changeset 14437:d0c319c32334

6328855: String: Matches hangs at short and easy Strings containing \r \n 6192895: java.util.regex.Matcher: Performance issue 6345469: java.util.regex.Matcher utilizes 100% of the CPU 6988218: RegEx matcher loops 6693451: RegEx matcher goes into infinite delay 7006761: Matcher.matches() has infinite loop 8140212: Slow performance of Matcher.find 8151481: j.u.regex.Pattern cleanup 6609854: Regex does not match correctly for negative nested character classes 4916384: CANON_EQ supports only combining character sequences with non-spacing marks 4867170: Pattern doesn't work with composite character in CANON_EQ mode 6995635: CANON_EQ pattern flag is buggy 6728861: ExceptionInInitializerError is caught when the pattern has precomposed character 6736245: A character in Composition Exclusion Table does not match itself 7080302: the normalization in java regex pattern may have flaw Reviewed-by: rriggs, okutsu, alanb
author sherman
date Tue, 10 May 2016 21:19:25 -0700
parents d1dfc4f0b24b
children 07b7895425c8
files src/java.base/share/classes/java/security/ProtectionDomain.java src/java.base/share/classes/java/security/SecureClassLoader.java src/java.base/share/classes/java/util/regex/CharPredicates.java src/java.base/share/classes/java/util/regex/IntHashSet.java src/java.base/share/classes/java/util/regex/Matcher.java src/java.base/share/classes/java/util/regex/Pattern.java src/java.base/share/classes/java/util/regex/PrintPattern.java src/java.base/share/classes/java/util/regex/UnicodeProp.java test/java/util/regex/RegExTest.java test/java/util/regex/TestCases.txt
diffstat 10 files changed, 1736 insertions(+), 1133 deletions(-) [+]
line wrap: on
line diff
--- a/src/java.base/share/classes/java/security/ProtectionDomain.java	Wed May 11 08:39:36 2016 +0800
+++ b/src/java.base/share/classes/java/security/ProtectionDomain.java	Tue May 10 21:19:25 2016 -0700
@@ -139,8 +139,6 @@
      */
     final Key key = new Key();
 
-    private static final Debug debug = Debug.getInstance("domain");
-
     /**
      * Creates a new ProtectionDomain with the given CodeSource and
      * Permissions. If the permissions object is not null, then
@@ -338,6 +336,13 @@
             " "+pc+"\n";
     }
 
+    /*
+     * holder class for the static field "debug" to delay its initialization
+     */
+    private static class DebugHolder {
+        private static final Debug debug = Debug.getInstance("domain");
+    }
+
     /**
      * Return true (merge policy permissions) in the following cases:
      *
@@ -359,7 +364,7 @@
         if (sm == null) {
             return true;
         } else {
-            if (debug != null) {
+            if (DebugHolder.debug != null) {
                 if (sm.getClass().getClassLoader() == null &&
                     Policy.getPolicyNoCheck().getClass().getClassLoader()
                                                                 == null) {
--- a/src/java.base/share/classes/java/security/SecureClassLoader.java	Wed May 11 08:39:36 2016 +0800
+++ b/src/java.base/share/classes/java/security/SecureClassLoader.java	Tue May 10 21:19:25 2016 -0700
@@ -62,8 +62,6 @@
     private final Map<CodeSourceKey, ProtectionDomain> pdcache
             = new ConcurrentHashMap<>(11);
 
-    private static final Debug debug = Debug.getInstance("scl");
-
     static {
         ClassLoader.registerAsParallelCapable();
     }
@@ -203,6 +201,13 @@
     }
 
     /*
+     * holder class for the static field "debug" to delay its initialization
+     */
+    private static class DebugHolder {
+        private static final Debug debug = Debug.getInstance("scl");
+    }
+
+    /*
      * Returned cached ProtectionDomain for the specified CodeSource.
      */
     private ProtectionDomain getProtectionDomain(CodeSource cs) {
@@ -222,9 +227,9 @@
                         = SecureClassLoader.this.getPermissions(cs);
                 ProtectionDomain pd = new ProtectionDomain(
                         cs, perms, SecureClassLoader.this, null);
-                if (debug != null) {
-                    debug.println(" getPermissions " + pd);
-                    debug.println("");
+                if (DebugHolder.debug != null) {
+                    DebugHolder.debug.println(" getPermissions " + pd);
+                    DebugHolder.debug.println("");
                 }
                 return pd;
             }
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/src/java.base/share/classes/java/util/regex/CharPredicates.java	Tue May 10 21:19:25 2016 -0700
@@ -0,0 +1,375 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2011, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+ *
+ * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+ * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
+ * particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
+ * by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
+ *
+ * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+ * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+ * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
+ * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+ * accompanied this code).
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+ * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+ * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+ *
+ * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
+ * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
+ * questions.
+ */
+
+package java.util.regex;
+
+import java.util.HashMap;
+import java.util.Locale;
+import java.util.regex.Pattern.CharPredicate;
+import java.util.regex.Pattern.BmpCharPredicate;
+
+class CharPredicates {
+
+    static final CharPredicate ALPHABETIC  = Character::isAlphabetic;
+
+    // \p{gc=Decimal_Number}
+    static final CharPredicate DIGIT       = Character::isDigit;
+
+    static final CharPredicate LETTER      = Character::isLetter;
+
+    static final CharPredicate IDEOGRAPHIC = Character::isIdeographic;
+
+    static final CharPredicate LOWERCASE   = Character::isLowerCase;
+
+    static final CharPredicate UPPERCASE   = Character::isUpperCase;
+
+    static final CharPredicate TITLECASE   = Character::isTitleCase;
+
+    // \p{Whitespace}
+    static final CharPredicate WHITE_SPACE = ch ->
+        ((((1 << Character.SPACE_SEPARATOR) |
+           (1 << Character.LINE_SEPARATOR) |
+           (1 << Character.PARAGRAPH_SEPARATOR)) >> Character.getType(ch)) & 1)
+        != 0 || (ch >= 0x9 && ch <= 0xd) || (ch == 0x85);
+
+    // \p{gc=Control}
+    static final CharPredicate CONTROL     = ch ->
+        Character.getType(ch) == Character.CONTROL;
+
+    // \p{gc=Punctuation}
+    static final CharPredicate PUNCTUATION = ch ->
+        ((((1 << Character.CONNECTOR_PUNCTUATION) |
+           (1 << Character.DASH_PUNCTUATION) |
+           (1 << Character.START_PUNCTUATION) |
+           (1 << Character.END_PUNCTUATION) |
+           (1 << Character.OTHER_PUNCTUATION) |
+           (1 << Character.INITIAL_QUOTE_PUNCTUATION) |
+           (1 << Character.FINAL_QUOTE_PUNCTUATION)) >> Character.getType(ch)) & 1)
+        != 0;
+
+    // \p{gc=Decimal_Number}
+    // \p{Hex_Digit}    -> PropList.txt: Hex_Digit
+    static final CharPredicate HEX_DIGIT = DIGIT.union(
+        ch -> (ch >= 0x0030 && ch <= 0x0039) ||
+              (ch >= 0x0041 && ch <= 0x0046) ||
+              (ch >= 0x0061 && ch <= 0x0066) ||
+              (ch >= 0xFF10 && ch <= 0xFF19) ||
+              (ch >= 0xFF21 && ch <= 0xFF26) ||
+              (ch >= 0xFF41 && ch <= 0xFF46));
+
+    static final CharPredicate ASSIGNED = ch ->
+        Character.getType(ch) != Character.UNASSIGNED;
+
+    // PropList.txt:Noncharacter_Code_Point
+    static final CharPredicate NONCHARACTER_CODE_POINT = ch ->
+        (ch & 0xfffe) == 0xfffe || (ch >= 0xfdd0 && ch <= 0xfdef);
+
+    // \p{alpha}
+    // \p{digit}
+    static final CharPredicate ALNUM = ALPHABETIC.union(DIGIT);
+
+    // \p{Whitespace} --
+    // [\N{LF} \N{VT} \N{FF} \N{CR} \N{NEL}  -> 0xa, 0xb, 0xc, 0xd, 0x85
+    //  \p{gc=Line_Separator}
+    //  \p{gc=Paragraph_Separator}]
+    static final CharPredicate BLANK = ch ->
+        Character.getType(ch) == Character.SPACE_SEPARATOR ||
+        ch == 0x9; // \N{HT}
+
+    // [^
+    //  \p{space}
+    //  \p{gc=Control}
+    //  \p{gc=Surrogate}
+    //  \p{gc=Unassigned}]
+    static final CharPredicate GRAPH = ch ->
+        ((((1 << Character.SPACE_SEPARATOR) |
+           (1 << Character.LINE_SEPARATOR) |
+           (1 << Character.PARAGRAPH_SEPARATOR) |
+           (1 << Character.CONTROL) |
+           (1 << Character.SURROGATE) |
+           (1 << Character.UNASSIGNED)) >> Character.getType(ch)) & 1)
+        == 0;
+
+    // \p{graph}
+    // \p{blank}
+    // -- \p{cntrl}
+    static final CharPredicate PRINT = GRAPH.union(BLANK).and(CONTROL.negate());
+
+    //  200C..200D    PropList.txt:Join_Control
+    static final CharPredicate JOIN_CONTROL = ch -> ch == 0x200C || ch == 0x200D;
+
+    //  \p{alpha}
+    //  \p{gc=Mark}
+    //  \p{digit}
+    //  \p{gc=Connector_Punctuation}
+    //  \p{Join_Control}    200C..200D
+    static final CharPredicate WORD =
+        ALPHABETIC.union(ch -> ((((1 << Character.NON_SPACING_MARK) |
+                                  (1 << Character.ENCLOSING_MARK) |
+                                  (1 << Character.COMBINING_SPACING_MARK) |
+                                  (1 << Character.DECIMAL_DIGIT_NUMBER) |
+                                  (1 << Character.CONNECTOR_PUNCTUATION))
+                                 >> Character.getType(ch)) & 1) != 0,
+                         JOIN_CONTROL);
+
+    /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+
+    private static final HashMap<String, CharPredicate> posix = new HashMap<>(12);
+    private static final HashMap<String, CharPredicate> uprops = new HashMap<>(18);
+
+    private static void defPosix(String name, CharPredicate p) {
+        posix.put(name, p);
+    }
+    private static void defUProp(String name, CharPredicate p) {
+        uprops.put(name, p);
+    }
+
+    static {
+        defPosix("ALPHA", ALPHABETIC);
+        defPosix("LOWER", LOWERCASE);
+        defPosix("UPPER", UPPERCASE);
+        defPosix("SPACE", WHITE_SPACE);
+        defPosix("PUNCT", PUNCTUATION);
+        defPosix("XDIGIT",HEX_DIGIT);
+        defPosix("ALNUM", ALNUM);
+        defPosix("CNTRL", CONTROL);
+        defPosix("DIGIT", DIGIT);
+        defPosix("BLANK", BLANK);
+        defPosix("GRAPH", GRAPH);
+        defPosix("PRINT", PRINT);
+
+        defUProp("ALPHABETIC", ALPHABETIC);
+        defUProp("ASSIGNED", ASSIGNED);
+        defUProp("CONTROL", CONTROL);
+        defUProp("HEXDIGIT", HEX_DIGIT);
+        defUProp("IDEOGRAPHIC", IDEOGRAPHIC);
+        defUProp("JOINCONTROL", JOIN_CONTROL);
+        defUProp("LETTER", LETTER);
+        defUProp("LOWERCASE", LOWERCASE);
+        defUProp("NONCHARACTERCODEPOINT", NONCHARACTER_CODE_POINT);
+        defUProp("TITLECASE", TITLECASE);
+        defUProp("PUNCTUATION", PUNCTUATION);
+        defUProp("UPPERCASE", UPPERCASE);
+        defUProp("WHITESPACE", WHITE_SPACE);
+        defUProp("WORD", WORD);
+        defUProp("WHITE_SPACE", WHITE_SPACE);
+        defUProp("HEX_DIGIT", HEX_DIGIT);
+        defUProp("NONCHARACTER_CODE_POINT", NONCHARACTER_CODE_POINT);
+        defUProp("JOIN_CONTROL", JOIN_CONTROL);
+    }
+
+    public static CharPredicate forUnicodeProperty(String propName) {
+        propName = propName.toUpperCase(Locale.ROOT);
+        CharPredicate p = uprops.get(propName);
+        if (p != null)
+            return p;
+        return posix.get(propName);
+    }
+
+    public static CharPredicate forPOSIXName(String propName) {
+        return posix.get(propName.toUpperCase(Locale.ENGLISH));
+    }
+
+    /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a predicate matching all characters belong to a named
+     * UnicodeScript.
+     */
+    static CharPredicate forUnicodeScript(String name) {
+        final Character.UnicodeScript script;
+        try {
+            script = Character.UnicodeScript.forName(name);
+            return ch -> script == Character.UnicodeScript.of(ch);
+        } catch (IllegalArgumentException iae) {}
+        return null;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a predicate matching all characters in a UnicodeBlock.
+     */
+    static CharPredicate forUnicodeBlock(String name) {
+        final Character.UnicodeBlock block;
+        try {
+            block = Character.UnicodeBlock.forName(name);
+            return ch -> block == Character.UnicodeBlock.of(ch);
+        } catch (IllegalArgumentException iae) {}
+         return null;
+    }
+
+    /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+
+    // unicode categories, aliases, properties, java methods ...
+
+    private static final HashMap<String, CharPredicate> props = new HashMap<>(128);
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a predicate matching all characters in a named property.
+     */
+    static CharPredicate forProperty(String name) {
+        return props.get(name);
+    }
+
+    private static void defProp(String name, CharPredicate p) {
+        props.put(name, p);
+    }
+
+    private static void defCategory(String name, final int typeMask) {
+        CharPredicate p = ch -> (typeMask & (1 << Character.getType(ch))) != 0;
+        props.put(name, p);
+    }
+
+    private static void defRange(String name, final int lower, final int upper) {
+        BmpCharPredicate p = ch -> lower <= ch && ch <= upper;
+        props.put(name, p);
+    }
+
+    private static void defCtype(String name, final int ctype) {
+        BmpCharPredicate p = ch -> ch < 128 && ASCII.isType(ch, ctype);
+        // PrintPattern.pmap.put(p, name);
+        props.put(name, p);
+    }
+
+    static {
+        // Unicode character property aliases, defined in
+        // http://www.unicode.org/Public/UNIDATA/PropertyValueAliases.txt
+        defCategory("Cn", 1<<Character.UNASSIGNED);
+        defCategory("Lu", 1<<Character.UPPERCASE_LETTER);
+        defCategory("Ll", 1<<Character.LOWERCASE_LETTER);
+        defCategory("Lt", 1<<Character.TITLECASE_LETTER);
+        defCategory("Lm", 1<<Character.MODIFIER_LETTER);
+        defCategory("Lo", 1<<Character.OTHER_LETTER);
+        defCategory("Mn", 1<<Character.NON_SPACING_MARK);
+        defCategory("Me", 1<<Character.ENCLOSING_MARK);
+        defCategory("Mc", 1<<Character.COMBINING_SPACING_MARK);
+        defCategory("Nd", 1<<Character.DECIMAL_DIGIT_NUMBER);
+        defCategory("Nl", 1<<Character.LETTER_NUMBER);
+        defCategory("No", 1<<Character.OTHER_NUMBER);
+        defCategory("Zs", 1<<Character.SPACE_SEPARATOR);
+        defCategory("Zl", 1<<Character.LINE_SEPARATOR);
+        defCategory("Zp", 1<<Character.PARAGRAPH_SEPARATOR);
+        defCategory("Cc", 1<<Character.CONTROL);
+        defCategory("Cf", 1<<Character.FORMAT);
+        defCategory("Co", 1<<Character.PRIVATE_USE);
+        defCategory("Cs", 1<<Character.SURROGATE);
+        defCategory("Pd", 1<<Character.DASH_PUNCTUATION);
+        defCategory("Ps", 1<<Character.START_PUNCTUATION);
+        defCategory("Pe", 1<<Character.END_PUNCTUATION);
+        defCategory("Pc", 1<<Character.CONNECTOR_PUNCTUATION);
+        defCategory("Po", 1<<Character.OTHER_PUNCTUATION);
+        defCategory("Sm", 1<<Character.MATH_SYMBOL);
+        defCategory("Sc", 1<<Character.CURRENCY_SYMBOL);
+        defCategory("Sk", 1<<Character.MODIFIER_SYMBOL);
+        defCategory("So", 1<<Character.OTHER_SYMBOL);
+        defCategory("Pi", 1<<Character.INITIAL_QUOTE_PUNCTUATION);
+        defCategory("Pf", 1<<Character.FINAL_QUOTE_PUNCTUATION);
+        defCategory("L", ((1<<Character.UPPERCASE_LETTER) |
+                          (1<<Character.LOWERCASE_LETTER) |
+                          (1<<Character.TITLECASE_LETTER) |
+                          (1<<Character.MODIFIER_LETTER)  |
+                          (1<<Character.OTHER_LETTER)));
+        defCategory("M", ((1<<Character.NON_SPACING_MARK) |
+                          (1<<Character.ENCLOSING_MARK)   |
+                          (1<<Character.COMBINING_SPACING_MARK)));
+        defCategory("N", ((1<<Character.DECIMAL_DIGIT_NUMBER) |
+                          (1<<Character.LETTER_NUMBER)        |
+                          (1<<Character.OTHER_NUMBER)));
+        defCategory("Z", ((1<<Character.SPACE_SEPARATOR) |
+                          (1<<Character.LINE_SEPARATOR)  |
+                          (1<<Character.PARAGRAPH_SEPARATOR)));
+        defCategory("C", ((1<<Character.CONTROL)     |
+                          (1<<Character.FORMAT)      |
+                          (1<<Character.PRIVATE_USE) |
+                          (1<<Character.SURROGATE))); // Other
+        defCategory("P", ((1<<Character.DASH_PUNCTUATION)      |
+                          (1<<Character.START_PUNCTUATION)     |
+                          (1<<Character.END_PUNCTUATION)       |
+                          (1<<Character.CONNECTOR_PUNCTUATION) |
+                          (1<<Character.OTHER_PUNCTUATION)     |
+                          (1<<Character.INITIAL_QUOTE_PUNCTUATION) |
+                          (1<<Character.FINAL_QUOTE_PUNCTUATION)));
+        defCategory("S", ((1<<Character.MATH_SYMBOL)     |
+                          (1<<Character.CURRENCY_SYMBOL) |
+                          (1<<Character.MODIFIER_SYMBOL) |
+                          (1<<Character.OTHER_SYMBOL)));
+        defCategory("LC", ((1<<Character.UPPERCASE_LETTER) |
+                           (1<<Character.LOWERCASE_LETTER) |
+                           (1<<Character.TITLECASE_LETTER)));
+        defCategory("LD", ((1<<Character.UPPERCASE_LETTER) |
+                           (1<<Character.LOWERCASE_LETTER) |
+                           (1<<Character.TITLECASE_LETTER) |
+                           (1<<Character.MODIFIER_LETTER)  |
+                           (1<<Character.OTHER_LETTER)     |
+                           (1<<Character.DECIMAL_DIGIT_NUMBER)));
+        defRange("L1", 0x00, 0xFF); // Latin-1
+        props.put("all", ch -> true);
+
+        // Posix regular expression character classes, defined in
+        // http://www.unix.org/onlinepubs/009695399/basedefs/xbd_chap09.html
+        defRange("ASCII", 0x00, 0x7F);   // ASCII
+        defCtype("Alnum", ASCII.ALNUM);  // Alphanumeric characters
+        defCtype("Alpha", ASCII.ALPHA);  // Alphabetic characters
+        defCtype("Blank", ASCII.BLANK);  // Space and tab characters
+        defCtype("Cntrl", ASCII.CNTRL);  // Control characters
+        defRange("Digit", '0', '9');     // Numeric characters
+        defCtype("Graph", ASCII.GRAPH);  // printable and visible
+        defRange("Lower", 'a', 'z');     // Lower-case alphabetic
+        defRange("Print", 0x20, 0x7E);   // Printable characters
+        defCtype("Punct", ASCII.PUNCT);  // Punctuation characters
+        defCtype("Space", ASCII.SPACE);  // Space characters
+        defRange("Upper", 'A', 'Z');     // Upper-case alphabetic
+        defCtype("XDigit",ASCII.XDIGIT); // hexadecimal digits
+
+        // Java character properties, defined by methods in Character.java
+        defProp("javaLowerCase", java.lang.Character::isLowerCase);
+        defProp("javaUpperCase",  Character::isUpperCase);
+        defProp("javaAlphabetic", java.lang.Character::isAlphabetic);
+        defProp("javaIdeographic", java.lang.Character::isIdeographic);
+        defProp("javaTitleCase", java.lang.Character::isTitleCase);
+        defProp("javaDigit", java.lang.Character::isDigit);
+        defProp("javaDefined", java.lang.Character::isDefined);
+        defProp("javaLetter", java.lang.Character::isLetter);
+        defProp("javaLetterOrDigit", java.lang.Character::isLetterOrDigit);
+        defProp("javaJavaIdentifierStart", java.lang.Character::isJavaIdentifierStart);
+        defProp("javaJavaIdentifierPart", java.lang.Character::isJavaIdentifierPart);
+        defProp("javaUnicodeIdentifierStart", java.lang.Character::isUnicodeIdentifierStart);
+        defProp("javaUnicodeIdentifierPart", java.lang.Character::isUnicodeIdentifierPart);
+        defProp("javaIdentifierIgnorable", java.lang.Character::isIdentifierIgnorable);
+        defProp("javaSpaceChar", java.lang.Character::isSpaceChar);
+        defProp("javaWhitespace", java.lang.Character::isWhitespace);
+        defProp("javaISOControl", java.lang.Character::isISOControl);
+        defProp("javaMirrored", java.lang.Character::isMirrored);
+    }
+
+    /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+
+    /**
+     * Posix ASCII variants, not in the lookup map
+     */
+    static final BmpCharPredicate ASCII_DIGIT = ch -> ch < 128 && ASCII.isDigit(ch);
+    static final BmpCharPredicate ASCII_WORD  = ch -> ch < 128 && ASCII.isWord(ch);
+    static final BmpCharPredicate ASCII_SPACE = ch -> ch < 128 && ASCII.isSpace(ch);
+
+}
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/src/java.base/share/classes/java/util/regex/IntHashSet.java	Tue May 10 21:19:25 2016 -0700
@@ -0,0 +1,98 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+ *
+ * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+ * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
+ * particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
+ * by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
+ *
+ * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+ * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+ * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
+ * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+ * accompanied this code).
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+ * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+ * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+ *
+ * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
+ * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
+ * questions.
+ */
+
+package java.util.regex;
+
+import java.util.Arrays;
+
+/**
+ * A lightweight hashset implementation for positive 'int'. Not safe for
+ * concurrent access.
+ */
+class IntHashSet {
+    private int[] entries;
+    private int[] hashes;
+    private int pos = 0;
+
+    public IntHashSet() {
+        this.entries = new int[16 << 1];      // initCapacity = 16;
+        this.hashes = new int[(16 / 2) | 1];  // odd -> fewer collisions
+        Arrays.fill(this.entries, -1);
+        Arrays.fill(this.hashes, -1);
+    }
+
+    public boolean contains(int i) {
+        int h = hashes[i % hashes.length];
+        while (h != -1) {
+            if (entries[h] == i)
+                return true;
+            h = entries[h + 1];
+        }
+        return false;
+    }
+
+    public void add(int i) {
+        int h0 = i % hashes.length;
+        int next = hashes[h0];
+        //  if invoker guarantees contains(i) checked before add(i)
+        //  the following check is not needed.
+        int next0 = next;
+        while (next0 != -1) {
+            if (entries[next0 ] == i)
+                return;
+            next0 = entries[next0 + 1];
+        }
+        hashes[h0] = pos;
+        entries[pos++] = i;
+        entries[pos++] = next;
+        if (pos == entries.length)
+            expand();
+    }
+
+    public void clear() {
+        Arrays.fill(this.entries, -1);
+        Arrays.fill(this.hashes, -1);
+        pos = 0;
+    }
+
+    private void expand() {
+        int[] old = entries;
+        int[] es = new int[old.length << 1];
+        int hlen = (old.length / 2) | 1;
+        int[] hs = new int[hlen];
+        Arrays.fill(es, -1);
+        Arrays.fill(hs, -1);
+        for (int n = 0; n < pos;) {  // re-hashing
+            int i = old[n];
+            int hsh = i % hlen;
+            int next = hs[hsh];
+            hs[hsh] = n;
+            es[n++] = i;
+            es[n++] = next;
+        }
+        this.entries = es;
+        this.hashes = hs;
+    }
+}
--- a/src/java.base/share/classes/java/util/regex/Matcher.java	Wed May 11 08:39:36 2016 +0800
+++ b/src/java.base/share/classes/java/util/regex/Matcher.java	Tue May 10 21:19:25 2016 -0700
@@ -178,6 +178,14 @@
     int[] locals;
 
     /**
+     * Storage used by top greedy Loop node to store a specific hash set to
+     * keep the beginning index of the failed repetition match. The nodes
+     * themselves are stateless, so they rely on this field to hold state
+     * during a match.
+     */
+    IntHashSet[] localsPos;
+
+    /**
      * Boolean indicating whether or not more input could change
      * the results of the last match.
      *
@@ -239,6 +247,7 @@
         int parentGroupCount = Math.max(parent.capturingGroupCount, 10);
         groups = new int[parentGroupCount * 2];
         locals = new int[parent.localCount];
+        localsPos = new IntHashSet[parent.localTCNCount];
 
         // Put fields into initial states
         reset();
@@ -375,6 +384,7 @@
             groups[i] = -1;
         for (int i = 0; i < locals.length; i++)
             locals[i] = -1;
+        localsPos = new IntHashSet[parentPattern.localTCNCount];
         modCount++;
         return this;
     }
@@ -397,6 +407,10 @@
             groups[i] = -1;
         for(int i=0; i<locals.length; i++)
             locals[i] = -1;
+        for (int i = 0; i < localsPos.length; i++) {
+            if (localsPos[i] != null)
+                localsPos[i].clear();
+        }
         lastAppendPosition = 0;
         from = 0;
         to = getTextLength();
@@ -1706,6 +1720,10 @@
         this.oldLast = oldLast < 0 ? from : oldLast;
         for (int i = 0; i < groups.length; i++)
             groups[i] = -1;
+        for (int i = 0; i < localsPos.length; i++) {
+            if (localsPos[i] != null)
+                localsPos[i].clear();
+        }
         acceptMode = NOANCHOR;
         boolean result = parentPattern.root.match(this, from, text);
         if (!result)
@@ -1729,6 +1747,10 @@
         this.oldLast = oldLast < 0 ? from : oldLast;
         for (int i = 0; i < groups.length; i++)
             groups[i] = -1;
+        for (int i = 0; i < localsPos.length; i++) {
+            if (localsPos[i] != null)
+                localsPos[i].clear();
+        }
         acceptMode = anchor;
         boolean result = parentPattern.matchRoot.match(this, from, text);
         if (!result)
--- a/src/java.base/share/classes/java/util/regex/Pattern.java	Wed May 11 08:39:36 2016 +0800
+++ b/src/java.base/share/classes/java/util/regex/Pattern.java	Tue May 10 21:19:25 2016 -0700
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 1999, 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1999, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -26,11 +26,15 @@
 package java.util.regex;
 
 import java.text.Normalizer;
+import java.text.Normalizer.Form;
 import java.util.Locale;
 import java.util.Iterator;
 import java.util.Map;
 import java.util.ArrayList;
 import java.util.HashMap;
+import java.util.LinkedHashSet;
+import java.util.List;
+import java.util.Set;
 import java.util.Arrays;
 import java.util.NoSuchElementException;
 import java.util.Spliterator;
@@ -984,6 +988,11 @@
     transient int[] buffer;
 
     /**
+     * A temporary storage used for predicate for double return.
+     */
+    transient CharPredicate predicate;
+
+    /**
      * Map the "name" of the "named capturing group" to its group id
      * node.
      */
@@ -995,6 +1004,24 @@
     transient GroupHead[] groupNodes;
 
     /**
+     * Temporary storage used to store the top level closure nodes.
+     */
+    transient List<Node> topClosureNodes;
+
+    /**
+     * The number of top greedy closure nodes in this Pattern. Used by
+     * matchers to allocate storage needed for a IntHashSet to keep the
+     * beginning pos {@code i} of all failed match.
+     */
+    transient int localTCNCount;
+
+    /*
+     * Turn off the stop-exponential-backtracking optimization if there
+     * is a group ref in the pattern.
+     */
+    transient boolean hasGroupRef;
+
+    /**
      * Temporary null terminated code point array used by pattern compiling.
      */
     private transient int[] temp;
@@ -1026,7 +1053,7 @@
      * If the Start node might possibly match supplementary characters.
      * It is set to true during compiling if
      * (1) There is supplementary char in pattern, or
-     * (2) There is complement node of Category or Block
+     * (2) There is complement node of a "family" CharProperty
      */
     private transient boolean hasSupplementary;
 
@@ -1338,6 +1365,7 @@
         // Initialize counts
         capturingGroupCount = 1;
         localCount = 0;
+        localTCNCount = 0;
 
         // if length > 0, the Pattern is lazily compiled
         if (pattern.length() == 0) {
@@ -1368,6 +1396,7 @@
         // Reset group index count
         capturingGroupCount = 1;
         localCount = 0;
+        localTCNCount = 0;
 
         if (pattern.length() > 0) {
             compile();
@@ -1378,105 +1407,114 @@
     }
 
     /**
-     * The pattern is converted to normalized form ({@linkplain
-     * java.text.Normalizer.Form.NFD NFD}, canonical decomposition)
-     * and then a pure group is constructed to match canonical
-     * equivalences of the characters.
+     * The pattern is converted to normalized form ({@link
+     * java.text.Normalizer.Form.NFC NFC}, canonical decomposition,
+     * followed by canonical composition for the character class
+     * part, and {@link java.text.Normalizer.Form.NFD NFD},
+     * canonical decomposition) for the rest), and then a pure
+     * group is constructed to match canonical equivalences of the
+     * characters.
      */
-    private void normalize() {
-        int lastCodePoint = -1;
-
-        // Convert pattern into normalized form
-        normalizedPattern = Normalizer.normalize(pattern, Normalizer.Form.NFD);
-        patternLength = normalizedPattern.length();
-
-        // Modify pattern to match canonical equivalences
-        StringBuilder newPattern = new StringBuilder(patternLength);
-        for(int i=0; i<patternLength; ) {
-            int c = normalizedPattern.codePointAt(i);
-            StringBuilder sequenceBuffer;
-            if ((Character.getType(c) == Character.NON_SPACING_MARK)
-                && (lastCodePoint != -1)) {
-                sequenceBuffer = new StringBuilder();
-                sequenceBuffer.appendCodePoint(lastCodePoint);
-                sequenceBuffer.appendCodePoint(c);
-                while(Character.getType(c) == Character.NON_SPACING_MARK) {
-                    i += Character.charCount(c);
-                    if (i >= patternLength)
-                        break;
-                    c = normalizedPattern.codePointAt(i);
-                    sequenceBuffer.appendCodePoint(c);
+    private static String normalize(String pattern) {
+        int plen = pattern.length();
+        StringBuilder pbuf = new StringBuilder(plen);
+        char last = 0;
+        int lastStart = 0;
+        char cc = 0;
+        for (int i = 0; i < plen;) {
+            char c = pattern.charAt(i);
+            if (cc == 0 &&    // top level
+                c == '\\' && i + 1 < plen && pattern.charAt(i + 1) == '\\') {
+                i += 2; last = 0;
+                continue;
+            }
+            if (c == '[' && last != '\\') {
+                if (cc == 0) {
+                    if (lastStart < i)
+                        normalizeSlice(pattern, lastStart, i, pbuf);
+                    lastStart = i;
                 }
-                String ea = produceEquivalentAlternation(
-                                               sequenceBuffer.toString());
-                newPattern.setLength(newPattern.length()-Character.charCount(lastCodePoint));
-                newPattern.append("(?:").append(ea).append(")");
-            } else if (c == '[' && lastCodePoint != '\\') {
-                i = normalizeCharClass(newPattern, i);
-            } else {
-                newPattern.appendCodePoint(c);
+                cc++;
+            } else if (c == ']' && last != '\\') {
+                cc--;
+                if (cc == 0) {
+                    normalizeClazz(pattern, lastStart, i + 1, pbuf);
+                    lastStart = i + 1;
+                }
             }
-            lastCodePoint = c;
-            i += Character.charCount(c);
-        }
-        normalizedPattern = newPattern.toString();
+            last = c;
+            i++;
+        }
+        assert (cc == 0);
+        if (lastStart < plen)
+            normalizeSlice(pattern, lastStart, plen, pbuf);
+        return pbuf.toString();
     }
 
-    /**
-     * Complete the character class being parsed and add a set
-     * of alternations to it that will match the canonical equivalences
-     * of the characters within the class.
-     */
-    private int normalizeCharClass(StringBuilder newPattern, int i) {
-        StringBuilder charClass = new StringBuilder();
-        StringBuilder eq = null;
-        int lastCodePoint = -1;
-        String result;
-
-        i++;
-        charClass.append("[");
-        while(true) {
-            int c = normalizedPattern.codePointAt(i);
-            StringBuilder sequenceBuffer;
-
-            if (c == ']' && lastCodePoint != '\\') {
-                charClass.append((char)c);
-                break;
-            } else if (Character.getType(c) == Character.NON_SPACING_MARK) {
-                sequenceBuffer = new StringBuilder();
-                sequenceBuffer.appendCodePoint(lastCodePoint);
-                while(Character.getType(c) == Character.NON_SPACING_MARK) {
-                    sequenceBuffer.appendCodePoint(c);
-                    i += Character.charCount(c);
-                    if (i >= normalizedPattern.length())
-                        break;
-                    c = normalizedPattern.codePointAt(i);
+    private static void normalizeSlice(String src, int off, int limit,
+                                       StringBuilder dst)
+    {
+        int len = src.length();
+        int off0 = off;
+        while (off < limit && ASCII.isAscii(src.charAt(off))) {
+            off++;
+        }
+        if (off == limit) {
+            dst.append(src, off0, limit);
+            return;
+        }
+        off--;
+        if (off < off0)
+            off = off0;
+        else
+            dst.append(src, off0, off);
+        while (off < limit) {
+            int ch0 = src.codePointAt(off);
+            if (".$|()[]{}^?*+\\".indexOf(ch0) != -1) {
+                dst.append((char)ch0);
+                off++;
+                continue;
+            }
+            int j = off + Character.charCount(ch0);
+            int ch1;
+            while (j < limit) {
+                ch1 = src.codePointAt(j);
+                if (Grapheme.isBoundary(ch0, ch1))
+                    break;
+                ch0 = ch1;
+                j += Character.charCount(ch1);
+            }
+            String seq = src.substring(off, j);
+            String nfd = Normalizer.normalize(seq, Normalizer.Form.NFD);
+            off = j;
+            if (nfd.length() > 1) {
+                ch0 = nfd.codePointAt(0);
+                ch1 = nfd.codePointAt(Character.charCount(ch0));
+                if (Character.getType(ch1) == Character.NON_SPACING_MARK) {
+                    Set<String> altns = new LinkedHashSet<>();
+                    altns.add(seq);
+                    produceEquivalentAlternation(nfd, altns);
+                    dst.append("(?:");
+                    altns.forEach( s -> dst.append(s + "|"));
+                    dst.delete(dst.length() - 1, dst.length());
+                    dst.append(")");
+                    continue;
                 }
-                String ea = produceEquivalentAlternation(
-                                                  sequenceBuffer.toString());
-
-                charClass.setLength(charClass.length()-Character.charCount(lastCodePoint));
-                if (eq == null)
-                    eq = new StringBuilder();
-                eq.append('|');
-                eq.append(ea);
-            } else {
-                charClass.appendCodePoint(c);
-                i++;
             }
-            if (i == normalizedPattern.length())
-                throw error("Unclosed character class");
-            lastCodePoint = c;
-        }
-
-        if (eq != null) {
-            result = "(?:"+charClass.toString()+eq.toString()+")";
-        } else {
-            result = charClass.toString();
-        }
-
-        newPattern.append(result);
-        return i;
+            String nfc = Normalizer.normalize(seq, Normalizer.Form.NFC);
+            if (!seq.equals(nfc) && !nfd.equals(nfc))
+                dst.append("(?:" + seq + "|" + nfd  + "|" + nfc + ")");
+            else if (!seq.equals(nfd))
+                dst.append("(?:" + seq + "|" + nfd + ")");
+            else
+                dst.append(seq);
+        }
+    }
+
+    private static void normalizeClazz(String src, int off, int limit,
+                                       StringBuilder dst)
+    {
+        dst.append(Normalizer.normalize(src.substring(off, limit), Form.NFC));
     }
 
     /**
@@ -1484,28 +1522,26 @@
      * combining marks that follow it, produce the alternation that will
      * match all canonical equivalences of that sequence.
      */
-    private String produceEquivalentAlternation(String source) {
-        int len = countChars(source, 0, 1);
-        if (source.length() == len)
-            // source has one character.
-            return source;
-
-        String base = source.substring(0,len);
-        String combiningMarks = source.substring(len);
-
+    private static void produceEquivalentAlternation(String src,
+                                                     Set<String> dst)
+    {
+        int len = countChars(src, 0, 1);
+        if (src.length() == len) {
+            dst.add(src);  // source has one character.
+            return;
+        }
+        String base = src.substring(0,len);
+        String combiningMarks = src.substring(len);
         String[] perms = producePermutations(combiningMarks);
-        StringBuilder result = new StringBuilder(source);
-
         // Add combined permutations
-        for(int x=0; x<perms.length; x++) {
+        for(int x = 0; x < perms.length; x++) {
             String next = base + perms[x];
-            if (x>0)
-                result.append("|"+next);
+            dst.add(next);
             next = composeOneStep(next);
-            if (next != null)
-                result.append("|"+produceEquivalentAlternation(next));
-        }
-        return result.toString();
+            if (next != null) {
+                produceEquivalentAlternation(next, dst);
+            }
+        }
     }
 
     /**
@@ -1517,7 +1553,7 @@
      * possibilities must be removed because they are not canonically
      * equivalent.
      */
-    private String[] producePermutations(String input) {
+    private static String[] producePermutations(String input) {
         if (input.length() == countChars(input, 0, 1))
             return new String[] {input};
 
@@ -1575,7 +1611,7 @@
         return result;
     }
 
-    private int getClass(int c) {
+    private static int getClass(int c) {
         return sun.text.Normalizer.getCombiningClass(c);
     }
 
@@ -1586,11 +1622,10 @@
      * combining mark followed by the remaining combining marks. Returns
      * null if the first two characters cannot be further composed.
      */
-    private String composeOneStep(String input) {
+    private static String composeOneStep(String input) {
         int len = countChars(input, 0, 2);
         String firstTwoCharacters = input.substring(0, len);
         String result = Normalizer.normalize(firstTwoCharacters, Normalizer.Form.NFC);
-
         if (result.equals(firstTwoCharacters))
             return null;
         else {
@@ -1677,7 +1712,7 @@
     private void compile() {
         // Handle canonical equivalences
         if (has(CANON_EQ) && !has(LITERAL)) {
-            normalize();
+            normalizedPattern = normalize(pattern);
         } else {
             normalizedPattern = pattern;
         }
@@ -1707,6 +1742,7 @@
         buffer = new int[32];
         groupNodes = new GroupHead[10];
         namedGroups = null;
+        topClosureNodes = new ArrayList<>(10);
 
         if (has(LITERAL)) {
             // Literal pattern handling
@@ -1737,12 +1773,26 @@
             root = hasSupplementary ? new StartS(matchRoot) : new Start(matchRoot);
         }
 
+        // Optimize the greedy Loop to prevent exponential backtracking, IF there
+        // is no group ref in this pattern. With a non-negative localTCNCount value,
+        // the greedy type Loop, Curly will skip the backtracking for any starting
+        // position "i" that failed in the past.
+        if (!hasGroupRef) {
+            for (Node node : topClosureNodes) {
+                if (node instanceof Loop) {
+                    // non-deterministic-greedy-group
+                    ((Loop)node).posIndex = localTCNCount++;
+                }
+            }
+        }
+
         // Release temporary storage
         temp = null;
         buffer = null;
         groupNodes = null;
         patternLength = 0;
         compiled = true;
+        topClosureNodes = null;
     }
 
     Map<String, Integer> namedGroups() {
@@ -1754,44 +1804,6 @@
     }
 
     /**
-     * Used to print out a subtree of the Pattern to help with debugging.
-     */
-    private static void printObjectTree(Node node) {
-        while(node != null) {
-            if (node instanceof Prolog) {
-                System.out.println(node);
-                printObjectTree(((Prolog)node).loop);
-                System.out.println("**** end contents prolog loop");
-            } else if (node instanceof Loop) {
-                System.out.println(node);
-                printObjectTree(((Loop)node).body);
-                System.out.println("**** end contents Loop body");
-            } else if (node instanceof Curly) {
-                System.out.println(node);
-                printObjectTree(((Curly)node).atom);
-                System.out.println("**** end contents Curly body");
-            } else if (node instanceof GroupCurly) {
-                System.out.println(node);
-                printObjectTree(((GroupCurly)node).atom);
-                System.out.println("**** end contents GroupCurly body");
-            } else if (node instanceof GroupTail) {
-                System.out.println(node);
-                System.out.println("Tail next is "+node.next);
-                return;
-            } else {
-                System.out.println(node);
-            }
-            node = node.next;
-            if (node != null)
-                System.out.println("->next:");
-            if (node == Pattern.accept) {
-                System.out.println("Accept Node");
-                node = null;
-            }
-       }
-    }
-
-    /**
      * Used to accumulate information about a subtree of the object graph
      * so that optimizations can be applied to the subtree.
      */
@@ -2083,7 +2095,10 @@
                 tail = root;
                 continue;
             case '[':
-                node = clazz(true);
+                if (has(CANON_EQ) && !has(LITERAL))
+                    node = new NFCCharProperty(clazz(true));
+                else
+                    node = newCharProperty(clazz(true));
                 break;
             case '\\':
                 ch = nextEscaped();
@@ -2096,7 +2111,11 @@
                     } else {
                         oneLetter = false;
                     }
-                    node = family(oneLetter, comp);
+                    // node = newCharProperty(family(oneLetter, comp));
+                    if (has(CANON_EQ) && !has(LITERAL))
+                        node = new NFCCharProperty(family(oneLetter, comp));
+                    else
+                        node = newCharProperty(family(oneLetter, comp));
                 } else {
                     unread();
                     node = atom();
@@ -2123,12 +2142,12 @@
             case '.':
                 next();
                 if (has(DOTALL)) {
-                    node = new All();
+                    node = new CharProperty(ALL);
                 } else {
-                    if (has(UNIX_LINES))
-                        node = new UnixDot();
-                    else {
-                        node = new Dot();
+                    if (has(UNIX_LINES)) {
+                        node = new CharProperty(UNIXDOT);
+                    } else {
+                        node = new CharProperty(DOT);
                     }
                 }
                 break;
@@ -2155,7 +2174,12 @@
             }
 
             node = closure(node);
-
+            /* save the top dot-greedy nodes (.*, .+) as well
+            if (node instanceof GreedyCharProperty &&
+                ((GreedyCharProperty)node).cp instanceof Dot) {
+                topClosureNodes.add(node);
+            }
+            */
             if (head == null) {
                 head = tail = node;
             } else {
@@ -2213,7 +2237,10 @@
                             unread();
                         else
                             oneLetter = false;
-                        return family(oneLetter, comp);
+                        if (has(CANON_EQ) && !has(LITERAL))
+                            return new NFCCharProperty(family(oneLetter, comp));
+                        else
+                            return newCharProperty(family(oneLetter, comp));
                     }
                 }
                 unread();
@@ -2251,7 +2278,7 @@
             break;
         }
         if (first == 1) {
-            return newSingle(buffer[0]);
+            return newCharProperty(single(buffer[0]));
         } else {
             return newSlice(buffer, first, hasSupplementary);
         }
@@ -2302,6 +2329,7 @@
                 break;
             }
         }
+        hasGroupRef = true;
         if (has(CASE_INSENSITIVE))
             return new CIBackRef(refNum, has(UNICODE_CASE));
         else
@@ -2346,9 +2374,13 @@
         case 'C':
             break;
         case 'D':
-            if (create) root = has(UNICODE_CHARACTER_CLASS)
-                               ? new Utype(UnicodeProp.DIGIT).complement()
-                               : new Ctype(ASCII.DIGIT).complement();
+            if (create) {
+                predicate = has(UNICODE_CHARACTER_CLASS) ?
+                            CharPredicates.DIGIT : CharPredicates.ASCII_DIGIT;
+                predicate = predicate.negate();
+                if (!inclass)
+                    root = newCharProperty(predicate);
+            }
             return -1;
         case 'E':
         case 'F':
@@ -2358,7 +2390,11 @@
             if (create) root = new LastMatch();
             return -1;
         case 'H':
-            if (create) root = new HorizWS().complement();
+            if (create) {
+                predicate = HorizWS.negate();
+                if (!inclass)
+                    root = newCharProperty(predicate);
+            }
             return -1;
         case 'I':
         case 'J':
@@ -2377,20 +2413,32 @@
             if (create) root = new LineEnding();
             return -1;
         case 'S':
-            if (create) root = has(UNICODE_CHARACTER_CLASS)
-                               ? new Utype(UnicodeProp.WHITE_SPACE).complement()
-                               : new Ctype(ASCII.SPACE).complement();
+            if (create) {
+                predicate = has(UNICODE_CHARACTER_CLASS) ?
+                            CharPredicates.WHITE_SPACE : CharPredicates.ASCII_SPACE;
+                predicate = predicate.negate();
+                if (!inclass)
+                    root = newCharProperty(predicate);
+            }
             return -1;
         case 'T':
         case 'U':
             break;
         case 'V':
-            if (create) root = new VertWS().complement();
+            if (create) {
+                predicate = VertWS.negate();
+                if (!inclass)
+                    root = newCharProperty(predicate);
+            }
             return -1;
         case 'W':
-            if (create) root = has(UNICODE_CHARACTER_CLASS)
-                               ? new Utype(UnicodeProp.WORD).complement()
-                               : new Ctype(ASCII.WORD).complement();
+            if (create) {
+                predicate = has(UNICODE_CHARACTER_CLASS) ?
+                            CharPredicates.WORD : CharPredicates.ASCII_WORD;
+                predicate = predicate.negate();
+                if (!inclass)
+                    root = newCharProperty(predicate);
+            }
             return -1;
         case 'X':
             if (inclass) break;
@@ -2430,9 +2478,12 @@
         case 'c':
             return c();
         case 'd':
-            if (create) root = has(UNICODE_CHARACTER_CLASS)
-                               ? new Utype(UnicodeProp.DIGIT)
-                               : new Ctype(ASCII.DIGIT);
+            if (create) {
+                predicate = has(UNICODE_CHARACTER_CLASS) ?
+                            CharPredicates.DIGIT : CharPredicates.ASCII_DIGIT;
+                if (!inclass)
+                    root = newCharProperty(predicate);
+            }
             return -1;
         case 'e':
             return '\033';
@@ -2441,7 +2492,11 @@
         case 'g':
             break;
         case 'h':
-            if (create) root = new HorizWS();
+            if (create) {
+                predicate = HorizWS;
+                if (!inclass)
+                    root = newCharProperty(predicate);
+            }
             return -1;
         case 'i':
         case 'j':
@@ -2455,6 +2510,7 @@
             if (!namedGroups().containsKey(name))
                 throw error("(named capturing group <"+ name+"> does not exit");
             if (create) {
+                hasGroupRef = true;
                 if (has(CASE_INSENSITIVE))
                     root = new CIBackRef(namedGroups().get(name), has(UNICODE_CASE));
                 else
@@ -2473,9 +2529,12 @@
         case 'r':
             return '\r';
         case 's':
-            if (create) root = has(UNICODE_CHARACTER_CLASS)
-                               ? new Utype(UnicodeProp.WHITE_SPACE)
-                               : new Ctype(ASCII.SPACE);
+            if (create) {
+                predicate = has(UNICODE_CHARACTER_CLASS) ?
+                            CharPredicates.WHITE_SPACE : CharPredicates.ASCII_SPACE;
+                if (!inclass)
+                    root = newCharProperty(predicate);
+            }
             return -1;
         case 't':
             return '\t';
@@ -2492,12 +2551,19 @@
             // compatibility concern '\013'/0x0B is returned if isrange.
             if (isrange)
                 return '\013';
-            if (create) root = new VertWS();
+            if (create) {
+                predicate = VertWS;
+                if (!inclass)
+                    root = newCharProperty(predicate);
+            }
             return -1;
         case 'w':
-            if (create) root = has(UNICODE_CHARACTER_CLASS)
-                               ? new Utype(UnicodeProp.WORD)
-                               : new Ctype(ASCII.WORD);
+            if (create) {
+                predicate = has(UNICODE_CHARACTER_CLASS) ?
+                            CharPredicates.WORD : CharPredicates.ASCII_WORD;
+                if (!inclass)
+                    root = newCharProperty(predicate);
+            }
             return -1;
         case 'x':
             return x();
@@ -2520,63 +2586,66 @@
      * is true except for the case of [abc&&def] where def is a separate
      * right hand node with "understood" brackets.
      */
-    private CharProperty clazz(boolean consume) {
-        CharProperty prev = null;
-        CharProperty node = null;
+    private CharPredicate clazz(boolean consume) {
+        CharPredicate prev = null;
+        CharPredicate curr = null;
         BitClass bits = new BitClass();
-        boolean include = true;
-        boolean firstInClass = true;
+        BmpCharPredicate bitsP = ch -> ch < 256 && bits.bits[ch];
+
+        boolean isNeg = false;
+        boolean hasBits = false;
         int ch = next();
+
+        // Negates if first char in a class, otherwise literal
+        if (ch == '^' && temp[cursor-1] == '[') {
+            ch = next();
+            isNeg = true;
+        }
         for (;;) {
             switch (ch) {
-                case '^':
-                    // Negates if first char in a class, otherwise literal
-                    if (firstInClass) {
-                        if (temp[cursor-1] != '[')
-                            break;
-                        ch = next();
-                        include = !include;
-                        continue;
-                    } else {
-                        // ^ not first in class, treat as literal
-                        break;
-                    }
                 case '[':
-                    firstInClass = false;
-                    node = clazz(true);
+                    curr = clazz(true);
                     if (prev == null)
-                        prev = node;
+                        prev = curr;
                     else
-                        prev = union(prev, node);
+                        prev = prev.union(curr);
                     ch = peek();
                     continue;
                 case '&':
-                    firstInClass = false;
                     ch = next();
                     if (ch == '&') {
                         ch = next();
-                        CharProperty rightNode = null;
+                        CharPredicate right = null;
                         while (ch != ']' && ch != '&') {
                             if (ch == '[') {
-                                if (rightNode == null)
-                                    rightNode = clazz(true);
+                                if (right == null)
+                                    right = clazz(true);
                                 else
-                                    rightNode = union(rightNode, clazz(true));
+                                    right = right.union(clazz(true));
                             } else { // abc&&def
                                 unread();
-                                rightNode = clazz(false);
+                                right = clazz(false);
                             }
                             ch = peek();
                         }
-                        if (rightNode != null)
-                            node = rightNode;
+                        if (hasBits) {
+                            // bits used, union has high precedence
+                            if (prev == null) {
+                                prev = curr = bitsP;
+                            } else {
+                                prev = prev.union(bitsP);
+                            }
+                            hasBits = false;
+                        }
+                        if (right != null)
+                            curr = right;
                         if (prev == null) {
-                            if (rightNode == null)
+                            if (right == null)
                                 throw error("Bad class syntax");
                             else
-                                prev = rightNode;
+                                prev = right;
                         } else {
-                            prev = intersection(prev, node);
+                            prev = prev.and(curr);
                         }
                     } else {
                         // treat as a literal &
@@ -2585,43 +2654,39 @@
                     }
                     continue;
                 case 0:
-                    firstInClass = false;
                     if (cursor >= patternLength)
                         throw error("Unclosed character class");
                     break;
                 case ']':
-                    firstInClass = false;
-                    if (prev != null) {
+                    if (prev != null || hasBits) {
                         if (consume)
                             next();
+                        if (prev == null)
+                            prev = bitsP;
+                        else if (hasBits)
+                            prev = prev.union(bitsP);
+                        if (isNeg)
+                            return prev.negate();
                         return prev;
                     }
                     break;
                 default:
-                    firstInClass = false;
                     break;
             }
-            node = range(bits);
-            if (include) {
-                if (prev == null) {
-                    prev = node;
-                } else {
-                    if (prev != node)
-                        prev = union(prev, node);
-                }
+            curr = range(bits);
+            if (curr == null) {    // the bits used
+                hasBits = true;
             } else {
-                if (prev == null) {
-                    prev = node.complement();
-                } else {
-                    if (prev != node)
-                        prev = setDifference(prev, node);
-                }
+                if (prev == null)
+                    prev = curr;
+                else if (prev != curr)
+                    prev = prev.union(curr);
             }
             ch = peek();
         }
     }
 
-    private CharProperty bitsOrSingle(BitClass bits, int ch) {
+    private CharPredicate bitsOrSingle(BitClass bits, int ch) {
         /* Bits can only handle codepoints in [u+0000-u+00ff] range.
            Use "single" node instead of bits when dealing with unicode
            case folding for codepoints listed below.
@@ -2643,19 +2708,46 @@
         if (ch < 256 &&
             !(has(CASE_INSENSITIVE) && has(UNICODE_CASE) &&
               (ch == 0xff || ch == 0xb5 ||
-               ch == 0x49 || ch == 0x69 ||  //I and i
-               ch == 0x53 || ch == 0x73 ||  //S and s
-               ch == 0x4b || ch == 0x6b ||  //K and k
-               ch == 0xc5 || ch == 0xe5)))  //A+ring
-            return bits.add(ch, flags());
-        return newSingle(ch);
+               ch == 0x49 || ch == 0x69 ||    //I and i
+               ch == 0x53 || ch == 0x73 ||    //S and s
+               ch == 0x4b || ch == 0x6b ||    //K and k
+               ch == 0xc5 || ch == 0xe5))) {  //A+ring
+            bits.add(ch, flags());
+            return null;
+        }
+        return single(ch);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     *  Returns a suitably optimized, single character predicate
+     */
+    private CharPredicate single(final int ch) {
+        if (has(CASE_INSENSITIVE)) {
+            int lower, upper;
+            if (has(UNICODE_CASE)) {
+                upper = Character.toUpperCase(ch);
+                lower = Character.toLowerCase(upper);
+                // Unicode case insensitive matches
+                if (upper != lower)
+                    return SingleU(lower);
+            } else if (ASCII.isAscii(ch)) {
+                lower = ASCII.toLower(ch);
+                upper = ASCII.toUpper(ch);
+                // Case insensitive matches a given BMP character
+                if (lower != upper)
+                    return SingleI(lower, upper);
+            }
+        }
+        if (isSupplementary(ch))
+            return SingleS(ch);
+        return Single(ch);  // Match a given BMP character
     }
 
     /**
      * Parse a single character or a character range in a character class
      * and return its representative node.
      */
-    private CharProperty range(BitClass bits) {
+    private CharPredicate range(BitClass bits) {
         int ch = peek();
         if (ch == '\\') {
             ch = nextEscaped();
@@ -2674,7 +2766,7 @@
                 unread();
                 ch = escape(true, true, isrange);
                 if (ch == -1)
-                    return (CharProperty) root;
+                    return predicate;
             }
         } else {
             next();
@@ -2696,10 +2788,13 @@
                     if (m < ch) {
                         throw error("Illegal character range");
                     }
-                    if (has(CASE_INSENSITIVE))
-                        return caseInsensitiveRangeFor(ch, m);
-                    else
-                        return rangeFor(ch, m);
+                    if (has(CASE_INSENSITIVE)) {
+                        if (has(UNICODE_CASE))
+                            return CIRangeU(ch, m);
+                        return CIRange(ch, m);
+                    } else {
+                        return Range(ch, m);
+                    }
                 }
             }
             return bitsOrSingle(bits, ch);
@@ -2710,12 +2805,10 @@
     /**
      * Parses a Unicode character family and returns its representative node.
      */
-    private CharProperty family(boolean singleLetter,
-                                boolean maybeComplement)
-    {
+    private CharPredicate family(boolean singleLetter, boolean isComplement) {
         next();
         String name;
-        CharProperty node = null;
+        CharPredicate p = null;
 
         if (singleLetter) {
             int c = temp[cursor];
@@ -2747,88 +2840,62 @@
             switch (name) {
                 case "sc":
                 case "script":
-                    node = unicodeScriptPropertyFor(value);
+                    p = CharPredicates.forUnicodeScript(value);
                     break;
                 case "blk":
                 case "block":
-                    node = unicodeBlockPropertyFor(value);
+                    p = CharPredicates.forUnicodeBlock(value);
                     break;
                 case "gc":
                 case "general_category":
-                    node = charPropertyNodeFor(value);
+                    p = CharPredicates.forProperty(value);
                     break;
                 default:
-                    throw error("Unknown Unicode property {name=<" + name + ">, "
-                                + "value=<" + value + ">}");
+                    break;
             }
+            if (p == null)
+                throw error("Unknown Unicode property {name=<" + name + ">, "
+                             + "value=<" + value + ">}");
+
         } else {
             if (name.startsWith("In")) {
-                // \p{inBlockName}
-                node = unicodeBlockPropertyFor(name.substring(2));
+                // \p{InBlockName}
+                p = CharPredicates.forUnicodeBlock(name.substring(2));
             } else if (name.startsWith("Is")) {
-                // \p{isGeneralCategory} and \p{isScriptName}
+                // \p{IsGeneralCategory} and \p{IsScriptName}
                 name = name.substring(2);
-                UnicodeProp uprop = UnicodeProp.forName(name);
-                if (uprop != null)
-                    node = new Utype(uprop);
-                if (node == null)
-                    node = CharPropertyNames.charPropertyFor(name);
-                if (node == null)
-                    node = unicodeScriptPropertyFor(name);
+                p = CharPredicates.forUnicodeProperty(name);
+                if (p == null)
+                    p = CharPredicates.forProperty(name);
+                if (p == null)
+                    p = CharPredicates.forUnicodeScript(name);
             } else {
                 if (has(UNICODE_CHARACTER_CLASS)) {
-                    UnicodeProp uprop = UnicodeProp.forPOSIXName(name);
-                    if (uprop != null)
-                        node = new Utype(uprop);
+                    p = CharPredicates.forPOSIXName(name);
                 }
-                if (node == null)
-                    node = charPropertyNodeFor(name);
+                if (p == null)
+                    p = CharPredicates.forProperty(name);
             }
-        }
-        if (maybeComplement) {
-            if (node instanceof Category || node instanceof Block)
-                hasSupplementary = true;
-            node = node.complement();
-        }
-        return node;
+            if (p == null)
+                throw error("Unknown character property name {In/Is" + name + "}");
+        }
+        if (isComplement) {
+            // it might be too expensive to detect if a complement of
+            // CharProperty can match "certain" supplementary. So just
+            // go with StartS.
+            hasSupplementary = true;
+            p = p.negate();
+        }
+        return p;
     }
 
-
-    /**
-     * Returns a CharProperty matching all characters belong to
-     * a UnicodeScript.
-     */
-    private CharProperty unicodeScriptPropertyFor(String name) {
-        final Character.UnicodeScript script;
-        try {
-            script = Character.UnicodeScript.forName(name);
-        } catch (IllegalArgumentException iae) {
-            throw error("Unknown character script name {" + name + "}");
-        }
-        return new Script(script);
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Returns a CharProperty matching all characters in a UnicodeBlock.
-     */
-    private CharProperty unicodeBlockPropertyFor(String name) {
-        final Character.UnicodeBlock block;
-        try {
-            block = Character.UnicodeBlock.forName(name);
-        } catch (IllegalArgumentException iae) {
-            throw error("Unknown character block name {" + name + "}");
-        }
-        return new Block(block);
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Returns a CharProperty matching all characters in a named property.
-     */
-    private CharProperty charPropertyNodeFor(String name) {
-        CharProperty p = CharPropertyNames.charPropertyFor(name);
+    private CharProperty newCharProperty(CharPredicate p) {
         if (p == null)
-            throw error("Unknown character property name {" + name + "}");
-        return p;
+            return null;
+        if (p instanceof BmpCharPredicate)
+            return new BmpCharProperty((BmpCharPredicate)p);
+        else
+            return new CharProperty(p);
     }
 
     /**
@@ -2859,6 +2926,7 @@
         Node head = null;
         Node tail = null;
         int save = flags;
+        int saveTCNCount = topClosureNodes.size();
         root = null;
         int ch = next();
         if (ch == '?') {
@@ -2884,7 +2952,7 @@
                 head = createGroup(true);
                 tail = root;
                 head.next = expr(tail);
-                head = tail = new Ques(head, INDEPENDENT);
+                head = tail = new Ques(head, Qtype.INDEPENDENT);
                 break;
             case '<':   // (?<xxx)  look behind
                 ch = read();
@@ -2928,6 +2996,9 @@
                 } else {
                     throw error("Unknown look-behind group");
                 }
+                // clear all top-closure-nodes inside lookbehind
+                if (saveTCNCount < topClosureNodes.size())
+                    topClosureNodes.subList(saveTCNCount, topClosureNodes.size()).clear();
                 break;
             case '$':
             case '@':
@@ -2968,15 +3039,20 @@
             return node;    // Dual return
         }
 
+        // have group closure, clear all inner closure nodes from the
+        // top list (no backtracking stopper optimization for inner
+        if (saveTCNCount < topClosureNodes.size())
+            topClosureNodes.subList(saveTCNCount, topClosureNodes.size()).clear();
+
         if (node instanceof Ques) {
             Ques ques = (Ques) node;
-            if (ques.type == POSSESSIVE) {
+            if (ques.type == Qtype.POSSESSIVE) {
                 root = node;
                 return node;
             }
             tail.next = new BranchConn();
             tail = tail.next;
-            if (ques.type == GREEDY) {
+            if (ques.type == Qtype.GREEDY) {
                 head = new Branch(head, null, tail);
             } else { // Reluctant quantifier
                 head = new Branch(null, head, tail);
@@ -2985,7 +3061,7 @@
             return head;
         } else if (node instanceof Curly) {
             Curly curly = (Curly) node;
-            if (curly.type == POSSESSIVE) {
+            if (curly.type == Qtype.POSSESSIVE) {
                 root = node;
                 return node;
             }
@@ -3002,10 +3078,14 @@
             } else { // Non-deterministic
                 int temp = ((GroupHead) head).localIndex;
                 Loop loop;
-                if (curly.type == GREEDY)
+                if (curly.type == Qtype.GREEDY) {
                     loop = new Loop(this.localCount, temp);
-                else  // Reluctant Curly
+                    // add the max_reps greedy to the top-closure-node list
+                    if (curly.cmax == MAX_REPS)
+                        topClosureNodes.add(loop);
+                } else {  // Reluctant Curly
                     loop = new LazyLoop(this.localCount, temp);
+                }
                 Prolog prolog = new Prolog(loop);
                 this.localCount += 1;
                 loop.cmin = curly.cmin;
@@ -3031,6 +3111,10 @@
             groupIndex = capturingGroupCount++;
         GroupHead head = new GroupHead(localIndex);
         root = new GroupTail(localIndex, groupIndex);
+
+        // for debug/print only, head.match does NOT need the "tail" info
+        head.tail = (GroupTail)root;
+
         if (!anonymous && groupIndex < 10)
             groupNodes[groupIndex] = head;
         return head;
@@ -3119,13 +3203,26 @@
 
     static final int MAX_REPS   = 0x7FFFFFFF;
 
-    static final int GREEDY     = 0;
-
-    static final int LAZY       = 1;
-
-    static final int POSSESSIVE = 2;
-
-    static final int INDEPENDENT = 3;
+    static enum Qtype {
+        GREEDY, LAZY, POSSESSIVE, INDEPENDENT
+    }
+
+    private Node curly(Node prev, int cmin) {
+        int ch = next();
+        if (ch == '?') {
+            next();
+            return new Curly(prev, cmin, MAX_REPS, Qtype.LAZY);
+        } else if (ch == '+') {
+            next();
+            return new Curly(prev, cmin, MAX_REPS, Qtype.POSSESSIVE);
+        }
+        if (prev instanceof BmpCharProperty) {
+            return new BmpCharPropertyGreedy((BmpCharProperty)prev, cmin);
+        } else if (prev instanceof CharProperty) {
+            return new CharPropertyGreedy((CharProperty)prev, cmin);
+        }
+        return new Curly(prev, cmin, MAX_REPS, Qtype.GREEDY);
+    }
 
     /**
      * Processes repetition. If the next character peeked is a quantifier
@@ -3140,32 +3237,16 @@
             ch = next();
             if (ch == '?') {
                 next();
-                return new Ques(prev, LAZY);
+                return new Ques(prev, Qtype.LAZY);
             } else if (ch == '+') {
                 next();
-                return new Ques(prev, POSSESSIVE);
+                return new Ques(prev, Qtype.POSSESSIVE);
             }
-            return new Ques(prev, GREEDY);
+            return new Ques(prev, Qtype.GREEDY);
         case '*':
-            ch = next();
-            if (ch == '?') {
-                next();
-                return new Curly(prev, 0, MAX_REPS, LAZY);
-            } else if (ch == '+') {
-                next();
-                return new Curly(prev, 0, MAX_REPS, POSSESSIVE);
-            }
-            return new Curly(prev, 0, MAX_REPS, GREEDY);
+            return curly(prev, 0);
         case '+':
-            ch = next();
-            if (ch == '?') {
-                next();
-                return new Curly(prev, 1, MAX_REPS, LAZY);
-            } else if (ch == '+') {
-                next();
-                return new Curly(prev, 1, MAX_REPS, POSSESSIVE);
-            }
-            return new Curly(prev, 1, MAX_REPS, GREEDY);
+            return curly(prev, 1);
         case '{':
             ch = temp[cursor+1];
             if (ASCII.isDigit(ch)) {
@@ -3194,12 +3275,12 @@
                 ch = peek();
                 if (ch == '?') {
                     next();
-                    curly = new Curly(prev, cmin, cmax, LAZY);
+                    curly = new Curly(prev, cmin, cmax, Qtype.LAZY);
                 } else if (ch == '+') {
                     next();
-                    curly = new Curly(prev, cmin, cmax, POSSESSIVE);
+                    curly = new Curly(prev, cmin, cmax, Qtype.POSSESSIVE);
                 } else {
-                    curly = new Curly(prev, cmin, cmax, GREEDY);
+                    curly = new Curly(prev, cmin, cmax, Qtype.GREEDY);
                 }
                 return curly;
             } else {
@@ -3376,10 +3457,15 @@
      *  never matches values above Latin-1, and a complemented BitClass always
      *  matches values above Latin-1.
      */
-    private static final class BitClass extends BmpCharProperty {
+    static final class BitClass extends BmpCharProperty {
         final boolean[] bits;
-        BitClass() { bits = new boolean[256]; }
-        private BitClass(boolean[] bits) { this.bits = bits; }
+        BitClass() {
+            this(new boolean[256]);
+        }
+        private BitClass(boolean[] bits) {
+            super( ch -> ch < 256 && bits[ch]);
+            this.bits = bits;
+        }
         BitClass add(int c, int flags) {
             assert c >= 0 && c <= 255;
             if ((flags & CASE_INSENSITIVE) != 0) {
@@ -3394,32 +3480,6 @@
             bits[c] = true;
             return this;
         }
-        boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-            return ch < 256 && bits[ch];
-        }
-    }
-
-    /**
-     *  Returns a suitably optimized, single character matcher.
-     */
-    private CharProperty newSingle(final int ch) {
-        if (has(CASE_INSENSITIVE)) {
-            int lower, upper;
-            if (has(UNICODE_CASE)) {
-                upper = Character.toUpperCase(ch);
-                lower = Character.toLowerCase(upper);
-                if (upper != lower)
-                    return new SingleU(lower);
-            } else if (ASCII.isAscii(ch)) {
-                lower = ASCII.toLower(ch);
-                upper = ASCII.toUpper(ch);
-                if (lower != upper)
-                    return new SingleI(lower, upper);
-            }
-        }
-        if (isSupplementary(ch))
-            return new SingleS(ch);    // Match a given Unicode character
-        return new Single(ch);         // Match a given BMP character
     }
 
     /**
@@ -3827,18 +3887,17 @@
      * Abstract node class to match one character satisfying some
      * boolean property.
      */
-    private abstract static class CharProperty extends Node {
-        abstract boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch);
-        CharProperty complement() {
-            return new CharProperty() {
-                    boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-                        return ! CharProperty.this.isSatisfiedBy(ch);}};
+    static class CharProperty extends Node {
+        CharPredicate predicate;
+
+        CharProperty (CharPredicate predicate) {
+            this.predicate = predicate;
         }
         boolean match(Matcher matcher, int i, CharSequence seq) {
             if (i < matcher.to) {
                 int ch = Character.codePointAt(seq, i);
-                return isSatisfiedBy(ch)
-                    && next.match(matcher, i+Character.charCount(ch), seq);
+                return predicate.is(ch) &&
+                       next.match(matcher, i + Character.charCount(ch), seq);
             } else {
                 matcher.hitEnd = true;
                 return false;
@@ -3855,11 +3914,14 @@
      * Optimized version of CharProperty that works only for
      * properties never satisfied by Supplementary characters.
      */
-    private abstract static class BmpCharProperty extends CharProperty {
+    private static class BmpCharProperty extends CharProperty {
+        BmpCharProperty (BmpCharPredicate predicate) {
+            super(predicate);
+        }
         boolean match(Matcher matcher, int i, CharSequence seq) {
             if (i < matcher.to) {
-                return isSatisfiedBy(seq.charAt(i))
-                    && next.match(matcher, i+1, seq);
+                return predicate.is(seq.charAt(i)) &&
+                       next.match(matcher, i + 1, seq);
             } else {
                 matcher.hitEnd = true;
                 return false;
@@ -3867,135 +3929,53 @@
         }
     }
 
-    /**
-     * Node class that matches a Supplementary Unicode character
-     */
-    static final class SingleS extends CharProperty {
-        final int c;
-        SingleS(int c) { this.c = c; }
-        boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-            return ch == c;
-        }
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Optimization -- matches a given BMP character
-     */
-    static final class Single extends BmpCharProperty {
-        final int c;
-        Single(int c) { this.c = c; }
-        boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-            return ch == c;
-        }
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Case insensitive matches a given BMP character
-     */
-    static final class SingleI extends BmpCharProperty {
-        final int lower;
-        final int upper;
-        SingleI(int lower, int upper) {
-            this.lower = lower;
-            this.upper = upper;
-        }
-        boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-            return ch == lower || ch == upper;
-        }
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Unicode case insensitive matches a given Unicode character
-     */
-    static final class SingleU extends CharProperty {
-        final int lower;
-        SingleU(int lower) {
-            this.lower = lower;
-        }
-        boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-            return lower == ch ||
-                lower == Character.toLowerCase(Character.toUpperCase(ch));
-        }
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Node class that matches a Unicode block.
-     */
-    static final class Block extends CharProperty {
-        final Character.UnicodeBlock block;
-        Block(Character.UnicodeBlock block) {
-            this.block = block;
-        }
-        boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-            return block == Character.UnicodeBlock.of(ch);
-        }
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Node class that matches a Unicode script
-     */
-    static final class Script extends CharProperty {
-        final Character.UnicodeScript script;
-        Script(Character.UnicodeScript script) {
-            this.script = script;
-        }
-        boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-            return script == Character.UnicodeScript.of(ch);
-        }
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Node class that matches a Unicode category.
-     */
-    static final class Category extends CharProperty {
-        final int typeMask;
-        Category(int typeMask) { this.typeMask = typeMask; }
-        boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-            return (typeMask & (1 << Character.getType(ch))) != 0;
-        }
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Node class that matches a Unicode "type"
-     */
-    static final class Utype extends CharProperty {
-        final UnicodeProp uprop;
-        Utype(UnicodeProp uprop) { this.uprop = uprop; }
-        boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-            return uprop.is(ch);
-        }
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Node class that matches a POSIX type.
-     */
-    static final class Ctype extends BmpCharProperty {
-        final int ctype;
-        Ctype(int ctype) { this.ctype = ctype; }
-        boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-            return ch < 128 && ASCII.isType(ch, ctype);
-        }
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Node class that matches a Perl vertical whitespace
-     */
-    static final class VertWS extends BmpCharProperty {
-        boolean isSatisfiedBy(int cp) {
-            return (cp >= 0x0A && cp <= 0x0D) ||
-                   cp == 0x85 || cp == 0x2028 || cp == 0x2029;
-        }
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Node class that matches a Perl horizontal whitespace
-     */
-    static final class HorizWS extends BmpCharProperty {
-        boolean isSatisfiedBy(int cp) {
-            return cp == 0x09 || cp == 0x20 || cp == 0xa0 ||
-                   cp == 0x1680 || cp == 0x180e ||
-                   cp >= 0x2000 && cp <= 0x200a ||
-                   cp == 0x202f || cp == 0x205f || cp == 0x3000;
+    private static class NFCCharProperty extends Node {
+        CharPredicate predicate;
+        NFCCharProperty (CharPredicate predicate) {
+            this.predicate = predicate;
+        }
+
+        boolean match(Matcher matcher, int i, CharSequence seq) {
+            if (i < matcher.to) {
+                int ch0 = Character.codePointAt(seq, i);
+                int n = Character.charCount(ch0);
+                int j = i + n;
+                while (j < matcher.to) {
+                    int ch1 = Character.codePointAt(seq, j);
+                    if (Grapheme.isBoundary(ch0, ch1))
+                        break;
+                    ch0 = ch1;
+                    j += Character.charCount(ch1);
+                }
+                if (i + n == j) {    // single, assume nfc cp
+                    if (predicate.is(ch0))
+                        return next.match(matcher, j, seq);
+                } else {
+                    while (i + n < j) {
+                        String nfc = Normalizer.normalize(
+                            seq.toString().substring(i, j), Normalizer.Form.NFC);
+                        if (nfc.codePointCount(0, nfc.length()) == 1) {
+                            if (predicate.is(nfc.codePointAt(0)) &&
+                                next.match(matcher, j, seq)) {
+                                return true;
+                            }
+                        }
+
+                        ch0 = Character.codePointBefore(seq, j);
+                        j -= Character.charCount(ch0);
+                    }
+                }
+                if (j < matcher.to)
+                    return false;
+            }
+            matcher.hitEnd = true;
+            return false;
+        }
+
+        boolean study(TreeInfo info) {
+            info.minLength++;
+            info.deterministic = false;
+            return next.study(info);
         }
     }
 
@@ -4217,81 +4197,13 @@
         }
     }
 
-    private static boolean inRange(int lower, int ch, int upper) {
-        return lower <= ch && ch <= upper;
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Returns node for matching characters within an explicit value range.
-     */
-    private static CharProperty rangeFor(final int lower,
-                                         final int upper) {
-        return new CharProperty() {
-                boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-                    return inRange(lower, ch, upper);}};
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Returns node for matching characters within an explicit value
-     * range in a case insensitive manner.
-     */
-    private CharProperty caseInsensitiveRangeFor(final int lower,
-                                                 final int upper) {
-        if (has(UNICODE_CASE))
-            return new CharProperty() {
-                boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-                    if (inRange(lower, ch, upper))
-                        return true;
-                    int up = Character.toUpperCase(ch);
-                    return inRange(lower, up, upper) ||
-                           inRange(lower, Character.toLowerCase(up), upper);}};
-        return new CharProperty() {
-            boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-                return inRange(lower, ch, upper) ||
-                    ASCII.isAscii(ch) &&
-                        (inRange(lower, ASCII.toUpper(ch), upper) ||
-                         inRange(lower, ASCII.toLower(ch), upper));
-            }};
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Implements the Unicode category ALL and the dot metacharacter when
-     * in dotall mode.
-     */
-    static final class All extends CharProperty {
-        boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-            return true;
-        }
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Node class for the dot metacharacter when dotall is not enabled.
-     */
-    static final class Dot extends CharProperty {
-        boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-            return (ch != '\n' && ch != '\r'
-                    && (ch|1) != '\u2029'
-                    && ch != '\u0085');
-        }
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Node class for the dot metacharacter when dotall is not enabled
-     * but UNIX_LINES is enabled.
-     */
-    static final class UnixDot extends CharProperty {
-        boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-            return ch != '\n';
-        }
-    }
-
     /**
      * The 0 or 1 quantifier. This one class implements all three types.
      */
     static final class Ques extends Node {
         Node atom;
-        int type;
-        Ques(Node node, int type) {
+        Qtype type;
+        Ques(Node node, Qtype type) {
             this.atom = node;
             this.type = type;
         }
@@ -4311,7 +4223,7 @@
             }
         }
         boolean study(TreeInfo info) {
-            if (type != INDEPENDENT) {
+            if (type != Qtype.INDEPENDENT) {
                 int minL = info.minLength;
                 atom.study(info);
                 info.minLength = minL;
@@ -4325,17 +4237,90 @@
     }
 
     /**
+     * Handles the greedy style repetition with the minimum either be
+     * 0 or 1 and the maximum be MAX_REPS, for * and + quantifier.
+     */
+    static class CharPropertyGreedy extends Node {
+        final CharPredicate predicate;
+        final int cmin;
+
+        CharPropertyGreedy(CharProperty cp, int cmin) {
+            this.predicate = cp.predicate;
+            this.cmin = cmin;
+        }
+        boolean match(Matcher matcher, int i,  CharSequence seq) {
+            int n = 0;
+            int to = matcher.to;
+            // greedy, all the way down
+            while (i < to) {
+                int ch = Character.codePointAt(seq, i);
+                if (!predicate.is(ch))
+                   break;
+                i += Character.charCount(ch);
+                n++;
+            }
+            if (i >= to) {
+                matcher.hitEnd = true;
+            }
+            while (n >= cmin) {
+                if (next.match(matcher, i, seq))
+                    return true;
+                if (n == cmin)
+                    return false;
+                 // backing off if match fails
+                int ch = Character.codePointBefore(seq, i);
+                i -= Character.charCount(ch);
+                n--;
+            }
+            return false;
+        }
+
+        boolean study(TreeInfo info) {
+            info.minLength += cmin;
+            if (info.maxValid) {
+                info.maxLength += MAX_REPS;
+            }
+            info.deterministic = false;
+            return next.study(info);
+        }
+    }
+
+    static final class BmpCharPropertyGreedy extends CharPropertyGreedy {
+
+        BmpCharPropertyGreedy(BmpCharProperty bcp, int cmin) {
+            super(bcp, cmin);
+        }
+
+        boolean match(Matcher matcher, int i,  CharSequence seq) {
+            int n = 0;
+            int to = matcher.to;
+            while (i < to && predicate.is(seq.charAt(i))) {
+                i++; n++;
+            }
+            if (i >= to) {
+                matcher.hitEnd = true;
+            }
+            while (n >= cmin) {
+                if (next.match(matcher, i, seq))
+                    return true;
+                i--; n--;  // backing off if match fails
+            }
+            return false;
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
      * Handles the curly-brace style repetition with a specified minimum and
      * maximum occurrences. The * quantifier is handled as a special case.
      * This class handles the three types.
      */
     static final class Curly extends Node {
         Node atom;
-        int type;
+        Qtype type;
         int cmin;
         int cmax;
 
-        Curly(Node node, int cmin, int cmax, int type) {
+        Curly(Node node, int cmin, int cmax, Qtype type) {
             this.atom = node;
             this.type = type;
             this.cmin = cmin;
@@ -4350,9 +4335,9 @@
                 }
                 return false;
             }
-            if (type == GREEDY)
+            if (type == Qtype.GREEDY)
                 return match0(matcher, i, j, seq);
-            else if (type == LAZY)
+            else if (type == Qtype.LAZY)
                 return match1(matcher, i, j, seq);
             else
                 return match2(matcher, i, j, seq);
@@ -4474,14 +4459,14 @@
      */
     static final class GroupCurly extends Node {
         Node atom;
-        int type;
+        Qtype type;
         int cmin;
         int cmax;
         int localIndex;
         int groupIndex;
         boolean capture;
 
-        GroupCurly(Node node, int cmin, int cmax, int type, int local,
+        GroupCurly(Node node, int cmin, int cmax, Qtype type, int local,
                    int group, boolean capture) {
             this.atom = node;
             this.type = type;
@@ -4521,9 +4506,9 @@
                 }
             }
             if (ret) {
-                if (type == GREEDY) {
+                if (type == Qtype.GREEDY) {
                     ret = match0(matcher, i, cmin, seq);
-                } else if (type == LAZY) {
+                } else if (type == Qtype.LAZY) {
                     ret = match1(matcher, i, cmin, seq);
                 } else {
                     ret = match2(matcher, i, cmin, seq);
@@ -4769,6 +4754,7 @@
      */
     static final class GroupHead extends Node {
         int localIndex;
+        GroupTail tail;    // for debug/print only, match does not need to know
         GroupHead(int localCount) {
             localIndex = localCount;
         }
@@ -4876,9 +4862,11 @@
         int countIndex; // local count index in matcher locals
         int beginIndex; // group beginning index
         int cmin, cmax;
+        int posIndex;
         Loop(int countIndex, int beginIndex) {
             this.countIndex = countIndex;
             this.beginIndex = beginIndex;
+            this.posIndex = -1;
         }
         boolean match(Matcher matcher, int i, CharSequence seq) {
             // Avoid infinite loop in zero-length case.
@@ -4901,14 +4889,25 @@
                 // This block is for after we have the minimum
                 // iterations required for the loop to match
                 if (count < cmax) {
+                    // Let's check if we have already tried and failed
+                    // at this starting position "i" in the past.
+                    // If yes, then just return false wihtout trying
+                    // again, to stop the exponential backtracking.
+                    if (posIndex != -1 &&
+                        matcher.localsPos[posIndex].contains(i)) {
+                        return next.match(matcher, i, seq);
+                    }
                     matcher.locals[countIndex] = count + 1;
                     boolean b = body.match(matcher, i, seq);
                     // If match failed we must backtrack, so
                     // the loop count should NOT be incremented
-                    if (!b)
-                        matcher.locals[countIndex] = count;
-                    else
+                    if (b)
                         return true;
+                    matcher.locals[countIndex] = count;
+                    // save the failed position
+                    if (posIndex != -1) {
+                        matcher.localsPos[posIndex].add(i);
+                    }
                 }
             }
             return next.match(matcher, i, seq);
@@ -4916,6 +4915,9 @@
         boolean matchInit(Matcher matcher, int i, CharSequence seq) {
             int save = matcher.locals[countIndex];
             boolean ret = false;
+            if (posIndex != -1 && matcher.localsPos[posIndex] == null) {
+                matcher.localsPos[posIndex] = new IntHashSet();
+            }
             if (0 < cmin) {
                 matcher.locals[countIndex] = 1;
                 ret = body.match(matcher, i, seq);
@@ -5362,36 +5364,6 @@
     }
 
     /**
-     * Returns the set union of two CharProperty nodes.
-     */
-    private static CharProperty union(final CharProperty lhs,
-                                      final CharProperty rhs) {
-        return new CharProperty() {
-                boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-                    return lhs.isSatisfiedBy(ch) || rhs.isSatisfiedBy(ch);}};
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Returns the set intersection of two CharProperty nodes.
-     */
-    private static CharProperty intersection(final CharProperty lhs,
-                                             final CharProperty rhs) {
-        return new CharProperty() {
-                boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-                    return lhs.isSatisfiedBy(ch) && rhs.isSatisfiedBy(ch);}};
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Returns the set difference of two CharProperty nodes.
-     */
-    private static CharProperty setDifference(final CharProperty lhs,
-                                              final CharProperty rhs) {
-        return new CharProperty() {
-                boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-                    return ! rhs.isSatisfiedBy(ch) && lhs.isSatisfiedBy(ch);}};
-    }
-
-    /**
      * Handles word boundaries. Includes a field to allow this one class to
      * deal with the different types of word boundaries we can match. The word
      * characters include underscores, letters, and digits. Non spacing marks
@@ -5411,7 +5383,7 @@
         }
 
         boolean isWord(int ch) {
-            return useUWORD ? UnicodeProp.WORD.is(ch)
+            return useUWORD ? CharPredicates.WORD.is(ch)
                             : (ch == '_' || Character.isLetterOrDigit(ch));
         }
 
@@ -5657,214 +5629,154 @@
         }
     }
 
-///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
-///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+    @FunctionalInterface
+    static interface CharPredicate {
+        boolean is(int ch);
+
+        default CharPredicate and(CharPredicate p) {
+            return ch -> is(ch) && p.is(ch);
+        }
+        default CharPredicate union(CharPredicate p) {
+            return ch -> is(ch) || p.is(ch);
+        }
+        default CharPredicate union(CharPredicate p1,
+                                    CharPredicate p2 ) {
+            return ch -> is(ch) || p1.is(ch) || p2.is(ch);
+        }
+        default CharPredicate negate() {
+            return ch -> !is(ch);
+        }
+    }
+
+    static interface BmpCharPredicate extends CharPredicate {
+
+        default CharPredicate and(CharPredicate p) {
+            if(p instanceof BmpCharPredicate)
+                return (BmpCharPredicate)(ch -> is(ch) && p.is(ch));
+            return ch -> is(ch) && p.is(ch);
+        }
+        default CharPredicate union(CharPredicate p) {
+            if (p instanceof BmpCharPredicate)
+                return (BmpCharPredicate)(ch -> is(ch) || p.is(ch));
+            return ch -> is(ch) || p.is(ch);
+        }
+        static CharPredicate union(CharPredicate... predicates) {
+            CharPredicate cp = ch -> {
+                for (CharPredicate p : predicates) {
+                    if (!p.is(ch))
+                        return false;
+                }
+                return true;
+            };
+            for (CharPredicate p : predicates) {
+                if (! (p instanceof BmpCharPredicate))
+                    return cp;
+            }
+            return (BmpCharPredicate)cp;
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * matches a Perl vertical whitespace
+     */
+    static BmpCharPredicate VertWS = cp ->
+        (cp >= 0x0A && cp <= 0x0D) || cp == 0x85 || cp == 0x2028 || cp == 0x2029;
+
+    /**
+     * matches a Perl horizontal whitespace
+     */
+    static BmpCharPredicate HorizWS = cp ->
+        cp == 0x09 || cp == 0x20 || cp == 0xa0 || cp == 0x1680 ||
+        cp == 0x180e || cp >= 0x2000 && cp <= 0x200a ||  cp == 0x202f ||
+        cp == 0x205f || cp == 0x3000;
+
+    /**
+     *  for the Unicode category ALL and the dot metacharacter when
+     *  in dotall mode.
+     */
+    static CharPredicate ALL = ch -> true;
+
+    /**
+     * for the dot metacharacter when dotall is not enabled.
+     */
+    static CharPredicate DOT = ch -> (ch != '\n' && ch != '\r'
+                                          && (ch|1) != '\u2029'
+                                          && ch != '\u0085');
+    /**
+     *  the dot metacharacter when dotall is not enabled but UNIX_LINES is enabled.
+     */
+    static CharPredicate UNIXDOT = ch ->  ch != '\n';
+
+    /**
+     * Indicate that matches a Supplementary Unicode character
+     */
+    static CharPredicate SingleS(int c) {
+        return ch -> ch == c;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * A bmp/optimized predicate of single
+     */
+    static BmpCharPredicate Single(int c) {
+        return ch -> ch == c;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Case insensitive matches a given BMP character
+     */
+    static BmpCharPredicate SingleI(int lower, int upper) {
+        return ch -> ch == lower || ch == upper;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Unicode case insensitive matches a given Unicode character
+     */
+    static CharPredicate SingleU(int lower) {
+        return ch -> lower == ch ||
+                     lower == Character.toLowerCase(Character.toUpperCase(ch));
+    }
+
+    private static boolean inRange(int lower, int ch, int upper) {
+        return lower <= ch && ch <= upper;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Charactrs within a explicit value range
+     */
+    static CharPredicate Range(int lower, int upper) {
+        if (upper < Character.MIN_HIGH_SURROGATE ||
+            lower > Character.MAX_HIGH_SURROGATE &&
+            upper < Character.MIN_SUPPLEMENTARY_CODE_POINT)
+            return (BmpCharPredicate)(ch -> inRange(lower, ch, upper));
+        return ch -> inRange(lower, ch, upper);
+    }
+
+   /**
+    * Charactrs within a explicit value range in a case insensitive manner.
+    */
+    static CharPredicate CIRange(int lower, int upper) {
+        return ch -> inRange(lower, ch, upper) ||
+                     ASCII.isAscii(ch) &&
+                     (inRange(lower, ASCII.toUpper(ch), upper) ||
+                      inRange(lower, ASCII.toLower(ch), upper));
+    }
+
+    static CharPredicate CIRangeU(int lower, int upper) {
+        return ch -> {
+            if (inRange(lower, ch, upper))
+                return true;
+            int up = Character.toUpperCase(ch);
+            return inRange(lower, up, upper) ||
+                   inRange(lower, Character.toLowerCase(up), upper);
+        };
+    }
 
     /**
      *  This must be the very first initializer.
      */
-    static Node accept = new Node();
-
-    static Node lastAccept = new LastNode();
-
-    private static class CharPropertyNames {
-
-        static CharProperty charPropertyFor(String name) {
-            CharPropertyFactory m = map.get(name);
-            return m == null ? null : m.make();
-        }
-
-        private abstract static class CharPropertyFactory {
-            abstract CharProperty make();
-        }
-
-        private static void defCategory(String name,
-                                        final int typeMask) {
-            map.put(name, new CharPropertyFactory() {
-                    CharProperty make() { return new Category(typeMask);}});
-        }
-
-        private static void defRange(String name,
-                                     final int lower, final int upper) {
-            map.put(name, new CharPropertyFactory() {
-                    CharProperty make() { return rangeFor(lower, upper);}});
-        }
-
-        private static void defCtype(String name,
-                                     final int ctype) {
-            map.put(name, new CharPropertyFactory() {
-                    CharProperty make() { return new Ctype(ctype);}});
-        }
-
-        private abstract static class CloneableProperty
-            extends CharProperty implements Cloneable
-        {
-            public CloneableProperty clone() {
-                try {
-                    return (CloneableProperty) super.clone();
-                } catch (CloneNotSupportedException e) {
-                    throw new AssertionError(e);
-                }
-            }
-        }
-
-        private static void defClone(String name,
-                                     final CloneableProperty p) {
-            map.put(name, new CharPropertyFactory() {
-                    CharProperty make() { return p.clone();}});
-        }
-
-        private static final HashMap<String, CharPropertyFactory> map
-            = new HashMap<>();
-
-        static {
-            // Unicode character property aliases, defined in
-            // http://www.unicode.org/Public/UNIDATA/PropertyValueAliases.txt
-            defCategory("Cn", 1<<Character.UNASSIGNED);
-            defCategory("Lu", 1<<Character.UPPERCASE_LETTER);
-            defCategory("Ll", 1<<Character.LOWERCASE_LETTER);
-            defCategory("Lt", 1<<Character.TITLECASE_LETTER);
-            defCategory("Lm", 1<<Character.MODIFIER_LETTER);
-            defCategory("Lo", 1<<Character.OTHER_LETTER);
-            defCategory("Mn", 1<<Character.NON_SPACING_MARK);
-            defCategory("Me", 1<<Character.ENCLOSING_MARK);
-            defCategory("Mc", 1<<Character.COMBINING_SPACING_MARK);
-            defCategory("Nd", 1<<Character.DECIMAL_DIGIT_NUMBER);
-            defCategory("Nl", 1<<Character.LETTER_NUMBER);
-            defCategory("No", 1<<Character.OTHER_NUMBER);
-            defCategory("Zs", 1<<Character.SPACE_SEPARATOR);
-            defCategory("Zl", 1<<Character.LINE_SEPARATOR);
-            defCategory("Zp", 1<<Character.PARAGRAPH_SEPARATOR);
-            defCategory("Cc", 1<<Character.CONTROL);
-            defCategory("Cf", 1<<Character.FORMAT);
-            defCategory("Co", 1<<Character.PRIVATE_USE);
-            defCategory("Cs", 1<<Character.SURROGATE);
-            defCategory("Pd", 1<<Character.DASH_PUNCTUATION);
-            defCategory("Ps", 1<<Character.START_PUNCTUATION);
-            defCategory("Pe", 1<<Character.END_PUNCTUATION);
-            defCategory("Pc", 1<<Character.CONNECTOR_PUNCTUATION);
-            defCategory("Po", 1<<Character.OTHER_PUNCTUATION);
-            defCategory("Sm", 1<<Character.MATH_SYMBOL);
-            defCategory("Sc", 1<<Character.CURRENCY_SYMBOL);
-            defCategory("Sk", 1<<Character.MODIFIER_SYMBOL);
-            defCategory("So", 1<<Character.OTHER_SYMBOL);
-            defCategory("Pi", 1<<Character.INITIAL_QUOTE_PUNCTUATION);
-            defCategory("Pf", 1<<Character.FINAL_QUOTE_PUNCTUATION);
-            defCategory("L", ((1<<Character.UPPERCASE_LETTER) |
-                              (1<<Character.LOWERCASE_LETTER) |
-                              (1<<Character.TITLECASE_LETTER) |
-                              (1<<Character.MODIFIER_LETTER)  |
-                              (1<<Character.OTHER_LETTER)));
-            defCategory("M", ((1<<Character.NON_SPACING_MARK) |
-                              (1<<Character.ENCLOSING_MARK)   |
-                              (1<<Character.COMBINING_SPACING_MARK)));
-            defCategory("N", ((1<<Character.DECIMAL_DIGIT_NUMBER) |
-                              (1<<Character.LETTER_NUMBER)        |
-                              (1<<Character.OTHER_NUMBER)));
-            defCategory("Z", ((1<<Character.SPACE_SEPARATOR) |
-                              (1<<Character.LINE_SEPARATOR)  |
-                              (1<<Character.PARAGRAPH_SEPARATOR)));
-            defCategory("C", ((1<<Character.CONTROL)     |
-                              (1<<Character.FORMAT)      |
-                              (1<<Character.PRIVATE_USE) |
-                              (1<<Character.SURROGATE))); // Other
-            defCategory("P", ((1<<Character.DASH_PUNCTUATION)      |
-                              (1<<Character.START_PUNCTUATION)     |
-                              (1<<Character.END_PUNCTUATION)       |
-                              (1<<Character.CONNECTOR_PUNCTUATION) |
-                              (1<<Character.OTHER_PUNCTUATION)     |
-                              (1<<Character.INITIAL_QUOTE_PUNCTUATION) |
-                              (1<<Character.FINAL_QUOTE_PUNCTUATION)));
-            defCategory("S", ((1<<Character.MATH_SYMBOL)     |
-                              (1<<Character.CURRENCY_SYMBOL) |
-                              (1<<Character.MODIFIER_SYMBOL) |
-                              (1<<Character.OTHER_SYMBOL)));
-            defCategory("LC", ((1<<Character.UPPERCASE_LETTER) |
-                               (1<<Character.LOWERCASE_LETTER) |
-                               (1<<Character.TITLECASE_LETTER)));
-            defCategory("LD", ((1<<Character.UPPERCASE_LETTER) |
-                               (1<<Character.LOWERCASE_LETTER) |
-                               (1<<Character.TITLECASE_LETTER) |
-                               (1<<Character.MODIFIER_LETTER)  |
-                               (1<<Character.OTHER_LETTER)     |
-                               (1<<Character.DECIMAL_DIGIT_NUMBER)));
-            defRange("L1", 0x00, 0xFF); // Latin-1
-            map.put("all", new CharPropertyFactory() {
-                    CharProperty make() { return new All(); }});
-
-            // Posix regular expression character classes, defined in
-            // http://www.unix.org/onlinepubs/009695399/basedefs/xbd_chap09.html
-            defRange("ASCII", 0x00, 0x7F);   // ASCII
-            defCtype("Alnum", ASCII.ALNUM);  // Alphanumeric characters
-            defCtype("Alpha", ASCII.ALPHA);  // Alphabetic characters
-            defCtype("Blank", ASCII.BLANK);  // Space and tab characters
-            defCtype("Cntrl", ASCII.CNTRL);  // Control characters
-            defRange("Digit", '0', '9');     // Numeric characters
-            defCtype("Graph", ASCII.GRAPH);  // printable and visible
-            defRange("Lower", 'a', 'z');     // Lower-case alphabetic
-            defRange("Print", 0x20, 0x7E);   // Printable characters
-            defCtype("Punct", ASCII.PUNCT);  // Punctuation characters
-            defCtype("Space", ASCII.SPACE);  // Space characters
-            defRange("Upper", 'A', 'Z');     // Upper-case alphabetic
-            defCtype("XDigit",ASCII.XDIGIT); // hexadecimal digits
-
-            // Java character properties, defined by methods in Character.java
-            defClone("javaLowerCase", new CloneableProperty() {
-                boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-                    return Character.isLowerCase(ch);}});
-            defClone("javaUpperCase", new CloneableProperty() {
-                boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-                    return Character.isUpperCase(ch);}});
-            defClone("javaAlphabetic", new CloneableProperty() {
-                boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-                    return Character.isAlphabetic(ch);}});
-            defClone("javaIdeographic", new CloneableProperty() {
-                boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-                    return Character.isIdeographic(ch);}});
-            defClone("javaTitleCase", new CloneableProperty() {
-                boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-                    return Character.isTitleCase(ch);}});
-            defClone("javaDigit", new CloneableProperty() {
-                boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-                    return Character.isDigit(ch);}});
-            defClone("javaDefined", new CloneableProperty() {
-                boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-                    return Character.isDefined(ch);}});
-            defClone("javaLetter", new CloneableProperty() {
-                boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-                    return Character.isLetter(ch);}});
-            defClone("javaLetterOrDigit", new CloneableProperty() {
-                boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-                    return Character.isLetterOrDigit(ch);}});
-            defClone("javaJavaIdentifierStart", new CloneableProperty() {
-                boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-                    return Character.isJavaIdentifierStart(ch);}});
-            defClone("javaJavaIdentifierPart", new CloneableProperty() {
-                boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-                    return Character.isJavaIdentifierPart(ch);}});
-            defClone("javaUnicodeIdentifierStart", new CloneableProperty() {
-                boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-                    return Character.isUnicodeIdentifierStart(ch);}});
-            defClone("javaUnicodeIdentifierPart", new CloneableProperty() {
-                boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-                    return Character.isUnicodeIdentifierPart(ch);}});
-            defClone("javaIdentifierIgnorable", new CloneableProperty() {
-                boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-                    return Character.isIdentifierIgnorable(ch);}});
-            defClone("javaSpaceChar", new CloneableProperty() {
-                boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-                    return Character.isSpaceChar(ch);}});
-            defClone("javaWhitespace", new CloneableProperty() {
-                boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-                    return Character.isWhitespace(ch);}});
-            defClone("javaISOControl", new CloneableProperty() {
-                boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-                    return Character.isISOControl(ch);}});
-            defClone("javaMirrored", new CloneableProperty() {
-                boolean isSatisfiedBy(int ch) {
-                    return Character.isMirrored(ch);}});
-        }
-    }
+    static final Node accept = new Node();
+
+    static final Node lastAccept = new LastNode();
 
     /**
      * Creates a predicate which can be used to match a string.
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/src/java.base/share/classes/java/util/regex/PrintPattern.java	Tue May 10 21:19:25 2016 -0700
@@ -0,0 +1,220 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+ *
+ * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+ * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
+ * particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
+ * by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
+ *
+ * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+ * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+ * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
+ * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+ * accompanied this code).
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+ * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+ * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+ *
+ * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
+ * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
+ * questions.
+ */
+
+package java.util.regex;
+
+import java.util.HashMap;
+import java.util.regex.Pattern.CharPredicate;
+import java.util.regex.CharPredicates;
+import static java.util.regex.ASCII.*;
+
+/**
+ * A utility class to print out the pattern node tree.
+ */
+
+class PrintPattern {
+
+    private static HashMap<Pattern.Node, Integer> ids = new HashMap<>();
+
+    private static void print(Pattern.Node node, String text, int depth) {
+        if (!ids.containsKey(node))
+            ids.put(node, ids.size());
+        print("%6d:%" + (depth==0? "": depth<<1) + "s<%s>", ids.get(node), "", text);
+        if (ids.containsKey(node.next))
+            print(" (=>%d)", ids.get(node.next));
+        print("%n");
+    }
+
+    private static void print(String s, int depth) {
+        print("       %" + (depth==0?"":depth<<1) + "s<%s>%n", "", s);
+    }
+
+    private static void print(String fmt, Object ... args) {
+        System.err.printf(fmt, args);
+    }
+
+    private static String toStringCPS(int[] cps) {
+        StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder(cps.length);
+        for (int cp : cps)
+            sb.append(toStringCP(cp));
+        return sb.toString();
+    }
+
+    private static String toStringCP(int cp) {
+        return (isPrint(cp) ? "" + (char)cp
+                            : "\\u" + Integer.toString(cp, 16));
+    }
+
+    private static String toStringRange(int min, int max) {
+       if (max == Pattern.MAX_REPS) {
+           if (min == 0)
+               return " * ";
+           else if (min == 1)
+               return " + ";
+           return "{" + min + ", max}";
+       }
+       return "{" + min + ", " +  max + "}";
+    }
+
+    private static String toStringCtype(int type) {
+        switch(type) {
+        case UPPER:  return "ASCII.UPPER";
+        case LOWER:  return "ASCII.LOWER";
+        case DIGIT:  return "ASCII.DIGIT";
+        case SPACE:  return "ASCII.SPACE";
+        case PUNCT:  return "ASCII.PUNCT";
+        case CNTRL:  return "ASCII.CNTRL";
+        case BLANK:  return "ASCII.BLANK";
+        case UNDER:  return "ASCII.UNDER";
+        case ASCII:  return "ASCII.ASCII";
+        case ALPHA:  return "ASCII.ALPHA";
+        case ALNUM:  return "ASCII.ALNUM";
+        case GRAPH:  return "ASCII.GRAPH";
+        case WORD:   return "ASCII.WORD";
+        case XDIGIT: return "ASCII.XDIGIT";
+        default: return "ASCII ?";
+        }
+    }
+
+    private static String toString(Pattern.Node node) {
+        String name = node.getClass().getName();
+        return name.substring(name.lastIndexOf('$') + 1);
+    }
+
+    static HashMap<CharPredicate, String> pmap;
+    static {
+        pmap = new HashMap<>();
+        pmap.put(Pattern.ALL, "All");
+        pmap.put(Pattern.DOT, "Dot");
+        pmap.put(Pattern.UNIXDOT, "UnixDot");
+        pmap.put(Pattern.VertWS, "VertWS");
+        pmap.put(Pattern.HorizWS, "HorizWS");
+
+        pmap.put(CharPredicates.ASCII_DIGIT, "ASCII.DIGIT");
+        pmap.put(CharPredicates.ASCII_WORD,  "ASCII.WORD");
+        pmap.put(CharPredicates.ASCII_SPACE, "ASCII.SPACE");
+    }
+
+    static void walk(Pattern.Node node, int depth) {
+        depth++;
+        while(node != null) {
+            String name = toString(node);
+            String str;
+            if (node instanceof Pattern.Prolog) {
+                print(node, name, depth);
+                // print the loop here
+                Pattern.Loop loop = ((Pattern.Prolog)node).loop;
+                name = toString(loop);
+                str = name + " " + toStringRange(loop.cmin, loop.cmax);
+                print(loop, str, depth);
+                walk(loop.body, depth);
+                print("/" + name, depth);
+                node = loop;
+            } else if (node instanceof Pattern.Loop) {
+                return;  // stop here, body.next -> loop
+            } else if (node instanceof Pattern.Curly) {
+                Pattern.Curly c = (Pattern.Curly)node;
+                str = "Curly " + c.type + " " + toStringRange(c.cmin, c.cmax);
+                print(node, str, depth);
+                walk(c.atom, depth);
+                print("/Curly", depth);
+            } else if (node instanceof Pattern.GroupCurly) {
+                Pattern.GroupCurly gc = (Pattern.GroupCurly)node;
+                str = "GroupCurly " + gc.groupIndex / 2 +
+                      ", " + gc.type + " " + toStringRange(gc.cmin, gc.cmax);
+                print(node, str, depth);
+                walk(gc.atom, depth);
+                print("/GroupCurly", depth);
+            } else if (node instanceof Pattern.GroupHead) {
+                Pattern.GroupHead head = (Pattern.GroupHead)node;
+                Pattern.GroupTail tail = head.tail;
+                print(head, "Group.head " + (tail.groupIndex / 2), depth);
+                walk(head.next, depth);
+                print(tail, "/Group.tail " + (tail.groupIndex / 2), depth);
+                node = tail;
+            } else if (node instanceof Pattern.GroupTail) {
+                return;  // stopper
+            } else if (node instanceof Pattern.Ques) {
+                print(node, "Ques " + ((Pattern.Ques)node).type, depth);
+                walk(((Pattern.Ques)node).atom, depth);
+                print("/Ques", depth);
+            } else if (node instanceof Pattern.Branch) {
+                Pattern.Branch b = (Pattern.Branch)node;
+                print(b, name, depth);
+                int i = 0;
+                while (true) {
+                    if (b.atoms[i] != null) {
+                        walk(b.atoms[i], depth);
+                    } else {
+                        print("  (accepted)", depth);
+                    }
+                    if (++i == b.size)
+                        break;
+                    print("-branch.separator-", depth);
+                }
+                node = b.conn;
+                print(node, "/Branch", depth);
+            } else if (node instanceof Pattern.BranchConn) {
+                return;
+            } else if (node instanceof Pattern.CharProperty) {
+                str = pmap.get(((Pattern.CharProperty)node).predicate);
+                if (str == null)
+                    str = toString(node);
+                else
+                    str = "Single \"" + str + "\"";
+                print(node, str, depth);
+            } else if (node instanceof Pattern.SliceNode) {
+                str = name + "  \"" +
+                      toStringCPS(((Pattern.SliceNode)node).buffer) + "\"";
+                print(node, str, depth);
+            } else if (node instanceof Pattern.CharPropertyGreedy) {
+                Pattern.CharPropertyGreedy gcp = (Pattern.CharPropertyGreedy)node;
+                String pstr = pmap.get(gcp.predicate);
+                if (pstr == null)
+                    pstr = gcp.predicate.toString();
+                else
+                    pstr = "Single \"" + pstr + "\"";
+                str = name + " " + pstr + ((gcp.cmin == 0) ? "*" : "+");
+                print(node, str, depth);
+            } else if (node instanceof Pattern.BackRef) {
+                str = "GroupBackRef " + ((Pattern.BackRef)node).groupIndex / 2;
+                print(node, str, depth);
+            } else if (node instanceof Pattern.LastNode) {
+                print(node, "END", depth);
+            } else if (node == Pattern.accept) {
+                return;
+            } else {
+                print(node, name, depth);
+            }
+            node = node.next;
+        }
+    }
+
+    public static void main(String[] args) {
+        Pattern p = Pattern.compile(args[0]);
+        System.out.println("   Pattern: " + p);
+        walk(p.root, 0);
+    }
+}
--- a/src/java.base/share/classes/java/util/regex/UnicodeProp.java	Wed May 11 08:39:36 2016 +0800
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,246 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Copyright (c) 2011, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
- * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
- *
- * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
- * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
- * published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
- * particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
- * by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
- *
- * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
- * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
- * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
- * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
- * accompanied this code).
- *
- * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
- * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
- * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
- *
- * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
- * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
- * questions.
- */
-
-package java.util.regex;
-
-import java.util.HashMap;
-import java.util.Locale;
-
-enum UnicodeProp {
-
-    ALPHABETIC {
-        public boolean is(int ch) {
-            return Character.isAlphabetic(ch);
-        }
-    },
-
-    LETTER {
-        public boolean is(int ch) {
-            return Character.isLetter(ch);
-        }
-    },
-
-    IDEOGRAPHIC {
-        public boolean is(int ch) {
-            return Character.isIdeographic(ch);
-        }
-    },
-
-    LOWERCASE {
-        public boolean is(int ch) {
-            return Character.isLowerCase(ch);
-        }
-    },
-
-    UPPERCASE {
-        public boolean is(int ch) {
-            return Character.isUpperCase(ch);
-        }
-    },
-
-    TITLECASE {
-        public boolean is(int ch) {
-            return Character.isTitleCase(ch);
-        }
-    },
-
-    WHITE_SPACE {
-        // \p{Whitespace}
-        public boolean is(int ch) {
-            return ((((1 << Character.SPACE_SEPARATOR) |
-                      (1 << Character.LINE_SEPARATOR) |
-                      (1 << Character.PARAGRAPH_SEPARATOR)) >> Character.getType(ch)) & 1)
-                   != 0 || (ch >= 0x9 && ch <= 0xd) || (ch == 0x85);
-        }
-    },
-
-    CONTROL {
-        // \p{gc=Control}
-        public boolean is(int ch) {
-            return Character.getType(ch) == Character.CONTROL;
-        }
-    },
-
-    PUNCTUATION {
-        // \p{gc=Punctuation}
-        public boolean is(int ch) {
-            return ((((1 << Character.CONNECTOR_PUNCTUATION) |
-                      (1 << Character.DASH_PUNCTUATION) |
-                      (1 << Character.START_PUNCTUATION) |
-                      (1 << Character.END_PUNCTUATION) |
-                      (1 << Character.OTHER_PUNCTUATION) |
-                      (1 << Character.INITIAL_QUOTE_PUNCTUATION) |
-                      (1 << Character.FINAL_QUOTE_PUNCTUATION)) >> Character.getType(ch)) & 1)
-                   != 0;
-        }
-    },
-
-    HEX_DIGIT {
-        // \p{gc=Decimal_Number}
-        // \p{Hex_Digit}    -> PropList.txt: Hex_Digit
-        public boolean is(int ch) {
-            return DIGIT.is(ch) ||
-                   (ch >= 0x0030 && ch <= 0x0039) ||
-                   (ch >= 0x0041 && ch <= 0x0046) ||
-                   (ch >= 0x0061 && ch <= 0x0066) ||
-                   (ch >= 0xFF10 && ch <= 0xFF19) ||
-                   (ch >= 0xFF21 && ch <= 0xFF26) ||
-                   (ch >= 0xFF41 && ch <= 0xFF46);
-        }
-    },
-
-    ASSIGNED {
-        public boolean is(int ch) {
-            return Character.getType(ch) != Character.UNASSIGNED;
-        }
-    },
-
-    NONCHARACTER_CODE_POINT {
-        // PropList.txt:Noncharacter_Code_Point
-        public boolean is(int ch) {
-            return (ch & 0xfffe) == 0xfffe || (ch >= 0xfdd0 && ch <= 0xfdef);
-        }
-    },
-
-    DIGIT {
-        // \p{gc=Decimal_Number}
-        public boolean is(int ch) {
-            return Character.isDigit(ch);
-        }
-    },
-
-    ALNUM {
-        // \p{alpha}
-        // \p{digit}
-        public boolean is(int ch) {
-            return ALPHABETIC.is(ch) || DIGIT.is(ch);
-        }
-    },
-
-    BLANK {
-        // \p{Whitespace} --
-        // [\N{LF} \N{VT} \N{FF} \N{CR} \N{NEL}  -> 0xa, 0xb, 0xc, 0xd, 0x85
-        //  \p{gc=Line_Separator}
-        //  \p{gc=Paragraph_Separator}]
-        public boolean is(int ch) {
-            return Character.getType(ch) == Character.SPACE_SEPARATOR ||
-                   ch == 0x9; // \N{HT}
-        }
-    },
-
-    GRAPH {
-        // [^
-        //  \p{space}
-        //  \p{gc=Control}
-        //  \p{gc=Surrogate}
-        //  \p{gc=Unassigned}]
-        public boolean is(int ch) {
-            return ((((1 << Character.SPACE_SEPARATOR) |
-                      (1 << Character.LINE_SEPARATOR) |
-                      (1 << Character.PARAGRAPH_SEPARATOR) |
-                      (1 << Character.CONTROL) |
-                      (1 << Character.SURROGATE) |
-                      (1 << Character.UNASSIGNED)) >> Character.getType(ch)) & 1)
-                   == 0;
-        }
-    },
-
-    PRINT {
-        // \p{graph}
-        // \p{blank}
-        // -- \p{cntrl}
-        public boolean is(int ch) {
-            return (GRAPH.is(ch) || BLANK.is(ch)) && !CONTROL.is(ch);
-        }
-    },
-
-    WORD {
-        //  \p{alpha}
-        //  \p{gc=Mark}
-        //  \p{digit}
-        //  \p{gc=Connector_Punctuation}
-        //  \p{Join_Control}    200C..200D
-
-        public boolean is(int ch) {
-            return ALPHABETIC.is(ch) ||
-                   ((((1 << Character.NON_SPACING_MARK) |
-                      (1 << Character.ENCLOSING_MARK) |
-                      (1 << Character.COMBINING_SPACING_MARK) |
-                      (1 << Character.DECIMAL_DIGIT_NUMBER) |
-                      (1 << Character.CONNECTOR_PUNCTUATION)) >> Character.getType(ch)) & 1)
-                   != 0 ||
-                   JOIN_CONTROL.is(ch);
-        }
-    },
-
-    JOIN_CONTROL {
-        //  200C..200D    PropList.txt:Join_Control
-        public boolean is(int ch) {
-           return (ch == 0x200C || ch == 0x200D);
-        }
-    };
-
-    private static final HashMap<String, String> posix = new HashMap<>();
-    private static final HashMap<String, String> aliases = new HashMap<>();
-    static {
-        posix.put("ALPHA", "ALPHABETIC");
-        posix.put("LOWER", "LOWERCASE");
-        posix.put("UPPER", "UPPERCASE");
-        posix.put("SPACE", "WHITE_SPACE");
-        posix.put("PUNCT", "PUNCTUATION");
-        posix.put("XDIGIT","HEX_DIGIT");
-        posix.put("ALNUM", "ALNUM");
-        posix.put("CNTRL", "CONTROL");
-        posix.put("DIGIT", "DIGIT");
-        posix.put("BLANK", "BLANK");
-        posix.put("GRAPH", "GRAPH");
-        posix.put("PRINT", "PRINT");
-
-        aliases.put("WHITESPACE", "WHITE_SPACE");
-        aliases.put("HEXDIGIT","HEX_DIGIT");
-        aliases.put("NONCHARACTERCODEPOINT", "NONCHARACTER_CODE_POINT");
-        aliases.put("JOINCONTROL", "JOIN_CONTROL");
-    }
-
-    public static UnicodeProp forName(String propName) {
-        propName = propName.toUpperCase(Locale.ENGLISH);
-        String alias = aliases.get(propName);
-        if (alias != null)
-            propName = alias;
-        try {
-            return valueOf (propName);
-        } catch (IllegalArgumentException x) {}
-        return null;
-    }
-
-    public static UnicodeProp forPOSIXName(String propName) {
-        propName = posix.get(propName.toUpperCase(Locale.ENGLISH));
-        if (propName == null)
-            return null;
-        return valueOf (propName);
-    }
-
-    public abstract boolean is(int ch);
-}
--- a/test/java/util/regex/RegExTest.java	Wed May 11 08:39:36 2016 +0800
+++ b/test/java/util/regex/RegExTest.java	Tue May 10 21:19:25 2016 -0700
@@ -33,6 +33,9 @@
  * 6350801 6676425 6878475 6919132 6931676 6948903 6990617 7014645 7039066
  * 7067045 7014640 7189363 8007395 8013252 8013254 8012646 8023647 6559590
  * 8027645 8035076 8039124 8035975 8074678 6854417 8143854 8147531 7071819
+ * 8151481 4867170 7080302 6728861 6995635 6736245 4916384
+ * 6328855 6192895 6345469 6988218 6693451 7006761 8140212
+ *
  * @library /lib/testlibrary
  * @build jdk.testlibrary.*
  * @run main RegExTest
@@ -162,6 +165,7 @@
         patternAsPredicate();
         invalidFlags();
         grapheme();
+        expoBacktracking();
 
         if (failure) {
             throw new
@@ -2659,51 +2663,101 @@
         check(p, "test\u00e4\u0323\u0300", true);
         check(p, "test\u00e4\u0300\u0323", true);
 
-        /*
-         * The following canonical equivalence tests don't work. Bug id: 4916384.
-         *
+        Object[][] data = new Object[][] {
+
+        // JDK-4867170
+        { "[\u1f80-\u1f82]", "ab\u1f80cd",             "f", true },
+        { "[\u1f80-\u1f82]", "ab\u1f81cd",             "f", true },
+        { "[\u1f80-\u1f82]", "ab\u1f82cd",             "f", true },
+        { "[\u1f80-\u1f82]", "ab\u03b1\u0314\u0345cd", "f", true },
+        { "[\u1f80-\u1f82]", "ab\u03b1\u0345\u0314cd", "f", true },
+        { "[\u1f80-\u1f82]", "ab\u1f01\u0345cd",       "f", true },
+        { "[\u1f80-\u1f82]", "ab\u1f00\u0345cd",       "f", true },
+
+        { "\\p{IsGreek}",    "ab\u1f80cd",             "f", true },
+        { "\\p{IsGreek}",    "ab\u1f81cd",             "f", true },
+        { "\\p{IsGreek}",    "ab\u1f82cd",             "f", true },
+        { "\\p{IsGreek}",    "ab\u03b1\u0314\u0345cd", "f", true },
+        { "\\p{IsGreek}",    "ab\u1f01\u0345cd",       "f", true },
+
+        // backtracking, force to match "\u1f80", instead of \u1f82"
+        { "ab\\p{IsGreek}\u0300cd", "ab\u03b1\u0313\u0345\u0300cd", "m", true },
+
+        { "[\\p{IsGreek}]",  "\u03b1\u0314\u0345",     "m", true },
+        { "\\p{IsGreek}",    "\u03b1\u0314\u0345",     "m", true },
+
+        { "[^\u1f80-\u1f82]","\u1f81",                 "m", false },
+        { "[^\u1f80-\u1f82]","\u03b1\u0314\u0345",     "m", false },
+        { "[^\u1f01\u0345]", "\u1f81",                 "f", false },
+
+        { "[^\u1f81]+",      "\u1f80\u1f82",           "f", true },
+        { "[\u1f80]",        "ab\u1f80cd",             "f", true },
+        { "\u1f80",          "ab\u1f80cd",             "f", true },
+        { "\u1f00\u0345\u0300",  "\u1f82", "m", true },
+        { "\u1f80",          "-\u1f00\u0345\u0300-",   "f", true },
+        { "\u1f82",          "\u1f00\u0345\u0300",     "m", true },
+        { "\u1f82",          "\u1f80\u0300",           "m", true },
+
+        // JDK-7080302       # compile failed
+        { "a(\u0041\u0301\u0328)", "a\u0041\u0301\u0328", "m", true},
+
+        // JDK-6728861, same cause as above one
+        { "\u00e9\u00e9n", "e\u0301e\u0301n", "m", true},
+
+        // JDK-6995635
+        { "(\u00e9)", "e\u0301", "m", true },
+
+        // JDK-6736245
+        // intereting special case, nfc(u2add+u0338) -> u2add+u0338) NOT u2adc
+        { "\u2ADC", "\u2ADC", "m", true},          // NFC
+        { "\u2ADC", "\u2ADD\u0338", "m", true},    // NFD
+
+        //  4916384.
+        // Decomposed hangul (jamos) works inside clazz
+        { "[\u1100\u1161]", "\u1100\u1161", "m", true},
+        { "[\u1100\u1161]", "\uac00", "m", true},
+
+        { "[\uac00]", "\u1100\u1161", "m", true},
+        { "[\uac00]", "\uac00", "m", true},
+
         // Decomposed hangul (jamos)
-        p = Pattern.compile("\u1100\u1161", Pattern.CANON_EQ);
-        m = p.matcher("\u1100\u1161");
-        if (!m.matches())
-            failCount++;
-
-        m.reset("\uac00");
-        if (!m.matches())
-            failCount++;
+        { "\u1100\u1161", "\u1100\u1161", "m", true},
+        { "\u1100\u1161", "\uac00", "m", true},
 
         // Composed hangul
-        p = Pattern.compile("\uac00", Pattern.CANON_EQ);
-        m = p.matcher("\u1100\u1161");
-        if (!m.matches())
-            failCount++;
-
-        m.reset("\uac00");
-        if (!m.matches())
-            failCount++;
+        { "\uac00",  "\u1100\u1161", "m", true },
+        { "\uac00",  "\uac00", "m", true },
+
+        /* Need a NFDSlice to nfd the source to solve this issue
+           u+1d1c0 -> nfd: <u+1d1ba><u+1d165><u+1d16f>  -> nfc: <u+1d1ba><u+1d165><u+1d16f>
+           u+1d1bc -> nfd: <u+1d1ba><u+1d165>           -> nfc: <u+1d1ba><u+1d165>
+           <u+1d1bc><u+1d16f> -> nfd: <u+1d1ba><u+1d165><u+1d16f> -> nfc: <u+1d1ba><u+1d165><u+1d16f>
 
         // Decomposed supplementary outside char classes
-        p = Pattern.compile("test\ud834\uddbc\ud834\udd6f", Pattern.CANON_EQ);
-        m = p.matcher("test\ud834\uddc0");
-        if (!m.matches())
-            failCount++;
-
-        m.reset("test\ud834\uddbc\ud834\udd6f");
-        if (!m.matches())
-            failCount++;
-
+        // { "test\ud834\uddbc\ud834\udd6f", "test\ud834\uddc0", "m", true },
         // Composed supplementary outside char classes
-        p = Pattern.compile("test\ud834\uddc0", Pattern.CANON_EQ);
-        m.reset("test\ud834\uddbc\ud834\udd6f");
-        if (!m.matches())
-            failCount++;
-
-        m = p.matcher("test\ud834\uddc0");
-        if (!m.matches())
-            failCount++;
-
+        // { "test\ud834\uddc0", "test\ud834\uddbc\ud834\udd6f", "m", true },
         */
-
+        { "test\ud834\uddbc\ud834\udd6f", "test\ud834\uddbc\ud834\udd6f", "m", true },
+        { "test\ud834\uddc0",             "test\ud834\uddbc\ud834\udd6f", "m", true },
+
+        { "test\ud834\uddc0",             "test\ud834\uddc0",             "m", true },
+        { "test\ud834\uddbc\ud834\udd6f", "test\ud834\uddc0",             "m", true },
+        };
+
+        int failCount = 0;
+        for (Object[] d : data) {
+            String pn = (String)d[0];
+            String tt = (String)d[1];
+            boolean isFind = "f".equals(((String)d[2]));
+            boolean expected = (boolean)d[3];
+            boolean ret = isFind ? Pattern.compile(pn, Pattern.CANON_EQ).matcher(tt).find()
+                                 : Pattern.compile(pn, Pattern.CANON_EQ).matcher(tt).matches();
+            if (ret != expected) {
+                failCount++;
+                continue;
+            }
+        }
         report("Canonical Equivalence");
     }
 
@@ -3846,7 +3900,6 @@
         if (!patternString.startsWith("'")) {
             return Pattern.compile(patternString);
         }
-
         int break1 = patternString.lastIndexOf("'");
         String flagString = patternString.substring(
                                           break1+1, patternString.length());
@@ -4092,10 +4145,11 @@
         report("NamedGroupCapture");
     }
 
-    // This is for bug 6969132
+    // This is for bug 6919132
     private static void nonBmpClassComplementTest() throws Exception {
         Pattern p = Pattern.compile("\\P{Lu}");
         Matcher m = p.matcher(new String(new int[] {0x1d400}, 0, 1));
+
         if (m.find() && m.start() == 1)
             failCount++;
 
@@ -4113,6 +4167,11 @@
         if (m.find() && m.start() == 1)
             failCount++;
 
+        p = Pattern.compile("\\P{sc=GRANTHA}");
+        m = p.matcher(new String(new int[] {0x11350}, 0, 1));
+        if (m.find() && m.start() == 1)
+            failCount++;
+
         report("NonBmpClassComplement");
     }
 
@@ -4662,4 +4721,92 @@
             failCount++;
         report("Unicode extended grapheme cluster");
     }
+
+    // hangup/timeout if go into exponential backtracking
+    private static void expoBacktracking() throws Exception {
+
+        Object[][] patternMatchers = {
+            // 6328855
+            { "(.*\n*)*",
+              "this little fine string lets\r\njava.lang.String.matches\r\ncrash\r\n(We don't know why but adding \r* to the regex makes it work again)",
+              false },
+            // 6192895
+            { " *([a-zA-Z0-9/\\-\\?:\\(\\)\\.,'\\+\\{\\}]+ *)+",
+              "Hello World this is a test this is a test this is a test A",
+              true },
+            { " *([a-zA-Z0-9/\\-\\?:\\(\\)\\.,'\\+\\{\\}]+ *)+",
+              "Hello World this is a test this is a test this is a test \u4e00 ",
+              false },
+            { " *([a-z0-9]+ *)+",
+              "hello world this is a test this is a test this is a test A",
+              false },
+            // 4771934 [FIXED] #5013651?
+            { "^(\\w+([\\.-]?\\w+)*@\\w+([\\.-]?\\w+)*(\\.\\w{2,4})+[,;]?)+$",
+              "abc@efg.abc,efg@abc.abc,abc@xyz.mno;abc@sdfsd.com",
+              true },
+            // 4866249 [FIXED]
+            { "<\\s*" + "(meta|META)" + "(\\s|[^>])+" + "(CHARSET|charset)=" + "(\\s|[^>])+>",
+              "<META http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=ISO-8859-5\">",
+              true },
+            { "^(\\w+([\\.-]?\\w+)*@\\w+([\\.-]?\\w+)*(\\.\\w{2,4})+[,;]?)+$",
+              "abc@efg.abc,efg@abc.abc,abc@xyz.mno;sdfsd.com",
+              false },
+            // 6345469
+            { "((<[^>]+>)?(((\\s)?)*(\\&nbsp;)?)*((\\s)?)*)+",
+              "&nbsp;&nbsp; < br/> &nbsp; < / p> <p> <html> <adfasfdasdf>&nbsp; </p>",
+              true }, // --> matched
+            { "((<[^>]+>)?(((\\s)?)*(\\&nbsp;)?)*((\\s)?)*)+",
+              "&nbsp;&nbsp; < br/> &nbsp; < / p> <p> <html> <adfasfdasdf>&nbsp; p </p>",
+              false },
+            // 5026912
+            { "^\\s*" + "(\\w|\\d|[\\xC0-\\xFF]|/)+" + "\\s+|$",
+              "156580451111112225588087755221111111566969655555555",
+              false},
+            // 6988218
+            { "^([+-]?((0[xX](\\p{XDigit}+))|(((\\p{Digit}+)(\\.)?((\\p{Digit}+)?)([eE][+-]?(\\p{Digit}+))?)|(\\.((\\p{Digit}+))([eE][+-]?(\\p{Digit}+))?)))|[n|N]?'([^']*(?:'')*[^']*)*')",
+              "'%)) order by ANGEBOT.ID",
+              false},    // find
+            // 6693451
+            { "^(\\s*foo\\s*)*$",
+              "foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo",
+              true },
+            { "^(\\s*foo\\s*)*$",
+              "foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo foo fo",
+              false
+            },
+            // 7006761
+            { "(([0-9A-Z]+)([_]?+)*)*", "FOOOOO_BAAAR_FOOOOOOOOO_BA_", true},
+            { "(([0-9A-Z]+)([_]?+)*)*", "FOOOOO_BAAAR_FOOOOOOOOO_BA_ ", false},
+            // 8140212
+            { "(?<before>.*)\\{(?<reflection>\\w+):(?<innerMethod>\\w+(\\.?\\w+(\\(((?<args>(('[^']*')|((/|\\w)+))(,(('[^']*')|((/|\\w)+)))*))?\\))?)*)\\}(?<after>.*)",
+              "{CeGlobal:getSodCutoff.getGui.getAmqp.getSimpleModeEnabled()",
+              false
+            },
+            { "^(a+)+$", "aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa", true},
+            { "^(a+)+$", "aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa!", false},
+
+            { "(x+)*y",  "xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxy", true },
+            { "(x+)*y",  "xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxz", false},
+
+            { "(x+x+)+y", "xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxy", true},
+            { "(x+x+)+y", "xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxz", false},
+
+            { "(([0-9A-Z]+)([_]?+)*)*", "--------------------------------------", false},
+
+            /* not fixed
+            //8132141   --->    second level exponential backtracking
+            { "(h|h|ih(((i|a|c|c|a|i|i|j|b|a|i|b|a|a|j))+h)ahbfhba|c|i)*",
+              "hchcchicihcchciiicichhcichcihcchiihichiciiiihhcchicchhcihchcihiihciichhccciccichcichiihcchcihhicchcciicchcccihiiihhihihihichicihhcciccchihhhcchichchciihiicihciihcccciciccicciiiiiiiiicihhhiiiihchccchchhhhiiihchihcccchhhiiiiiiiicicichicihcciciihichhhhchihciiihhiccccccciciihhichiccchhicchicihihccichicciihcichccihhiciccccccccichhhhihihhcchchihihiihhihihihicichihiiiihhhhihhhchhichiicihhiiiiihchccccchichci" },
+            */
+        };
+
+        for (Object[] pm : patternMatchers) {
+            String p = (String)pm[0];
+            String s = (String)pm[1];
+            boolean r = (Boolean)pm[2];
+            if (r != Pattern.compile(p).matcher(s).matches()) {
+                failCount++;
+            }
+        }
+    }
 }
--- a/test/java/util/regex/TestCases.txt	Wed May 11 08:39:36 2016 +0800
+++ b/test/java/util/regex/TestCases.txt	Tue May 10 21:19:25 2016 -0700
@@ -139,6 +139,71 @@
 aaabbbcccdefg
 true defg 0
 
+// Negation with nested char class and intersection
+[^[c]]
+c
+false 0
+
+[^[a-z]]
+e
+false 0
+
+[^[a-z][A-Z]]
+E
+false 0
+
+[^a-d[0-9][m-p]]
+e
+true e 0
+
+[^a-d[0-9][m-p]]
+8
+false 0
+
+[^[a-c]&&[d-f]]
+z
+true z 0
+
+[^a-c&&d-f]
+a
+true a 0
+
+[^a-m&&m-z]
+m
+false 0
+
+[^a-m&&m-z&&a-c]
+m
+true m 0
+
+[^a-cd-f&&[d-f]]
+c
+true c 0
+
+[^[a-c][d-f]&&abc]
+a
+false 0
+
+[^[a-c][d-f]&&abc]
+d
+true d 0
+
+[^[a-c][d-f]&&abc[def]]
+a
+false 0
+
+[^[a-c][d-f]&&abc[def]]
+e
+false 0
+
+[^[a-c]&&[b-d]&&[c-e]]
+a
+true a 0
+
+[^[a-c]&&[b-d]&&[c-e]]
+c
+false 0
+
 // Making sure a ^ not in first position matches literal ^
 [abc^b]
 b