\"
+.\" DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+.\"
+.\" This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+.\" under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+.\" published by the Free Software Foundation.
+.\"
+.\" This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+.\" ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+.\" FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License
+.\" version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+.\" accompanied this code).
+.\"
+.\" You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+.\" 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+.\" Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+.\"
+.\" Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
+.\" or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
+.\" questions.
+.\"
+.\" Title: jcmd
+.\" Language: English
+.\" Date: 03 March 2015
+.\" SectDesc: Troubleshooting Tools
+.\" Software: JDK 8
+.\" Arch: generic
+.\" Part Number: E38207-04
+.\" Doc ID: JSSON
 .\"
 .if n .pl 99999
-.TH jcmd 1 "21 November 2013" "JDK 8" "Troubleshooting Tools"
-.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
-.\" * Define some portability stuff
-.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
-.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-.\" http://bugs.debian.org/507673
-.\" http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/groff/2009-02/msg00013.html
-.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-.ie \n(.g .ds Aq \(aq
-.el       .ds Aq '
-.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
-.\" * set default formatting
-.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
-.\" disable hyphenation
-.nh
-.\" disable justification (adjust text to left margin only)
-.ad l
-.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
-.\" * MAIN CONTENT STARTS HERE *
-.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
-
-.SH NAME    
+.TH "jcmd" "1" "03 March 2015" "JDK 8" "Troubleshooting Tools"
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * Define some portability stuff
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+.\" http://bugs.debian.org/507673
+.\" http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/groff/2009-02/msg00013.html
+.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+.ie \n(.g .ds Aq \(aq
+.el       .ds Aq '
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * set default formatting
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" disable hyphenation
+.nh
+.\" disable justification (adjust text to left margin only)
+.ad l
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * MAIN CONTENT STARTS HERE *
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.SH "NAME"
 jcmd \- Sends diagnostic command requests to a running Java Virtual Machine (JVM)\&.
-.SH SYNOPSIS    
-.sp     
-.nf     
-
+.SH "SYNOPSIS"
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
 \fBjcmd\fR [\fB\-l\fR|\fB\-h\fR|\fB\-help\fR]
-.fi     
-.nf     
-
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
 \fBjcmd\fR \fIpid\fR|\fImain\-class\fR \fBPerfCounter\&.print\fR
-.fi     
-.nf     
-
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
 \fBjcmd\fR \fIpid\fR|\fImain\-class\fR \fB\-f\fR \fIfilename\fR
-.fi     
-.nf     
-
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
 \fBjcmd\fR \fIpid\fR|\fImain\-class\fR \fIcommand\fR[ \fIarguments\fR]
-.fi     
-.sp     
-.SH DESCRIPTION    
-The \f3jcmd\fR utility is used to send diagnostic command requests to the JVM\&. It must be used on the same machine on which the JVM is running, and have the same effective user and group identifiers that were used to launch the JVM\&.
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.SH "DESCRIPTION"
 .PP
-\fINote:\fR To invoke diagnostic commands from a remote machine or with different identiers, you can use the \f3com\&.sun\&.management\&.DiagnosticCommandMBean\fR interface\&. For more information about the \f3DiagnosticCommandMBean\fR interface, see the API documentation at http://download\&.java\&.net/jdk8/docs/jre/api/management/extension/com/sun/management/DiagnosticCommandMBean\&.html
+The
+\fBjcmd\fR
+utility is used to send diagnostic command requests to the JVM\&. It must be used on the same machine on which the JVM is running, and have the same effective user and group identifiers that were used to launch the JVM\&.
+.if n \{\
+.sp
+.\}
+.RS 4
+.it 1 an-trap
+.nr an-no-space-flag 1
+.nr an-break-flag 1
+.br
+.ps +1
+\fBNote\fR
+.ps -1
+.br
+.TS
+allbox tab(:);
+l.
+T{
 .PP
-If you run \f3jcmd\fR without arguments or with the \f3-l\fR option, it prints the list of running Java process identifiers with the main class and command-line arguments that were used to launch the process\&. Running \f3jcmd\fR with the \f3-h\fR or \f3-help\fR option prints the tool\(cqs help message\&.
+To invoke diagnostic commands from a remote machine or with different identifiers, you can use the
+\fBcom\&.sun\&.management\&.DiagnosticCommandMBean\fR
+interface\&. For more information about the
+\fBDiagnosticCommandMBean\fR
+interface, see the API documentation at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/jre/api/management/extension/com/sun/management/DiagnosticCommandMBean\&.html
+T}
+.TE
+.sp 1
+.sp .5v
+.RE
 .PP
-If you specify the processes identifier (\fIpid\fR) or the main class (\fImain-class\fR) as the first argument, \f3jcmd\fR sends the diagnostic command request to the Java process with the specified identifier or to all Java processes with the specified name of the main class\&. You can also send the diagnostic command request to all available Java processes by specifying \f30\fR as the process identifier\&. Use one of the following as the diagnostic command request:
-.TP     
+If you run
+\fBjcmd\fR
+without arguments or with the
+\fB\-l\fR
+option, it prints the list of running Java process identifiers with the main class and command\-line arguments that were used to launch the process\&. Running
+\fBjcmd\fR
+with the
+\fB\-h\fR
+or
+\fB\-help\fR
+option prints the tool\(cqs help message\&.
+.PP
+If you specify the processes identifier (\fIpid\fR) or the main class (\fImain\-class\fR) as the first argument,
+\fBjcmd\fR
+sends the diagnostic command request to the Java process with the specified identifier or to all Java processes with the specified name of the main class\&. You can also send the diagnostic command request to all available Java processes by specifying
+\fB0\fR
+as the process identifier\&. Use one of the following as the diagnostic command request:
+.PP
 Perfcounter\&.print
+.RS 4
 Prints the performance counters available for the specified Java process\&. The list of performance counters might vary with the Java process\&.
-.TP
--f \fIfilename\fR
+.RE
+.PP
+\-f \fIfilename\fR
+.RS 4
+The name of the file from which to read diagnostic commands and send them to the specified Java process\&. Used only with the
+\fB\-f\fR
+option\&. Each command in the file must be written on a single line\&. Lines starting with a number sign (\fB#\fR) are ignored\&. Processing of the file ends when all lines have been read or when a line containing the
+\fBstop\fR
+keyword is read\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\fIcommand\fR [\fIarguments\fR]
+.RS 4
+The command to be sent to the specified Java process\&. The list of available diagnostic commands for a given process can be obtained by sending the
+\fBhelp\fR
+command to this process\&. Each diagnostic command has its own set of arguments\&. To see the description, syntax, and a list of available arguments for a command, use the name of the command as the argument for the
+\fBhelp\fR
+command\&.
+.sp
+\fBNote:\fR
+If any arguments contain spaces, you must surround them with single or double quotation marks (\fB\*(Aq\fR
+or
+\fB"\fR)\&. In addition, you must escape single or double quotation marks with a backslash (\fB\e\fR) to prevent the operating system shell from processing quotation marks\&. Alternatively, you can surround these arguments with single quotation marks and then with double quotation marks (or with double quotation marks and then with single quotation marks)\&.
+.RE
+.SH "OPTIONS"
+.PP
+Options are mutually exclusive\&.
+.PP
+\-f \fIfilename\fR
+.RS 4
+Reads commands from the specified file\&. This option can be used only if you specify the process identifier or the main class as the first argument\&. Each command in the file must be written on a single line\&. Lines starting with a number sign (\fB#\fR) are ignored\&. Processing of the file ends when all lines have been read or when a line containing the
+\fBstop\fR
+keyword is read\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-h
 .br
-The name of the file from which to read diagnostic commands and send them to the specified Java process\&. Used only with the \f3-f\fR option\&. Each command in the file must be written on a single line\&. Lines starting with a number sign (\f3#\fR) are ignored\&. Processing of the file ends when all lines have been read or when a line containing the \f3stop\fR keyword is read\&.
-.TP     
-\fIcommand\fR [\fIarguments\fR]
-The command to be sent to the specified Java process\&. The list of available diagnostic commands for a given process can be obtained by sending the \f3help\fR command to this process\&. Each diagnostic command has its own set of arguments\&. To see the description, syntax, and a list of available arguments for a command, use the name of the command as the argument for the \f3help\fR command\&.
-
-\fINote:\fR If any arguments contain spaces, you must surround them with single or double quotation marks (\f3\&'\fR or \f3"\fR)\&. In addition, you must escape single or double quotation marks with a backslash (\f3\e\fR) to prevent the operating system shell from processing quotation marks\&. Alternatively, you can surround these arguments with single quotation marks and then with double quotation marks (or with double quotation marks and then with single quotation marks)\&.
-.SH OPTIONS    
-Options are mutually exclusive\&.
-.TP
--f \fIfilename\fR
+\-help
+.RS 4
+Prints a help message\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-l
+.RS 4
+Prints the list of running Java processes identifiers with the main class and command\-line arguments\&.
+.RE
+.SH "SEE ALSO"
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+jps(1)
+.RE
 .br
-Reads commands from the specified file\&. This option can be used only if you specify the process identifier or the main class as the first argument\&. Each command in the file must be written on a single line\&. Lines starting with a number sign (\f3#\fR) are ignored\&. Processing of the file ends when all lines have been read or when a line containing the \f3stop\fR keyword is read\&.
-.TP
--h, -help
-.br
-Prints a help message\&.
-.TP
--l
-.br
-Prints the list of running Java processes identifiers with the main class and command-line arguments\&.
-.SH SEE\ ALSO    
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-jps(1)
-.RE
-.br
-'pl 8.5i
-'bp
+'pl 8.5i
+'bp
--- a/src/bsd/doc/man/jjs.1	Wed Feb 11 12:18:51 2015 -0800
+++ b/src/bsd/doc/man/jjs.1	Wed Feb 11 18:55:05 2015 -0800
@@ -1,357 +1,248 @@
 '\" t
-.\"  Copyright (c) 1994, 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
-.\"
-.\" DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
-.\"
-.\" This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
-.\" under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
-.\" published by the Free Software Foundation.
-.\"
-.\" This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
-.\" ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
-.\" FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License
-.\" version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
-.\" accompanied this code).
-.\"
-.\" You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
-.\" 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
-.\" Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
-.\"
-.\" Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
-.\" or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
-.\" questions.
-.\"
-.\"     Arch: generic
-.\"     Software: JDK 8
-.\"     Date: 03 March 2015
-.\"     SectDesc: Basic Tools
-.\"     Title: jjs.1
+.\" Copyright (c) 1994, 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+.\"
+.\" DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+.\"
+.\" This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+.\" under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+.\" published by the Free Software Foundation.
+.\"
+.\" This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+.\" ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+.\" FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License
+.\" version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+.\" accompanied this code).
+.\"
+.\" You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+.\" 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+.\" Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+.\"
+.\" Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
+.\" or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
+.\" questions.
+.\"
+.\" Title: jjs
+.\" Language: English
+.\" Date: 03 March 2015
+.\" SectDesc: Basic Tools
+.\" Software: JDK 8
+.\" Arch: generic
+.\" Part Number: E38207-04
+.\" Doc ID: JSSON
 .\"
 .if n .pl 99999
-.TH jjs 1 "03 March 2015" "JDK 8" "Basic Tools"
-.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
-.\" * Define some portability stuff
-.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
-.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-.\" http://bugs.debian.org/507673
-.\" http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/groff/2009-02/msg00013.html
-.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-.ie \n(.g .ds Aq \(aq
-.el       .ds Aq '
-.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
-.\" * set default formatting
-.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
-.\" disable hyphenation
-.nh
-.\" disable justification (adjust text to left margin only)
-.ad l
-.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
-.\" * MAIN CONTENT STARTS HERE *
-.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
-
-.SH NAME    
+.TH "jjs" "1" "03 March 2015" "JDK 8" "Basic Tools"
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * Define some portability stuff
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+.\" http://bugs.debian.org/507673
+.\" http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/groff/2009-02/msg00013.html
+.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+.ie \n(.g .ds Aq \(aq
+.el       .ds Aq '
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * set default formatting
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" disable hyphenation
+.nh
+.\" disable justification (adjust text to left margin only)
+.ad l
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * MAIN CONTENT STARTS HERE *
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.SH "NAME"
 jjs \- Invokes the Nashorn engine\&.
-.SH SYNOPSIS    
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\fBjjs\fR [\fIoptions\fR] [\fIscript\-files\fR] [\-\- \fIarguments\fR]\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-.TP     
+.SH "SYNOPSIS"
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\fBjjs\fR\fR\fB [\fR\fB\fIoptions\fR\fR\fB] [\fR\fB\fIscript\-files\fR\fR\fB] [\-\- \fR\fB\fIarguments\fR\fR\fB]\fR
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.PP
 \fIoptions\fR
-One or more options of the \f3jjs\fR command, separated by spaces\&. For more information, see Options\&.
-.TP     
-\fIscript-files\fR
+.RS 4
+One or more options of the
+\fBjjs\fR
+command, separated by spaces\&. For more information, see Options\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\fIscript\-files\fR
+.RS 4
 One or more script files which you want to interpret using Nashorn, separated by spaces\&. If no files are specified, an interactive shell is started\&.
-.TP     
+.RE
+.PP
 \fIarguments\fR
-All values after the double hyphen marker (\f3--\fR) are passed through to the script or the interactive shell as arguments\&. These values can be accessed by using the \f3arguments\fR property (see )\&.
-.SH DESCRIPTION    
-The \f3jjs\fR command-line tool is used to invoke the Nashorn engine\&. You can use it to interpret one or several script files, or to run an interactive shell\&.
-.SH OPTIONS    
-The options of the \f3jjs\fR command control the conditions under which scripts are interpreted by Nashorn\&.
-.TP
--ccs=\fIsize\fR , --class-cache-size=\fIsize\fR
+.RS 4
+All values after the double hyphen marker (\fB\-\-\fR) are passed through to the script or the interactive shell as arguments\&. These values can be accessed by using the
+\fBarguments\fR
+property (see Example 3)\&.
+.RE
+.SH "DESCRIPTION"
+.PP
+The
+\fBjjs\fR
+command\-line tool is used to invoke the Nashorn engine\&. You can use it to interpret one or several script files, or to run an interactive shell\&.
+.SH "OPTIONS"
+.PP
+The options of the
+\fBjjs\fR
+command control the conditions under which scripts are interpreted by Nashorn\&.
+.PP
+\-cp \fIpath\fR
 .br
-Sets the class cache size (in bytes)\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes (KB), \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes (MB), \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes (GB)\&. By default, the class cache size is set to 50 bytes\&. The following example shows how to set it to 1024 bytes (1 KB):
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-css=100\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\-css=1k\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--co, --compile-only
+\-classpath \fIpath\fR
+.RS 4
+Specifies the path to the supporting class files To set multiple paths, the option can be repeated, or you can separate each path with a colon (:)\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-D\fIname\fR=\fIvalue\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets a system property to be passed to the script by assigning a value to a property name\&. The following example shows how to invoke Nashorn in interactive mode and assign
+\fBmyValue\fR
+to the property named
+\fBmyKey\fR:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB>> \fR\fB\fBjjs \-DmyKey=myValue\fR\fR
+\fBjjs> \fR\fB\fBjava\&.lang\&.System\&.getProperty("myKey")\fR\fR
+\fBmyValue\fR
+\fBjjs>\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+This option can be repeated to set multiple properties\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-doe
 .br
-Compiles the script without running it\&.
-.TP
--cp \fIpath\fR , -classpath \fIpath\fR
+\-\-dump\-on\-error
+.RS 4
+Provides a full stack trace when an error occurs\&. By default, only a brief error message is printed\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-fv
 .br
-Specifies the path to the supporting class files To set multiple paths, the option can be repeated, or you can separate each path with a colon (:)\&.
-.TP
--D\fIname\fR=\fIvalue\fR
+\-\-fullversion
+.RS 4
+Prints the full Nashorn version string\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-fx
+.RS 4
+Launches the script as a JavaFX application\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-h
 .br
-Sets a system property to be passed to the script by assigning a value to a property name\&. The following example shows how to invoke Nashorn in interactive mode and assign \f3myValue\fR to the property named \f3myKey\fR:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3>> \fIjjs \-DmyKey=myValue\fR\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3jjs> \fIjava\&.lang\&.System\&.getProperty("myKey")\fR\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3myValue\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3jjs>\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-This option can be repeated to set multiple properties\&.
-.TP
--d=\fIpath\fR , --dump-debug-dir=\fIpath\fR
+\-help
+.RS 4
+Prints the list of options and their descriptions\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-\-language=[es5]
+.RS 4
+Specifies the ECMAScript language version\&. The default version is ES5\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-ot
 .br
-Specifies the path to the directory where class files are dumped\&.
-.TP
---debug-lines
+\-\-optimistic\-types=[true|false]
+.RS 4
+Enables or disables optimistic type assumptions with deoptimizing recompilation\&. Running with optimistic types will yield higher final speed, but may increase warmup time\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-scripting
+.RS 4
+Enables shell scripting features\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-strict
+.RS 4
+Enables strict mode, which enforces stronger adherence to the standard (ECMAScript Edition 5\&.1), making it easier to detect common coding errors\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-t=\fIzone\fR
 .br
-Generates a line number table in the class file\&. By default, this option is enabled\&. To disable it, specify \f3--debug-lines=false\fR\&.
-.TP
---debug-locals
+\-timezone=\fIzone\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the specified time zone for script execution\&. It overrides the time zone set in the OS and used by the
+\fBDate\fR
+object\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-v
 .br
-Generates a local variable table in the class file\&.
-.TP
--doe, --dump-on-error
+\-version
+.RS 4
+Prints the Nashorn version string\&.
+.RE
+.SH "EXAMPLES"
+.PP
+\fBExample 1 \fRRunning a Script with Nashorn
+.RS 4
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fBjjs script\&.js\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\fBExample 2 \fRRunning Nashorn in Interactive Mode
+.RS 4
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB>> \fR\fB\fBjjs\fR\fR
+\fBjjs> \fR\fB\fBprintln("Hello, World!")\fR\fR
+\fBHello, World!\fR
+\fBjjs> \fR\fB\fBquit()\fR\fR
+\fB>>\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\fBExample 3 \fRPassing Arguments to Nashorn
+.RS 4
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB>> \fR\fB\fBjjs \-\- a b c\fR\fR
+\fBjjs> \fR\fB\fBarguments\&.join(", ")\fR\fR
+\fBa, b, c\fR
+\fBjjs>\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.SH "SEE ALSO"
+.PP
+\fBjrunscript\fR
 .br
-Provides a full stack trace when an error occurs\&. By default, only a brief error message is printed\&.
-.TP
---early-lvalue-error
-.br
-Reports invalid lvalue expressions as early errors (that is, when the code is parsed)\&. By default, this option is enabled\&. To disable it, specify \f3--early-lvalue-error=false\fR\&. When disabled, invalid lvalue expressions will not be reported until the code is executed\&.
-.TP
---empty-statements
-.br
-Preserves empty statements in the Java abstract syntax tree\&.
-.TP
--fv, --fullversion
-.br
-Prints the full Nashorn version string\&.
-.TP
---function-statement-error
-.br
-Prints an error message when a function declaration is used as a statement\&.
-.TP
---function-statement-warning
-.br
-Prints a warning message when a function declaration is used as a statement\&.
-.TP
--fx
-.br
-Launches the script as a JavaFX application\&.
-.TP
--h, -help
-.br
-Prints the list of options and their descriptions\&.
-.TP
--J\fIoption\fR
-.br
-Passes the specified \f3java\fR launcher option to the JVM\&. The following example shows how to invoke Nashorn in interactive mode and set the maximum memory used by the JVM to 4 GB:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3>> \fIjjs \-J\-Xmx4g\fR\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3jjs> \fIjava\&.lang\&.Runtime\&.getRuntime()\&.maxMemory()\fR\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f33817799680\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3jjs>\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-This option can be repeated to pass multiple \f3java\fR command options\&.
-.TP
---language=[es5]
-.br
-Specifies the ECMAScript language version\&. The default version is ES5\&.
-.TP
---lazy-compilation
-.br
-Enables lazy code generation strategies (that is, the entire script is not compiled at once)\&. This option is experimental\&.
-.TP
---loader-per-compile
-.br
-Creates a new class loader per compile\&. By default, this option is enabled\&. To disable it, specify \f3--loader-per-compile=false\fR\&.
-.TP
---log=\fIsubsystem\fR:\fIlevel\fR
-.br
-Performs logging at a given level for the specified subsystems\&. You can specify logging levels for multiple subsystems separating them with commas\&. For example:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-\-log=fields:finest,codegen:info\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
---optimistic-types=[true|false]
-.br
-Enables or disables optimistic type assumptions with deoptimizing recompilation\&. Running with optimistic types will yield higher final speed, but may increase warmup time\&.
-.TP
---package=\fIname\fR
-.br
-Specifies the package to which generated class files are added\&.
-.TP
---parse-only
-.br
-Parses the code without compiling\&.
-.TP
---print-ast
-.br
-Prints the abstract syntax tree\&.
-.TP
---print-code
-.br
-Prints bytecode\&.
-.TP
---print-lower-ast
-.br
-Prints the lowered abstract syntax tree\&.
-.TP
---print-lower-parse
-.br
-Prints the lowered parse tree\&.
-.TP
---print-no-newline
-.br
-Forces other \f3--print*\fR options to print the output on one line\&.
-.TP
---print-parse
-.br
-Prints the parse tree\&.
-.TP
---print-symbols
-.br
-Prints the symbol table\&.
-.TP
--pcs, --profile-callsites
-.br
-Dumps callsite profile data\&.
-.TP
--scripting
-.br
-Enables shell scripting features\&.
-.TP
---stderr=\fIfilename\fR|\fIstream\fR|\fItty\fR
-.br
-Redirects the standard error stream to the specified file, stream (for example, to \f3stdout\fR), or text terminal\&.
-.TP
---stdout=\fIfilename\fR|\fIstream\fR|\fItty\fR
-.br
-Redirects the standard output stream to the specified file, stream (for example, to \f3stderr\fR), or text terminal\&.
-.TP
--strict
-.br
-Enables strict mode, which enforces stronger adherence to the standard (ECMAScript Edition 5\&.1), making it easier to detect common coding errors\&.
-.TP
--t=\fIzone\fR , -timezone=\fIzone\fR
-.br
-Sets the specified time zone for script execution\&. It overrides the time zone set in the OS and used by the \f3Date\fR object\&.
-.TP
--tcs=\fIparameter\fR , --trace-callsites=\fIparameter\fR
-.br
-Enables callsite trace mode\&. Possible parameters are the following:
-.RS     
-.TP     
-miss
-Trace callsite misses\&.
-.TP     
-enterexit
-Trace callsite enter/exit\&.
-.TP     
-objects
-Print object properties\&.
-.RE     
-
-.TP
---verify-code
-.br
-Verifies bytecode before running\&.
-.TP
--v, -version
-.br
-Prints the Nashorn version string\&.
-.TP
--xhelp
-.br
-Prints extended help for command-line options\&.
-.SH EXAMPLES    
-\f3Example 1 Running a Script with Nashorn\fR
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3jjs script\&.js\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-\f3Example 2 Running Nashorn in Interactive Mode\fR
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3>> \fIjjs\fR\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3jjs> \fIprintln("Hello, World!")\fR\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3Hello, World!\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3jjs> \fIquit()\fR\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3>>\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-\f3Example 3 Passing Arguments to Nashorn\fR
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3>> \fIjjs \-\- a b c\fR\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3jjs> \fIarguments\&.join(", ")\fR\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3a, b, c\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3jjs>\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-.SH SEE\ ALSO    
-\f3jrunscript\fR
-.RE
-.br
-'pl 8.5i
-'bp
+'pl 8.5i
+'bp
--- a/src/bsd/doc/man/jstat.1	Wed Feb 11 12:18:51 2015 -0800
+++ b/src/bsd/doc/man/jstat.1	Wed Feb 11 18:55:05 2015 -0800
@@ -1,583 +1,778 @@
 '\" t
-.\"  Copyright (c) 2004, 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
-.\"
-.\" DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
-.\"
-.\" This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
-.\" under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
-.\" published by the Free Software Foundation.
-.\"
-.\" This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
-.\" ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
-.\" FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License
-.\" version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
-.\" accompanied this code).
-.\"
-.\" You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
-.\" 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
-.\" Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
-.\"
-.\" Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
-.\" or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
-.\" questions.
-.\"
-.\"     Arch: generic
-.\"     Software: JDK 8
-.\"     Date: 03 March 2015
-.\"     SectDesc: Monitoring Tools
-.\"     Title: jstat.1
+.\" Copyright (c) 2004, 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+.\"
+.\" DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+.\"
+.\" This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+.\" under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+.\" published by the Free Software Foundation.
+.\"
+.\" This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+.\" ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+.\" FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License
+.\" version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+.\" accompanied this code).
+.\"
+.\" You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+.\" 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+.\" Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+.\"
+.\" Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
+.\" or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
+.\" questions.
+.\"
+.\" Title: jstat
+.\" Language: English
+.\" Date: 03 March 2015
+.\" SectDesc: Monitoring Tools
+.\" Software: JDK 8
+.\" Arch: generic
+.\" Part Number: E38207-04
+.\" Doc ID: JSSON
 .\"
 .if n .pl 99999
-.TH jstat 1 "03 March 2015" "JDK 8" "Monitoring Tools"
-.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
-.\" * Define some portability stuff
-.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
-.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-.\" http://bugs.debian.org/507673
-.\" http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/groff/2009-02/msg00013.html
-.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-.ie \n(.g .ds Aq \(aq
-.el       .ds Aq '
-.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
-.\" * set default formatting
-.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
-.\" disable hyphenation
-.nh
-.\" disable justification (adjust text to left margin only)
-.ad l
-.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
-.\" * MAIN CONTENT STARTS HERE *
-.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
-
-.SH NAME    
+.TH "jstat" "1" "03 March 2015" "JDK 8" "Monitoring Tools"
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * Define some portability stuff
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+.\" http://bugs.debian.org/507673
+.\" http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/groff/2009-02/msg00013.html
+.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+.ie \n(.g .ds Aq \(aq
+.el       .ds Aq '
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * set default formatting
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" disable hyphenation
+.nh
+.\" disable justification (adjust text to left margin only)
+.ad l
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * MAIN CONTENT STARTS HERE *
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.SH "NAME"
 jstat \- Monitors Java Virtual Machine (JVM) statistics\&. This command is experimental and unsupported\&.
-.SH SYNOPSIS    
-.sp     
-.nf     
-
+.SH "SYNOPSIS"
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
 \fBjstat\fR [ \fIgeneralOption\fR | \fIoutputOptions vmid\fR [ \fIinterval\fR[s|ms] [ \fIcount \fR] ]
-.fi     
-.sp     
-.TP     
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.PP
 \fIgeneralOption\fR
-A single general command-line option \f3-help\fR or \f3-options\fR\&. See General Options\&.
-.TP     
+.RS 4
+A single general command\-line option
+\fB\-help\fR
+or
+\fB\-options\fR\&. See General Options\&.
+.RE
+.PP
 \fIoutputOptions\fR
-One or more output options that consist of a single \f3statOption\fR, plus any of the \f3-t\fR, \f3-h\fR, and \f3-J\fR options\&. See Output Options\&.
-.TP     
+.RS 4
+One or more output options that consist of a single
+\fBstatOption\fR, plus any of the
+\fB\-t\fR,
+\fB\-h\fR, and
+\fB\-J\fR
+options\&. See Output Options\&.
+.RE
+.PP
 \fIvmid\fR
+.RS 4
 Virtual machine identifier, which is a string that indicates the target JVM\&. The general syntax is the following:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3[protocol:][//]lvmid[@hostname[:port]/servername]\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-The syntax of the \f3vmid\fR string corresponds to the syntax of a URI\&. The \f3vmid\fR string can vary from a simple integer that represents a local JVM to a more complex construction that specifies a communications protocol, port number, and other implementation-specific values\&. See Virtual Machine Identifier\&.
-.TP     
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB[protocol:][//]lvmid[@hostname[:port]/servername]\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+The syntax of the
+\fBvmid\fR
+string corresponds to the syntax of a URI\&. The
+\fBvmid\fR
+string can vary from a simple integer that represents a local JVM to a more complex construction that specifies a communications protocol, port number, and other implementation\-specific values\&. See Virtual Machine Identifier\&.
+.RE
+.PP
 \fIinterval\fR [s|ms]
-Sampling interval in the specified units, seconds (s) or milliseconds (ms)\&. Default units are milliseconds\&. Must be a positive integer\&. When specified, the \f3jstat\fR command produces its output at each interval\&.
-.TP     
+.RS 4
+Sampling interval in the specified units, seconds (s) or milliseconds (ms)\&. Default units are milliseconds\&. Must be a positive integer\&. When specified, the
+\fBjstat\fR
+command produces its output at each interval\&.
+.RE
+.PP
 \fIcount\fR
-Number of samples to display\&. The default value is infinity which causes the \f3jstat\fR command to display statistics until the target JVM terminates or the \f3jstat\fR command is terminated\&. This value must be a positive integer\&.
-.SH DESCRIPTION    
-The \f3jstat\fR command displays performance statistics for an instrumented Java HotSpot VM\&. The target JVM is identified by its virtual machine identifier, or \f3vmid\fR option\&.
-.SH VIRTUAL\ MACHINE\ IDENTIFIER    
-The syntax of the \f3vmid\fR string corresponds to the syntax of a URI:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3[protocol:][//]lvmid[@hostname[:port]/servername]\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-.TP     
+.RS 4
+Number of samples to display\&. The default value is infinity which causes the
+\fBjstat\fR
+command to display statistics until the target JVM terminates or the
+\fBjstat\fR
+command is terminated\&. This value must be a positive integer\&.
+.RE
+.SH "DESCRIPTION"
+.PP
+The
+\fBjstat\fR
+command displays performance statistics for an instrumented Java HotSpot VM\&. The target JVM is identified by its virtual machine identifier, or
+\fBvmid\fR
+option\&.
+.SH "VIRTUAL MACHINE IDENTIFIER"
+.PP
+The syntax of the
+\fBvmid\fR
+string corresponds to the syntax of a URI:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB[protocol:][//]lvmid[@hostname[:port]/servername]\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.PP
 \fIprotocol\fR
-The communications protocol\&. If the \fIprotocol\fR value is omitted and a host name is not specified, then the default protocol is a platform-specific optimized local protocol\&. If the \fIprotocol\fR value is omitted and a host name is specified, then the default protocol is \f3rmi\fR\&.
-.TP     
+.RS 4
+The communications protocol\&. If the
+\fIprotocol\fR
+value is omitted and a host name is not specified, then the default protocol is a platform\-specific optimized local protocol\&. If the
+\fIprotocol\fR
+value is omitted and a host name is specified, then the default protocol is
+\fBrmi\fR\&.
+.RE
+.PP
 \fIlvmid\fR
-The local virtual machine identifier for the target JVM\&. The \f3lvmid\fR is a platform-specific value that uniquely identifies a JVM on a system\&. The \f3lvmid\fR is the only required component of a virtual machine identifier\&. The \f3lvmid\fR is typically, but not necessarily, the operating system\&'s process identifier for the target JVM process\&. You can use the \f3jps\fR command to determine the \f3lvmid\fR\&. Also, you can determine the \f3lvmid\fR on Solaris, Linux, and OS X platforms with the \f3ps\fR command, and on Windows with the Windows Task Manager\&.
-.TP     
+.RS 4
+The local virtual machine identifier for the target JVM\&. The
+\fBlvmid\fR
+is a platform\-specific value that uniquely identifies a JVM on a system\&. The
+\fBlvmid\fR
+is the only required component of a virtual machine identifier\&. The
+\fBlvmid\fR
+is typically, but not necessarily, the operating system\*(Aqs process identifier for the target JVM process\&. You can use the
+\fBjps\fR
+command to determine the
+\fBlvmid\fR\&. Also, you can determine the
+\fBlvmid\fR
+on Solaris, Linux, and OS X platforms with the
+\fBps\fR
+command, and on Windows with the Windows Task Manager\&.
+.RE
+.PP
 \fIhostname\fR
-A hostname or IP address that indicates the target host\&. If the \fIhostname\fR value is omitted, then the target host is the local host\&.
-.TP     
+.RS 4
+A hostname or IP address that indicates the target host\&. If the
+\fIhostname\fR
+value is omitted, then the target host is the local host\&.
+.RE
+.PP
 \fIport\fR
-The default port for communicating with the remote server\&. If the \fIhostname\fR value is omitted or the \fIprotocol\fR value specifies an optimized, local protocol, then the \fIport\fR value is ignored\&. Otherwise, treatment of the \f3port\fR parameter is implementation-specific\&. For the default \f3rmi\fR protocol, the port value indicates the port number for the rmiregistry on the remote host\&. If the \fIport\fR value is omitted and the \fIprotocol\fR value indicates \f3rmi\fR, then the default rmiregistry port (1099) is used\&.
-.TP     
+.RS 4
+The default port for communicating with the remote server\&. If the
+\fIhostname\fR
+value is omitted or the
+\fIprotocol\fR
+value specifies an optimized, local protocol, then the
+\fIport\fR
+value is ignored\&. Otherwise, treatment of the
+\fBport\fR
+parameter is implementation\-specific\&. For the default
+\fBrmi\fR
+protocol, the port value indicates the port number for the rmiregistry on the remote host\&. If the
+\fIport\fR
+value is omitted and the
+\fIprotocol\fR
+value indicates
+\fBrmi\fR, then the default rmiregistry port (1099) is used\&.
+.RE
+.PP
 \fIservername\fR
-The treatment of the \f3servername\fR parameter depends on implementation\&. For the optimized local protocol, this field is ignored\&. For the \f3rmi\fR protocol, it represents the name of the RMI remote object on the remote host\&.
-.SH OPTIONS    
-The \f3jstat\fR command supports two types of options, general options and output options\&. General options cause the \f3jstat\fR command to display simple usage and version information\&. Output options determine the content and format of the statistical output\&.
+.RS 4
+The treatment of the
+\fBservername\fR
+parameter depends on implementation\&. For the optimized local protocol, this field is ignored\&. For the
+\fBrmi\fR
+protocol, it represents the name of the RMI remote object on the remote host\&.
+.RE
+.SH "OPTIONS"
+.PP
+The
+\fBjstat\fR
+command supports two types of options, general options and output options\&. General options cause the
+\fBjstat\fR
+command to display simple usage and version information\&. Output options determine the content and format of the statistical output\&.
 .PP
 All options and their functionality are subject to change or removal in future releases\&.
-.SS GENERAL\ OPTIONS    
+.SS "General Options"
+.PP
 If you specify one of the general options, then you cannot specify any other option or parameter\&.
-.TP
--help
-.br
+.PP
+\-help
+.RS 4
 Displays a help message\&.
-.TP
--options
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-options
+.RS 4
 Displays a list of static options\&. See Output Options\&.
-.SS OUTPUT\ OPTIONS    
-If you do not specify a general option, then you can specify output options\&. Output options determine the content and format of the \f3jstat\fR command\&'s output, and consist of a single \f3statOption\fR, plus any of the other output options (\f3-h\fR, \f3-t\fR, and \f3-J\fR)\&. The \f3statOption\fR must come first\&.
+.RE
+.SS "Output Options"
 .PP
-Output is formatted as a table, with columns that are separated by spaces\&. A header row with titles describes the columns\&. Use the \f3-h\fR option to set the frequency at which the header is displayed\&. Column header names are consistent among the different options\&. In general, if two options provide a column with the same name, then the data source for the two columns is the same\&.
+If you do not specify a general option, then you can specify output options\&. Output options determine the content and format of the
+\fBjstat\fR
+command\*(Aqs output, and consist of a single
+\fBstatOption\fR, plus any of the other output options (\fB\-h\fR,
+\fB\-t\fR, and
+\fB\-J\fR)\&. The
+\fBstatOption\fR
+must come first\&.
 .PP
-Use the \f3-t\fR option to display a time stamp column, labeled Timestamp as the first column of output\&. The Timestamp column contains the elapsed time, in seconds, since the target JVM started\&. The resolution of the time stamp is dependent on various factors and is subject to variation due to delayed thread scheduling on heavily loaded systems\&.
+Output is formatted as a table, with columns that are separated by spaces\&. A header row with titles describes the columns\&. Use the
+\fB\-h\fR
+option to set the frequency at which the header is displayed\&. Column header names are consistent among the different options\&. In general, if two options provide a column with the same name, then the data source for the two columns is the same\&.
 .PP
-Use the interval and count parameters to determine how frequently and how many times, respectively, the \f3jstat\fR command displays its output\&.
+Use the
+\fB\-t\fR
+option to display a time stamp column, labeled Timestamp as the first column of output\&. The Timestamp column contains the elapsed time, in seconds, since the target JVM started\&. The resolution of the time stamp is dependent on various factors and is subject to variation due to delayed thread scheduling on heavily loaded systems\&.
 .PP
-\fINote:\fR Do not to write scripts to parse the \f3jstat\fR command\&'s output because the format might change in future releases\&. If you write scripts that parse \f3jstat\fR command output, then expect to modify them for future releases of this tool\&.
-.TP
--\fIstatOption\fR
-.br
-Determines the statistics information the \f3jstat\fR command displays\&. The following lists the available options\&. Use the \f3-options\fR general option to display the list of options for a particular platform installation\&. See Stat Options and Output\&.
-
-\f3class\fR: Displays statistics about the behavior of the class loader\&.
-
-\f3compiler\fR: Displays statistics about the behavior of the Java HotSpot VM Just-in-Time compiler\&.
-
-\f3gc\fR: Displays statistics about the behavior of the garbage collected heap\&.
-
-\f3gccapacity\fR: Displays statistics about the capacities of the generations and their corresponding spaces\&.
-
-\f3gccause\fR: Displays a summary about garbage collection statistics (same as \f3-gcutil\fR), with the cause of the last and current (when applicable) garbage collection events\&.
-
-\f3gcnew\fR: Displays statistics of the behavior of the new generation\&.
-
-\f3gcnewcapacity\fR: Displays statistics about the sizes of the new generations and its corresponding spaces\&.
-
-\f3gcold\fR: Displays statistics about the behavior of the old generation and metaspace statistics\&.
-
-\f3gcoldcapacity\fR: Displays statistics about the sizes of the old generation\&.
-
-\f3gcmetacapacity\fR: Displays statistics about the sizes of the metaspace\&.
-
-\f3gcutil\fR: Displays a summary about garbage collection statistics\&.
-
-\f3printcompilation\fR: Displays Java HotSpot VM compilation method statistics\&.
-.TP
--h \fIn\fR
-.br
-Displays a column header every \fIn\fR samples (output rows), where \fIn\fR is a positive integer\&. Default value is 0, which displays the column header the first row of data\&.
-.TP
--t
-.br
+Use the interval and count parameters to determine how frequently and how many times, respectively, the
+\fBjstat\fR
+command displays its output\&.
+.PP
+\fBNote:\fR
+Do not to write scripts to parse the
+\fBjstat\fR
+command\*(Aqs output because the format might change in future releases\&. If you write scripts that parse
+\fBjstat\fR
+command output, then expect to modify them for future releases of this tool\&.
+.PP
+\-\fIstatOption\fR
+.RS 4
+Determines the statistics information the
+\fBjstat\fR
+command displays\&. The following lists the available options\&. Use the
+\fB\-options\fR
+general option to display the list of options for a particular platform installation\&. See Stat Options and Output\&.
+.sp
+\fBclass\fR: Displays statistics about the behavior of the class loader\&.
+.sp
+\fBcompiler\fR: Displays statistics about the behavior of the Java HotSpot VM Just\-in\-Time compiler\&.
+.sp
+\fBgc\fR: Displays statistics about the behavior of the garbage collected heap\&.
+.sp
+\fBgccapacity\fR: Displays statistics about the capacities of the generations and their corresponding spaces\&.
+.sp
+\fBgccause\fR: Displays a summary about garbage collection statistics (same as
+\fB\-gcutil\fR), with the cause of the last and current (when applicable) garbage collection events\&.
+.sp
+\fBgcnew\fR: Displays statistics of the behavior of the new generation\&.
+.sp
+\fBgcnewcapacity\fR: Displays statistics about the sizes of the new generations and its corresponding spaces\&.
+.sp
+\fBgcold\fR: Displays statistics about the behavior of the old generation and metaspace statistics\&.
+.sp
+\fBgcoldcapacity\fR: Displays statistics about the sizes of the old generation\&.
+.sp
+\fBgcmetacapacity\fR: Displays statistics about the sizes of the metaspace\&.
+.sp
+\fBgcutil\fR: Displays a summary about garbage collection statistics\&.
+.sp
+\fBprintcompilation\fR: Displays Java HotSpot VM compilation method statistics\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-h \fIn\fR
+.RS 4
+Displays a column header every
+\fIn\fR
+samples (output rows), where
+\fIn\fR
+is a positive integer\&. Default value is 0, which displays the column header the first row of data\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-t
+.RS 4
 Displays a timestamp column as the first column of output\&. The time stamp is the time since the start time of the target JVM\&.
-.TP
--J\fIjavaOption\fR
-.br
-Passes \f3javaOption\fR to the Java application launcher\&. For example, \f3-J-Xms48m\fR sets the startup memory to 48 MB\&. For a complete list of options, see java(1)\&.
-.SS STAT\ OPTIONS\ AND\ OUTPUT    
-The following information summarizes the columns that the \f3jstat\fR command outputs for each \fIstatOption\fR\&.
-.TP
--class \fIoption\fR
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-J\fIjavaOption\fR
+.RS 4
+Passes
+\fBjavaOption\fR
+to the Java application launcher\&. For example,
+\fB\-J\-Xms48m\fR
+sets the startup memory to 48 MB\&. For a complete list of options, see
+java(1)\&.
+.RE
+.SS "Stat Options and Output"
+.PP
+The following information summarizes the columns that the
+\fBjstat\fR
+command outputs for each
+\fIstatOption\fR\&.
+.PP
+\-class \fIoption\fR
+.RS 4
 Class loader statistics\&.
-
-\f3Loaded\fR: Number of classes loaded\&.
-
-\f3Bytes\fR: Number of kBs loaded\&.
-
-\f3Unloaded\fR: Number of classes unloaded\&.
-
-\f3Bytes\fR: Number of Kbytes unloaded\&.
-
-\f3Time\fR: Time spent performing class loading and unloading operations\&.
-.TP
--compiler \fIoption\fR
-.br
-Java HotSpot VM Just-in-Time compiler statistics\&.
-
-\f3Compiled\fR: Number of compilation tasks performed\&.
-
-\f3Failed\fR: Number of compilations tasks failed\&.
-
-\f3Invalid\fR: Number of compilation tasks that were invalidated\&.
-
-\f3Time\fR: Time spent performing compilation tasks\&.
-
-\f3FailedType\fR: Compile type of the last failed compilation\&.
-
-\f3FailedMethod\fR: Class name and method of the last failed compilation\&.
-.TP
--gc \fIoption\fR
-.br
-Garbage-collected heap statistics\&.
-
-\f3S0C\fR: Current survivor space 0 capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3S1C\fR: Current survivor space 1 capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3S0U\fR: Survivor space 0 utilization (kB)\&.
-
-\f3S1U\fR: Survivor space 1 utilization (kB)\&.
-
-\f3EC\fR: Current eden space capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3EU\fR: Eden space utilization (kB)\&.
-
-\f3OC\fR: Current old space capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3OU\fR: Old space utilization (kB)\&.
-
-\f3MC\fR: Metaspace capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3MU\fR: Metacspace utilization (kB)\&.
-
-\f3CCSC\fR: Compressed class space capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3CCSU\fR: Compressed class space used (kB)\&.
-
-\f3YGC\fR: Number of young generation garbage collection events\&.
-
-\f3YGCT\fR: Young generation garbage collection time\&.
-
-\f3FGC\fR: Number of full GC events\&.
-
-\f3FGCT\fR: Full garbage collection time\&.
-
-\f3GCT\fR: Total garbage collection time\&.
-.TP
--gccapacity \fIoption\fR
-.br
+.sp
+\fBLoaded\fR: Number of classes loaded\&.
+.sp
+\fBBytes\fR: Number of kBs loaded\&.
+.sp
+\fBUnloaded\fR: Number of classes unloaded\&.
+.sp
+\fBBytes\fR: Number of Kbytes unloaded\&.
+.sp
+\fBTime\fR: Time spent performing class loading and unloading operations\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-compiler \fIoption\fR
+.RS 4
+Java HotSpot VM Just\-in\-Time compiler statistics\&.
+.sp
+\fBCompiled\fR: Number of compilation tasks performed\&.
+.sp
+\fBFailed\fR: Number of compilations tasks failed\&.
+.sp
+\fBInvalid\fR: Number of compilation tasks that were invalidated\&.
+.sp
+\fBTime\fR: Time spent performing compilation tasks\&.
+.sp
+\fBFailedType\fR: Compile type of the last failed compilation\&.
+.sp
+\fBFailedMethod\fR: Class name and method of the last failed compilation\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-gc \fIoption\fR
+.RS 4
+Garbage\-collected heap statistics\&.
+.sp
+\fBS0C\fR: Current survivor space 0 capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBS1C\fR: Current survivor space 1 capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBS0U\fR: Survivor space 0 utilization (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBS1U\fR: Survivor space 1 utilization (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBEC\fR: Current eden space capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBEU\fR: Eden space utilization (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBOC\fR: Current old space capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBOU\fR: Old space utilization (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBMC\fR: Metaspace capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBMU\fR: Metacspace utilization (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBCCSC\fR: Compressed class space capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBCCSU\fR: Compressed class space used (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBYGC\fR: Number of young generation garbage collection events\&.
+.sp
+\fBYGCT\fR: Young generation garbage collection time\&.
+.sp
+\fBFGC\fR: Number of full GC events\&.
+.sp
+\fBFGCT\fR: Full garbage collection time\&.
+.sp
+\fBGCT\fR: Total garbage collection time\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-gccapacity \fIoption\fR
+.RS 4
 Memory pool generation and space capacities\&.
-
-\f3NGCMN\fR: Minimum new generation capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3NGCMX\fR: Maximum new generation capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3NGC\fR: Current new generation capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3S0C\fR: Current survivor space 0 capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3S1C\fR: Current survivor space 1 capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3EC\fR: Current eden space capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3OGCMN\fR: Minimum old generation capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3OGCMX\fR: Maximum old generation capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3OGC\fR: Current old generation capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3OC\fR: Current old space capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3MCMN\fR: Minimum metaspace capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3MCMX\fR: Maximum metaspace capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3MC\fR: Metaspace capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3CCSMN\fR: Compressed class space minimum capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3CCSMX\fR: Compressed class space maximum capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3CCSC\fR: Compressed class space capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3YGC\fR: Number of young generation GC events\&.
-
-\f3FGC\fR: Number of full GC events\&.
-.TP
--gccause \fIoption\fR
-.br
-This option displays the same summary of garbage collection statistics as the \f3-gcutil\fR option, but includes the causes of the last garbage collection event and (when applicable) the current garbage collection event\&. In addition to the columns listed for \f3-gcutil\fR, this option adds the following columns\&.
-
-\f3LGCC\fR: Cause of last garbage collection
-
-\f3GCC\fR: Cause of current garbage collection
-.TP
--gcnew \fIoption\fR
-.br
+.sp
+\fBNGCMN\fR: Minimum new generation capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBNGCMX\fR: Maximum new generation capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBNGC\fR: Current new generation capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBS0C\fR: Current survivor space 0 capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBS1C\fR: Current survivor space 1 capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBEC\fR: Current eden space capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBOGCMN\fR: Minimum old generation capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBOGCMX\fR: Maximum old generation capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBOGC\fR: Current old generation capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBOC\fR: Current old space capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBMCMN\fR: Minimum metaspace capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBMCMX\fR: Maximum metaspace capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBMC\fR: Metaspace capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBCCSMN\fR: Compressed class space minimum capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBCCSMX\fR: Compressed class space maximum capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBCCSC\fR: Compressed class space capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBYGC\fR: Number of young generation GC events\&.
+.sp
+\fBFGC\fR: Number of full GC events\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-gccause \fIoption\fR
+.RS 4
+This option displays the same summary of garbage collection statistics as the
+\fB\-gcutil\fR
+option, but includes the causes of the last garbage collection event and (when applicable) the current garbage collection event\&. In addition to the columns listed for
+\fB\-gcutil\fR, this option adds the following columns\&.
+.sp
+\fBLGCC\fR: Cause of last garbage collection
+.sp
+\fBGCC\fR: Cause of current garbage collection
+.RE
+.PP
+\-gcnew \fIoption\fR
+.RS 4
 New generation statistics\&.
-
-\f3S0C\fR: Current survivor space 0 capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3S1C\fR: Current survivor space 1 capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3S0U\fR: Survivor space 0 utilization (kB)\&.
-
-\f3S1U\fR: Survivor space 1 utilization (kB)\&.
-
-\f3TT\fR: Tenuring threshold\&.
-
-\f3MTT\fR: Maximum tenuring threshold\&.
-
-\f3DSS\fR: Desired survivor size (kB)\&.
-
-\f3EC\fR: Current eden space capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3EU\fR: Eden space utilization (kB)\&.
-
-\f3YGC\fR: Number of young generation GC events\&.
-
-\f3YGCT\fR: Young generation garbage collection time\&.
-.TP
--gcnewcapacity \fIoption\fR
-.br
+.sp
+\fBS0C\fR: Current survivor space 0 capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBS1C\fR: Current survivor space 1 capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBS0U\fR: Survivor space 0 utilization (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBS1U\fR: Survivor space 1 utilization (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBTT\fR: Tenuring threshold\&.
+.sp
+\fBMTT\fR: Maximum tenuring threshold\&.
+.sp
+\fBDSS\fR: Desired survivor size (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBEC\fR: Current eden space capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBEU\fR: Eden space utilization (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBYGC\fR: Number of young generation GC events\&.
+.sp
+\fBYGCT\fR: Young generation garbage collection time\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-gcnewcapacity \fIoption\fR
+.RS 4
 New generation space size statistics\&.
-
-\f3NGCMN\fR: Minimum new generation capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3NGCMX\fR: Maximum new generation capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3NGC\fR: Current new generation capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3S0CMX\fR: Maximum survivor space 0 capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3S0C\fR: Current survivor space 0 capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3S1CMX\fR: Maximum survivor space 1 capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3S1C\fR: Current survivor space 1 capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3ECMX\fR: Maximum eden space capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3EC\fR: Current eden space capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3YGC\fR: Number of young generation GC events\&.
-
-\f3FGC\fR: Number of full GC events\&.
-.TP
--gcold \fIoption\fR
-.br
-Old and permanent generation statistics\&.
-
-\f3MC\fR: Metaspace capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3MU\fR: Metaspace utilization (kB)\&.
-
-\f3CCSC\fR: Compressed class space capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3CCSU\fR: Compressed class space used (kB)\&.
-
-\f3OC\fR: Current old space capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3OU\fR: Old space utilization (kB)\&.
-
-\f3YGC\fR: Number of young generation GC events\&.
-
-\f3FGC\fR: Number of full GC events\&.
-
-\f3FGCT\fR: Full garbage collection time\&.
-
-\f3GCT\fR: Total garbage collection time\&.
-.TP
--gcoldcapacity \fIoption\fR
-.br
-Old generation statistics\&.
-
-\f3OGCMN\fR: Minimum old generation capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3OGCMX\fR: Maximum old generation capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3OGC\fR: Current old generation capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3OC\fR: Current old space capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3YGC\fR: Number of young generation GC events\&.
-
-\f3FGC\fR: Number of full GC events\&.
-
-\f3FGCT\fR: Full garbage collection time\&.
-
-\f3GCT\fR: Total garbage collection time\&.
-.TP
--gcmetacapacity \fIoption\fR
-.br
-Permanent generation statistics\&.
-
-\f3MCMN\fR: Minimum metaspace capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3MCMX\fR: Maximum metaspace capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3MC\fR: Metaspace capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3CCSMN\fR: Compressed class space minimum capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3CCSMX\fR: Compressed class space maximum capacity (kB)\&.
-
-\f3YGC\fR: Number of young generation GC events\&.
-
-\f3FGC\fR: Number of full GC events\&.
-
-\f3FGCT\fR: Full garbage collection time\&.
-
-\f3GCT\fR: Total garbage collection time\&.
-.TP
--gcutil \fIoption\fR
-.br
+.sp
+\fBNGCMN\fR: Minimum new generation capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBNGCMX\fR: Maximum new generation capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBNGC\fR: Current new generation capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBS0CMX\fR: Maximum survivor space 0 capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBS0C\fR: Current survivor space 0 capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBS1CMX\fR: Maximum survivor space 1 capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBS1C\fR: Current survivor space 1 capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBECMX\fR: Maximum eden space capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBEC\fR: Current eden space capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBYGC\fR: Number of young generation GC events\&.
+.sp
+\fBFGC\fR: Number of full GC events\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-gcold \fIoption\fR
+.RS 4
+Old generation and metaspace behavior statistics\&.
+.sp
+\fBMC\fR: Metaspace capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBMU\fR: Metaspace utilization (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBCCSC\fR: Compressed class space capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBCCSU\fR: Compressed class space used (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBOC\fR: Current old space capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBOU\fR: Old space utilization (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBYGC\fR: Number of young generation GC events\&.
+.sp
+\fBFGC\fR: Number of full GC events\&.
+.sp
+\fBFGCT\fR: Full garbage collection time\&.
+.sp
+\fBGCT\fR: Total garbage collection time\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-gcoldcapacity \fIoption\fR
+.RS 4
+Old generation size statistics\&.
+.sp
+\fBOGCMN\fR: Minimum old generation capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBOGCMX\fR: Maximum old generation capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBOGC\fR: Current old generation capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBOC\fR: Current old space capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBYGC\fR: Number of young generation GC events\&.
+.sp
+\fBFGC\fR: Number of full GC events\&.
+.sp
+\fBFGCT\fR: Full garbage collection time\&.
+.sp
+\fBGCT\fR: Total garbage collection time\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-gcmetacapacity \fIoption\fR
+.RS 4
+Metaspace size statistics\&.
+.sp
+\fBMCMN\fR: Minimum metaspace capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBMCMX\fR: Maximum metaspace capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBMC\fR: Metaspace capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBCCSMN\fR: Compressed class space minimum capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBCCSMX\fR: Compressed class space maximum capacity (kB)\&.
+.sp
+\fBYGC\fR: Number of young generation GC events\&.
+.sp
+\fBFGC\fR: Number of full GC events\&.
+.sp
+\fBFGCT\fR: Full garbage collection time\&.
+.sp
+\fBGCT\fR: Total garbage collection time\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-gcutil \fIoption\fR
+.RS 4
 Summary of garbage collection statistics\&.
-
-\f3S0\fR: Survivor space 0 utilization as a percentage of the space\&'s current capacity\&.
-
-\f3S1\fR: Survivor space 1 utilization as a percentage of the space\&'s current capacity\&.
-
-\f3E\fR: Eden space utilization as a percentage of the space\&'s current capacity\&.
-
-\f3O\fR: Old space utilization as a percentage of the space\&'s current capacity\&.
-
-\f3M\fR: Metaspace utilization as a percentage of the space\&'s current capacity\&.
-
-\f3CCS\fR: Compressed class space utilization as a percentage\&.
-
-\f3YGC\fR: Number of young generation GC events\&.
-
-\f3YGCT\fR: Young generation garbage collection time\&.
-
-\f3FGC\fR: Number of full GC events\&.
-
-\f3FGCT\fR: Full garbage collection time\&.
-
-\f3GCT\fR: Total garbage collection time\&.
-.TP
--printcompilation \fIoption\fR
-.br
+.sp
+\fBS0\fR: Survivor space 0 utilization as a percentage of the space\*(Aqs current capacity\&.
+.sp
+\fBS1\fR: Survivor space 1 utilization as a percentage of the space\*(Aqs current capacity\&.
+.sp
+\fBE\fR: Eden space utilization as a percentage of the space\*(Aqs current capacity\&.
+.sp
+\fBO\fR: Old space utilization as a percentage of the space\*(Aqs current capacity\&.
+.sp
+\fBM\fR: Metaspace utilization as a percentage of the space\*(Aqs current capacity\&.
+.sp
+\fBCCS\fR: Compressed class space utilization as a percentage\&.
+.sp
+\fBYGC\fR: Number of young generation GC events\&.
+.sp
+\fBYGCT\fR: Young generation garbage collection time\&.
+.sp
+\fBFGC\fR: Number of full GC events\&.
+.sp
+\fBFGCT\fR: Full garbage collection time\&.
+.sp
+\fBGCT\fR: Total garbage collection time\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-printcompilation \fIoption\fR
+.RS 4
 Java HotSpot VM compiler method statistics\&.
-
-\f3Compiled\fR: Number of compilation tasks performed by the most recently compiled method\&.
-
-\f3Size\fR: Number of bytes of byte code of the most recently compiled method\&.
-
-\f3Type\fR: Compilation type of the most recently compiled method\&.
-
-\f3Method\fR: Class name and method name identifying the most recently compiled method\&. Class name uses slash (/) instead of dot (\&.) as a name space separator\&. Method name is the method within the specified class\&. The format for these two fields is consistent with the HotSpot \f3-XX:+PrintCompilation\fR option\&.
-.SH EXAMPLES    
-This section presents some examples of monitoring a local JVM with an \fIlvmid\fR of 21891\&.
-.SS THE\ GCUTIL\ OPTION    
-This example attaches to lvmid 21891 and takes 7 samples at 250 millisecond intervals and displays the output as specified by the -\f3gcutil\fR option\&.
+.sp
+\fBCompiled\fR: Number of compilation tasks performed by the most recently compiled method\&.
+.sp
+\fBSize\fR: Number of bytes of byte code of the most recently compiled method\&.
+.sp
+\fBType\fR: Compilation type of the most recently compiled method\&.
+.sp
+\fBMethod\fR: Class name and method name identifying the most recently compiled method\&. Class name uses slash (/) instead of dot (\&.) as a name space separator\&. Method name is the method within the specified class\&. The format for these two fields is consistent with the HotSpot
+\fB\-XX:+PrintCompilation\fR
+option\&.
+.RE
+.SH "EXAMPLES"
+.PP
+This section presents some examples of monitoring a local JVM with an
+\fIlvmid\fR
+of 21891\&.
+.SS "The gcutil Option"
+.PP
+This example attaches to lvmid 21891 and takes 7 samples at 250 millisecond intervals and displays the output as specified by the \-\fBgcutil\fR
+option\&.
 .PP
 The output of this example shows that a young generation collection occurred between the third and fourth sample\&. The collection took 0\&.078 seconds and promoted objects from the eden space (E) to the old space (O), resulting in an increase of old space utilization from 66\&.80% to 68\&.19%\&. Before the collection, the survivor space was 97\&.02% utilized, but after this collection it is 91\&.03% utilized\&.
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3jstat \-gcutil 21891 250 7\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3  S0     S1     E      O      M     CCS    YGC     YGCT    FGC    FGCT     GCT   \fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3  0\&.00  97\&.02  70\&.31  66\&.80  95\&.52  89\&.14      7    0\&.300     0    0\&.000    0\&.300\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3  0\&.00  97\&.02  86\&.23  66\&.80  95\&.52  89\&.14      7    0\&.300     0    0\&.000    0\&.300\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3  0\&.00  97\&.02  96\&.53  66\&.80  95\&.52  89\&.14      7    0\&.300     0    0\&.000    0\&.300\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3 91\&.03   0\&.00   1\&.98  68\&.19  95\&.89  91\&.24      8    0\&.378     0    0\&.000    0\&.378\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3 91\&.03   0\&.00  15\&.82  68\&.19  95\&.89  91\&.24      8    0\&.378     0    0\&.000    0\&.378\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3 91\&.03   0\&.00  17\&.80  68\&.19  95\&.89  91\&.24      8    0\&.378     0    0\&.000    0\&.378\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3 91\&.03   0\&.00  17\&.80  68\&.19  95\&.89  91\&.24      8    0\&.378     0    0\&.000    0\&.378\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-.SS REPEAT\ THE\ COLUMN\ HEADER\ STRING    
-This example attaches to lvmid 21891 and takes samples at 250 millisecond intervals and displays the output as specified by \f3-gcnew\fR option\&. In addition, it uses the \f3-h3\fR option to output the column header after every 3 lines of data\&.
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fBjstat \-gcutil 21891 250 7\fR
+\fB  S0     S1     E      O      M     CCS    YGC     YGCT    FGC    FGCT     GCT   \fR
+\fB  0\&.00  97\&.02  70\&.31  66\&.80  95\&.52  89\&.14      7    0\&.300     0    0\&.000    0\&.300\fR
+\fB  0\&.00  97\&.02  86\&.23  66\&.80  95\&.52  89\&.14      7    0\&.300     0    0\&.000    0\&.300\fR
+\fB  0\&.00  97\&.02  96\&.53  66\&.80  95\&.52  89\&.14      7    0\&.300     0    0\&.000    0\&.300\fR
+\fB 91\&.03   0\&.00   1\&.98  68\&.19  95\&.89  91\&.24      8    0\&.378     0    0\&.000    0\&.378\fR
+\fB 91\&.03   0\&.00  15\&.82  68\&.19  95\&.89  91\&.24      8    0\&.378     0    0\&.000    0\&.378\fR
+\fB 91\&.03   0\&.00  17\&.80  68\&.19  95\&.89  91\&.24      8    0\&.378     0    0\&.000    0\&.378\fR
+\fB 91\&.03   0\&.00  17\&.80  68\&.19  95\&.89  91\&.24      8    0\&.378     0    0\&.000    0\&.378\fR
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.SS "Repeat the Column Header String"
+.PP
+This example attaches to lvmid 21891 and takes samples at 250 millisecond intervals and displays the output as specified by
+\fB\-gcnew\fR
+option\&. In addition, it uses the
+\fB\-h3\fR
+option to output the column header after every 3 lines of data\&.
 .PP
 In addition to showing the repeating header string, this example shows that between the second and third samples, a young GC occurred\&. Its duration was 0\&.001 seconds\&. The collection found enough active data that the survivor space 0 utilization (S0U) would have exceeded the desired survivor Size (DSS)\&. As a result, objects were promoted to the old generation (not visible in this output), and the tenuring threshold (TT) was lowered from 31 to 2\&.
 .PP
 Another collection occurs between the fifth and sixth samples\&. This collection found very few survivors and returned the tenuring threshold to 31\&.
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3jstat \-gcnew \-h3 21891 250\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3 S0C    S1C    S0U    S1U   TT MTT  DSS      EC       EU     YGC     YGCT\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3  64\&.0   64\&.0    0\&.0   31\&.7 31  31   32\&.0    512\&.0    178\&.6    249    0\&.203\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3  64\&.0   64\&.0    0\&.0   31\&.7 31  31   32\&.0    512\&.0    355\&.5    249    0\&.203\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3  64\&.0   64\&.0   35\&.4    0\&.0  2  31   32\&.0    512\&.0     21\&.9    250    0\&.204\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3 S0C    S1C    S0U    S1U   TT MTT  DSS      EC       EU     YGC     YGCT\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3  64\&.0   64\&.0   35\&.4    0\&.0  2  31   32\&.0    512\&.0    245\&.9    250    0\&.204\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3  64\&.0   64\&.0   35\&.4    0\&.0  2  31   32\&.0    512\&.0    421\&.1    250    0\&.204\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3  64\&.0   64\&.0    0\&.0   19\&.0 31  31   32\&.0    512\&.0     84\&.4    251    0\&.204\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3 S0C    S1C    S0U    S1U   TT MTT  DSS      EC       EU     YGC     YGCT\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3  64\&.0   64\&.0    0\&.0   19\&.0 31  31   32\&.0    512\&.0    306\&.7    251    0\&.204\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-.SS INCLUDE\ A\ TIME\ STAMP\ FOR\ EACH\ SAMPLE    
-This example attaches to lvmid 21891 and takes 3 samples at 250 millisecond intervals\&. The \f3-t\fR option is used to generate a time stamp for each sample in the first column\&.
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fBjstat \-gcnew \-h3 21891 250\fR
+\fB S0C    S1C    S0U    S1U   TT MTT  DSS      EC       EU     YGC     YGCT\fR
+\fB  64\&.0   64\&.0    0\&.0   31\&.7 31  31   32\&.0    512\&.0    178\&.6    249    0\&.203\fR
+\fB  64\&.0   64\&.0    0\&.0   31\&.7 31  31   32\&.0    512\&.0    355\&.5    249    0\&.203\fR
+\fB  64\&.0   64\&.0   35\&.4    0\&.0  2  31   32\&.0    512\&.0     21\&.9    250    0\&.204\fR
+\fB S0C    S1C    S0U    S1U   TT MTT  DSS      EC       EU     YGC     YGCT\fR
+\fB  64\&.0   64\&.0   35\&.4    0\&.0  2  31   32\&.0    512\&.0    245\&.9    250    0\&.204\fR
+\fB  64\&.0   64\&.0   35\&.4    0\&.0  2  31   32\&.0    512\&.0    421\&.1    250    0\&.204\fR
+\fB  64\&.0   64\&.0    0\&.0   19\&.0 31  31   32\&.0    512\&.0     84\&.4    251    0\&.204\fR
+\fB S0C    S1C    S0U    S1U   TT MTT  DSS      EC       EU     YGC     YGCT\fR
+\fB  64\&.0   64\&.0    0\&.0   19\&.0 31  31   32\&.0    512\&.0    306\&.7    251    0\&.204\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.SS "Include a Time Stamp for Each Sample"
 .PP
-The Timestamp column reports the elapsed time in seconds since the start of the target JVM\&. In addition, the \f3-gcoldcapacity\fR output shows the old generation capacity (OGC) and the old space capacity (OC) increasing as the heap expands to meet allocation or promotion demands\&. The old generation capacity (OGC) has grown from 11,696 kB to 13,820 kB after the eighty-first full garbage collection (FGC)\&. The maximum capacity of the generation (and space) is 60,544 kB (OGCMX), so it still has room to expand\&.
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3Timestamp      OGCMN    OGCMX     OGC       OC       YGC   FGC    FGCT    GCT\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3          150\&.1   1408\&.0  60544\&.0  11696\&.0  11696\&.0   194    80    2\&.874   3\&.799\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3          150\&.4   1408\&.0  60544\&.0  13820\&.0  13820\&.0   194    81    2\&.938   3\&.863\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3          150\&.7   1408\&.0  60544\&.0  13820\&.0  13820\&.0   194    81    2\&.938   3\&.863\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-.SS MONITOR\ INSTRUMENTATION\ FOR\ A\ REMOTE\ JVM    
-This example attaches to lvmid 40496 on the system named remote\&.domain using the \f3-gcutil\fR option, with samples taken every second indefinitely\&.
+This example attaches to lvmid 21891 and takes 3 samples at 250 millisecond intervals\&. The
+\fB\-t\fR
+option is used to generate a time stamp for each sample in the first column\&.
 .PP
-The lvmid is combined with the name of the remote host to construct a \fIvmid\fR of \f340496@remote\&.domain\fR\&. This vmid results in the use of the \f3rmi\fR protocol to communicate to the default \f3jstatd\fR server on the remote host\&. The \f3jstatd\fR server is located using the \f3rmiregistry\fR command on \f3remote\&.domain\fR that is bound to the default port of the \f3rmiregistry\fR command (port 1099)\&.
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3jstat \-gcutil 40496@remote\&.domain 1000\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fI\&.\&.\&. output omitted\fR\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-.SH SEE\ ALSO    
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
+The Timestamp column reports the elapsed time in seconds since the start of the target JVM\&. In addition, the
+\fB\-gcoldcapacity\fR
+output shows the old generation capacity (OGC) and the old space capacity (OC) increasing as the heap expands to meet allocation or promotion demands\&. The old generation capacity (OGC) has grown from 11,696 kB to 13,820 kB after the eighty\-first full garbage collection (FGC)\&. The maximum capacity of the generation (and space) is 60,544 kB (OGCMX), so it still has room to expand\&.
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fBTimestamp      OGCMN    OGCMX     OGC       OC       YGC   FGC    FGCT    GCT\fR
+\fB          150\&.1   1408\&.0  60544\&.0  11696\&.0  11696\&.0   194    80    2\&.874   3\&.799\fR
+\fB          150\&.4   1408\&.0  60544\&.0  13820\&.0  13820\&.0   194    81    2\&.938   3\&.863\fR
+\fB          150\&.7   1408\&.0  60544\&.0  13820\&.0  13820\&.0   194    81    2\&.938   3\&.863\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.SS "Monitor Instrumentation for a Remote JVM"
+.PP
+This example attaches to lvmid 40496 on the system named remote\&.domain using the
+\fB\-gcutil\fR
+option, with samples taken every second indefinitely\&.
+.PP
+The lvmid is combined with the name of the remote host to construct a
+\fIvmid\fR
+of
+\fB40496@remote\&.domain\fR\&. This vmid results in the use of the
+\fBrmi\fR
+protocol to communicate to the default
+\fBjstatd\fR
+server on the remote host\&. The
+\fBjstatd\fR
+server is located using the
+\fBrmiregistry\fR
+command on
+\fBremote\&.domain\fR
+that is bound to the default port of the
+\fBrmiregistry\fR
+command (port 1099)\&.
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fBjstat \-gcutil 40496@remote\&.domain 1000\fR
+\fB\fI\&.\&.\&. output omitted\fR\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.SH "SEE ALSO"
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
 java(1)
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
 jps(1)
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
 jstatd(1)
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
 rmiregistry(1)
-.RE
-.br
-'pl 8.5i
-'bp
+.RE
+.br
+'pl 8.5i
+'bp
--- a/src/linux/doc/man/java.1	Wed Feb 11 12:18:51 2015 -0800
+++ b/src/linux/doc/man/java.1	Wed Feb 11 18:55:05 2015 -0800
@@ -1,2198 +1,3802 @@
 '\" t
-.\"  Copyright (c) 1994, 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
-.\"
-.\" DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
-.\"
-.\" This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
-.\" under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
-.\" published by the Free Software Foundation.
-.\"
-.\" This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
-.\" ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
-.\" FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License
-.\" version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
-.\" accompanied this code).
-.\"
-.\" You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
-.\" 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
-.\" Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
-.\"
-.\" Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
-.\" or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
-.\" questions.
-.\"
-.\"     Arch: generic
-.\"     Software: JDK 8
-.\"     Date: 03 March 2015
-.\"     SectDesc: Basic Tools
-.\"     Title: java.1
+.\" Copyright (c) 1994, 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+.\"
+.\" DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+.\"
+.\" This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+.\" under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+.\" published by the Free Software Foundation.
+.\"
+.\" This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+.\" ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+.\" FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License
+.\" version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+.\" accompanied this code).
+.\"
+.\" You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+.\" 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+.\" Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+.\"
+.\" Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
+.\" or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
+.\" questions.
+.\"
+.\" Title: java
+.\" Language: English
+.\" Date: 03 March 2015
+.\" SectDesc: Basic Tools
+.\" Software: JDK 8
+.\" Arch: generic
+.\" Part Number: E38207-04
+.\" Doc ID: JSSON
 .\"
 .if n .pl 99999
-.TH java 1 "03 March 2015" "JDK 8" "Basic Tools"
-.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
-.\" * Define some portability stuff
-.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
-.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-.\" http://bugs.debian.org/507673
-.\" http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/groff/2009-02/msg00013.html
-.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-.ie \n(.g .ds Aq \(aq
-.el       .ds Aq '
-.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
-.\" * set default formatting
-.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
-.\" disable hyphenation
-.nh
-.\" disable justification (adjust text to left margin only)
-.ad l
-.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
-.\" * MAIN CONTENT STARTS HERE *
-.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
-
-.SH NAME    
+.TH "java" "1" "03 March 2015" "JDK 8" "Basic Tools"
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * Define some portability stuff
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+.\" http://bugs.debian.org/507673
+.\" http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/groff/2009-02/msg00013.html
+.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+.ie \n(.g .ds Aq \(aq
+.el       .ds Aq '
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * set default formatting
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" disable hyphenation
+.nh
+.\" disable justification (adjust text to left margin only)
+.ad l
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.\" * MAIN CONTENT STARTS HERE *
+.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
+.SH "NAME"
 java \- Launches a Java application\&.
-.SH SYNOPSIS    
-.sp     
-.nf     
-
+.SH "SYNOPSIS"
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
 \fBjava\fR [\fIoptions\fR] \fIclassname\fR [\fIargs\fR]
-.fi     
-.nf     
-
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
 \fBjava\fR [\fIoptions\fR] \fB\-jar\fR \fIfilename\fR [\fIargs\fR]
-.fi     
-.sp     
-.TP     
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.PP
 \fIoptions\fR
-Command-line options separated by spaces\&. See Options\&.
-.TP     
+.RS 4
+Command\-line options separated by spaces\&. See Options\&.
+.RE
+.PP
 \fIclassname\fR
+.RS 4
 The name of the class to be launched\&.
-.TP     
+.RE
+.PP
 \fIfilename\fR
-The name of the Java Archive (JAR) file to be called\&. Used only with the \f3-jar\fR option\&.
-.TP     
+.RS 4
+The name of the Java Archive (JAR) file to be called\&. Used only with the
+\fB\-jar\fR
+option\&.
+.RE
+.PP
 \fIargs\fR
-The arguments passed to the \f3main()\fR method separated by spaces\&.
-.SH DESCRIPTION    
-The \f3java\fR command starts a Java application\&. It does this by starting the Java Runtime Environment (JRE), loading the specified class, and calling that class\&'s \f3main()\fR method\&. The method must be declared \fIpublic\fR and \fIstatic\fR, it must not return any value, and it must accept a \f3String\fR array as a parameter\&. The method declaration has the following form:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3public static void main(String[] args)\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-The \f3java\fR command can be used to launch a JavaFX application by loading a class that either has a \f3main()\fR method or that extends \f3javafx\&.application\&.Application\fR\&. In the latter case, the launcher constructs an instance of the \f3Application\fR class, calls its \f3init()\fR method, and then calls the \f3start(javafx\&.stage\&.Stage)\fR method\&.
+.RS 4
+The arguments passed to the
+\fBmain()\fR
+method separated by spaces\&.
+.RE
+.SH "DESCRIPTION"
 .PP
-By default, the first argument that is not an option of the \f3java\fR command is the fully qualified name of the class to be called\&. If the \f3-jar\fR option is specified, its argument is the name of the JAR file containing class and resource files for the application\&. The startup class must be indicated by the \f3Main-Class\fR manifest header in its source code\&.
+The
+\fBjava\fR
+command starts a Java application\&. It does this by starting the Java Runtime Environment (JRE), loading the specified class, and calling that class\*(Aqs
+\fBmain()\fR
+method\&. The method must be declared
+\fIpublic\fR
+and
+\fIstatic\fR, it must not return any value, and it must accept a
+\fBString\fR
+array as a parameter\&. The method declaration has the following form:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fBpublic static void main(String[] args)\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.PP
+The
+\fBjava\fR
+command can be used to launch a JavaFX application by loading a class that either has a
+\fBmain()\fR
+method or that extends
+\fBjavafx\&.application\&.Application\fR\&. In the latter case, the launcher constructs an instance of the
+\fBApplication\fR
+class, calls its
+\fBinit()\fR
+method, and then calls the
+\fBstart(javafx\&.stage\&.Stage)\fR
+method\&.
+.PP
+By default, the first argument that is not an option of the
+\fBjava\fR
+command is the fully qualified name of the class to be called\&. If the
+\fB\-jar\fR
+option is specified, its argument is the name of the JAR file containing class and resource files for the application\&. The startup class must be indicated by the
+\fBMain\-Class\fR
+manifest header in its source code\&.
 .PP
 The JRE searches for the startup class (and other classes used by the application) in three sets of locations: the bootstrap class path, the installed extensions, and the user\(cqs class path\&.
 .PP
-Arguments after the class file name or the JAR file name are passed to the \f3main()\fR method\&.
-.SH OPTIONS    
-The \f3java\fR command supports a wide range of options that can be divided into the following categories:
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
+Arguments after the class file name or the JAR file name are passed to the
+\fBmain()\fR
+method\&.
+.SH "OPTIONS"
+.PP
+The
+\fBjava\fR
+command supports a wide range of options that can be divided into the following categories:
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
 Standard Options
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-Non-Standard Options
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+Non\-Standard Options
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
 Advanced Runtime Options
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
 Advanced JIT Compiler Options
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
 Advanced Serviceability Options
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
 Advanced Garbage Collection Options
+.RE
 .PP
 Standard options are guaranteed to be supported by all implementations of the Java Virtual Machine (JVM)\&. They are used for common actions, such as checking the version of the JRE, setting the class path, enabling verbose output, and so on\&.
 .PP
-Non-standard options are general purpose options that are specific to the Java HotSpot Virtual Machine, so they are not guaranteed to be supported by all JVM implementations, and are subject to change\&. These options start with \f3-X\fR\&.
+Non\-standard options are general purpose options that are specific to the Java HotSpot Virtual Machine, so they are not guaranteed to be supported by all JVM implementations, and are subject to change\&. These options start with
+\fB\-X\fR\&.
 .PP
-Advanced options are not recommended for casual use\&. These are developer options used for tuning specific areas of the Java HotSpot Virtual Machine operation that often have specific system requirements and may require privileged access to system configuration parameters\&. They are also not guaranteed to be supported by all JVM implementations, and are subject to change\&. Advanced options start with \f3-XX\fR\&.
+Advanced options are not recommended for casual use\&. These are developer options used for tuning specific areas of the Java HotSpot Virtual Machine operation that often have specific system requirements and may require privileged access to system configuration parameters\&. They are also not guaranteed to be supported by all JVM implementations, and are subject to change\&. Advanced options start with
+\fB\-XX\fR\&.
 .PP
 To keep track of the options that were deprecated or removed in the latest release, there is a section named Deprecated and Removed Options at the end of the document\&.
 .PP
-Boolean options are used to either enable a feature that is disabled by default or disable a feature that is enabled by default\&. Such options do not require a parameter\&. Boolean \f3-XX\fR options are enabled using the plus sign (\f3-XX:+\fR\fIOptionName\fR) and disabled using the minus sign (\f3-XX:-\fR\fIOptionName\fR)\&.
+Boolean options are used to either enable a feature that is disabled by default or disable a feature that is enabled by default\&. Such options do not require a parameter\&. Boolean
+\fB\-XX\fR
+options are enabled using the plus sign (\fB\-XX:+\fR\fIOptionName\fR) and disabled using the minus sign (\fB\-XX:\-\fR\fIOptionName\fR)\&.
 .PP
-For options that require an argument, the argument may be separated from the option name by a space, a colon (:), or an equal sign (=), or the argument may directly follow the option (the exact syntax differs for each option)\&. If you are expected to specify the size in bytes, you can use no suffix, or use the suffix \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR for kilobytes (KB), \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR for megabytes (MB), \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR for gigabytes (GB)\&. For example, to set the size to 8 GB, you can specify either \f38g\fR, \f38192m\fR, \f38388608k\fR, or \f38589934592\fR as the argument\&. If you are expected to specify the percentage, use a number from 0 to 1 (for example, specify \f30\&.25\fR for 25%)\&.
-.SS STANDARD\ OPTIONS    
+For options that require an argument, the argument may be separated from the option name by a space, a colon (:), or an equal sign (=), or the argument may directly follow the option (the exact syntax differs for each option)\&. If you are expected to specify the size in bytes, you can use no suffix, or use the suffix
+\fBk\fR
+or
+\fBK\fR
+for kilobytes (KB),
+\fBm\fR
+or
+\fBM\fR
+for megabytes (MB),
+\fBg\fR
+or
+\fBG\fR
+for gigabytes (GB)\&. For example, to set the size to 8 GB, you can specify either
+\fB8g\fR,
+\fB8192m\fR,
+\fB8388608k\fR, or
+\fB8589934592\fR
+as the argument\&. If you are expected to specify the percentage, use a number from 0 to 1 (for example, specify
+\fB0\&.25\fR
+for 25%)\&.
+.SS "Standard Options"
+.PP
 These are the most commonly used options that are supported by all implementations of the JVM\&.
-.TP
--agentlib:\fIlibname\fR[=\fIoptions\fR]
+.PP
+\-agentlib:\fIlibname\fR[=\fIoptions\fR]
+.RS 4
+Loads the specified native agent library\&. After the library name, a comma\-separated list of options specific to the library can be used\&.
+.sp
+If the option
+\fB\-agentlib:foo\fR
+is specified, then the JVM attempts to load the library named
+\fBlibfoo\&.so\fR
+in the location specified by the
+\fBLD_LIBRARY_PATH\fR
+system variable (on OS X this variable is
+\fBDYLD_LIBRARY_PATH\fR)\&.
+.sp
+The following example shows how to load the heap profiling tool (HPROF) library and get sample CPU information every 20 ms, with a stack depth of 3:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-agentlib:hprof=cpu=samples,interval=20,depth=3\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+The following example shows how to load the Java Debug Wire Protocol (JDWP) library and listen for the socket connection on port 8000, suspending the JVM before the main class loads:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-agentlib:jdwp=transport=dt_socket,server=y,address=8000\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+For more information about the native agent libraries, refer to the following:
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+The
+\fBjava\&.lang\&.instrument\fR
+package description at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/api/java/lang/instrument/package\-summary\&.html
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+Agent Command Line Options in the JVM Tools Interface guide at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/platform/jvmti/jvmti\&.html#starting
+.RE
+.RE
+.PP
+\-agentpath:\fIpathname\fR[=\fIoptions\fR]
+.RS 4
+Loads the native agent library specified by the absolute path name\&. This option is equivalent to
+\fB\-agentlib\fR
+but uses the full path and file name of the library\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-client
+.RS 4
+Selects the Java HotSpot Client VM\&. The 64\-bit version of the Java SE Development Kit (JDK) currently ignores this option and instead uses the Server JVM\&.
+.sp
+For default JVM selection, see Server\-Class Machine Detection at
+http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/vm/server\-class\&.html
+.RE
+.PP
+\-D\fIproperty\fR=\fIvalue\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets a system property value\&. The
+\fIproperty\fR
+variable is a string with no spaces that represents the name of the property\&. The
+\fIvalue\fR
+variable is a string that represents the value of the property\&. If
+\fIvalue\fR
+is a string with spaces, then enclose it in quotation marks (for example
+\fB\-Dfoo="foo bar"\fR)\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-d32
+.RS 4
+Runs the application in a 32\-bit environment\&. If a 32\-bit environment is not installed or is not supported, then an error will be reported\&. By default, the application is run in a 32\-bit environment unless a 64\-bit system is used\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-d64
+.RS 4
+Runs the application in a 64\-bit environment\&. If a 64\-bit environment is not installed or is not supported, then an error will be reported\&. By default, the application is run in a 32\-bit environment unless a 64\-bit system is used\&.
+.sp
+Currently only the Java HotSpot Server VM supports 64\-bit operation, and the
+\fB\-server\fR
+option is implicit with the use of
+\fB\-d64\fR\&. The
+\fB\-client\fR
+option is ignored with the use of
+\fB\-d64\fR\&. This is subject to change in a future release\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-disableassertions[:[\fIpackagename\fR]\&.\&.\&.|:\fIclassname\fR]
 .br
-Loads the specified native agent library\&. After the library name, a comma-separated list of options specific to the library can be used\&.
+\-da[:[\fIpackagename\fR]\&.\&.\&.|:\fIclassname\fR]
+.RS 4
+Disables assertions\&. By default, assertions are disabled in all packages and classes\&.
+.sp
+With no arguments,
+\fB\-disableassertions\fR
+(\fB\-da\fR) disables assertions in all packages and classes\&. With the
+\fIpackagename\fR
+argument ending in
+\fB\&.\&.\&.\fR, the switch disables assertions in the specified package and any subpackages\&. If the argument is simply
+\fB\&.\&.\&.\fR, then the switch disables assertions in the unnamed package in the current working directory\&. With the
+\fIclassname\fR
+argument, the switch disables assertions in the specified class\&.
+.sp
+The
+\fB\-disableassertions\fR
+(\fB\-da\fR) option applies to all class loaders and to system classes (which do not have a class loader)\&. There is one exception to this rule: if the option is provided with no arguments, then it does not apply to system classes\&. This makes it easy to disable assertions in all classes except for system classes\&. The
+\fB\-disablesystemassertions\fR
+option enables you to disable assertions in all system classes\&.
+.sp
+To explicitly enable assertions in specific packages or classes, use the
+\fB\-enableassertions\fR
+(\fB\-ea\fR) option\&. Both options can be used at the same time\&. For example, to run the
+\fBMyClass\fR
+application with assertions enabled in package
+\fBcom\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\fR
+(and any subpackages) but disabled in class
+\fBcom\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\&.Brickbat\fR, use the following command:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fBjava \-ea:com\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\&.\&.\&. \-da:com\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\&.Brickbat MyClass\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-disablesystemassertions
+.br
+\-dsa
+.RS 4
+Disables assertions in all system classes\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-enableassertions[:[\fIpackagename\fR]\&.\&.\&.|:\fIclassname\fR]
+.br
+\-ea[:[\fIpackagename\fR]\&.\&.\&.|:\fIclassname\fR]
+.RS 4
+Enables assertions\&. By default, assertions are disabled in all packages and classes\&.
+.sp
+With no arguments,
+\fB\-enableassertions\fR
+(\fB\-ea\fR) enables assertions in all packages and classes\&. With the
+\fIpackagename\fR
+argument ending in
+\fB\&.\&.\&.\fR, the switch enables assertions in the specified package and any subpackages\&. If the argument is simply
+\fB\&.\&.\&.\fR, then the switch enables assertions in the unnamed package in the current working directory\&. With the
+\fIclassname\fR
+argument, the switch enables assertions in the specified class\&.
+.sp
+The
+\fB\-enableassertions\fR
+(\fB\-ea\fR) option applies to all class loaders and to system classes (which do not have a class loader)\&. There is one exception to this rule: if the option is provided with no arguments, then it does not apply to system classes\&. This makes it easy to enable assertions in all classes except for system classes\&. The
+\fB\-enablesystemassertions\fR
+option provides a separate switch to enable assertions in all system classes\&.
+.sp
+To explicitly disable assertions in specific packages or classes, use the
+\fB\-disableassertions\fR
+(\fB\-da\fR) option\&. If a single command contains multiple instances of these switches, then they are processed in order before loading any classes\&. For example, to run the
+\fBMyClass\fR
+application with assertions enabled only in package
+\fBcom\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\fR
+(and any subpackages) but disabled in class
+\fBcom\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\&.Brickbat\fR, use the following command:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fBjava \-ea:com\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\&.\&.\&. \-da:com\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\&.Brickbat MyClass\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-enablesystemassertions
+.br
+\-esa
+.RS 4
+Enables assertions in all system classes\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-help
+.br
+\-?
+.RS 4
+Displays usage information for the
+\fBjava\fR
+command without actually running the JVM\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-jar \fIfilename\fR
+.RS 4
+Executes a program encapsulated in a JAR file\&. The
+\fIfilename\fR
+argument is the name of a JAR file with a manifest that contains a line in the form
+\fBMain\-Class:\fR\fIclassname\fR
+that defines the class with the
+\fBpublic static void main(String[] args)\fR
+method that serves as your application\*(Aqs starting point\&.
+.sp
+When you use the
+\fB\-jar\fR
+option, the specified JAR file is the source of all user classes, and other class path settings are ignored\&.
+.sp
+For more information about JAR files, see the following resources:
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+jar(1)
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+The Java Archive (JAR) Files guide at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/jar/index\&.html
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+Lesson: Packaging Programs in JAR Files at
 
-If the option \f3-agentlib:foo\fR is specified, then the JVM attempts to load the library named \f3libfoo\&.so\fR in the location specified by the \f3LD_LIBRARY_PATH\fR system variable (on OS X this variable is \f3DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH\fR)\&.
-
-The following example shows how to load the heap profiling tool (HPROF) library and get sample CPU information every 20 ms, with a stack depth of 3:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-agentlib:hprof=cpu=samples,interval=20,depth=3\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-The following example shows how to load the Java Debug Wire Protocol (JDWP) library and listen for the socket connection on port 8000, suspending the JVM before the main class loads:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-agentlib:jdwp=transport=dt_socket,server=y,address=8000\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-For more information about the native agent libraries, refer to the following:
-.RS     
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-The \f3java\&.lang\&.instrument\fR package description at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/api/java/lang/instrument/package-summary\&.html
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-Agent Command Line Options in the JVM Tools Interface guide at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/platform/jvmti/jvmti\&.html#starting
-.RE     
-
-.TP
--agentpath:\fIpathname\fR[=\fIoptions\fR]
-.br
-Loads the native agent library specified by the absolute path name\&. This option is equivalent to \f3-agentlib\fR but uses the full path and file name of the library\&.
-.TP
--client
-.br
-Selects the Java HotSpot Client VM\&. The 64-bit version of the Java SE Development Kit (JDK) currently ignores this option and instead uses the Server JVM\&.
-
-For default JVM selection, see Server-Class Machine Detection at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/vm/server-class\&.html
-.TP
--D\fIproperty\fR=\fIvalue\fR
-.br
-Sets a system property value\&. The \fIproperty\fR variable is a string with no spaces that represents the name of the property\&. The \fIvalue\fR variable is a string that represents the value of the property\&. If \fIvalue\fR is a string with spaces, then enclose it in quotation marks (for example \f3-Dfoo="foo bar"\fR)\&.
-.TP
--d32
-.br
-Runs the application in a 32-bit environment\&. If a 32-bit environment is not installed or is not supported, then an error will be reported\&. By default, the application is run in a 32-bit environment unless a 64-bit system is used\&.
-.TP
--d64
-.br
-Runs the application in a 64-bit environment\&. If a 64-bit environment is not installed or is not supported, then an error will be reported\&. By default, the application is run in a 32-bit environment unless a 64-bit system is used\&.
-
-Currently only the Java HotSpot Server VM supports 64-bit operation, and the \f3-server\fR option is implicit with the use of \f3-d64\fR\&. The \f3-client\fR option is ignored with the use of \f3-d64\fR\&. This is subject to change in a future release\&.
-.TP
+http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/tutorial/deployment/jar/index\&.html
+.RE
+.RE
+.PP
+\-javaagent:\fIjarpath\fR[=\fIoptions\fR]
+.RS 4
+Loads the specified Java programming language agent\&. For more information about instrumenting Java applications, see the
+\fBjava\&.lang\&.instrument\fR
+package description in the Java API documentation at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/api/java/lang/instrument/package\-summary\&.html
+.RE
+.PP
+\-jre\-restrict\-search
+.RS 4
+Includes user\-private JREs in the version search\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-no\-jre\-restrict\-search
+.RS 4
+Excludes user\-private JREs from the version search\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-server
+.RS 4
+Selects the Java HotSpot Server VM\&. The 64\-bit version of the JDK supports only the Server VM, so in that case the option is implicit\&.
+.sp
+For default JVM selection, see Server\-Class Machine Detection at
+http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/vm/server\-class\&.html
+.RE
+.PP
+\-showversion
+.RS 4
+Displays version information and continues execution of the application\&. This option is equivalent to the
+\fB\-version\fR
+option except that the latter instructs the JVM to exit after displaying version information\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-splash:\fIimgname\fR
+.RS 4
+Shows the splash screen with the image specified by
+\fIimgname\fR\&. For example, to show the
+\fBsplash\&.gif\fR
+file from the
+\fBimages\fR
+directory when starting your application, use the following option:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
 .nf
--disableassertions[:[\fIpackagename\fR]\&.\&.\&.|:\fIclassname\fR], -da[:[\fIpackagename\fR]\&.\&.\&.|:\fIclassname\fR]
-.br
+\fB\-splash:images/splash\&.gif\fR
+ 
 .fi
-Disables assertions\&. By default, assertions are disabled in all packages and classes\&.
-
-With no arguments, \f3-disableassertions\fR (\f3-da\fR) disables assertions in all packages and classes\&. With the \fIpackagename\fR argument ending in \f3\&.\&.\&.\fR, the switch disables assertions in the specified package and any subpackages\&. If the argument is simply \f3\&.\&.\&.\fR, then the switch disables assertions in the unnamed package in the current working directory\&. With the \fIclassname\fR argument\f3\fR, the switch disables assertions in the specified class\&.
-
-The \f3-disableassertions\fR (\f3-da\fR) option applies to all class loaders and to system classes (which do not have a class loader)\&. There is one exception to this rule: if the option is provided with no arguments, then it does not apply to system classes\&. This makes it easy to disable assertions in all classes except for system classes\&. The \f3-disablesystemassertions\fR option enables you to disable assertions in all system classes\&.
-
-To explicitly enable assertions in specific packages or classes, use the \f3-enableassertions\fR (\f3-ea\fR) option\&. Both options can be used at the same time\&. For example, to run the \f3MyClass\fR application with assertions enabled in package \f3com\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\fR (and any subpackages) but disabled in class \f3com\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\&.Brickbat\fR, use the following command:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3java \-ea:com\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\&.\&.\&. \-da:com\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\&.Brickbat MyClass\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--disablesystemassertions, -dsa
-.br
-Disables assertions in all system classes\&.
-.TP
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-verbose:class
+.RS 4
+Displays information about each loaded class\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-verbose:gc
+.RS 4
+Displays information about each garbage collection (GC) event\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-verbose:jni
+.RS 4
+Displays information about the use of native methods and other Java Native Interface (JNI) activity\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-version
+.RS 4
+Displays version information and then exits\&. This option is equivalent to the
+\fB\-showversion\fR
+option except that the latter does not instruct the JVM to exit after displaying version information\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-version:\fIrelease\fR
+.RS 4
+Specifies the release version to be used for running the application\&. If the version of the
+\fBjava\fR
+command called does not meet this specification and an appropriate implementation is found on the system, then the appropriate implementation will be used\&.
+.sp
+The
+\fIrelease\fR
+argument specifies either the exact version string, or a list of version strings and ranges separated by spaces\&. A
+\fIversion string\fR
+is the developer designation of the version number in the following form:
+\fB1\&.\fR\fIx\fR\fB\&.0_\fR\fIu\fR
+(where
+\fIx\fR
+is the major version number, and
+\fIu\fR
+is the update version number)\&. A
+\fIversion range\fR
+is made up of a version string followed by a plus sign (\fB+\fR) to designate this version or later, or a part of a version string followed by an asterisk (\fB*\fR) to designate any version string with a matching prefix\&. Version strings and ranges can be combined using a space for a logical
+\fIOR\fR
+combination, or an ampersand (\fB&\fR) for a logical
+\fIAND\fR
+combination of two version strings/ranges\&. For example, if running the class or JAR file requires either JRE 6u13 (1\&.6\&.0_13), or any JRE 6 starting from 6u10 (1\&.6\&.0_10), specify the following:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
 .nf
--enableassertions[:[\fIpackagename\fR]\&.\&.\&.|:\fIclassname\fR], -ea[:[\fIpackagename\fR]\&.\&.\&.|:\fIclassname\fR]
-.br
+\fB\-version:"1\&.6\&.0_13 1\&.6* & 1\&.6\&.0_10+"\fR
+ 
 .fi
-Enables assertions\&. By default, assertions are disabled in all packages and classes\&.
-
-With no arguments, \f3-enableassertions\fR (\f3-ea\fR) enables assertions in all packages and classes\&. With the \fIpackagename\fR argument ending in \f3\&.\&.\&.\fR, the switch enables assertions in the specified package and any subpackages\&. If the argument is simply \f3\&.\&.\&.\fR, then the switch enables assertions in the unnamed package in the current working directory\&. With the \fIclassname\fR argument\f3\fR, the switch enables assertions in the specified class\&.
-
-The \f3-enableassertions\fR (\f3-ea\fR) option applies to all class loaders and to system classes (which do not have a class loader)\&. There is one exception to this rule: if the option is provided with no arguments, then it does not apply to system classes\&. This makes it easy to enable assertions in all classes except for system classes\&. The \f3-enablesystemassertions\fR option provides a separate switch to enable assertions in all system classes\&.
-
-To explicitly disable assertions in specific packages or classes, use the \f3-disableassertions\fR (\f3-da\fR) option\&. If a single command contains multiple instances of these switches, then they are processed in order before loading any classes\&. For example, to run the \f3MyClass\fR application with assertions enabled only in package \f3com\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\fR (and any subpackages) but disabled in class \f3com\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\&.Brickbat\fR, use the following command:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3java \-ea:com\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\&.\&.\&. \-da:com\&.wombat\&.fruitbat\&.Brickbat MyClass\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--enablesystemassertions, -esa
-.br
-Enables assertions in all system classes\&.
-.TP
--help, -?
-.br
-Displays usage information for the \f3java\fR command without actually running the JVM\&.
-.TP
--jar \fIfilename\fR
-.br
-Executes a program encapsulated in a JAR file\&. The \fIfilename\fR argument is the name of a JAR file with a manifest that contains a line in the form \f3Main-Class:\fR\fIclassname\fR that defines the class with the \f3public static void main(String[] args)\fR method that serves as your application\&'s starting point\&.
-
-When you use the \f3-jar\fR option, the specified JAR file is the source of all user classes, and other class path settings are ignored\&.
-
-For more information about JAR files, see the following resources:
-.RS     
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-jar(1)
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-The Java Archive (JAR) Files guide at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/jar/index\&.html
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-Lesson: Packaging Programs in JAR Files at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/tutorial/deployment/jar/index\&.html
-.RE     
-
-.TP
--javaagent:\fIjarpath\fR[=\fIoptions\fR]
-.br
-Loads the specified Java programming language agent\&. For more information about instrumenting Java applications, see the \f3java\&.lang\&.instrument\fR package description in the Java API documentation at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/api/java/lang/instrument/package-summary\&.html
-.TP
--jre-restrict-search
-.br
-Includes user-private JREs in the version search\&.
-.TP
--no-jre-restrict-search
-.br
-Excludes user-private JREs from the version search\&.
-.TP
--server
-.br
-Selects the Java HotSpot Server VM\&. The 64-bit version of the JDK supports only the Server VM, so in that case the option is implicit\&.
-
-For default JVM selection, see Server-Class Machine Detection at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/vm/server-class\&.html
-.TP
--showversion
-.br
-Displays version information and continues execution of the application\&. This option is equivalent to the \f3-version\fR option except that the latter instructs the JVM to exit after displaying version information\&.
-.TP
--splash:\fIimgname\fR
-.br
-Shows the splash screen with the image specified by \fIimgname\fR\&. For example, to show the \f3splash\&.gif\fR file from the \f3images\fR directory when starting your application, use the following option:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-splash:images/splash\&.gif\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--verbose:class
-.br
-Displays information about each loaded class\&.
-.TP
--verbose:gc
-.br
-Displays information about each garbage collection (GC) event\&.
-.TP
--verbose:jni
-.br
-Displays information about the use of native methods and other Java Native Interface (JNI) activity\&.
-.TP
--version
-.br
-Displays version information and then exits\&. This option is equivalent to the \f3-showversion\fR option except that the latter does not instruct the JVM to exit after displaying version information\&.
-.TP
--version:\fIrelease\fR
-.br
-Specifies the release version to be used for running the application\&. If the version of the \f3java\fR command called does not meet this specification and an appropriate implementation is found on the system, then the appropriate implementation will be used\&.
-
-The \fIrelease\fR argument specifies either the exact version string, or a list of version strings and ranges separated by spaces\&. A \fIversion string\fR is the developer designation of the version number in the following form: \f31\&.\fR\fIx\fR\f3\&.0_\fR\fIu\fR (where \fIx\fR is the major version number, and \fIu\fR is the update version number)\&. A \fIversion range\fR is made up of a version string followed by a plus sign (\f3+\fR) to designate this version or later, or a part of a version string followed by an asterisk (\f3*\fR) to designate any version string with a matching prefix\&. Version strings and ranges can be combined using a space for a logical \fIOR\fR combination, or an ampersand (\f3&\fR) for a logical \fIAND\fR combination of two version strings/ranges\&. For example, if running the class or JAR file requires either JRE 6u13 (1\&.6\&.0_13), or any JRE 6 starting from 6u10 (1\&.6\&.0_10), specify the following:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-version:"1\&.6\&.0_13 1\&.6* & 1\&.6\&.0_10+"\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-Quotation marks are necessary only if there are spaces in the \fIrelease\fR parameter\&.
-
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+Quotation marks are necessary only if there are spaces in the
+\fIrelease\fR
+parameter\&.
+.sp
 For JAR files, the preference is to specify version requirements in the JAR file manifest rather than on the command line\&.
-.SS NON-STANDARD\ OPTIONS    
+.RE
+.SS "Non\-Standard Options"
+.PP
 These options are general purpose options that are specific to the Java HotSpot Virtual Machine\&.
-.TP
--X
-.br
-Displays help for all available \f3-X\fR options\&.
-.TP
--Xbatch
-.br
-Disables background compilation\&. By default, the JVM compiles the method as a background task, running the method in interpreter mode until the background compilation is finished\&. The \f3-Xbatch\fR flag disables background compilation so that compilation of all methods proceeds as a foreground task until completed\&.
-
-This option is equivalent to \f3-XX:-BackgroundCompilation\fR\&.
-.TP
--Xbootclasspath:\fIpath\fR
-.br
+.PP
+\-X
+.RS 4
+Displays help for all available
+\fB\-X\fR
+options\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xbatch
+.RS 4
+Disables background compilation\&. By default, the JVM compiles the method as a background task, running the method in interpreter mode until the background compilation is finished\&. The
+\fB\-Xbatch\fR
+flag disables background compilation so that compilation of all methods proceeds as a foreground task until completed\&.
+.sp
+This option is equivalent to
+\fB\-XX:\-BackgroundCompilation\fR\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xbootclasspath:\fIpath\fR
+.RS 4
 Specifies a list of directories, JAR files, and ZIP archives separated by colons (:) to search for boot class files\&. These are used in place of the boot class files included in the JDK\&.
-
-\fI\fRDo not deploy applications that use this option to override a class in \f3rt\&.jar\fR, because this violates the JRE binary code license\&.
-.TP
--Xbootclasspath/a:\fIpath\fR
-.br
+.sp
+Do not deploy applications that use this option to override a class in
+\fBrt\&.jar\fR, because this violates the JRE binary code license\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xbootclasspath/a:\fIpath\fR
+.RS 4
 Specifies a list of directories, JAR files, and ZIP archives separated by colons (:) to append to the end of the default bootstrap class path\&.
-
-Do not deploy applications that use this option to override a class in \f3rt\&.jar\fR, because this violates the JRE binary code license\&.
-.TP
--Xbootclasspath/p:\fIpath\fR
-.br
+.sp
+Do not deploy applications that use this option to override a class in
+\fBrt\&.jar\fR, because this violates the JRE binary code license\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xbootclasspath/p:\fIpath\fR
+.RS 4
 Specifies a list of directories, JAR files, and ZIP archives separated by colons (:) to prepend to the front of the default bootstrap class path\&.
-
-Do not deploy applications that use this option to override a class in \f3rt\&.jar\fR, because this violates the JRE binary code license\&.
-.TP
--Xcheck:jni
-.br
+.sp
+Do not deploy applications that use this option to override a class in
+\fBrt\&.jar\fR, because this violates the JRE binary code license\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xcheck:jni
+.RS 4
 Performs additional checks for Java Native Interface (JNI) functions\&. Specifically, it validates the parameters passed to the JNI function and the runtime environment data before processing the JNI request\&. Any invalid data encountered indicates a problem in the native code, and the JVM will terminate with an irrecoverable error in such cases\&. Expect a performance degradation when this option is used\&.
-.TP
--Xcomp
-.br
-Forces compilation of methods on first invocation\&. By default, the Client VM (\f3-client\fR) performs 1,000 interpreted method invocations and the Server VM (\f3-server\fR) performs 10,000 interpreted method invocations to gather information for efficient compilation\&. Specifying the \f3-Xcomp\fR option disables interpreted method invocations to increase compilation performance at the expense of efficiency\&.
-
-You can also change the number of interpreted method invocations before compilation using the \f3-XX:CompileThreshold\fR option\&.
-.TP
--Xdebug
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xcomp
+.RS 4
+Forces compilation of methods on first invocation\&. By default, the Client VM (\fB\-client\fR) performs 1,000 interpreted method invocations and the Server VM (\fB\-server\fR) performs 10,000 interpreted method invocations to gather information for efficient compilation\&. Specifying the
+\fB\-Xcomp\fR
+option disables interpreted method invocations to increase compilation performance at the expense of efficiency\&.
+.sp
+You can also change the number of interpreted method invocations before compilation using the
+\fB\-XX:CompileThreshold\fR
+option\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xdebug
+.RS 4
 Does nothing\&. Provided for backward compatibility\&.
-.TP
--Xdiag
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xdiag
+.RS 4
 Shows additional diagnostic messages\&.
-.TP
--Xfuture
-.br
-Enables strict class-file format checks that enforce close conformance to the class-file format specification\&. Developers are encouraged to use this flag when developing new code because the stricter checks will become the default in future releases\&.
-.TP
--Xint
-.br
-Runs the application in interpreted-only mode\&. Compilation to native code is disabled, and all bytecode is executed by the interpreter\&. The performance benefits offered by the just in time (JIT) compiler are not present in this mode\&.
-.TP
--Xinternalversion
-.br
-Displays more detailed JVM version information than the \f3-version\fR option, and then exits\&.
-.TP
--Xloggc:\fIfilename\fR
-.br
-Sets the file to which verbose GC events information should be redirected for logging\&. The information written to this file is similar to the output of \f3-verbose:gc\fR with the time elapsed since the first GC event preceding each logged event\&. The \f3-Xloggc\fR option overrides \f3-verbose:gc\fR if both are given with the same \f3java\fR command\&.
-
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xfuture
+.RS 4
+Enables strict class\-file format checks that enforce close conformance to the class\-file format specification\&. Developers are encouraged to use this flag when developing new code because the stricter checks will become the default in future releases\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xint
+.RS 4
+Runs the application in interpreted\-only mode\&. Compilation to native code is disabled, and all bytecode is executed by the interpreter\&. The performance benefits offered by the just in time (JIT) compiler are not present in this mode\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xinternalversion
+.RS 4
+Displays more detailed JVM version information than the
+\fB\-version\fR
+option, and then exits\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xloggc:\fIfilename\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the file to which verbose GC events information should be redirected for logging\&. The information written to this file is similar to the output of
+\fB\-verbose:gc\fR
+with the time elapsed since the first GC event preceding each logged event\&. The
+\fB\-Xloggc\fR
+option overrides
+\fB\-verbose:gc\fR
+if both are given with the same
+\fBjava\fR
+command\&.
+.sp
 Example:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-Xloggc:garbage\-collection\&.log\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-.TP
--Xmaxjitcodesize=\fIsize\fR
-.br
-Specifies the maximum code cache size (in bytes) for JIT-compiled code\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. By default, the value is set to 48 MB:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-Xmaxjitcodesize=48m\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-This option is equivalent to \f3-XX:ReservedCodeCacheSize\fR\&.
-.TP
--Xmixed
-.br
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-Xloggc:garbage\-collection\&.log\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xmaxjitcodesize=\fIsize\fR
+.RS 4
+Specifies the maximum code cache size (in bytes) for JIT\-compiled code\&. Append the letter
+\fBk\fR
+or
+\fBK\fR
+to indicate kilobytes,
+\fBm\fR
+or
+\fBM\fR
+to indicate megabytes,
+\fBg\fR
+or
+\fBG\fR
+to indicate gigabytes\&. The default maximum code cache size is 240 MB; if you disable tiered compilation with the option
+\fB\-XX:\-TieredCompilation\fR, then the default size is 48 MB:
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-Xmaxjitcodesize=240m\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+This option is equivalent to
+\fB\-XX:ReservedCodeCacheSize\fR\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xmixed
+.RS 4
 Executes all bytecode by the interpreter except for hot methods, which are compiled to native code\&.
-.TP
--Xmn\fIsize\fR
-.br
-Sets the initial and maximum size (in bytes) of the heap for the young generation (nursery)\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&.
-
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xmn\fIsize\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the initial and maximum size (in bytes) of the heap for the young generation (nursery)\&. Append the letter
+\fBk\fR
+or
+\fBK\fR
+to indicate kilobytes,
+\fBm\fR
+or
+\fBM\fR
+to indicate megabytes,
+\fBg\fR
+or
+\fBG\fR
+to indicate gigabytes\&.
+.sp
 The young generation region of the heap is used for new objects\&. GC is performed in this region more often than in other regions\&. If the size for the young generation is too small, then a lot of minor garbage collections will be performed\&. If the size is too large, then only full garbage collections will be performed, which can take a long time to complete\&. Oracle recommends that you keep the size for the young generation between a half and a quarter of the overall heap size\&.
-
+.sp
 The following examples show how to set the initial and maximum size of young generation to 256 MB using various units:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-Xmn256m\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\-Xmn262144k\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\-Xmn268435456\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-Instead of the \f3-Xmn\fR option to set both the initial and maximum size of the heap for the young generation, you can use \f3-XX:NewSize\fR to set the initial size and \f3-XX:MaxNewSize\fR to set the maximum size\&.
-.TP
--Xms\fIsize\fR
-.br
-Sets the initial size (in bytes) of the heap\&. This value must be a multiple of 1024 and greater than 1 MB\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&.
-
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-Xmn256m\fR
+\fB\-Xmn262144k\fR
+\fB\-Xmn268435456\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+Instead of the
+\fB\-Xmn\fR
+option to set both the initial and maximum size of the heap for the young generation, you can use
+\fB\-XX:NewSize\fR
+to set the initial size and
+\fB\-XX:MaxNewSize\fR
+to set the maximum size\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xms\fIsize\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the initial size (in bytes) of the heap\&. This value must be a multiple of 1024 and greater than 1 MB\&. Append the letter
+\fBk\fR
+or
+\fBK\fR
+to indicate kilobytes,
+\fBm\fR
+or
+\fBM\fR
+to indicate megabytes,
+\fBg\fR
+or
+\fBG\fR
+to indicate gigabytes\&.
+.sp
 The following examples show how to set the size of allocated memory to 6 MB using various units:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-Xms6291456\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\-Xms6144k\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\-Xms6m\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-If you do not set this option, then the initial size will be set as the sum of the sizes allocated for the old generation and the young generation\&. The initial size of the heap for the young generation can be set using the \f3-Xmn\fR option or the \f3-XX:NewSize\fR option\&.
-.TP
--Xmx\fIsize\fR
-.br
-Specifies the maximum size (in bytes) of the memory allocation pool in bytes\&. This value must be a multiple of 1024 and greater than 2 MB\&. Append the letter \f3k\fR or \f3K\fR to indicate kilobytes, \f3m\fR or \f3M\fR to indicate megabytes, \f3g\fR or \f3G\fR to indicate gigabytes\&. The default value is chosen at runtime based on system configuration\&. For server deployments, \f3-Xms\fR and \f3-Xmx\fR are often set to the same value\&. See the section "Ergonomics" in \fIJava SE HotSpot Virtual Machine Garbage Collection Tuning Guide\fR at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/vm/gctuning/index\&.html\&.
-
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-Xms6291456\fR
+\fB\-Xms6144k\fR
+\fB\-Xms6m\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+If you do not set this option, then the initial size will be set as the sum of the sizes allocated for the old generation and the young generation\&. The initial size of the heap for the young generation can be set using the
+\fB\-Xmn\fR
+option or the
+\fB\-XX:NewSize\fR
+option\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xmx\fIsize\fR
+.RS 4
+Specifies the maximum size (in bytes) of the memory allocation pool in bytes\&. This value must be a multiple of 1024 and greater than 2 MB\&. Append the letter
+\fBk\fR
+or
+\fBK\fR
+to indicate kilobytes,
+\fBm\fR
+or
+\fBM\fR
+to indicate megabytes,
+\fBg\fR
+or
+\fBG\fR
+to indicate gigabytes\&. The default value is chosen at runtime based on system configuration\&. For server deployments,
+\fB\-Xms\fR
+and
+\fB\-Xmx\fR
+are often set to the same value\&. See the section "Ergonomics" in
+\fIJava SE HotSpot Virtual Machine Garbage Collection Tuning Guide\fR
+at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/vm/gctuning/index\&.html\&.
+.sp
 The following examples show how to set the maximum allowed size of allocated memory to 80 MB using various units:
-.sp     
-.nf     
-\f3\-Xmx83886080\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\-Xmx81920k\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\-Xmx80m\fP
-.fi     
-.nf     
-\f3\fP
-.fi     
-.sp     
-
-
-The \f3-Xmx\fR option is equivalent to \f3-XX:MaxHeapSize\fR\&.
-.TP
--Xnoclassgc
-.br
+.sp
+.if n \{\
+.RS 4
+.\}
+.nf
+\fB\-Xmx83886080\fR
+\fB\-Xmx81920k\fR
+\fB\-Xmx80m\fR
+ 
+.fi
+.if n \{\
+.RE
+.\}
+The
+\fB\-Xmx\fR
+option is equivalent to
+\fB\-XX:MaxHeapSize\fR\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xnoclassgc
+.RS 4
 Disables garbage collection (GC) of classes\&. This can save some GC time, which shortens interruptions during the application run\&.
-
-When you specify \f3-Xnoclassgc\fR at startup, the class objects in the application will be left untouched during GC and will always be considered live\&. This can result in more memory being permanently occupied which, if not used carefully, will throw an out of memory exception\&.
-.TP
--Xprof
-.br
+.sp
+When you specify
+\fB\-Xnoclassgc\fR
+at startup, the class objects in the application will be left untouched during GC and will always be considered live\&. This can result in more memory being permanently occupied which, if not used carefully, will throw an out of memory exception\&.
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xprof
+.RS 4
 Profiles the running program and sends profiling data to standard output\&. This option is provided as a utility that is useful in program development and is not intended to be used in production systems\&.
-.TP
--Xrs
-.br
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xrs
+.RS 4
 Reduces the use of operating system signals by the JVM\&.
-
+.sp
 Shutdown hooks enable orderly shutdown of a Java application by running user cleanup code (such as closing database connections) at shutdown, even if the JVM terminates abruptly\&.
-
-The JVM catches signals to implement shutdown hooks for unexpected termination\&. The JVM uses \f3SIGHUP\fR, \f3SIGINT\fR, and \f3SIGTERM\fR to initiate the running of shutdown hooks\&.
-
-The JVM uses a similar mechanism to implement the feature of dumping thread stacks for debugging purposes\&. The JVM uses \f3SIGQUIT\fR to perform thread dumps\&.
-
-Applications embedding the JVM frequently need to trap signals such as \f3SIGINT\fR or \f3SIGTERM\fR, which can lead to interference with the JVM signal handlers\&. The \f3-Xrs\fR option is available to address this issue\&. When \f3-Xrs\fR is used, the signal masks for \f3SIGINT\fR, \f3SIGTERM\fR, \f3SIGHUP\fR, and \f3SIGQUIT\fR are not changed by the JVM, and signal handlers for these signals are not installed\&.
-
-There are two consequences of specifying \f3-Xrs\fR:
-.RS     
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-\f3SIGQUIT\fR thread dumps are not available\&.
-.TP 0.2i    
-\(bu
-User code is responsible for causing shutdown hooks to run, for example, by calling \f3System\&.exit()\fR when the JVM is to be terminated\&.
-.RE     
-
-.TP
--Xshare:\fImode\fR
-.br
-Sets the class data sharing mode\&. Possible \fImode\fR arguments for this option include the following:
-.RS     
-.TP     
+.sp
+The JVM catches signals to implement shutdown hooks for unexpected termination\&. The JVM uses
+\fBSIGHUP\fR,
+\fBSIGINT\fR, and
+\fBSIGTERM\fR
+to initiate the running of shutdown hooks\&.
+.sp
+The JVM uses a similar mechanism to implement the feature of dumping thread stacks for debugging purposes\&. The JVM uses
+\fBSIGQUIT\fR
+to perform thread dumps\&.
+.sp
+Applications embedding the JVM frequently need to trap signals such as
+\fBSIGINT\fR
+or
+\fBSIGTERM\fR, which can lead to interference with the JVM signal handlers\&. The
+\fB\-Xrs\fR
+option is available to address this issue\&. When
+\fB\-Xrs\fR
+is used, the signal masks for
+\fBSIGINT\fR,
+\fBSIGTERM\fR,
+\fBSIGHUP\fR, and
+\fBSIGQUIT\fR
+are not changed by the JVM, and signal handlers for these signals are not installed\&.
+.sp
+There are two consequences of specifying
+\fB\-Xrs\fR:
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+\fBSIGQUIT\fR
+thread dumps are not available\&.
+.RE
+.sp
+.RS 4
+.ie n \{\
+\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
+.\}
+.el \{\
+.sp -1
+.IP \(bu 2.3
+.\}
+User code is responsible for causing shutdown hooks to run, for example, by calling
+\fBSystem\&.exit()\fR
+when the JVM is to be terminated\&.
+.RE
+.RE
+.PP
+\-Xshare:\fImode\fR
+.RS 4
+Sets the class data sharing (CDS) mode\&. Possible
+\fImode\fR
+arguments for this option include the following:
+.PP
 auto
-Use shared class data if possible\&. This is the default value for Java HotSpot 32-Bit Client VM\&.
-.TP     
+.RS 4
+Use CDS if possible\&. This is the default value for Java HotSpot 32\-Bit Client VM\&.
+.RE
+.PP
 on
-Require the use of class data sharing\&. Print an error message and exit if class data sharing cannot be used\&.
-.TP     
+.RS 4
+Require the use of CDS\&. Print an error message and exit if class data sharing cannot be used\&.
+.RE
+.PP
 off