changeset 14468:034043795e42

8033148: Lexicographic comparators for arrays Reviewed-by: jrose, chegar, bchristi, mduigou
author psandoz
date Wed, 04 Nov 2015 16:44:38 +0100
parents 76203cb95f2c
children ff09a5eddc89
files src/java.base/share/classes/java/lang/Byte.java src/java.base/share/classes/java/lang/Short.java src/java.base/share/classes/java/util/Arrays.java test/java/util/Arrays/ArraysEqCmpTest.java
diffstat 4 files changed, 4823 insertions(+), 11 deletions(-) [+]
line wrap: on
line diff
--- a/src/java.base/share/classes/java/lang/Byte.java	Wed Nov 04 12:46:05 2015 +0100
+++ b/src/java.base/share/classes/java/lang/Byte.java	Wed Nov 04 16:44:38 2015 +0100
@@ -463,6 +463,22 @@
     }
 
     /**
+     * Compares two {@code byte} values numerically treating the values
+     * as unsigned.
+     *
+     * @param  x the first {@code byte} to compare
+     * @param  y the second {@code byte} to compare
+     * @return the value {@code 0} if {@code x == y}; a value less
+     *         than {@code 0} if {@code x < y} as unsigned values; and
+     *         a value greater than {@code 0} if {@code x > y} as
+     *         unsigned values
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int compareUnsigned(byte x, byte y) {
+        return Byte.toUnsignedInt(x) - Byte.toUnsignedInt(y);
+    }
+
+    /**
      * Converts the argument to an {@code int} by an unsigned
      * conversion.  In an unsigned conversion to an {@code int}, the
      * high-order 24 bits of the {@code int} are zero and the
--- a/src/java.base/share/classes/java/lang/Short.java	Wed Nov 04 12:46:05 2015 +0100
+++ b/src/java.base/share/classes/java/lang/Short.java	Wed Nov 04 16:44:38 2015 +0100
@@ -468,6 +468,22 @@
     }
 
     /**
+     * Compares two {@code short} values numerically treating the values
+     * as unsigned.
+     *
+     * @param  x the first {@code short} to compare
+     * @param  y the second {@code short} to compare
+     * @return the value {@code 0} if {@code x == y}; a value less
+     *         than {@code 0} if {@code x < y} as unsigned values; and
+     *         a value greater than {@code 0} if {@code x > y} as
+     *         unsigned values
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int compareUnsigned(short x, short y) {
+        return Short.toUnsignedInt(x) - Short.toUnsignedInt(y);
+    }
+
+    /**
      * The number of bits used to represent a {@code short} value in two's
      * complement binary form.
      * @since 1.5
--- a/src/java.base/share/classes/java/util/Arrays.java	Wed Nov 04 12:46:05 2015 +0100
+++ b/src/java.base/share/classes/java/util/Arrays.java	Wed Nov 04 16:44:38 2015 +0100
@@ -25,6 +25,8 @@
 
 package java.util;
 
+import jdk.internal.HotSpotIntrinsicCandidate;
+
 import java.lang.reflect.Array;
 import java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool;
 import java.util.function.BinaryOperator;
@@ -42,7 +44,6 @@
 import java.util.stream.LongStream;
 import java.util.stream.Stream;
 import java.util.stream.StreamSupport;
-import jdk.internal.HotSpotIntrinsicCandidate;
 
 /**
  * This class contains various methods for manipulating arrays (such as
@@ -2586,6 +2587,55 @@
     }
 
     /**
+     * Returns true if the two specified arrays of longs, over the specified
+     * ranges, are <i>equal</i> to one another.
+     *
+     * <p>Two arrays are considered equal if the number of elements covered by
+     * each range is the same, and all corresponding pairs of elements over the
+     * specified ranges in the two arrays are equal.  In other words, two arrays
+     * are equal if they contain, over the specified ranges, the same elements
+     * in the same order.
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to be tested for equality
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be tested
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be tested
+     * @param b the second array to be tested fro equality
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be tested
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be tested
+     * @return {@code true} if the two arrays, over the specified ranges, are
+     *         equal
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static boolean equals(long[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                                 long[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        if (aLength != bLength)
+            return false;
+
+        for (int i = 0; i < aLength; i++)
+            if (a[aFromIndex++] != b[bFromIndex++])
+                return false;
+
+        return true;
+    }
+
+    /**
      * Returns {@code true} if the two specified arrays of ints are
      * <i>equal</i> to one another.  Two arrays are considered equal if both
      * arrays contain the same number of elements, and all corresponding pairs
@@ -2615,6 +2665,55 @@
     }
 
     /**
+     * Returns true if the two specified arrays of ints, over the specified
+     * ranges, are <i>equal</i> to one another.
+     *
+     * <p>Two arrays are considered equal if the number of elements covered by
+     * each range is the same, and all corresponding pairs of elements over the
+     * specified ranges in the two arrays are equal.  In other words, two arrays
+     * are equal if they contain, over the specified ranges, the same elements
+     * in the same order.
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to be tested for equality
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be tested
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be tested
+     * @param b the second array to be tested fro equality
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be tested
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be tested
+     * @return {@code true} if the two arrays, over the specified ranges, are
+     *         equal
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static boolean equals(int[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                                 int[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        if (aLength != bLength)
+            return false;
+
+        for (int i = 0; i < aLength; i++)
+            if (a[aFromIndex++] != b[bFromIndex++])
+                return false;
+
+        return true;
+    }
+
+    /**
      * Returns {@code true} if the two specified arrays of shorts are
      * <i>equal</i> to one another.  Two arrays are considered equal if both
      * arrays contain the same number of elements, and all corresponding pairs
@@ -2644,6 +2743,55 @@
     }
 
     /**
+     * Returns true if the two specified arrays of shorts, over the specified
+     * ranges, are <i>equal</i> to one another.
+     *
+     * <p>Two arrays are considered equal if the number of elements covered by
+     * each range is the same, and all corresponding pairs of elements over the
+     * specified ranges in the two arrays are equal.  In other words, two arrays
+     * are equal if they contain, over the specified ranges, the same elements
+     * in the same order.
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to be tested for equality
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be tested
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be tested
+     * @param b the second array to be tested fro equality
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be tested
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be tested
+     * @return {@code true} if the two arrays, over the specified ranges, are
+     *         equal
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static boolean equals(short[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                                 short[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        if (aLength != bLength)
+            return false;
+
+        for (int i = 0; i < aLength; i++)
+            if (a[aFromIndex++] != b[bFromIndex++])
+                return false;
+
+        return true;
+    }
+
+    /**
      * Returns {@code true} if the two specified arrays of chars are
      * <i>equal</i> to one another.  Two arrays are considered equal if both
      * arrays contain the same number of elements, and all corresponding pairs
@@ -2674,6 +2822,55 @@
     }
 
     /**
+     * Returns true if the two specified arrays of chars, over the specified
+     * ranges, are <i>equal</i> to one another.
+     *
+     * <p>Two arrays are considered equal if the number of elements covered by
+     * each range is the same, and all corresponding pairs of elements over the
+     * specified ranges in the two arrays are equal.  In other words, two arrays
+     * are equal if they contain, over the specified ranges, the same elements
+     * in the same order.
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to be tested for equality
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be tested
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be tested
+     * @param b the second array to be tested fro equality
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be tested
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be tested
+     * @return {@code true} if the two arrays, over the specified ranges, are
+     *         equal
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static boolean equals(char[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                                 char[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        if (aLength != bLength)
+            return false;
+
+        for (int i = 0; i < aLength; i++)
+            if (a[aFromIndex++] != b[bFromIndex++])
+                return false;
+
+        return true;
+    }
+
+    /**
      * Returns {@code true} if the two specified arrays of bytes are
      * <i>equal</i> to one another.  Two arrays are considered equal if both
      * arrays contain the same number of elements, and all corresponding pairs
@@ -2703,6 +2900,55 @@
     }
 
     /**
+     * Returns true if the two specified arrays of bytes, over the specified
+     * ranges, are <i>equal</i> to one another.
+     *
+     * <p>Two arrays are considered equal if the number of elements covered by
+     * each range is the same, and all corresponding pairs of elements over the
+     * specified ranges in the two arrays are equal.  In other words, two arrays
+     * are equal if they contain, over the specified ranges, the same elements
+     * in the same order.
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to be tested for equality
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be tested
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be tested
+     * @param b the second array to be tested fro equality
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be tested
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be tested
+     * @return {@code true} if the two arrays, over the specified ranges, are
+     *         equal
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static boolean equals(byte[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                                 byte[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        if (aLength != bLength)
+            return false;
+
+        for (int i = 0; i < aLength; i++)
+            if (a[aFromIndex++] != b[bFromIndex++])
+                return false;
+
+        return true;
+    }
+
+    /**
      * Returns {@code true} if the two specified arrays of booleans are
      * <i>equal</i> to one another.  Two arrays are considered equal if both
      * arrays contain the same number of elements, and all corresponding pairs
@@ -2732,6 +2978,55 @@
     }
 
     /**
+     * Returns true if the two specified arrays of booleans, over the specified
+     * ranges, are <i>equal</i> to one another.
+     *
+     * <p>Two arrays are considered equal if the number of elements covered by
+     * each range is the same, and all corresponding pairs of elements over the
+     * specified ranges in the two arrays are equal.  In other words, two arrays
+     * are equal if they contain, over the specified ranges, the same elements
+     * in the same order.
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to be tested for equality
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be tested
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be tested
+     * @param b the second array to be tested fro equality
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be tested
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be tested
+     * @return {@code true} if the two arrays, over the specified ranges, are
+     *         equal
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static boolean equals(boolean[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                                 boolean[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        if (aLength != bLength)
+            return false;
+
+        for (int i = 0; i < aLength; i++)
+            if (a[aFromIndex++] != b[bFromIndex++])
+                return false;
+
+        return true;
+    }
+
+    /**
      * Returns {@code true} if the two specified arrays of doubles are
      * <i>equal</i> to one another.  Two arrays are considered equal if both
      * arrays contain the same number of elements, and all corresponding pairs
@@ -2759,9 +3054,70 @@
         if (a2.length != length)
             return false;
 
-        for (int i=0; i<length; i++)
-            if (Double.doubleToLongBits(a[i])!=Double.doubleToLongBits(a2[i]))
-                return false;
+        for (int i=0; i<length; i++) {
+            double v1 = a[i], v2 = a2[i];
+            if (Double.doubleToRawLongBits(v1) != Double.doubleToRawLongBits(v2))
+                if (!Double.isNaN(v1) || !Double.isNaN(v2))
+                    return false;
+        }
+
+        return true;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns true if the two specified arrays of doubles, over the specified
+     * ranges, are <i>equal</i> to one another.
+     *
+     * <p>Two arrays are considered equal if the number of elements covered by
+     * each range is the same, and all corresponding pairs of elements over the
+     * specified ranges in the two arrays are equal.  In other words, two arrays
+     * are equal if they contain, over the specified ranges, the same elements
+     * in the same order.
+     *
+     * <p>Two doubles {@code d1} and {@code d2} are considered equal if:
+     * <pre>    {@code new Double(d1).equals(new Double(d2))}</pre>
+     * (Unlike the {@code ==} operator, this method considers
+     * {@code NaN} equals to itself, and 0.0d unequal to -0.0d.)
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to be tested for equality
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be tested
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be tested
+     * @param b the second array to be tested fro equality
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be tested
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be tested
+     * @return {@code true} if the two arrays, over the specified ranges, are
+     *         equal
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @see Double#equals(Object)
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static boolean equals(double[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                                 double[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        if (aLength != bLength)
+            return false;
+
+        for (int i = 0; i < aLength; i++) {
+            Double va = a[aFromIndex++], vb = b[bFromIndex++];
+            if (Double.doubleToRawLongBits(va) != Double.doubleToRawLongBits(vb))
+                if (!Double.isNaN(va) || !Double.isNaN(vb))
+                    return false;
+        }
 
         return true;
     }
@@ -2794,9 +3150,70 @@
         if (a2.length != length)
             return false;
 
-        for (int i=0; i<length; i++)
-            if (Float.floatToIntBits(a[i])!=Float.floatToIntBits(a2[i]))
-                return false;
+        for (int i=0; i<length; i++) {
+            float v1 = a[i], v2 = a2[i];
+            if (Float.floatToRawIntBits(v1) != Float.floatToRawIntBits(v2))
+                if (!Float.isNaN(v1) || !Float.isNaN(v2))
+                    return false;
+        }
+
+        return true;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns true if the two specified arrays of floats, over the specified
+     * ranges, are <i>equal</i> to one another.
+     *
+     * <p>Two arrays are considered equal if the number of elements covered by
+     * each range is the same, and all corresponding pairs of elements over the
+     * specified ranges in the two arrays are equal.  In other words, two arrays
+     * are equal if they contain, over the specified ranges, the same elements
+     * in the same order.
+     *
+     * <p>Two floats {@code f1} and {@code f2} are considered equal if:
+     * <pre>    {@code new Float(f1).equals(new Float(f2))}</pre>
+     * (Unlike the {@code ==} operator, this method considers
+     * {@code NaN} equals to itself, and 0.0f unequal to -0.0f.)
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to be tested for equality
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be tested
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be tested
+     * @param b the second array to be tested fro equality
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be tested
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be tested
+     * @return {@code true} if the two arrays, over the specified ranges, are
+     *         equal
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @see Float#equals(Object)
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static boolean equals(float[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                                 float[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        if (aLength != bLength)
+            return false;
+
+        for (int i = 0; i < aLength; i++) {
+            float va = a[aFromIndex++], vb = b[bFromIndex++];
+            if (Float.floatToRawIntBits(va) != Float.floatToRawIntBits(vb))
+                if (!Float.isNaN(va) || !Float.isNaN(vb))
+                    return false;
+        }
 
         return true;
     }
@@ -2827,9 +3244,60 @@
             return false;
 
         for (int i=0; i<length; i++) {
-            Object o1 = a[i];
-            Object o2 = a2[i];
-            if (!(o1==null ? o2==null : o1.equals(o2)))
+            if (!Objects.equals(a[i], a2[i]))
+                return false;
+        }
+
+        return true;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns true if the two specified arrays of Objects, over the specified
+     * ranges, are <i>equal</i> to one another.
+     *
+     * <p>Two arrays are considered equal if the number of elements covered by
+     * each range is the same, and all corresponding pairs of elements over the
+     * specified ranges in the two arrays are equal.  In other words, two arrays
+     * are equal if they contain, over the specified ranges, the same elements
+     * in the same order.
+     *
+     * <p>Two objects {@code e1} and {@code e2} are considered <i>equal</i> if
+     * {@code Objects.equals(e1, e2)}.
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to be tested for equality
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be tested
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be tested
+     * @param b the second array to be tested fro equality
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be tested
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be tested
+     * @return {@code true} if the two arrays, over the specified ranges, are
+     *         equal
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static boolean equals(Object[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                                 Object[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        if (aLength != bLength)
+            return false;
+
+        for (int i = 0; i < aLength; i++) {
+            if (!Objects.equals(a[aFromIndex++], b[bFromIndex++]))
                 return false;
         }
 
@@ -5185,4 +5653,3233 @@
     public static DoubleStream stream(double[] array, int startInclusive, int endExclusive) {
         return StreamSupport.doubleStream(spliterator(array, startInclusive, endExclusive), false);
     }
-}
+
+
+    // Comparison methods
+
+    // Compare boolean
+
+    /**
+     * Compares two {@code boolean} arrays lexicographically.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays share a common prefix then the lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing two elements, as if by
+     * {@link Boolean#compare(boolean, boolean)}, at an index within the
+     * respective arrays that is the prefix length.
+     * Otherwise, one array is a proper prefix of the other and, lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing the two array lengths.
+     * (See {@link #mismatch(boolean[], boolean[])} for the definition of a
+     * common and proper prefix.)
+     *
+     * <p>A {@code null} array reference is considered lexicographically less
+     * than a non-{@code null} array reference.  Two {@code null} array
+     * references are considered equal.
+     *
+     * <p>The comparison is consistent with {@link #equals(boolean[], boolean[]) equals},
+     * more specifically the following holds for arrays {@code a} and {@code b}:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, b) == (Arrays.compare(a, b) == 0)
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @apiNote
+     * <p>This method behaves as if (for non-{@code null} array references):
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     int i = Arrays.mismatch(a, b);
+     *     if (i >= 0 && i < Math.min(a.length, b.length))
+     *         return Boolean.compare(a[i], b[i]);
+     *     return a.length - b.length;
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to compare
+     * @param b the second array to compare
+     * @return the value {@code 0} if the first and second array are equal and
+     *         contain the same elements in the same order;
+     *         a value less than {@code 0} if the first array is
+     *         lexicographically less than the second array; and
+     *         a value greater than {@code 0} if the first array is
+     *         lexicographically greater than the second array
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int compare(boolean[] a, boolean[] b) {
+        if (a == b)
+            return 0;
+        if (a == null || b == null)
+            return a == null ? -1 : 1;
+
+        int length = Math.min(a.length, b.length);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            if (a[i] != b[i]) return Boolean.compare(a[i], b[i]);
+        }
+
+        return a.length - b.length;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Compares two {@code boolean} arrays lexicographically over the specified
+     * ranges.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays, over the specified ranges, share a common prefix
+     * then the lexicographic comparison is the result of comparing two
+     * elements, as if by {@link Boolean#compare(boolean, boolean)}, at a
+     * relative index within the respective arrays that is the length of the
+     * prefix.
+     * Otherwise, one array is a proper prefix of the other and, lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing the two range lengths.
+     * (See {@link #mismatch(boolean[], int, int, boolean[], int, int)} for the
+     * definition of a common and proper prefix.)
+     *
+     * <p>The comparison is consistent with
+     * {@link #equals(boolean[], int, int, boolean[], int, int) equals}, more
+     * specifically the following holds for arrays {@code a} and {@code b} with
+     * specified ranges [{@code aFromIndex}, {@code atoIndex}) and
+     * [{@code bFromIndex}, {@code btoIndex}) respectively:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex, b, bFromIndex, bToIndex) ==
+     *         (Arrays.compare(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex, b, bFromIndex, bToIndex) == 0)
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @apiNote
+     * <p>This method behaves as if:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     int i = Arrays.mismatch(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex,
+     *                             b, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+     *     if (i >= 0 && i < Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex))
+     *         return Boolean.compare(a[aFromIndex + i], b[bFromIndex + i]);
+     *     return (aToIndex - aFromIndex) - (bToIndex - bFromIndex);
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to compare
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be compared
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be compared
+     * @param b the second array to compare
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be compared
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be compared
+     * @return the value {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the first and
+     *         second array are equal and contain the same elements in the same
+     *         order;
+     *         a value less than {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the
+     *         first array is lexicographically less than the second array; and
+     *         a value greater than {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the
+     *         first array is lexicographically greater than the second array
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int compare(boolean[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                              boolean[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        int length = Math.min(aLength, bLength);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            boolean va = a[aFromIndex++];
+            boolean vb = b[bFromIndex++];
+            if (va != vb) return Boolean.compare(va, vb);
+        }
+
+        return aLength - bLength;
+    }
+
+    // Compare byte
+
+    /**
+     * Compares two {@code byte} arrays lexicographically.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays share a common prefix then the lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing two elements, as if by
+     * {@link Byte#compare(byte, byte)}, at an index within the respective
+     * arrays that is the prefix length.
+     * Otherwise, one array is a proper prefix of the other and, lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing the two array lengths.
+     * (See {@link #mismatch(byte[], byte[])} for the definition of a common and
+     * proper prefix.)
+     *
+     * <p>A {@code null} array reference is considered lexicographically less
+     * than a non-{@code null} array reference.  Two {@code null} array
+     * references are considered equal.
+     *
+     * <p>The comparison is consistent with {@link #equals(byte[], byte[]) equals},
+     * more specifically the following holds for arrays {@code a} and {@code b}:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, b) == (Arrays.compare(a, b) == 0)
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @apiNote
+     * <p>This method behaves as if (for non-{@code null} array references):
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     int i = Arrays.mismatch(a, b);
+     *     if (i >= 0 && i < Math.min(a.length, b.length))
+     *         return Byte.compare(a[i], b[i]);
+     *     return a.length - b.length;
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to compare
+     * @param b the second array to compare
+     * @return the value {@code 0} if the first and second array are equal and
+     *         contain the same elements in the same order;
+     *         a value less than {@code 0} if the first array is
+     *         lexicographically less than the second array; and
+     *         a value greater than {@code 0} if the first array is
+     *         lexicographically greater than the second array
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int compare(byte[] a, byte[] b) {
+        if (a == b)
+            return 0;
+        if (a == null || b == null)
+            return a == null ? -1 : 1;
+
+        int length = Math.min(a.length, b.length);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            if (a[i] != b[i]) return Byte.compare(a[i], b[i]);
+        }
+
+        return a.length - b.length;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Compares two {@code byte} arrays lexicographically over the specified
+     * ranges.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays, over the specified ranges, share a common prefix
+     * then the lexicographic comparison is the result of comparing two
+     * elements, as if by {@link Byte#compare(byte, byte)}, at a relative index
+     * within the respective arrays that is the length of the prefix.
+     * Otherwise, one array is a proper prefix of the other and, lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing the two range lengths.
+     * (See {@link #mismatch(byte[], int, int, byte[], int, int)} for the
+     * definition of a common and proper prefix.)
+     *
+     * <p>The comparison is consistent with
+     * {@link #equals(byte[], int, int, byte[], int, int) equals}, more
+     * specifically the following holds for arrays {@code a} and {@code b} with
+     * specified ranges [{@code aFromIndex}, {@code atoIndex}) and
+     * [{@code bFromIndex}, {@code btoIndex}) respectively:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex, b, bFromIndex, bToIndex) ==
+     *         (Arrays.compare(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex, b, bFromIndex, bToIndex) == 0)
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @apiNote
+     * <p>This method behaves as if:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     int i = Arrays.mismatch(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex,
+     *                             b, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+     *     if (i >= 0 && i < Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex))
+     *         return Byte.compare(a[aFromIndex + i], b[bFromIndex + i]);
+     *     return (aToIndex - aFromIndex) - (bToIndex - bFromIndex);
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to compare
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be compared
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be compared
+     * @param b the second array to compare
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be compared
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be compared
+     * @return the value {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the first and
+     *         second array are equal and contain the same elements in the same
+     *         order;
+     *         a value less than {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the
+     *         first array is lexicographically less than the second array; and
+     *         a value greater than {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the
+     *         first array is lexicographically greater than the second array
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int compare(byte[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                              byte[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        int length = Math.min(aLength, bLength);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            byte va = a[aFromIndex++];
+            byte vb = b[bFromIndex++];
+            if (va != vb) return Byte.compare(va, vb);
+        }
+
+        return aLength - bLength;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Compares two {@code byte} arrays lexicographically, numerically treating
+     * elements as unsigned.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays share a common prefix then the lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing two elements, as if by
+     * {@link Byte#compareUnsigned(byte, byte)}, at an index within the
+     * respective arrays that is the prefix length.
+     * Otherwise, one array is a proper prefix of the other and, lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing the two array lengths.
+     * (See {@link #mismatch(byte[], byte[])} for the definition of a common
+     * and proper prefix.)
+     *
+     * <p>A {@code null} array reference is considered lexicographically less
+     * than a non-{@code null} array reference.  Two {@code null} array
+     * references are considered equal.
+     *
+     * @apiNote
+     * <p>This method behaves as if (for non-{@code null} array references):
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     int i = Arrays.mismatch(a, b);
+     *     if (i >= 0 && i < Math.min(a.length, b.length))
+     *         return Byte.compareUnsigned(a[i], b[i]);
+     *     return a.length - b.length;
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to compare
+     * @param b the second array to compare
+     * @return the value {@code 0} if the first and second array are
+     *         equal and contain the same elements in the same order;
+     *         a value less than {@code 0} if the first array is
+     *         lexicographically less than the second array; and
+     *         a value greater than {@code 0} if the first array is
+     *         lexicographically greater than the second array
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int compareUnsigned(byte[] a, byte[] b) {
+        if (a == b)
+            return 0;
+        if (a == null || b == null)
+            return a == null ? -1 : 1;
+
+        int length = Math.min(a.length, b.length);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            if (a[i] != b[i]) return Byte.compareUnsigned(a[i], b[i]);
+        }
+
+        return a.length - b.length;
+    }
+
+
+    /**
+     * Compares two {@code byte} arrays lexicographically over the specified
+     * ranges, numerically treating elements as unsigned.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays, over the specified ranges, share a common prefix
+     * then the lexicographic comparison is the result of comparing two
+     * elements, as if by {@link Byte#compareUnsigned(byte, byte)}, at a
+     * relative index within the respective arrays that is the length of the
+     * prefix.
+     * Otherwise, one array is a proper prefix of the other and, lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing the two range lengths.
+     * (See {@link #mismatch(byte[], int, int, byte[], int, int)} for the
+     * definition of a common and proper prefix.)
+     *
+     * @apiNote
+     * <p>This method behaves as if:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     int i = Arrays.mismatch(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex,
+     *                             b, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+     *     if (i >= 0 && i < Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex))
+     *         return Byte.compareUnsigned(a[aFromIndex + i], b[bFromIndex + i]);
+     *     return (aToIndex - aFromIndex) - (bToIndex - bFromIndex);
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to compare
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be compared
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be compared
+     * @param b the second array to compare
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be compared
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be compared
+     * @return the value {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the first and
+     *         second array are equal and contain the same elements in the same
+     *         order;
+     *         a value less than {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the
+     *         first array is lexicographically less than the second array; and
+     *         a value greater than {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the
+     *         first array is lexicographically greater than the second array
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is null
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int compareUnsigned(byte[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                                      byte[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        int length = Math.min(aLength, bLength);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            byte va = a[aFromIndex++];
+            byte vb = b[bFromIndex++];
+            if (va != vb) return Byte.compareUnsigned(va, vb);
+        }
+
+        return aLength - bLength;
+    }
+
+    // Compare short
+
+    /**
+     * Compares two {@code short} arrays lexicographically.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays share a common prefix then the lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing two elements, as if by
+     * {@link Short#compare(short, short)}, at an index within the respective
+     * arrays that is the prefix length.
+     * Otherwise, one array is a proper prefix of the other and, lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing the two array lengths.
+     * (See {@link #mismatch(short[], short[])} for the definition of a common
+     * and proper prefix.)
+     *
+     * <p>A {@code null} array reference is considered lexicographically less
+     * than a non-{@code null} array reference.  Two {@code null} array
+     * references are considered equal.
+     *
+     * <p>The comparison is consistent with {@link #equals(short[], short[]) equals},
+     * more specifically the following holds for arrays {@code a} and {@code b}:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, b) == (Arrays.compare(a, b) == 0)
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @apiNote
+     * <p>This method behaves as if (for non-{@code null} array references):
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     int i = Arrays.mismatch(a, b);
+     *     if (i >= 0 && i < Math.min(a.length, b.length))
+     *         return Short.compare(a[i], b[i]);
+     *     return a.length - b.length;
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to compare
+     * @param b the second array to compare
+     * @return the value {@code 0} if the first and second array are equal and
+     *         contain the same elements in the same order;
+     *         a value less than {@code 0} if the first array is
+     *         lexicographically less than the second array; and
+     *         a value greater than {@code 0} if the first array is
+     *         lexicographically greater than the second array
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int compare(short[] a, short[] b) {
+        if (a == b)
+            return 0;
+        if (a == null || b == null)
+            return a == null ? -1 : 1;
+
+        int length = Math.min(a.length, b.length);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            if (a[i] != b[i]) return Short.compare(a[i], b[i]);
+        }
+
+        return a.length - b.length;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Compares two {@code short} arrays lexicographically over the specified
+     * ranges.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays, over the specified ranges, share a common prefix
+     * then the lexicographic comparison is the result of comparing two
+     * elements, as if by {@link Short#compare(short, short)}, at a relative
+     * index within the respective arrays that is the length of the prefix.
+     * Otherwise, one array is a proper prefix of the other and, lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing the two range lengths.
+     * (See {@link #mismatch(short[], int, int, short[], int, int)} for the
+     * definition of a common and proper prefix.)
+     *
+     * <p>The comparison is consistent with
+     * {@link #equals(short[], int, int, short[], int, int) equals}, more
+     * specifically the following holds for arrays {@code a} and {@code b} with
+     * specified ranges [{@code aFromIndex}, {@code atoIndex}) and
+     * [{@code bFromIndex}, {@code btoIndex}) respectively:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex, b, bFromIndex, bToIndex) ==
+     *         (Arrays.compare(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex, b, bFromIndex, bToIndex) == 0)
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @apiNote
+     * <p>This method behaves as if:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     int i = Arrays.mismatch(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex,
+     *                             b, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+     *     if (i >= 0 && i < Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex))
+     *         return Short.compare(a[aFromIndex + i], b[bFromIndex + i]);
+     *     return (aToIndex - aFromIndex) - (bToIndex - bFromIndex);
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to compare
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be compared
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be compared
+     * @param b the second array to compare
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be compared
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be compared
+     * @return the value {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the first and
+     *         second array are equal and contain the same elements in the same
+     *         order;
+     *         a value less than {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the
+     *         first array is lexicographically less than the second array; and
+     *         a value greater than {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the
+     *         first array is lexicographically greater than the second array
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int compare(short[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                              short[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        int length = Math.min(aLength, bLength);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            short va = a[aFromIndex++];
+            short vb = b[bFromIndex++];
+            if (va != vb) return Short.compare(va, vb);
+        }
+
+        return aLength - bLength;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Compares two {@code short} arrays lexicographically, numerically treating
+     * elements as unsigned.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays share a common prefix then the lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing two elements, as if by
+     * {@link Short#compareUnsigned(short, short)}, at an index within the
+     * respective arrays that is the prefix length.
+     * Otherwise, one array is a proper prefix of the other and, lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing the two array lengths.
+     * (See {@link #mismatch(short[], short[])} for the definition of a common
+     * and proper prefix.)
+     *
+     * <p>A {@code null} array reference is considered lexicographically less
+     * than a non-{@code null} array reference.  Two {@code null} array
+     * references are considered equal.
+     *
+     * @apiNote
+     * <p>This method behaves as if (for non-{@code null} array references):
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     int i = Arrays.mismatch(a, b);
+     *     if (i >= 0 && i < Math.min(a.length, b.length))
+     *         return Short.compareUnsigned(a[i], b[i]);
+     *     return a.length - b.length;
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to compare
+     * @param b the second array to compare
+     * @return the value {@code 0} if the first and second array are
+     *         equal and contain the same elements in the same order;
+     *         a value less than {@code 0} if the first array is
+     *         lexicographically less than the second array; and
+     *         a value greater than {@code 0} if the first array is
+     *         lexicographically greater than the second array
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int compareUnsigned(short[] a, short[] b) {
+        if (a == b)
+            return 0;
+        if (a == null || b == null)
+            return a == null ? -1 : 1;
+
+        int length = Math.min(a.length, b.length);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            if (a[i] != b[i]) return Short.compareUnsigned(a[i], b[i]);
+        }
+
+        return a.length - b.length;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Compares two {@code short} arrays lexicographically over the specified
+     * ranges, numerically treating elements as unsigned.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays, over the specified ranges, share a common prefix
+     * then the lexicographic comparison is the result of comparing two
+     * elements, as if by {@link Short#compareUnsigned(short, short)}, at a
+     * relative index within the respective arrays that is the length of the
+     * prefix.
+     * Otherwise, one array is a proper prefix of the other and, lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing the two range lengths.
+     * (See {@link #mismatch(short[], int, int, short[], int, int)} for the
+     * definition of a common and proper prefix.)
+     *
+     * @apiNote
+     * <p>This method behaves as if:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     int i = Arrays.mismatch(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex,
+     *                             b, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+     *     if (i >= 0 && i < Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex))
+     *         return Short.compareUnsigned(a[aFromIndex + i], b[bFromIndex + i]);
+     *     return (aToIndex - aFromIndex) - (bToIndex - bFromIndex);
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to compare
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be compared
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be compared
+     * @param b the second array to compare
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be compared
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be compared
+     * @return the value {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the first and
+     *         second array are equal and contain the same elements in the same
+     *         order;
+     *         a value less than {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the
+     *         first array is lexicographically less than the second array; and
+     *         a value greater than {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the
+     *         first array is lexicographically greater than the second array
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is null
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int compareUnsigned(short[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                                      short[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        int length = Math.min(aLength, bLength);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            short va = a[aFromIndex++];
+            short vb = b[bFromIndex++];
+            if (va != vb) return Short.compareUnsigned(va, vb);
+        }
+
+        return aLength - bLength;
+    }
+
+    // Compare char
+
+    /**
+     * Compares two {@code char} arrays lexicographically.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays share a common prefix then the lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing two elements, as if by
+     * {@link Character#compare(char, char)}, at an index within the respective
+     * arrays that is the prefix length.
+     * Otherwise, one array is a proper prefix of the other and, lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing the two array lengths.
+     * (See {@link #mismatch(char[], char[])} for the definition of a common and
+     * proper prefix.)
+     *
+     * <p>A {@code null} array reference is considered lexicographically less
+     * than a non-{@code null} array reference.  Two {@code null} array
+     * references are considered equal.
+     *
+     * <p>The comparison is consistent with {@link #equals(char[], char[]) equals},
+     * more specifically the following holds for arrays {@code a} and {@code b}:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, b) == (Arrays.compare(a, b) == 0)
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @apiNote
+     * <p>This method behaves as if (for non-{@code null} array references):
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     int i = Arrays.mismatch(a, b);
+     *     if (i >= 0 && i < Math.min(a.length, b.length))
+     *         return Character.compare(a[i], b[i]);
+     *     return a.length - b.length;
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to compare
+     * @param b the second array to compare
+     * @return the value {@code 0} if the first and second array are equal and
+     *         contain the same elements in the same order;
+     *         a value less than {@code 0} if the first array is
+     *         lexicographically less than the second array; and
+     *         a value greater than {@code 0} if the first array is
+     *         lexicographically greater than the second array
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int compare(char[] a, char[] b) {
+        if (a == b)
+            return 0;
+        if (a == null || b == null)
+            return a == null ? -1 : 1;
+
+        int length = Math.min(a.length, b.length);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            if (a[i] != b[i]) return Character.compare(a[i], b[i]);
+        }
+
+        return a.length - b.length;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Compares two {@code char} arrays lexicographically over the specified
+     * ranges.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays, over the specified ranges, share a common prefix
+     * then the lexicographic comparison is the result of comparing two
+     * elements, as if by {@link Character#compare(char, char)}, at a relative
+     * index within the respective arrays that is the length of the prefix.
+     * Otherwise, one array is a proper prefix of the other and, lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing the two range lengths.
+     * (See {@link #mismatch(char[], int, int, char[], int, int)} for the
+     * definition of a common and proper prefix.)
+     *
+     * <p>The comparison is consistent with
+     * {@link #equals(char[], int, int, char[], int, int) equals}, more
+     * specifically the following holds for arrays {@code a} and {@code b} with
+     * specified ranges [{@code aFromIndex}, {@code atoIndex}) and
+     * [{@code bFromIndex}, {@code btoIndex}) respectively:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex, b, bFromIndex, bToIndex) ==
+     *         (Arrays.compare(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex, b, bFromIndex, bToIndex) == 0)
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @apiNote
+     * <p>This method behaves as if:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     int i = Arrays.mismatch(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex,
+     *                             b, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+     *     if (i >= 0 && i < Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex))
+     *         return Character.compare(a[aFromIndex + i], b[bFromIndex + i]);
+     *     return (aToIndex - aFromIndex) - (bToIndex - bFromIndex);
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to compare
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be compared
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be compared
+     * @param b the second array to compare
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be compared
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be compared
+     * @return the value {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the first and
+     *         second array are equal and contain the same elements in the same
+     *         order;
+     *         a value less than {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the
+     *         first array is lexicographically less than the second array; and
+     *         a value greater than {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the
+     *         first array is lexicographically greater than the second array
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int compare(char[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                              char[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        int length = Math.min(aLength, bLength);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            char va = a[aFromIndex++];
+            char vb = b[bFromIndex++];
+            if (va != vb) return Character.compare(va, vb);
+        }
+
+        return aLength - bLength;
+    }
+
+    // Compare int
+
+    /**
+     * Compares two {@code int} arrays lexicographically.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays share a common prefix then the lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing two elements, as if by
+     * {@link Integer#compare(int, int)}, at an index within the respective
+     * arrays that is the prefix length.
+     * Otherwise, one array is a proper prefix of the other and, lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing the two array lengths.
+     * (See {@link #mismatch(int[], int[])} for the definition of a common and
+     * proper prefix.)
+     *
+     * <p>A {@code null} array reference is considered lexicographically less
+     * than a non-{@code null} array reference.  Two {@code null} array
+     * references are considered equal.
+     *
+     * <p>The comparison is consistent with {@link #equals(int[], int[]) equals},
+     * more specifically the following holds for arrays {@code a} and {@code b}:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, b) == (Arrays.compare(a, b) == 0)
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @apiNote
+     * <p>This method behaves as if (for non-{@code null} array references):
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     int i = Arrays.mismatch(a, b);
+     *     if (i >= 0 && i < Math.min(a.length, b.length))
+     *         return Integer.compare(a[i], b[i]);
+     *     return a.length - b.length;
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to compare
+     * @param b the second array to compare
+     * @return the value {@code 0} if the first and second array are equal and
+     *         contain the same elements in the same order;
+     *         a value less than {@code 0} if the first array is
+     *         lexicographically less than the second array; and
+     *         a value greater than {@code 0} if the first array is
+     *         lexicographically greater than the second array
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int compare(int[] a, int[] b) {
+        if (a == b)
+            return 0;
+        if (a == null || b == null)
+            return a == null ? -1 : 1;
+
+        int length = Math.min(a.length, b.length);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            if (a[i] != b[i]) return Integer.compare(a[i], b[i]);
+        }
+
+        return a.length - b.length;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Compares two {@code int} arrays lexicographically over the specified
+     * ranges.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays, over the specified ranges, share a common prefix
+     * then the lexicographic comparison is the result of comparing two
+     * elements, as if by {@link Integer#compare(int, int)}, at a relative index
+     * within the respective arrays that is the length of the prefix.
+     * Otherwise, one array is a proper prefix of the other and, lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing the two range lengths.
+     * (See {@link #mismatch(int[], int, int, int[], int, int)} for the
+     * definition of a common and proper prefix.)
+     *
+     * <p>The comparison is consistent with
+     * {@link #equals(int[], int, int, int[], int, int) equals}, more
+     * specifically the following holds for arrays {@code a} and {@code b} with
+     * specified ranges [{@code aFromIndex}, {@code atoIndex}) and
+     * [{@code bFromIndex}, {@code btoIndex}) respectively:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex, b, bFromIndex, bToIndex) ==
+     *         (Arrays.compare(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex, b, bFromIndex, bToIndex) == 0)
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @apiNote
+     * <p>This method behaves as if:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     int i = Arrays.mismatch(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex,
+     *                             b, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+     *     if (i >= 0 && i < Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex))
+     *         return Integer.compare(a[aFromIndex + i], b[bFromIndex + i]);
+     *     return (aToIndex - aFromIndex) - (bToIndex - bFromIndex);
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to compare
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be compared
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be compared
+     * @param b the second array to compare
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be compared
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be compared
+     * @return the value {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the first and
+     *         second array are equal and contain the same elements in the same
+     *         order;
+     *         a value less than {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the
+     *         first array is lexicographically less than the second array; and
+     *         a value greater than {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the
+     *         first array is lexicographically greater than the second array
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int compare(int[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                              int[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        int length = Math.min(aLength, bLength);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            int va = a[aFromIndex++];
+            int vb = b[bFromIndex++];
+            if (va != vb) return Integer.compare(va, vb);
+        }
+
+        return aLength - bLength;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Compares two {@code int} arrays lexicographically, numerically treating
+     * elements as unsigned.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays share a common prefix then the lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing two elements, as if by
+     * {@link Integer#compareUnsigned(int, int)}, at an index within the
+     * respective arrays that is the prefix length.
+     * Otherwise, one array is a proper prefix of the other and, lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing the two array lengths.
+     * (See {@link #mismatch(int[], int[])} for the definition of a common
+     * and proper prefix.)
+     *
+     * <p>A {@code null} array reference is considered lexicographically less
+     * than a non-{@code null} array reference.  Two {@code null} array
+     * references are considered equal.
+     *
+     * @apiNote
+     * <p>This method behaves as if (for non-{@code null} array references):
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     int i = Arrays.mismatch(a, b);
+     *     if (i >= 0 && i < Math.min(a.length, b.length))
+     *         return Integer.compareUnsigned(a[i], b[i]);
+     *     return a.length - b.length;
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to compare
+     * @param b the second array to compare
+     * @return the value {@code 0} if the first and second array are
+     *         equal and contain the same elements in the same order;
+     *         a value less than {@code 0} if the first array is
+     *         lexicographically less than the second array; and
+     *         a value greater than {@code 0} if the first array is
+     *         lexicographically greater than the second array
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int compareUnsigned(int[] a, int[] b) {
+        if (a == b)
+            return 0;
+        if (a == null || b == null)
+            return a == null ? -1 : 1;
+
+        int length = Math.min(a.length, b.length);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            if (a[i] != b[i]) return Integer.compareUnsigned(a[i], b[i]);
+        }
+
+        return a.length - b.length;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Compares two {@code int} arrays lexicographically over the specified
+     * ranges, numerically treating elements as unsigned.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays, over the specified ranges, share a common prefix
+     * then the lexicographic comparison is the result of comparing two
+     * elements, as if by {@link Integer#compareUnsigned(int, int)}, at a
+     * relative index within the respective arrays that is the length of the
+     * prefix.
+     * Otherwise, one array is a proper prefix of the other and, lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing the two range lengths.
+     * (See {@link #mismatch(int[], int, int, int[], int, int)} for the
+     * definition of a common and proper prefix.)
+     *
+     * @apiNote
+     * <p>This method behaves as if:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     int i = Arrays.mismatch(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex,
+     *                             b, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+     *     if (i >= 0 && i < Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex))
+     *         return Integer.compareUnsigned(a[aFromIndex + i], b[bFromIndex + i]);
+     *     return (aToIndex - aFromIndex) - (bToIndex - bFromIndex);
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to compare
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be compared
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be compared
+     * @param b the second array to compare
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be compared
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be compared
+     * @return the value {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the first and
+     *         second array are equal and contain the same elements in the same
+     *         order;
+     *         a value less than {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the
+     *         first array is lexicographically less than the second array; and
+     *         a value greater than {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the
+     *         first array is lexicographically greater than the second array
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is null
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int compareUnsigned(int[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                                      int[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        int length = Math.min(aLength, bLength);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            int va = a[aFromIndex++];
+            int vb = b[bFromIndex++];
+            if (va != vb) return Integer.compareUnsigned(va, vb);
+        }
+
+        return aLength - bLength;
+    }
+
+    // Compare long
+
+    /**
+     * Compares two {@code long} arrays lexicographically.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays share a common prefix then the lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing two elements, as if by
+     * {@link Long#compare(long, long)}, at an index within the respective
+     * arrays that is the prefix length.
+     * Otherwise, one array is a proper prefix of the other and, lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing the two array lengths.
+     * (See {@link #mismatch(long[], long[])} for the definition of a common and
+     * proper prefix.)
+     *
+     * <p>A {@code null} array reference is considered lexicographically less
+     * than a non-{@code null} array reference.  Two {@code null} array
+     * references are considered equal.
+     *
+     * <p>The comparison is consistent with {@link #equals(long[], long[]) equals},
+     * more specifically the following holds for arrays {@code a} and {@code b}:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, b) == (Arrays.compare(a, b) == 0)
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @apiNote
+     * <p>This method behaves as if (for non-{@code null} array references):
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     int i = Arrays.mismatch(a, b);
+     *     if (i >= 0 && i < Math.min(a.length, b.length))
+     *         return Long.compare(a[i], b[i]);
+     *     return a.length - b.length;
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to compare
+     * @param b the second array to compare
+     * @return the value {@code 0} if the first and second array are equal and
+     *         contain the same elements in the same order;
+     *         a value less than {@code 0} if the first array is
+     *         lexicographically less than the second array; and
+     *         a value greater than {@code 0} if the first array is
+     *         lexicographically greater than the second array
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int compare(long[] a, long[] b) {
+        if (a == b)
+            return 0;
+        if (a == null || b == null)
+            return a == null ? -1 : 1;
+
+        int length = Math.min(a.length, b.length);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            if (a[i] != b[i]) return Long.compare(a[i], b[i]);
+        }
+
+        return a.length - b.length;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Compares two {@code long} arrays lexicographically over the specified
+     * ranges.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays, over the specified ranges, share a common prefix
+     * then the lexicographic comparison is the result of comparing two
+     * elements, as if by {@link Long#compare(long, long)}, at a relative index
+     * within the respective arrays that is the length of the prefix.
+     * Otherwise, one array is a proper prefix of the other and, lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing the two range lengths.
+     * (See {@link #mismatch(long[], int, int, long[], int, int)} for the
+     * definition of a common and proper prefix.)
+     *
+     * <p>The comparison is consistent with
+     * {@link #equals(long[], int, int, long[], int, int) equals}, more
+     * specifically the following holds for arrays {@code a} and {@code b} with
+     * specified ranges [{@code aFromIndex}, {@code atoIndex}) and
+     * [{@code bFromIndex}, {@code btoIndex}) respectively:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex, b, bFromIndex, bToIndex) ==
+     *         (Arrays.compare(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex, b, bFromIndex, bToIndex) == 0)
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @apiNote
+     * <p>This method behaves as if:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     int i = Arrays.mismatch(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex,
+     *                             b, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+     *     if (i >= 0 && i < Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex))
+     *         return Long.compare(a[aFromIndex + i], b[bFromIndex + i]);
+     *     return (aToIndex - aFromIndex) - (bToIndex - bFromIndex);
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to compare
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be compared
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be compared
+     * @param b the second array to compare
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be compared
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be compared
+     * @return the value {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the first and
+     *         second array are equal and contain the same elements in the same
+     *         order;
+     *         a value less than {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the
+     *         first array is lexicographically less than the second array; and
+     *         a value greater than {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the
+     *         first array is lexicographically greater than the second array
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int compare(long[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                              long[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        int length = Math.min(aLength, bLength);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            long va = a[aFromIndex++];
+            long vb = b[bFromIndex++];
+            if (va != vb) return Long.compare(va, vb);
+        }
+
+        return aLength - bLength;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Compares two {@code long} arrays lexicographically, numerically treating
+     * elements as unsigned.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays share a common prefix then the lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing two elements, as if by
+     * {@link Long#compareUnsigned(long, long)}, at an index within the
+     * respective arrays that is the prefix length.
+     * Otherwise, one array is a proper prefix of the other and, lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing the two array lengths.
+     * (See {@link #mismatch(long[], long[])} for the definition of a common
+     * and proper prefix.)
+     *
+     * <p>A {@code null} array reference is considered lexicographically less
+     * than a non-{@code null} array reference.  Two {@code null} array
+     * references are considered equal.
+     *
+     * @apiNote
+     * <p>This method behaves as if (for non-{@code null} array references):
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     int i = Arrays.mismatch(a, b);
+     *     if (i >= 0 && i < Math.min(a.length, b.length))
+     *         return Long.compareUnsigned(a[i], b[i]);
+     *     return a.length - b.length;
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to compare
+     * @param b the second array to compare
+     * @return the value {@code 0} if the first and second array are
+     *         equal and contain the same elements in the same order;
+     *         a value less than {@code 0} if the first array is
+     *         lexicographically less than the second array; and
+     *         a value greater than {@code 0} if the first array is
+     *         lexicographically greater than the second array
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int compareUnsigned(long[] a, long[] b) {
+        if (a == b)
+            return 0;
+        if (a == null || b == null)
+            return a == null ? -1 : 1;
+
+        int length = Math.min(a.length, b.length);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            if (a[i] != b[i]) return Long.compareUnsigned(a[i], b[i]);
+        }
+
+        return a.length - b.length;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Compares two {@code long} arrays lexicographically over the specified
+     * ranges, numerically treating elements as unsigned.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays, over the specified ranges, share a common prefix
+     * then the lexicographic comparison is the result of comparing two
+     * elements, as if by {@link Long#compareUnsigned(long, long)}, at a
+     * relative index within the respective arrays that is the length of the
+     * prefix.
+     * Otherwise, one array is a proper prefix of the other and, lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing the two range lengths.
+     * (See {@link #mismatch(long[], int, int, long[], int, int)} for the
+     * definition of a common and proper prefix.)
+     *
+     * @apiNote
+     * <p>This method behaves as if:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     int i = Arrays.mismatch(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex,
+     *                             b, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+     *     if (i >= 0 && i < Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex))
+     *         return Long.compareUnsigned(a[aFromIndex + i], b[bFromIndex + i]);
+     *     return (aToIndex - aFromIndex) - (bToIndex - bFromIndex);
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to compare
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be compared
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be compared
+     * @param b the second array to compare
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be compared
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be compared
+     * @return the value {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the first and
+     *         second array are equal and contain the same elements in the same
+     *         order;
+     *         a value less than {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the
+     *         first array is lexicographically less than the second array; and
+     *         a value greater than {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the
+     *         first array is lexicographically greater than the second array
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is null
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int compareUnsigned(long[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                                      long[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        int length = Math.min(aLength, bLength);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            long va = a[aFromIndex++];
+            long vb = b[bFromIndex++];
+            if (va != vb) return Long.compareUnsigned(va, vb);
+        }
+
+        return aLength - bLength;
+    }
+
+    // Compare float
+
+    /**
+     * Compares two {@code float} arrays lexicographically.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays share a common prefix then the lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing two elements, as if by
+     * {@link Float#compare(float, float)}, at an index within the respective
+     * arrays that is the prefix length.
+     * Otherwise, one array is a proper prefix of the other and, lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing the two array lengths.
+     * (See {@link #mismatch(float[], float[])} for the definition of a common
+     * and proper prefix.)
+     *
+     * <p>A {@code null} array reference is considered lexicographically less
+     * than a non-{@code null} array reference.  Two {@code null} array
+     * references are considered equal.
+     *
+     * <p>The comparison is consistent with {@link #equals(float[], float[]) equals},
+     * more specifically the following holds for arrays {@code a} and {@code b}:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, b) == (Arrays.compare(a, b) == 0)
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @apiNote
+     * <p>This method behaves as if (for non-{@code null} array references):
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     int i = Arrays.mismatch(a, b);
+     *     if (i >= 0 && i < Math.min(a.length, b.length))
+     *         return Float.compare(a[i], b[i]);
+     *     return a.length - b.length;
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to compare
+     * @param b the second array to compare
+     * @return the value {@code 0} if the first and second array are equal and
+     *         contain the same elements in the same order;
+     *         a value less than {@code 0} if the first array is
+     *         lexicographically less than the second array; and
+     *         a value greater than {@code 0} if the first array is
+     *         lexicographically greater than the second array
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int compare(float[] a, float[] b) {
+        if (a == b)
+            return 0;
+        if (a == null || b == null)
+            return a == null ? -1 : 1;
+
+        int length = Math.min(a.length, b.length);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            float va = a[i], vb = b[i];
+            if (Float.floatToRawIntBits(va) != Float.floatToRawIntBits(vb)) {
+                int c = Float.compare(va, vb);
+                if (c != 0) return c;
+            }
+        }
+
+        return a.length - b.length;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Compares two {@code float} arrays lexicographically over the specified
+     * ranges.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays, over the specified ranges, share a common prefix
+     * then the lexicographic comparison is the result of comparing two
+     * elements, as if by {@link Float#compare(float, float)}, at a relative
+     * index within the respective arrays that is the length of the prefix.
+     * Otherwise, one array is a proper prefix of the other and, lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing the two range lengths.
+     * (See {@link #mismatch(float[], int, int, float[], int, int)} for the
+     * definition of a common and proper prefix.)
+     *
+     * <p>The comparison is consistent with
+     * {@link #equals(float[], int, int, float[], int, int) equals}, more
+     * specifically the following holds for arrays {@code a} and {@code b} with
+     * specified ranges [{@code aFromIndex}, {@code atoIndex}) and
+     * [{@code bFromIndex}, {@code btoIndex}) respectively:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex, b, bFromIndex, bToIndex) ==
+     *         (Arrays.compare(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex, b, bFromIndex, bToIndex) == 0)
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @apiNote
+     * <p>This method behaves as if:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     int i = Arrays.mismatch(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex,
+     *                             b, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+     *     if (i >= 0 && i < Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex))
+     *         return Float.compare(a[aFromIndex + i], b[bFromIndex + i]);
+     *     return (aToIndex - aFromIndex) - (bToIndex - bFromIndex);
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to compare
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be compared
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be compared
+     * @param b the second array to compare
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be compared
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be compared
+     * @return the value {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the first and
+     *         second array are equal and contain the same elements in the same
+     *         order;
+     *         a value less than {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the
+     *         first array is lexicographically less than the second array; and
+     *         a value greater than {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the
+     *         first array is lexicographically greater than the second array
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int compare(float[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                              float[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        int length = Math.min(aLength, bLength);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            float va = a[aFromIndex++], vb = b[bFromIndex++];
+            if (Float.floatToRawIntBits(va) != Float.floatToRawIntBits(vb)) {
+                int c = Float.compare(va, vb);
+                if (c != 0) return c;
+            }
+        }
+
+        return aLength - bLength;
+    }
+
+    // Compare double
+
+    /**
+     * Compares two {@code double} arrays lexicographically.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays share a common prefix then the lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing two elements, as if by
+     * {@link Double#compare(double, double)}, at an index within the respective
+     * arrays that is the prefix length.
+     * Otherwise, one array is a proper prefix of the other and, lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing the two array lengths.
+     * (See {@link #mismatch(double[], double[])} for the definition of a common
+     * and proper prefix.)
+     *
+     * <p>A {@code null} array reference is considered lexicographically less
+     * than a non-{@code null} array reference.  Two {@code null} array
+     * references are considered equal.
+     *
+     * <p>The comparison is consistent with {@link #equals(double[], double[]) equals},
+     * more specifically the following holds for arrays {@code a} and {@code b}:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, b) == (Arrays.compare(a, b) == 0)
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @apiNote
+     * <p>This method behaves as if (for non-{@code null} array references):
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     int i = Arrays.mismatch(a, b);
+     *     if (i >= 0 && i < Math.min(a.length, b.length))
+     *         return Double.compare(a[i], b[i]);
+     *     return a.length - b.length;
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to compare
+     * @param b the second array to compare
+     * @return the value {@code 0} if the first and second array are equal and
+     *         contain the same elements in the same order;
+     *         a value less than {@code 0} if the first array is
+     *         lexicographically less than the second array; and
+     *         a value greater than {@code 0} if the first array is
+     *         lexicographically greater than the second array
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int compare(double[] a, double[] b) {
+        if (a == b)
+            return 0;
+        if (a == null || b == null)
+            return a == null ? -1 : 1;
+
+        int length = Math.min(a.length, b.length);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            double va = a[i], vb = b[i];
+            if (Double.doubleToRawLongBits(va) != Double.doubleToRawLongBits(vb)) {
+                int c = Double.compare(va, vb);
+                if (c != 0) return c;
+            }
+        }
+
+        return a.length - b.length;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Compares two {@code double} arrays lexicographically over the specified
+     * ranges.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays, over the specified ranges, share a common prefix
+     * then the lexicographic comparison is the result of comparing two
+     * elements, as if by {@link Double#compare(double, double)}, at a relative
+     * index within the respective arrays that is the length of the prefix.
+     * Otherwise, one array is a proper prefix of the other and, lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing the two range lengths.
+     * (See {@link #mismatch(double[], int, int, double[], int, int)} for the
+     * definition of a common and proper prefix.)
+     *
+     * <p>The comparison is consistent with
+     * {@link #equals(double[], int, int, double[], int, int) equals}, more
+     * specifically the following holds for arrays {@code a} and {@code b} with
+     * specified ranges [{@code aFromIndex}, {@code atoIndex}) and
+     * [{@code bFromIndex}, {@code btoIndex}) respectively:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex, b, bFromIndex, bToIndex) ==
+     *         (Arrays.compare(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex, b, bFromIndex, bToIndex) == 0)
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @apiNote
+     * <p>This method behaves as if:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     int i = Arrays.mismatch(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex,
+     *                             b, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+     *     if (i >= 0 && i < Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex))
+     *         return Double.compare(a[aFromIndex + i], b[bFromIndex + i]);
+     *     return (aToIndex - aFromIndex) - (bToIndex - bFromIndex);
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to compare
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be compared
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be compared
+     * @param b the second array to compare
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be compared
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be compared
+     * @return the value {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the first and
+     *         second array are equal and contain the same elements in the same
+     *         order;
+     *         a value less than {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the
+     *         first array is lexicographically less than the second array; and
+     *         a value greater than {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the
+     *         first array is lexicographically greater than the second array
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int compare(double[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                              double[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        int length = Math.min(aLength, bLength);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            double va = a[aFromIndex++], vb = b[bFromIndex++];
+            if (Double.doubleToRawLongBits(va) != Double.doubleToRawLongBits(vb)) {
+                int c = Double.compare(va, vb);
+                if (c != 0) return c;
+            }
+        }
+
+        return aLength - bLength;
+    }
+
+    // Compare objects
+
+    /**
+     * Compares two {@code Object} arrays, within comparable elements,
+     * lexicographically.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays share a common prefix then the lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing two elements of type {@code T} at
+     * an index {@code i} within the respective arrays that is the prefix
+     * length, as if by:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     Comparator.nullsFirst(Comparator.<T>naturalOrder()).
+     *         compare(a[i], b[i])
+     * }</pre>
+     * Otherwise, one array is a proper prefix of the other and, lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing the two array lengths.
+     * (See {@link #mismatch(Object[], Object[])} for the definition of a common
+     * and proper prefix.)
+     *
+     * <p>A {@code null} array reference is considered lexicographically less
+     * than a non-{@code null} array reference.  Two {@code null} array
+     * references are considered equal.
+     * A {@code null} array element is considered lexicographically than a
+     * non-{@code null} array element.  Two {@code null} array elements are
+     * considered equal.
+     *
+     * <p>The comparison is consistent with {@link #equals(Object[], Object[]) equals},
+     * more specifically the following holds for arrays {@code a} and {@code b}:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, b) == (Arrays.compare(a, b) == 0)
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @apiNote
+     * <p>This method behaves as if (for non-{@code null} array references
+     * and elements):
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     int i = Arrays.mismatch(a, b);
+     *     if (i >= 0 && i < Math.min(a.length, b.length))
+     *         return a[i].compareTo(b[i]);
+     *     return a.length - b.length;
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to compare
+     * @param b the second array to compare
+     * @param <T> the type of comparable array elements
+     * @return the value {@code 0} if the first and second array are equal and
+     *         contain the same elements in the same order;
+     *         a value less than {@code 0} if the first array is
+     *         lexicographically less than the second array; and
+     *         a value greater than {@code 0} if the first array is
+     *         lexicographically greater than the second array
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static <T extends Comparable<? super T>> int compare(T[] a, T[] b) {
+        if (a == b)
+            return 0;
+        // A null array is less than a non-null array
+        if (a == null || b == null)
+            return a == null ? -1 : 1;
+
+        int length = Math.min(a.length, b.length);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            T oa = a[i];
+            T ob = b[i];
+            if (oa != ob) {
+                // A null element is less than a non-null element
+                if (oa == null || ob == null)
+                    return oa == null ? -1 : 1;
+                int v = oa.compareTo(ob);
+                if (v != 0) {
+                    return v;
+                }
+            }
+        }
+
+        return a.length - b.length;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Compares two {@code Object} arrays lexicographically over the specified
+     * ranges.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays, over the specified ranges, share a common prefix
+     * then the lexicographic comparison is the result of comparing two
+     * elements of type {@code T} at a relative index {@code i} within the
+     * respective arrays that is the prefix length, as if by:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     Comparator.nullsFirst(Comparator.<T>naturalOrder()).
+     *         compare(a[aFromIndex + i, b[bFromIndex + i])
+     * }</pre>
+     * Otherwise, one array is a proper prefix of the other and, lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing the two range lengths.
+     * (See {@link #mismatch(Object[], int, int, Object[], int, int)} for the
+     * definition of a common and proper prefix.)
+     *
+     * <p>The comparison is consistent with
+     * {@link #equals(Object[], int, int, Object[], int, int) equals}, more
+     * specifically the following holds for arrays {@code a} and {@code b} with
+     * specified ranges [{@code aFromIndex}, {@code atoIndex}) and
+     * [{@code bFromIndex}, {@code btoIndex}) respectively:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex, b, bFromIndex, bToIndex) ==
+     *         (Arrays.compare(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex, b, bFromIndex, bToIndex) == 0)
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @apiNote
+     * <p>This method behaves as if (for non-{@code null} array elements):
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     int i = Arrays.mismatch(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex,
+     *                             b, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+     *     if (i >= 0 && i < Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex))
+     *         return a[aFromIndex + i].compareTo(b[bFromIndex + i]);
+     *     return (aToIndex - aFromIndex) - (bToIndex - bFromIndex);
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to compare
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be compared
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be compared
+     * @param b the second array to compare
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be compared
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be compared
+     * @param <T> the type of comparable array elements
+     * @return the value {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the first and
+     *         second array are equal and contain the same elements in the same
+     *         order;
+     *         a value less than {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the
+     *         first array is lexicographically less than the second array; and
+     *         a value greater than {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the
+     *         first array is lexicographically greater than the second array
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static <T extends Comparable<? super T>> int compare(
+            T[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+            T[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        int length = Math.min(aLength, bLength);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            T oa = a[aFromIndex++];
+            T ob = b[bFromIndex++];
+            if (oa != ob) {
+                if (oa == null || ob == null)
+                    return oa == null ? -1 : 1;
+                int v = oa.compareTo(ob);
+                if (v != 0) {
+                    return v;
+                }
+            }
+        }
+
+        return aLength - bLength;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Compares two {@code Object} arrays lexicographically using a specified
+     * comparator.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays share a common prefix then the lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing with the specified comparator two
+     * elements at an index within the respective arrays that is the prefix
+     * length.
+     * Otherwise, one array is a proper prefix of the other and, lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing the two array lengths.
+     * (See {@link #mismatch(Object[], Object[])} for the definition of a common
+     * and proper prefix.)
+     *
+     * <p>A {@code null} array reference is considered lexicographically less
+     * than a non-{@code null} array reference.  Two {@code null} array
+     * references are considered equal.
+     *
+     * @apiNote
+     * <p>This method behaves as if (for non-{@code null} array references):
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     int i = Arrays.mismatch(a, b, cmp);
+     *     if (i >= 0 && i < Math.min(a.length, b.length))
+     *         return cmp.compare(a[i], b[i]);
+     *     return a.length - b.length;
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to compare
+     * @param b the second array to compare
+     * @param cmp the comparator to compare array elements
+     * @param <T> the type of array elements
+     * @return the value {@code 0} if the first and second array are equal and
+     *         contain the same elements in the same order;
+     *         a value less than {@code 0} if the first array is
+     *         lexicographically less than the second array; and
+     *         a value greater than {@code 0} if the first array is
+     *         lexicographically greater than the second array
+     * @throws NullPointerException if the comparator is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static <T> int compare(T[] a, T[] b,
+                                  Comparator<? super T> cmp) {
+        Objects.requireNonNull(cmp);
+        if (a == b)
+            return 0;
+        if (a == null || b == null)
+            return a == null ? -1 : 1;
+
+        int length = Math.min(a.length, b.length);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            T oa = a[i];
+            T ob = b[i];
+            if (oa != ob) {
+                // Null-value comparison is deferred to the comparator
+                int v = cmp.compare(oa, ob);
+                if (v != 0) {
+                    return v;
+                }
+            }
+        }
+
+        return a.length - b.length;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Compares two {@code Object} arrays lexicographically over the specified
+     * ranges.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays, over the specified ranges, share a common prefix
+     * then the lexicographic comparison is the result of comparing with the
+     * specified comparator two elements at a relative index within the
+     * respective arrays that is the prefix length.
+     * Otherwise, one array is a proper prefix of the other and, lexicographic
+     * comparison is the result of comparing the two range lengths.
+     * (See {@link #mismatch(Object[], int, int, Object[], int, int)} for the
+     * definition of a common and proper prefix.)
+     *
+     * @apiNote
+     * <p>This method behaves as if (for non-{@code null} array elements):
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     int i = Arrays.mismatch(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex,
+     *                             b, bFromIndex, bToIndex, cmp);
+     *     if (i >= 0 && i < Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex))
+     *         return cmp.compare(a[aFromIndex + i], b[bFromIndex + i]);
+     *     return (aToIndex - aFromIndex) - (bToIndex - bFromIndex);
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to compare
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be compared
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be compared
+     * @param b the second array to compare
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be compared
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be compared
+     * @param cmp the comparator to compare array elements
+     * @param <T> the type of array elements
+     * @return the value {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the first and
+     *         second array are equal and contain the same elements in the same
+     *         order;
+     *         a value less than {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the
+     *         first array is lexicographically less than the second array; and
+     *         a value greater than {@code 0} if, over the specified ranges, the
+     *         first array is lexicographically greater than the second array
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array or the comparator is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static <T> int compare(
+            T[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+            T[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex,
+            Comparator<? super T> cmp) {
+        Objects.requireNonNull(cmp);
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        int length = Math.min(aLength, bLength);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            T oa = a[aFromIndex++];
+            T ob = b[bFromIndex++];
+            if (oa != ob) {
+                // Null-value comparison is deferred to the comparator
+                int v = cmp.compare(oa, ob);
+                if (v != 0) {
+                    return v;
+                }
+            }
+        }
+
+        return aLength - bLength;
+    }
+
+
+    // Mismatch methods
+
+    // Mismatch boolean
+
+    /**
+     * Finds and returns the index of the first mismatch between two
+     * {@code boolean} arrays, otherwise return -1 if no mismatch is found.  The
+     * index will be in the range of 0 (inclusive) up to the length (inclusive)
+     * of the smaller array.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays share a common prefix then the returned index is the
+     * length of the common prefix and it follows that there is a mismatch
+     * between the two elements at that index within the respective arrays.
+     * If one array is a proper prefix of the other then the returned index is
+     * the length of the smaller array and it follows that the index is only
+     * valid for the larger array.
+     * Otherwise, there is no mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b}, share a common
+     * prefix of length {@code pl} if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     pl >= 0 &&
+     *     pl < Math.min(a.length, b.length) &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, 0, pl, b, 0, pl) &&
+     *     a[pl] != b[pl]
+     * }</pre>
+     * Note that a common prefix length of {@code 0} indicates that the first
+     * elements from each array mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b}, share a proper
+     * prefix if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     a.length != b.length &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, 0, Math.min(a.length, b.length),
+     *                   b, 0, Math.min(a.length, b.length))
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @param b the second array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @return the index of the first mismatch between the two arrays,
+     *         otherwise {@code -1}.
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int mismatch(boolean[] a, boolean[] b) {
+        int length = Math.min(a.length, b.length); // Check null array refs
+        if (a == b)
+            return -1;
+
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            if (a[i] != b[i]) return i;
+        }
+
+        return a.length != b.length ? length : -1;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Finds and returns the relative index of the first mismatch between two
+     * {@code boolean} arrays over the specified ranges, otherwise return -1 if
+     * no mismatch is found.  The index will be in the range of 0 (inclusive) up
+     * to the length (inclusive) of the smaller range.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays, over the specified ranges, share a common prefix
+     * then the returned relative index is the length of the common prefix and
+     * it follows that there is a mismatch between the two elements at that
+     * relative index within the respective arrays.
+     * If one array is a proper prefix of the other, over the specified ranges,
+     * then the returned relative index is the length of the smaller range and
+     * it follows that the relative index is only valid for the array with the
+     * larger range.
+     * Otherwise, there is no mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b} with specified
+     * ranges [{@code aFromIndex}, {@code atoIndex}) and
+     * [{@code bFromIndex}, {@code btoIndex}) respectively, share a common
+     * prefix of length {@code pl} if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     pl >= 0 &&
+     *     pl < Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex) &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, aFromIndex, aFromIndex + pl, b, bFromIndex, bFromIndex + pl) &&
+     *     a[aFromIndex + pl] != b[bFromIndex + pl]
+     * }</pre>
+     * Note that a common prefix length of {@code 0} indicates that the first
+     * elements from each array mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b} with specified
+     * ranges [{@code aFromIndex}, {@code atoIndex}) and
+     * [{@code bFromIndex}, {@code btoIndex}) respectively, share a proper
+     * if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     (aToIndex - aFromIndex) != (bToIndex - bFromIndex) &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, 0, Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex),
+     *                   b, 0, Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex))
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be tested
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be tested
+     * @param b the second array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be tested
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be tested
+     * @return the relative index of the first mismatch between the two arrays
+     *         over the specified ranges, otherwise {@code -1}.
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int mismatch(boolean[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                               boolean[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        int length = Math.min(aLength, bLength);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            if (a[aFromIndex++] != b[bFromIndex++]) return i;
+        }
+
+        return aLength != bLength ? length : -1;
+    }
+
+    // Mismatch byte
+
+    /**
+     * Finds and returns the index of the first mismatch between two {@code byte}
+     * arrays, otherwise return -1 if no mismatch is found.  The index will be
+     * in the range of 0 (inclusive) up to the length (inclusive) of the smaller
+     * array.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays share a common prefix then the returned index is the
+     * length of the common prefix and it follows that there is a mismatch
+     * between the two elements at that index within the respective arrays.
+     * If one array is a proper prefix of the other then the returned index is
+     * the length of the smaller array and it follows that the index is only
+     * valid for the larger array.
+     * Otherwise, there is no mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b}, share a common
+     * prefix of length {@code pl} if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     pl >= 0 &&
+     *     pl < Math.min(a.length, b.length) &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, 0, pl, b, 0, pl) &&
+     *     a[pl] != b[pl]
+     * }</pre>
+     * Note that a common prefix length of {@code 0} indicates that the first
+     * elements from each array mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b}, share a proper
+     * prefix if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     a.length != b.length &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, 0, Math.min(a.length, b.length),
+     *                   b, 0, Math.min(a.length, b.length))
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @param b the second array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @return the index of the first mismatch between the two arrays,
+     *         otherwise {@code -1}.
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int mismatch(byte[] a, byte[] b) {
+        int length = Math.min(a.length, b.length); // Check null array refs
+        if (a == b)
+            return -1;
+
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            if (a[i] != b[i]) return i;
+        }
+
+        return a.length != b.length ? length : -1;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Finds and returns the relative index of the first mismatch between two
+     * {@code byte} arrays over the specified ranges, otherwise return -1 if no
+     * mismatch is found.  The index will be in the range of 0 (inclusive) up to
+     * the length (inclusive) of the smaller range.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays, over the specified ranges, share a common prefix
+     * then the returned relative index is the length of the common prefix and
+     * it follows that there is a mismatch between the two elements at that
+     * relative index within the respective arrays.
+     * If one array is a proper prefix of the other, over the specified ranges,
+     * then the returned relative index is the length of the smaller range and
+     * it follows that the relative index is only valid for the array with the
+     * larger range.
+     * Otherwise, there is no mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b} with specified
+     * ranges [{@code aFromIndex}, {@code atoIndex}) and
+     * [{@code bFromIndex}, {@code btoIndex}) respectively, share a common
+     * prefix of length {@code pl} if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     pl >= 0 &&
+     *     pl < Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex) &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, aFromIndex, aFromIndex + pl, b, bFromIndex, bFromIndex + pl) &&
+     *     a[aFromIndex + pl] != b[bFromIndex + pl]
+     * }</pre>
+     * Note that a common prefix length of {@code 0} indicates that the first
+     * elements from each array mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b} with specified
+     * ranges [{@code aFromIndex}, {@code atoIndex}) and
+     * [{@code bFromIndex}, {@code btoIndex}) respectively, share a proper
+     * if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     (aToIndex - aFromIndex) != (bToIndex - bFromIndex) &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, 0, Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex),
+     *                   b, 0, Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex))
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be tested
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be tested
+     * @param b the second array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be tested
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be tested
+     * @return the relative index of the first mismatch between the two arrays
+     *         over the specified ranges, otherwise {@code -1}.
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int mismatch(byte[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                               byte[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        int length = Math.min(aLength, bLength);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            if (a[aFromIndex++] != b[bFromIndex++]) return i;
+        }
+
+        return aLength != bLength ? length : -1;
+    }
+
+    // Mismatch char
+
+    /**
+     * Finds and returns the index of the first mismatch between two {@code char}
+     * arrays, otherwise return -1 if no mismatch is found.  The index will be
+     * in the range of 0 (inclusive) up to the length (inclusive) of the smaller
+     * array.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays share a common prefix then the returned index is the
+     * length of the common prefix and it follows that there is a mismatch
+     * between the two elements at that index within the respective arrays.
+     * If one array is a proper prefix of the other then the returned index is
+     * the length of the smaller array and it follows that the index is only
+     * valid for the larger array.
+     * Otherwise, there is no mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b}, share a common
+     * prefix of length {@code pl} if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     pl >= 0 &&
+     *     pl < Math.min(a.length, b.length) &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, 0, pl, b, 0, pl) &&
+     *     a[pl] != b[pl]
+     * }</pre>
+     * Note that a common prefix length of {@code 0} indicates that the first
+     * elements from each array mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b}, share a proper
+     * prefix if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     a.length != b.length &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, 0, Math.min(a.length, b.length),
+     *                   b, 0, Math.min(a.length, b.length))
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @param b the second array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @return the index of the first mismatch between the two arrays,
+     *         otherwise {@code -1}.
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int mismatch(char[] a, char[] b) {
+        int length = Math.min(a.length, b.length); // Check null array refs
+        if (a == b)
+            return -1;
+
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            if (a[i] != b[i]) return i;
+        }
+
+        return a.length != b.length ? length : -1;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Finds and returns the relative index of the first mismatch between two
+     * {@code char} arrays over the specified ranges, otherwise return -1 if no
+     * mismatch is found.  The index will be in the range of 0 (inclusive) up to
+     * the length (inclusive) of the smaller range.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays, over the specified ranges, share a common prefix
+     * then the returned relative index is the length of the common prefix and
+     * it follows that there is a mismatch between the two elements at that
+     * relative index within the respective arrays.
+     * If one array is a proper prefix of the other, over the specified ranges,
+     * then the returned relative index is the length of the smaller range and
+     * it follows that the relative index is only valid for the array with the
+     * larger range.
+     * Otherwise, there is no mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b} with specified
+     * ranges [{@code aFromIndex}, {@code atoIndex}) and
+     * [{@code bFromIndex}, {@code btoIndex}) respectively, share a common
+     * prefix of length {@code pl} if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     pl >= 0 &&
+     *     pl < Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex) &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, aFromIndex, aFromIndex + pl, b, bFromIndex, bFromIndex + pl) &&
+     *     a[aFromIndex + pl] != b[bFromIndex + pl]
+     * }</pre>
+     * Note that a common prefix length of {@code 0} indicates that the first
+     * elements from each array mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b} with specified
+     * ranges [{@code aFromIndex}, {@code atoIndex}) and
+     * [{@code bFromIndex}, {@code btoIndex}) respectively, share a proper
+     * if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     (aToIndex - aFromIndex) != (bToIndex - bFromIndex) &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, 0, Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex),
+     *                   b, 0, Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex))
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be tested
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be tested
+     * @param b the second array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be tested
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be tested
+     * @return the relative index of the first mismatch between the two arrays
+     *         over the specified ranges, otherwise {@code -1}.
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int mismatch(char[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                               char[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        int length = Math.min(aLength, bLength);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            if (a[aFromIndex++] != b[bFromIndex++]) return i;
+        }
+
+        return aLength != bLength ? length : -1;
+    }
+
+    // Mismatch short
+
+    /**
+     * Finds and returns the index of the first mismatch between two {@code short}
+     * arrays, otherwise return -1 if no mismatch is found.  The index will be
+     * in the range of 0 (inclusive) up to the length (inclusive) of the smaller
+     * array.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays share a common prefix then the returned index is the
+     * length of the common prefix and it follows that there is a mismatch
+     * between the two elements at that index within the respective arrays.
+     * If one array is a proper prefix of the other then the returned index is
+     * the length of the smaller array and it follows that the index is only
+     * valid for the larger array.
+     * Otherwise, there is no mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b}, share a common
+     * prefix of length {@code pl} if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     pl >= 0 &&
+     *     pl < Math.min(a.length, b.length) &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, 0, pl, b, 0, pl) &&
+     *     a[pl] != b[pl]
+     * }</pre>
+     * Note that a common prefix length of {@code 0} indicates that the first
+     * elements from each array mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b}, share a proper
+     * prefix if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     a.length != b.length &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, 0, Math.min(a.length, b.length),
+     *                   b, 0, Math.min(a.length, b.length))
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @param b the second array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @return the index of the first mismatch between the two arrays,
+     *         otherwise {@code -1}.
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int mismatch(short[] a, short[] b) {
+        int length = Math.min(a.length, b.length); // Check null array refs
+        if (a == b)
+            return -1;
+
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            if (a[i] != b[i]) return i;
+        }
+
+        return a.length != b.length ? length : -1;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Finds and returns the relative index of the first mismatch between two
+     * {@code short} arrays over the specified ranges, otherwise return -1 if no
+     * mismatch is found.  The index will be in the range of 0 (inclusive) up to
+     * the length (inclusive) of the smaller range.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays, over the specified ranges, share a common prefix
+     * then the returned relative index is the length of the common prefix and
+     * it follows that there is a mismatch between the two elements at that
+     * relative index within the respective arrays.
+     * If one array is a proper prefix of the other, over the specified ranges,
+     * then the returned relative index is the length of the smaller range and
+     * it follows that the relative index is only valid for the array with the
+     * larger range.
+     * Otherwise, there is no mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b} with specified
+     * ranges [{@code aFromIndex}, {@code atoIndex}) and
+     * [{@code bFromIndex}, {@code btoIndex}) respectively, share a common
+     * prefix of length {@code pl} if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     pl >= 0 &&
+     *     pl < Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex) &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, aFromIndex, aFromIndex + pl, b, bFromIndex, bFromIndex + pl) &&
+     *     a[aFromIndex + pl] != b[bFromIndex + pl]
+     * }</pre>
+     * Note that a common prefix length of {@code 0} indicates that the first
+     * elements from each array mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b} with specified
+     * ranges [{@code aFromIndex}, {@code atoIndex}) and
+     * [{@code bFromIndex}, {@code btoIndex}) respectively, share a proper
+     * if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     (aToIndex - aFromIndex) != (bToIndex - bFromIndex) &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, 0, Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex),
+     *                   b, 0, Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex))
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be tested
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be tested
+     * @param b the second array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be tested
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be tested
+     * @return the relative index of the first mismatch between the two arrays
+     *         over the specified ranges, otherwise {@code -1}.
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int mismatch(short[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                               short[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        int length = Math.min(aLength, bLength);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            if (a[aFromIndex++] != b[bFromIndex++]) return i;
+        }
+
+        return aLength != bLength ? length : -1;
+    }
+
+    // Mismatch int
+
+    /**
+     * Finds and returns the index of the first mismatch between two {@code int}
+     * arrays, otherwise return -1 if no mismatch is found.  The index will be
+     * in the range of 0 (inclusive) up to the length (inclusive) of the smaller
+     * array.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays share a common prefix then the returned index is the
+     * length of the common prefix and it follows that there is a mismatch
+     * between the two elements at that index within the respective arrays.
+     * If one array is a proper prefix of the other then the returned index is
+     * the length of the smaller array and it follows that the index is only
+     * valid for the larger array.
+     * Otherwise, there is no mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b}, share a common
+     * prefix of length {@code pl} if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     pl >= 0 &&
+     *     pl < Math.min(a.length, b.length) &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, 0, pl, b, 0, pl) &&
+     *     a[pl] != b[pl]
+     * }</pre>
+     * Note that a common prefix length of {@code 0} indicates that the first
+     * elements from each array mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b}, share a proper
+     * prefix if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     a.length != b.length &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, 0, Math.min(a.length, b.length),
+     *                   b, 0, Math.min(a.length, b.length))
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @param b the second array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @return the index of the first mismatch between the two arrays,
+     *         otherwise {@code -1}.
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int mismatch(int[] a, int[] b) {
+        int length = Math.min(a.length, b.length); // Check null array refs
+        if (a == b)
+            return -1;
+
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            if (a[i] != b[i]) return i;
+        }
+
+        return a.length != b.length ? length : -1;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Finds and returns the relative index of the first mismatch between two
+     * {@code int} arrays over the specified ranges, otherwise return -1 if no
+     * mismatch is found.  The index will be in the range of 0 (inclusive) up to
+     * the length (inclusive) of the smaller range.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays, over the specified ranges, share a common prefix
+     * then the returned relative index is the length of the common prefix and
+     * it follows that there is a mismatch between the two elements at that
+     * relative index within the respective arrays.
+     * If one array is a proper prefix of the other, over the specified ranges,
+     * then the returned relative index is the length of the smaller range and
+     * it follows that the relative index is only valid for the array with the
+     * larger range.
+     * Otherwise, there is no mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b} with specified
+     * ranges [{@code aFromIndex}, {@code atoIndex}) and
+     * [{@code bFromIndex}, {@code btoIndex}) respectively, share a common
+     * prefix of length {@code pl} if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     pl >= 0 &&
+     *     pl < Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex) &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, aFromIndex, aFromIndex + pl, b, bFromIndex, bFromIndex + pl) &&
+     *     a[aFromIndex + pl] != b[bFromIndex + pl]
+     * }</pre>
+     * Note that a common prefix length of {@code 0} indicates that the first
+     * elements from each array mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b} with specified
+     * ranges [{@code aFromIndex}, {@code atoIndex}) and
+     * [{@code bFromIndex}, {@code btoIndex}) respectively, share a proper
+     * if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     (aToIndex - aFromIndex) != (bToIndex - bFromIndex) &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, 0, Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex),
+     *                   b, 0, Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex))
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be tested
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be tested
+     * @param b the second array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be tested
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be tested
+     * @return the relative index of the first mismatch between the two arrays
+     *         over the specified ranges, otherwise {@code -1}.
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int mismatch(int[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                               int[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        int length = Math.min(aLength, bLength);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            if (a[aFromIndex++] != b[bFromIndex++]) return i;
+        }
+
+        return aLength != bLength ? length : -1;
+    }
+
+    // Mismatch long
+
+    /**
+     * Finds and returns the index of the first mismatch between two {@code long}
+     * arrays, otherwise return -1 if no mismatch is found.  The index will be
+     * in the range of 0 (inclusive) up to the length (inclusive) of the smaller
+     * array.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays share a common prefix then the returned index is the
+     * length of the common prefix and it follows that there is a mismatch
+     * between the two elements at that index within the respective arrays.
+     * If one array is a proper prefix of the other then the returned index is
+     * the length of the smaller array and it follows that the index is only
+     * valid for the larger array.
+     * Otherwise, there is no mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b}, share a common
+     * prefix of length {@code pl} if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     pl >= 0 &&
+     *     pl < Math.min(a.length, b.length) &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, 0, pl, b, 0, pl) &&
+     *     a[pl] != b[pl]
+     * }</pre>
+     * Note that a common prefix length of {@code 0} indicates that the first
+     * elements from each array mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b}, share a proper
+     * prefix if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     a.length != b.length &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, 0, Math.min(a.length, b.length),
+     *                   b, 0, Math.min(a.length, b.length))
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @param b the second array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @return the index of the first mismatch between the two arrays,
+     *         otherwise {@code -1}.
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int mismatch(long[] a, long[] b) {
+        int length = Math.min(a.length, b.length); // Check null array refs
+        if (a == b)
+            return -1;
+
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            if (a[i] != b[i]) return i;
+        }
+
+        return a.length != b.length ? length : -1;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Finds and returns the relative index of the first mismatch between two
+     * {@code long} arrays over the specified ranges, otherwise return -1 if no
+     * mismatch is found.  The index will be in the range of 0 (inclusive) up to
+     * the length (inclusive) of the smaller range.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays, over the specified ranges, share a common prefix
+     * then the returned relative index is the length of the common prefix and
+     * it follows that there is a mismatch between the two elements at that
+     * relative index within the respective arrays.
+     * If one array is a proper prefix of the other, over the specified ranges,
+     * then the returned relative index is the length of the smaller range and
+     * it follows that the relative index is only valid for the array with the
+     * larger range.
+     * Otherwise, there is no mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b} with specified
+     * ranges [{@code aFromIndex}, {@code atoIndex}) and
+     * [{@code bFromIndex}, {@code btoIndex}) respectively, share a common
+     * prefix of length {@code pl} if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     pl >= 0 &&
+     *     pl < Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex) &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, aFromIndex, aFromIndex + pl, b, bFromIndex, bFromIndex + pl) &&
+     *     a[aFromIndex + pl] != b[bFromIndex + pl]
+     * }</pre>
+     * Note that a common prefix length of {@code 0} indicates that the first
+     * elements from each array mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b} with specified
+     * ranges [{@code aFromIndex}, {@code atoIndex}) and
+     * [{@code bFromIndex}, {@code btoIndex}) respectively, share a proper
+     * if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     (aToIndex - aFromIndex) != (bToIndex - bFromIndex) &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, 0, Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex),
+     *                   b, 0, Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex))
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be tested
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be tested
+     * @param b the second array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be tested
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be tested
+     * @return the relative index of the first mismatch between the two arrays
+     *         over the specified ranges, otherwise {@code -1}.
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int mismatch(long[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                               long[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        int length = Math.min(aLength, bLength);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            if (a[aFromIndex++] != b[bFromIndex++]) return i;
+        }
+
+        return aLength != bLength ? length : -1;
+    }
+
+    // Mismatch float
+
+    /**
+     * Finds and returns the index of the first mismatch between two {@code float}
+     * arrays, otherwise return -1 if no mismatch is found.  The index will be
+     * in the range of 0 (inclusive) up to the length (inclusive) of the smaller
+     * array.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays share a common prefix then the returned index is the
+     * length of the common prefix and it follows that there is a mismatch
+     * between the two elements at that index within the respective arrays.
+     * If one array is a proper prefix of the other then the returned index is
+     * the length of the smaller array and it follows that the index is only
+     * valid for the larger array.
+     * Otherwise, there is no mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b}, share a common
+     * prefix of length {@code pl} if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     pl >= 0 &&
+     *     pl < Math.min(a.length, b.length) &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, 0, pl, b, 0, pl) &&
+     *     Float.compare(a[pl], b[pl]) != 0
+     * }</pre>
+     * Note that a common prefix length of {@code 0} indicates that the first
+     * elements from each array mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b}, share a proper
+     * prefix if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     a.length != b.length &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, 0, Math.min(a.length, b.length),
+     *                   b, 0, Math.min(a.length, b.length))
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @param b the second array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @return the index of the first mismatch between the two arrays,
+     *         otherwise {@code -1}.
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int mismatch(float[] a, float[] b) {
+        int length = Math.min(a.length, b.length); // Check null array refs
+        if (a == b)
+            return -1;
+
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            float va = a[i], vb = b[i];
+            if (Float.floatToRawIntBits(va) != Float.floatToRawIntBits(vb))
+                if (!Float.isNaN(va) || !Float.isNaN(vb))
+                    return i;
+        }
+
+        return a.length != b.length ? length : -1;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Finds and returns the relative index of the first mismatch between two
+     * {@code float} arrays over the specified ranges, otherwise return -1 if no
+     * mismatch is found.  The index will be in the range of 0 (inclusive) up to
+     * the length (inclusive) of the smaller range.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays, over the specified ranges, share a common prefix
+     * then the returned relative index is the length of the common prefix and
+     * it follows that there is a mismatch between the two elements at that
+     * relative index within the respective arrays.
+     * If one array is a proper prefix of the other, over the specified ranges,
+     * then the returned relative index is the length of the smaller range and
+     * it follows that the relative index is only valid for the array with the
+     * larger range.
+     * Otherwise, there is no mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b} with specified
+     * ranges [{@code aFromIndex}, {@code atoIndex}) and
+     * [{@code bFromIndex}, {@code btoIndex}) respectively, share a common
+     * prefix of length {@code pl} if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     pl >= 0 &&
+     *     pl < Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex) &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, aFromIndex, aFromIndex + pl, b, bFromIndex, bFromIndex + pl) &&
+     *     Float.compare(a[aFromIndex + pl], b[bFromIndex + pl]) != 0
+     * }</pre>
+     * Note that a common prefix length of {@code 0} indicates that the first
+     * elements from each array mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b} with specified
+     * ranges [{@code aFromIndex}, {@code atoIndex}) and
+     * [{@code bFromIndex}, {@code btoIndex}) respectively, share a proper
+     * if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     (aToIndex - aFromIndex) != (bToIndex - bFromIndex) &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, 0, Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex),
+     *                   b, 0, Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex))
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be tested
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be tested
+     * @param b the second array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be tested
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be tested
+     * @return the relative index of the first mismatch between the two arrays
+     *         over the specified ranges, otherwise {@code -1}.
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int mismatch(float[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                               float[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        int length = Math.min(aLength, bLength);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            float va = a[aFromIndex++], vb = b[bFromIndex++];
+            if (Float.floatToRawIntBits(va) != Float.floatToRawIntBits(vb))
+                if (!Float.isNaN(va) || !Float.isNaN(vb))
+                    return i;
+        }
+
+        return aLength != bLength ? length : -1;
+    }
+
+    // Mismatch double
+
+    /**
+     * Finds and returns the index of the first mismatch between two
+     * {@code double} arrays, otherwise return -1 if no mismatch is found.  The
+     * index will be in the range of 0 (inclusive) up to the length (inclusive)
+     * of the smaller array.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays share a common prefix then the returned index is the
+     * length of the common prefix and it follows that there is a mismatch
+     * between the two elements at that index within the respective arrays.
+     * If one array is a proper prefix of the other then the returned index is
+     * the length of the smaller array and it follows that the index is only
+     * valid for the larger array.
+     * Otherwise, there is no mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b}, share a common
+     * prefix of length {@code pl} if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     pl >= 0 &&
+     *     pl < Math.min(a.length, b.length) &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, 0, pl, b, 0, pl) &&
+     *     Double.compare(a[pl], b[pl]) != 0
+     * }</pre>
+     * Note that a common prefix length of {@code 0} indicates that the first
+     * elements from each array mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b}, share a proper
+     * prefix if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     a.length != b.length &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, 0, Math.min(a.length, b.length),
+     *                   b, 0, Math.min(a.length, b.length))
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @param b the second array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @return the index of the first mismatch between the two arrays,
+     *         otherwise {@code -1}.
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int mismatch(double[] a, double[] b) {
+        int length = Math.min(a.length, b.length); // Check null array refs
+        if (a == b)
+            return -1;
+
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            double va = a[i], vb = b[i];
+            if (Double.doubleToRawLongBits(va) != Double.doubleToRawLongBits(vb))
+                if (!Double.isNaN(va) || !Double.isNaN(vb))
+                    return i;
+        }
+
+        return a.length != b.length ? length : -1;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Finds and returns the relative index of the first mismatch between two
+     * {@code double} arrays over the specified ranges, otherwise return -1 if
+     * no mismatch is found.  The index will be in the range of 0 (inclusive) up
+     * to the length (inclusive) of the smaller range.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays, over the specified ranges, share a common prefix
+     * then the returned relative index is the length of the common prefix and
+     * it follows that there is a mismatch between the two elements at that
+     * relative index within the respective arrays.
+     * If one array is a proper prefix of the other, over the specified ranges,
+     * then the returned relative index is the length of the smaller range and
+     * it follows that the relative index is only valid for the array with the
+     * larger range.
+     * Otherwise, there is no mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b} with specified
+     * ranges [{@code aFromIndex}, {@code atoIndex}) and
+     * [{@code bFromIndex}, {@code btoIndex}) respectively, share a common
+     * prefix of length {@code pl} if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     pl >= 0 &&
+     *     pl < Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex) &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, aFromIndex, aFromIndex + pl, b, bFromIndex, bFromIndex + pl) &&
+     *     Double.compare(a[aFromIndex + pl], b[bFromIndex + pl]) != 0
+     * }</pre>
+     * Note that a common prefix length of {@code 0} indicates that the first
+     * elements from each array mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b} with specified
+     * ranges [{@code aFromIndex}, {@code atoIndex}) and
+     * [{@code bFromIndex}, {@code btoIndex}) respectively, share a proper
+     * if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     (aToIndex - aFromIndex) != (bToIndex - bFromIndex) &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, 0, Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex),
+     *                   b, 0, Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex))
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be tested
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be tested
+     * @param b the second array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be tested
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be tested
+     * @return the relative index of the first mismatch between the two arrays
+     *         over the specified ranges, otherwise {@code -1}.
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int mismatch(double[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                               double[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        int length = Math.min(aLength, bLength);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            double va = a[aFromIndex++], vb = b[bFromIndex++];
+            if (Double.doubleToRawLongBits(va) != Double.doubleToRawLongBits(vb))
+                if (!Double.isNaN(va) || !Double.isNaN(vb))
+                    return i;
+        }
+
+        return aLength != bLength ? length : -1;
+    }
+
+    // Mismatch objects
+
+    /**
+     * Finds and returns the index of the first mismatch between two
+     * {@code Object} arrays, otherwise return -1 if no mismatch is found.  The
+     * index will be in the range of 0 (inclusive) up to the length (inclusive)
+     * of the smaller array.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays share a common prefix then the returned index is the
+     * length of the common prefix and it follows that there is a mismatch
+     * between the two elements at that index within the respective arrays.
+     * If one array is a proper prefix of the other then the returned index is
+     * the length of the smaller array and it follows that the index is only
+     * valid for the larger array.
+     * Otherwise, there is no mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b}, share a common
+     * prefix of length {@code pl} if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     pl >= 0 &&
+     *     pl < Math.min(a.length, b.length) &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, 0, pl, b, 0, pl) &&
+     *     !Objects.equals(a[pl], b[pl])
+     * }</pre>
+     * Note that a common prefix length of {@code 0} indicates that the first
+     * elements from each array mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b}, share a proper
+     * prefix if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     a.length != b.length &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, 0, Math.min(a.length, b.length),
+     *                   b, 0, Math.min(a.length, b.length))
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @param b the second array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @return the index of the first mismatch between the two arrays,
+     *         otherwise {@code -1}.
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int mismatch(Object[] a, Object[] b) {
+        int length = Math.min(a.length, b.length); // Check null array refs
+        if (a == b)
+            return -1;
+
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            if (!Objects.equals(a[i], b[i]))
+                return i;
+        }
+
+        return a.length != b.length ? length : -1;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Finds and returns the relative index of the first mismatch between two
+     * {@code Object} arrays over the specified ranges, otherwise return -1 if
+     * no mismatch is found.  The index will be in the range of 0 (inclusive) up
+     * to the length (inclusive) of the smaller range.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays, over the specified ranges, share a common prefix
+     * then the returned relative index is the length of the common prefix and
+     * it follows that there is a mismatch between the two elements at that
+     * relative index within the respective arrays.
+     * If one array is a proper prefix of the other, over the specified ranges,
+     * then the returned relative index is the length of the smaller range and
+     * it follows that the relative index is only valid for the array with the
+     * larger range.
+     * Otherwise, there is no mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b} with specified
+     * ranges [{@code aFromIndex}, {@code atoIndex}) and
+     * [{@code bFromIndex}, {@code btoIndex}) respectively, share a common
+     * prefix of length {@code pl} if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     pl >= 0 &&
+     *     pl < Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex) &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, aFromIndex, aFromIndex + pl, b, bFromIndex, bFromIndex + pl) &&
+     *     !Objects.equals(a[aFromIndex + pl], b[bFromIndex + pl])
+     * }</pre>
+     * Note that a common prefix length of {@code 0} indicates that the first
+     * elements from each array mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b} with specified
+     * ranges [{@code aFromIndex}, {@code atoIndex}) and
+     * [{@code bFromIndex}, {@code btoIndex}) respectively, share a proper
+     * if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     (aToIndex - aFromIndex) != (bToIndex - bFromIndex) &&
+     *     Arrays.equals(a, 0, Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex),
+     *                   b, 0, Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex))
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be tested
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be tested
+     * @param b the second array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be tested
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be tested
+     * @return the relative index of the first mismatch between the two arrays
+     *         over the specified ranges, otherwise {@code -1}.
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static int mismatch(
+            Object[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+            Object[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        int length = Math.min(aLength, bLength);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            if (!Objects.equals(a[aFromIndex++], b[bFromIndex++]))
+                return i;
+        }
+
+        return aLength != bLength ? length : -1;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Finds and returns the index of the first mismatch between two
+     * {@code Object} arrays, otherwise return -1 if no mismatch is found.
+     * The index will be in the range of 0 (inclusive) up to the length
+     * (inclusive) of the smaller array.
+     *
+     * <p>The specified comparator is used to determine if two array elements
+     * from the each array are not equal.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays share a common prefix then the returned index is the
+     * length of the common prefix and it follows that there is a mismatch
+     * between the two elements at that index within the respective arrays.
+     * If one array is a proper prefix of the other then the returned index is
+     * the length of the smaller array and it follows that the index is only
+     * valid for the larger array.
+     * Otherwise, there is no mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b}, share a common
+     * prefix of length {@code pl} if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     pl >= 0 &&
+     *     pl < Math.min(a.length, b.length) &&
+     *     IntStream.range(0, pl).
+     *         map(i -> cmp.compare(a[i], b[i])).
+     *         allMatch(c -> c == 0) &&
+     *     cmp.compare(a[pl], b[pl]) != 0
+     * }</pre>
+     * Note that a common prefix length of {@code 0} indicates that the first
+     * elements from each array mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b}, share a proper
+     * prefix if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     a.length != b.length &&
+     *     IntStream.range(0, Math.min(a.length, b.length)).
+     *         map(i -> cmp.compare(a[i], b[i])).
+     *         allMatch(c -> c == 0) &&
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @param b the second array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @param cmp the comparator to compare array elements
+     * @param <T> the type of array elements
+     * @return the index of the first mismatch between the two arrays,
+     *         otherwise {@code -1}.
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array or the comparator is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static <T> int mismatch(T[] a, T[] b, Comparator<? super T> cmp) {
+        Objects.requireNonNull(cmp);
+        int length = Math.min(a.length, b.length); // Check null array refs
+        if (a == b)
+            return -1;
+
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            T oa = a[i];
+            T ob = b[i];
+            if (oa != ob) {
+                // Null-value comparison is deferred to the comparator
+                int v = cmp.compare(oa, ob);
+                if (v != 0) {
+                    return i;
+                }
+            }
+        }
+
+        return a.length != b.length ? length : -1;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Finds and returns the relative index of the first mismatch between two
+     * {@code Object} arrays over the specified ranges, otherwise return -1 if
+     * no mismatch is found.  The index will be in the range of 0 (inclusive) up
+     * to the length (inclusive) of the smaller range.
+     *
+     * <p>If the two arrays, over the specified ranges, share a common prefix
+     * then the returned relative index is the length of the common prefix and
+     * it follows that there is a mismatch between the two elements at that
+     * relative index within the respective arrays.
+     * If one array is a proper prefix of the other, over the specified ranges,
+     * then the returned relative index is the length of the smaller range and
+     * it follows that the relative index is only valid for the array with the
+     * larger range.
+     * Otherwise, there is no mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b} with specified
+     * ranges [{@code aFromIndex}, {@code atoIndex}) and
+     * [{@code bFromIndex}, {@code btoIndex}) respectively, share a common
+     * prefix of length {@code pl} if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     pl >= 0 &&
+     *     pl < Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex) &&
+     *     IntStream.range(0, pl).
+     *         map(i -> cmp.compare(a[aFromIndex + i], b[bFromIndex + i])).
+     *         allMatch(c -> c == 0) &&
+     *     cmp.compare(a[aFromIndex + pl], b[bFromIndex + pl]) != 0
+     * }</pre>
+     * Note that a common prefix length of {@code 0} indicates that the first
+     * elements from each array mismatch.
+     *
+     * <p>Two non-{@code null} arrays, {@code a} and {@code b} with specified
+     * ranges [{@code aFromIndex}, {@code atoIndex}) and
+     * [{@code bFromIndex}, {@code btoIndex}) respectively, share a proper
+     * if the following expression is true:
+     * <pre>{@code
+     *     (aToIndex - aFromIndex) != (bToIndex - bFromIndex) &&
+     *     IntStream.range(0, Math.min(aToIndex - aFromIndex, bToIndex - bFromIndex)).
+     *         map(i -> cmp.compare(a[aFromIndex + i], b[bFromIndex + i])).
+     *         allMatch(c -> c == 0)
+     * }</pre>
+     *
+     * @param a the first array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @param aFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   first array to be tested
+     * @param aToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 first array to be tested
+     * @param b the second array to be tested for a mismatch
+     * @param bFromIndex the index (inclusive) of the first element in the
+     *                   second array to be tested
+     * @param bToIndex the index (exclusive) of the last element in the
+     *                 second array to be tested
+     * @param cmp the comparator to compare array elements
+     * @param <T> the type of array elements
+     * @return the relative index of the first mismatch between the two arrays
+     *         over the specified ranges, otherwise {@code -1}.
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex > aToIndex} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex > bToIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *         if {@code aFromIndex < 0 or aToIndex > a.length} or
+     *         if {@code bFromIndex < 0 or bToIndex > b.length}
+     * @throws NullPointerException
+     *         if either array or the comparator is {@code null}
+     * @since 9
+     */
+    public static <T> int mismatch(
+            T[] a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+            T[] b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex,
+            Comparator<? super T> cmp) {
+        Objects.requireNonNull(cmp);
+        rangeCheck(a.length, aFromIndex, aToIndex);
+        rangeCheck(b.length, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        int length = Math.min(aLength, bLength);
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            T oa = a[aFromIndex++];
+            T ob = b[bFromIndex++];
+            if (oa != ob) {
+                // Null-value comparison is deferred to the comparator
+                int v = cmp.compare(oa, ob);
+                if (v != 0) {
+                    return i;
+                }
+            }
+        }
+
+        return aLength != bLength ? length : -1;
+    }
+}
\ No newline at end of file
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/test/java/util/Arrays/ArraysEqCmpTest.java	Wed Nov 04 16:44:38 2015 +0100
@@ -0,0 +1,1083 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+ *
+ * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+ * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ *
+ * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+ * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+ * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
+ * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+ * accompanied this code).
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+ * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+ * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+ *
+ * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
+ * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
+ * questions.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * @test
+ * @bug 8033148
+ * @summary tests for array equals and compare
+ * @run testng ArraysEqCmpTest
+*/
+
+import org.testng.Assert;
+import org.testng.annotations.DataProvider;
+import org.testng.annotations.Test;
+
+import java.lang.invoke.MethodHandle;
+import java.lang.invoke.MethodHandles;
+import java.lang.invoke.MethodType;
+import java.lang.reflect.Array;
+import java.util.Arrays;
+import java.util.Comparator;
+import java.util.HashMap;
+import java.util.List;
+import java.util.Map;
+import java.util.Objects;
+import java.util.function.BiFunction;
+import java.util.function.LongFunction;
+import java.util.stream.IntStream;
+
+public class ArraysEqCmpTest {
+
+    // Maximum width in bits
+    static final int MAX_WIDTH = 512;
+
+    static final Map<Class, Integer> typeToWidth;
+
+    static {
+        typeToWidth = new HashMap<>();
+        typeToWidth.put(boolean.class, Byte.SIZE);
+        typeToWidth.put(byte.class, Byte.SIZE);
+        typeToWidth.put(short.class, Short.SIZE);
+        typeToWidth.put(char.class, Character.SIZE);
+        typeToWidth.put(int.class, Integer.SIZE);
+        typeToWidth.put(long.class, Long.SIZE);
+        typeToWidth.put(float.class, Float.SIZE);
+        typeToWidth.put(double.class, Double.SIZE);
+        typeToWidth.put(Object.class, Integer.SIZE); // @@@ 32 or 64?
+    }
+
+    static int arraySizeFor(Class<?> type) {
+        type = type.isPrimitive() ? type : Object.class;
+        return 4 * MAX_WIDTH / typeToWidth.get(type);
+    }
+
+    static abstract class ArrayType<T> {
+        final Class<?> arrayType;
+        final Class<?> componentType;
+        final boolean unsigned;
+
+        final MethodHandle cpy;
+
+        final MethodHandle eq;
+        final MethodHandle eqr;
+        final MethodHandle cmp;
+        final MethodHandle cmpr;
+        final MethodHandle mm;
+        final MethodHandle mmr;
+
+        final MethodHandle getter;
+
+        final MethodHandle toString;
+
+        public ArrayType(Class<T> arrayType) {
+            this(arrayType, false);
+        }
+
+        public ArrayType(Class<T> arrayType, boolean unsigned) {
+            this.arrayType = arrayType;
+            this.componentType = arrayType.getComponentType();
+            this.unsigned = unsigned;
+
+            try {
+                MethodHandles.Lookup l = MethodHandles.lookup();
+
+                getter = MethodHandles.arrayElementGetter(arrayType);
+
+                if (componentType.isPrimitive()) {
+                    cpy = l.findStatic(Arrays.class, "copyOfRange",
+                                       MethodType.methodType(arrayType, arrayType, int.class, int.class));
+
+                    MethodType eqt = MethodType.methodType(
+                            boolean.class, arrayType, arrayType);
+                    MethodType eqrt = MethodType.methodType(
+                            boolean.class, arrayType, int.class, int.class, arrayType, int.class, int.class);
+
+                    eq = l.findStatic(Arrays.class, "equals", eqt);
+                    eqr = l.findStatic(Arrays.class, "equals", eqrt);
+
+                    String compareName = unsigned ? "compareUnsigned" : "compare";
+                    cmp = l.findStatic(Arrays.class, compareName,
+                                       eqt.changeReturnType(int.class));
+                    cmpr = l.findStatic(Arrays.class, compareName,
+                                        eqrt.changeReturnType(int.class));
+
+                    mm = l.findStatic(Arrays.class, "mismatch",
+                                       eqt.changeReturnType(int.class));
+                    mmr = l.findStatic(Arrays.class, "mismatch",
+                                       eqrt.changeReturnType(int.class));
+
+                    toString = l.findStatic(Arrays.class, "toString",
+                                            MethodType.methodType(String.class, arrayType));
+                }
+                else {
+                    cpy = l.findStatic(Arrays.class, "copyOfRange",
+                                       MethodType.methodType(Object[].class, Object[].class, int.class, int.class));
+
+                    MethodType eqt = MethodType.methodType(
+                            boolean.class, Object[].class, Object[].class);
+                    MethodType eqrt = MethodType.methodType(
+                            boolean.class, Object[].class, int.class, int.class, Object[].class, int.class, int.class);
+
+                    eq = l.findStatic(Arrays.class, "equals", eqt);
+                    eqr = l.findStatic(Arrays.class, "equals", eqrt);
+
+                    MethodType cmpt = MethodType.methodType(
+                            int.class, Comparable[].class, Comparable[].class);
+                    MethodType cmprt = MethodType.methodType(
+                            int.class, Comparable[].class, int.class, int.class, Comparable[].class, int.class, int.class);
+
+                    cmp = l.findStatic(Arrays.class, "compare", cmpt);
+                    cmpr = l.findStatic(Arrays.class, "compare", cmprt);
+
+                    mm = l.findStatic(Arrays.class, "mismatch",
+                                      eqt.changeReturnType(int.class));
+                    mmr = l.findStatic(Arrays.class, "mismatch",
+                                       eqrt.changeReturnType(int.class));
+
+                    toString = l.findStatic(Arrays.class, "toString",
+                                            MethodType.methodType(String.class, Object[].class));
+                }
+
+            }
+            catch (Exception e) {
+                throw new Error(e);
+            }
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        public String toString() {
+            String s = arrayType.getCanonicalName();
+            return unsigned ? "unsigned " + s : s;
+        }
+
+        Object construct(int length) {
+            return Array.newInstance(componentType, length);
+        }
+
+        Object copyOf(Object a) {
+            return copyOf(a, 0, Array.getLength(a));
+        }
+
+        Object copyOf(Object a, int from, int to) {
+            try {
+                return (Object) cpy.invoke(a, from, to);
+            }
+            catch (RuntimeException | Error e) {
+                throw e;
+            }
+            catch (Throwable t) {
+                throw new Error(t);
+            }
+        }
+
+        Object get(Object a, int i) {
+            try {
+                return (Object) getter.invoke(a, i);
+            }
+            catch (RuntimeException | Error e) {
+                throw e;
+            }
+            catch (Throwable t) {
+                throw new Error(t);
+            }
+        }
+
+        abstract void set(Object a, int i, Object v);
+
+        boolean equals(Object a, Object b) {
+            try {
+                return (boolean) eq.invoke(a, b);
+            }
+            catch (RuntimeException | Error e) {
+                throw e;
+            }
+            catch (Throwable t) {
+                throw new Error(t);
+            }
+        }
+
+        boolean equals(Object a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                       Object b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+            try {
+                return (boolean) eqr.invoke(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex, b, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+            }
+            catch (RuntimeException | Error e) {
+                throw e;
+            }
+            catch (Throwable t) {
+                throw new Error(t);
+            }
+        }
+
+        int compare(Object a, Object b) {
+            try {
+                return (int) cmp.invoke(a, b);
+            }
+            catch (RuntimeException | Error e) {
+                throw e;
+            }
+            catch (Throwable t) {
+                throw new Error(t);
+            }
+        }
+
+        int compare(Object a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                    Object b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+            try {
+                return (int) cmpr.invoke(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex, b, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+            }
+            catch (RuntimeException | Error e) {
+                throw e;
+            }
+            catch (Throwable t) {
+                throw new Error(t);
+            }
+        }
+
+        int mismatch(Object a, Object b) {
+            try {
+                return (int) mm.invoke(a, b);
+            }
+            catch (RuntimeException | Error e) {
+                throw e;
+            }
+            catch (Throwable t) {
+                throw new Error(t);
+            }
+        }
+
+        int mismatch(Object a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                     Object b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+            try {
+                return (int) mmr.invoke(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex, b, bFromIndex, bToIndex);
+            }
+            catch (RuntimeException | Error e) {
+                throw e;
+            }
+            catch (Throwable t) {
+                throw new Error(t);
+            }
+        }
+
+        String toString(Object a) {
+            try {
+                return (String) toString.invoke(a);
+            }
+            catch (RuntimeException | Error e) {
+                throw e;
+            }
+            catch (Throwable t) {
+                throw new Error(t);
+            }
+        }
+
+        static class BoxedIntegers extends ArrayType<Integer[]> {
+            public BoxedIntegers() {
+                super(Integer[].class);
+            }
+
+            @Override
+            void set(Object a, int i, Object v) {
+                // Ensure unique reference
+                ((Integer[]) a)[i] = v != null ? new Integer((Integer) v) : null;
+            }
+        }
+
+        static class BoxedIntegersWithReverseComparator extends BoxedIntegers {
+            final Comparator<Integer> c = (a, b) -> {
+                // Nulls sort after non-nulls
+                if (a == null || b == null)
+                    return a == null ? b == null ? 0 : 1 : -1;
+
+                return Integer.compare(b, a);
+            };
+
+            final MethodHandle cmpc;
+            final MethodHandle cmpcr;
+            final MethodHandle mismatchc;
+            final MethodHandle mismatchcr;
+
+            public BoxedIntegersWithReverseComparator() {
+                try {
+                    MethodHandles.Lookup l = MethodHandles.lookup();
+
+                    MethodType cmpt = MethodType.methodType(
+                            int.class, Object[].class, Object[].class, Comparator.class);
+                    MethodType cmprt = MethodType.methodType(
+                            int.class, Object[].class, int.class, int.class,
+                            Object[].class, int.class, int.class, Comparator.class);
+
+                    cmpc = l.findStatic(Arrays.class, "compare", cmpt);
+                    cmpcr = l.findStatic(Arrays.class, "compare", cmprt);
+                    mismatchc = l.findStatic(Arrays.class, "mismatch", cmpt);
+                    mismatchcr = l.findStatic(Arrays.class, "mismatch", cmprt);
+                }
+                catch (Exception e) {
+                    throw new Error(e);
+                }
+            }
+
+            @Override
+            int compare(Object a, Object b) {
+                try {
+                    return (int) cmpc.invoke(a, b, c);
+                }
+                catch (RuntimeException | Error e) {
+                    throw e;
+                }
+                catch (Throwable t) {
+                    throw new Error(t);
+                }
+            }
+
+            @Override
+            int compare(Object a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                        Object b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+                try {
+                    return (int) cmpcr.invoke(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex, b, bFromIndex, bToIndex, c);
+                }
+                catch (RuntimeException | Error e) {
+                    throw e;
+                }
+                catch (Throwable t) {
+                    throw new Error(t);
+                }
+            }
+
+            @Override
+            int mismatch(Object a, Object b) {
+                try {
+                    return (int) mismatchc.invoke(a, b, c);
+                }
+                catch (RuntimeException | Error e) {
+                    throw e;
+                }
+                catch (Throwable t) {
+                    throw new Error(t);
+                }
+            }
+
+            @Override
+            int mismatch(Object a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                         Object b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+                try {
+                    return (int) mismatchcr.invoke(a, aFromIndex, aToIndex, b, bFromIndex, bToIndex, c);
+                }
+                catch (RuntimeException | Error e) {
+                    throw e;
+                }
+                catch (Throwable t) {
+                    throw new Error(t);
+                }
+            }
+
+            @Override
+            public String toString() {
+                return arrayType.getCanonicalName() + " with Comparator";
+            }
+        }
+
+        static class Booleans extends ArrayType<boolean[]> {
+            public Booleans() {
+                super(boolean[].class);
+            }
+
+            @Override
+            void set(Object a, int i, Object v) {
+                boolean pv;
+                if (v instanceof Boolean) {
+                    pv = (Boolean) v;
+                }
+                else if (v instanceof Integer) {
+                    pv = ((Integer) v) >= 0;
+                }
+                else throw new IllegalStateException();
+
+                ((boolean[]) a)[i] = pv;
+            }
+        }
+
+        static class Bytes extends ArrayType<byte[]> {
+            public Bytes(boolean unsigned) {
+                super(byte[].class, unsigned);
+            }
+
+            @Override
+            void set(Object a, int i, Object v) {
+                byte pv;
+                if (v instanceof Byte) {
+                    pv = (Byte) v;
+                }
+                else if (v instanceof Integer) {
+                    pv = ((Integer) v).byteValue();
+                }
+                else throw new IllegalStateException();
+
+                ((byte[]) a)[i] = pv;
+            }
+        }
+
+        static class Characters extends ArrayType<char[]> {
+            public Characters() {
+                super(char[].class);
+            }
+
+            @Override
+            void set(Object a, int i, Object v) {
+                char pv;
+                if (v instanceof Character) {
+                    pv = (Character) v;
+                }
+                else if (v instanceof Integer) {
+                    pv = (char) ((Integer) v).intValue();
+                }
+                else throw new IllegalStateException();
+
+                ((char[]) a)[i] = pv;
+            }
+        }
+
+        static class Shorts extends ArrayType<short[]> {
+            public Shorts(boolean unsigned) {
+                super(short[].class, unsigned);
+            }
+
+            @Override
+            void set(Object a, int i, Object v) {
+                short pv;
+                if (v instanceof Short) {
+                    pv = (Short) v;
+                }
+                else if (v instanceof Integer) {
+                    pv = ((Integer) v).shortValue();
+                }
+                else throw new IllegalStateException();
+
+                ((short[]) a)[i] = pv;
+            }
+        }
+
+        static class Integers extends ArrayType<int[]> {
+            public Integers(boolean unsigned) {
+                super(int[].class, unsigned);
+            }
+
+            @Override
+            void set(Object a, int i, Object v) {
+                int pv;
+                if (v instanceof Integer) {
+                    pv = ((Integer) v).shortValue();
+                }
+                else throw new IllegalStateException();
+
+                ((int[]) a)[i] = pv;
+            }
+        }
+
+        static class Longs extends ArrayType<long[]> {
+            public Longs(boolean unsigned) {
+                super(long[].class, unsigned);
+            }
+
+            @Override
+            void set(Object a, int i, Object v) {
+                long pv;
+                if (v instanceof Long) {
+                    pv = (Long) v;
+                }
+                else if (v instanceof Integer) {
+                    pv = ((Integer) v).longValue();
+                }
+                else throw new IllegalStateException();
+
+                ((long[]) a)[i] = pv;
+            }
+        }
+
+        static class Floats extends ArrayType<float[]> {
+            public Floats() {
+                super(float[].class);
+            }
+
+            @Override
+            void set(Object a, int i, Object v) {
+                float pv;
+                if (v instanceof Float) {
+                    pv = (Float) v;
+                }
+                else if (v instanceof Integer) {
+                    pv = ((Integer) v).floatValue();
+                }
+                else throw new IllegalStateException();
+
+                ((float[]) a)[i] = pv;
+            }
+        }
+
+        static class Doubles extends ArrayType<double[]> {
+            public Doubles() {
+                super(double[].class);
+            }
+
+            @Override
+            void set(Object a, int i, Object v) {
+                double pv;
+                if (v instanceof Double) {
+                    pv = (Double) v;
+                }
+                else if (v instanceof Integer) {
+                    pv = ((Integer) v).doubleValue();
+                }
+                else throw new IllegalStateException();
+
+                ((double[]) a)[i] = pv;
+            }
+        }
+    }
+
+    static Object[][] arrayTypes;
+
+    @DataProvider
+    public static Object[][] arrayTypesProvider() {
+        if (arrayTypes == null) {
+            arrayTypes = new Object[][]{
+                    new Object[]{new ArrayType.BoxedIntegers()},
+                    new Object[]{new ArrayType.BoxedIntegersWithReverseComparator()},
+                    new Object[]{new ArrayType.Booleans()},
+                    new Object[]{new ArrayType.Bytes(false)},
+                    new Object[]{new ArrayType.Bytes(true)},
+                    new Object[]{new ArrayType.Characters()},
+                    new Object[]{new ArrayType.Shorts(false)},
+                    new Object[]{new ArrayType.Shorts(true)},
+                    new Object[]{new ArrayType.Integers(false)},
+                    new Object[]{new ArrayType.Integers(true)},
+                    new Object[]{new ArrayType.Longs(false)},
+                    new Object[]{new ArrayType.Longs(true)},
+                    new Object[]{new ArrayType.Floats()},
+                    new Object[]{new ArrayType.Doubles()},
+            };
+        }
+        return arrayTypes;
+    }
+
+    static Object[][] floatArrayTypes;
+
+    @DataProvider
+    public static Object[][] floatArrayTypesProvider() {
+        if (floatArrayTypes == null) {
+            LongFunction<Object> bTof = rb -> Float.intBitsToFloat((int) rb);
+            LongFunction<Object> bToD = Double::longBitsToDouble;
+
+            floatArrayTypes = new Object[][]{
+                    new Object[]{new ArrayType.Floats(), 0x7fc00000L, 0x7f800001L, bTof},
+                    new Object[]{new ArrayType.Doubles(), 0x7ff8000000000000L, 0x7ff0000000000001L, bToD},
+            };
+        }
+        return floatArrayTypes;
+    }
+
+    static Object[][] objectArrayTypes;
+
+    @DataProvider
+    public static Object[][] objectArrayTypesProvider() {
+        if (objectArrayTypes == null) {
+            LongFunction<Object> bTof = rb -> Float.intBitsToFloat((int) rb);
+            LongFunction<Object> bToD = Double::longBitsToDouble;
+
+            objectArrayTypes = new Object[][]{
+                    new Object[]{new ArrayType.BoxedIntegers()},
+                    new Object[]{new ArrayType.BoxedIntegersWithReverseComparator()},
+            };
+        }
+        return objectArrayTypes;
+    }
+
+
+    static Object[][] signedUnsignedArrayTypes;
+
+    @DataProvider
+    public static Object[][] signedUnsignedArrayTypes() {
+        if (signedUnsignedArrayTypes == null) {
+            signedUnsignedArrayTypes = new Object[][]{
+                    new Object[]{new ArrayType.Bytes(false), new ArrayType.Bytes(true)},
+                    new Object[]{new ArrayType.Shorts(false), new ArrayType.Shorts(true)},
+                    new Object[]{new ArrayType.Integers(false), new ArrayType.Integers(true)},
+                    new Object[]{new ArrayType.Longs(false), new ArrayType.Longs(true)},
+            };
+        }
+        return signedUnsignedArrayTypes;
+    }
+
+    // Equality and comparison tests
+
+    @Test(dataProvider = "arrayTypesProvider")
+    public void testArray(ArrayType<?> arrayType) {
+        BiFunction<ArrayType<?>, Integer, Object> constructor = (at, s) -> {
+            Object a = at.construct(s);
+            for (int x = 0; x < s; x++) {
+                at.set(a, x, x % 8);
+            }
+            return a;
+        };
+
+        BiFunction<ArrayType<?>, Object, Object> cloner = (at, a) ->
+                constructor.apply(at, Array.getLength(a));
+
+        testArrayType(arrayType, constructor, cloner);
+    }
+
+    @Test(dataProvider = "floatArrayTypesProvider")
+    public void testPrimitiveFloatArray(
+            ArrayType<?> arrayType,
+            long canonicalNanRawBits, long nonCanonicalNanRawBits,
+            LongFunction<Object> bitsToFloat) {
+        Object canonicalNan = bitsToFloat.apply(canonicalNanRawBits);
+        // If conversion is a signalling NaN it may be subject to conversion to a
+        // quiet NaN on some processors, even if a copy is performed
+        // The tests assume that if conversion occurs it does not convert to the
+        // canonical NaN
+        Object nonCanonicalNan = bitsToFloat.apply(nonCanonicalNanRawBits);
+
+        BiFunction<ArrayType<?>, Integer, Object> canonicalNaNs = (at, s) -> {
+            Object a = at.construct(s);
+            for (int x = 0; x < s; x++) {
+                at.set(a, x, canonicalNan);
+            }
+            return a;
+        };
+
+        BiFunction<ArrayType<?>, Object, Object> nonCanonicalNaNs = (at, a) -> {
+            int s = Array.getLength(a);
+            Object ac = at.construct(s);
+            for (int x = 0; x < s; x++) {
+                at.set(ac, x, nonCanonicalNan);
+            }
+            return ac;
+        };
+
+        BiFunction<ArrayType<?>, Object, Object> halfNonCanonicalNaNs = (at, a) -> {
+            int s = Array.getLength(a);
+            Object ac = at.construct(s);
+            for (int x = 0; x < s / 2; x++) {
+                at.set(ac, x, nonCanonicalNan);
+            }
+            for (int x = s / 2; x < s; x++) {
+                at.set(ac, x, 1);
+            }
+            return ac;
+        };
+
+        testArrayType(arrayType, canonicalNaNs, nonCanonicalNaNs);
+        testArrayType(arrayType, canonicalNaNs, halfNonCanonicalNaNs);
+    }
+
+    @Test(dataProvider = "objectArrayTypesProvider")
+    public void testNullElementsInObjectArray(ArrayType<?> arrayType) {
+        BiFunction<ArrayType<?>, Object, Object> cloner = ArrayType::copyOf;
+
+        // All nulls
+        testArrayType(arrayType,
+                      (at, s) -> {
+                          Object a = at.construct(s);
+                          for (int x = 0; x < s; x++) {
+                              at.set(a, x, null);
+                          }
+                          return a;
+                      },
+                      cloner);
+
+
+        // Some nulls
+        testArrayType(arrayType,
+                      (at, s) -> {
+                          Object a = at.construct(s);
+                          for (int x = 0; x < s; x++) {
+                              int v = x % 8;
+                              at.set(a, x, v == 0 ? null : v);
+                          }
+                          return a;
+                      },
+                      cloner);
+
+        Integer[] a = new Integer[]{null, 0};
+        Integer[] b = new Integer[]{0, 0};
+        Assert.assertTrue(Arrays.compare(a, b) < 0);
+        Assert.assertTrue(Arrays.compare(b, a) > 0);
+    }
+
+    @Test(dataProvider = "objectArrayTypesProvider")
+    public void testSameRefElementsInObjectArray(ArrayType<?> arrayType) {
+        BiFunction<ArrayType<?>, Object, Object> cloner = ArrayType::copyOf;
+
+        // One ref
+        Integer one = 1;
+        testArrayType(arrayType,
+                      (at, s) -> {
+                          Integer[] a = (Integer[]) at.construct(s);
+                          for (int x = 0; x < s; x++) {
+                              a[x] = one;
+                          }
+                          return a;
+                      },
+                      cloner);
+
+        // All ref
+        testArrayType(arrayType,
+                      (at, s) -> {
+                          Integer[] a = (Integer[]) at.construct(s);
+                          for (int x = 0; x < s; x++) {
+                              a[x] = Integer.valueOf(s);
+                          }
+                          return a;
+                      },
+                      cloner);
+
+        // Some same ref
+        testArrayType(arrayType,
+                      (at, s) -> {
+                          Integer[] a = (Integer[]) at.construct(s);
+                          for (int x = 0; x < s; x++) {
+                              int v = x % 8;
+                              a[x] = v == 1 ? one : new Integer(v);
+                          }
+                          return a;
+                      },
+                      cloner);
+    }
+
+    @Test(dataProvider = "signedUnsignedArrayTypes")
+    public void testSignedUnsignedArray(ArrayType<?> sat, ArrayType<?> uat) {
+        BiFunction<ArrayType<?>, Integer, Object> constructor = (at, s) -> {
+            Object a = at.construct(s);
+            for (int x = 0; x < s; x++) {
+                at.set(a, x, 1);
+            }
+            return a;
+        };
+
+        int n = arraySizeFor(sat.componentType);
+
+        for (int s : ranges(0, n)) {
+            Object a = constructor.apply(sat, s);
+
+            for (int aFrom : ranges(0, s)) {
+                for (int aTo : ranges(aFrom, s)) {
+                    int aLength = aTo - aFrom;
+
+                    if (aLength > 0) {
+                        for (int i = aFrom; i < aTo; i++) {
+                            Object ac = sat.copyOf(a);
+                            // Create common prefix with a length of i - aFrom
+                            sat.set(ac, i, -1);
+
+                            int sc = sat.compare(ac, aFrom, aTo, a, aFrom, aTo);
+                            int uc = uat.compare(ac, aFrom, aTo, a, aFrom, aTo);
+
+                            Assert.assertTrue(sc < 0);
+                            Assert.assertTrue(uc > 0);
+                        }
+                    }
+                }
+            }
+        }
+    }
+
+    void testArrayType(ArrayType<?> at,
+                       BiFunction<ArrayType<?>, Integer, Object> constructor,
+                       BiFunction<ArrayType<?>, Object, Object> cloner) {
+        int n = arraySizeFor(at.componentType);
+
+        for (int s : ranges(0, n)) {
+            Object a = constructor.apply(at, s);
+            Object b = cloner.apply(at, a);
+
+            for (int aFrom : ranges(0, s)) {
+                for (int aTo : ranges(aFrom, s)) {
+                    int aLength = aTo - aFrom;
+
+                    for (int bFrom : ranges(0, s)) {
+                        for (int bTo : ranges(bFrom, s)) {
+                            int bLength = bTo - bFrom;
+
+                            Object anr = at.copyOf(a, aFrom, aTo);
+                            Object bnr = at.copyOf(b, bFrom, bTo);
+
+                            boolean eq = isEqual(at, a, aFrom, aTo, b, bFrom, bTo);
+                            Assert.assertEquals(at.equals(a, aFrom, aTo, b, bFrom, bTo), eq);
+                            Assert.assertEquals(at.equals(b, bFrom, bTo, a, aFrom, aTo), eq);
+                            Assert.assertEquals(at.equals(anr, bnr), eq);
+                            Assert.assertEquals(at.equals(bnr, anr), eq);
+                            if (eq) {
+                                Assert.assertEquals(at.compare(a, aFrom, aTo, b, bFrom, bTo), 0);
+                                Assert.assertEquals(at.compare(b, bFrom, bTo, a, aFrom, aTo), 0);
+                                Assert.assertEquals(at.compare(anr, bnr), 0);
+                                Assert.assertEquals(at.compare(bnr, anr), 0);
+
+                                Assert.assertEquals(at.mismatch(a, aFrom, aTo, b, bFrom, bTo), -1);
+                                Assert.assertEquals(at.mismatch(b, bFrom, bTo, a, aFrom, aTo), -1);
+                                Assert.assertEquals(at.mismatch(anr, bnr), -1);
+                                Assert.assertEquals(at.mismatch(bnr, anr), -1);
+                            }
+                            else {
+                                int aCb = at.compare(a, aFrom, aTo, b, bFrom, bTo);
+                                int bCa = at.compare(b, bFrom, bTo, a, aFrom, aTo);
+                                int v = Integer.signum(aCb) * Integer.signum(bCa);
+                                Assert.assertTrue(v == -1);
+
+                                int anrCbnr = at.compare(anr, bnr);
+                                int bnrCanr = at.compare(bnr, anr);
+                                Assert.assertEquals(anrCbnr, aCb);
+                                Assert.assertEquals(bnrCanr, bCa);
+
+
+                                int aMb = at.mismatch(a, aFrom, aTo, b, bFrom, bTo);
+                                int bMa = at.mismatch(b, bFrom, bTo, a, aFrom, aTo);
+                                int anrMbnr = at.mismatch(anr, bnr);
+                                int bnrManr = at.mismatch(bnr, anr);
+
+                                Assert.assertNotEquals(aMb, -1);
+                                Assert.assertEquals(aMb, bMa);
+                                Assert.assertNotEquals(anrMbnr, -1);
+                                Assert.assertEquals(anrMbnr, bnrManr);
+                                Assert.assertEquals(aMb, anrMbnr);
+                                Assert.assertEquals(bMa, bnrManr);
+
+                                // Common or proper prefix
+                                Assert.assertTrue(at.equals(a, aFrom, aFrom + aMb, b, bFrom, bFrom + aMb));
+                                if (aMb < Math.min(aLength, bLength)) {
+                                    // Common prefix
+                                    Assert.assertFalse(isEqual(at, a, aFrom + aMb, b, bFrom + aMb));
+                                }
+                            }
+                        }
+                    }
+
+                    if (aLength > 0) {
+                        for (int i = aFrom; i < aTo; i++) {
+                            Object ac = at.copyOf(a);
+                            // Create common prefix with a length of i - aFrom
+                            at.set(ac, i, -1);
+
+                            Object acnr = at.copyOf(ac, aFrom, aTo);
+                            Object anr = at.copyOf(a, aFrom, aTo);
+
+                            Assert.assertFalse(at.equals(ac, aFrom, aTo, a, aFrom, aTo));
+                            Assert.assertFalse(at.equals(acnr, anr));
+
+                            int acCa = at.compare(ac, aFrom, aTo, a, aFrom, aTo);
+                            int aCac = at.compare(a, aFrom, aTo, ac, aFrom, aTo);
+                            int v = Integer.signum(acCa) * Integer.signum(aCac);
+                            Assert.assertTrue(v == -1);
+
+                            int acnrCanr = at.compare(acnr, anr);
+                            int anrCacnr = at.compare(anr, acnr);
+                            Assert.assertEquals(acnrCanr, acCa);
+                            Assert.assertEquals(anrCacnr, aCac);
+
+
+                            int acMa = at.mismatch(ac, aFrom, aTo, a, aFrom, aTo);
+                            int aMac = at.mismatch(a, aFrom, aTo, ac, aFrom, aTo);
+                            Assert.assertEquals(acMa, aMac);
+                            Assert.assertEquals(acMa, i - aFrom);
+
+                            int acnrManr = at.mismatch(acnr, anr);
+                            int anrMacnr = at.mismatch(anr, acnr);
+                            Assert.assertEquals(acnrManr, anrMacnr);
+                            Assert.assertEquals(acnrManr, i - aFrom);
+                        }
+                    }
+                }
+            }
+        }
+    }
+
+    static boolean isEqual(ArrayType<?> at, Object a, int aFromIndex, int aToIndex,
+                           Object b, int bFromIndex, int bToIndex) {
+        int aLength = aToIndex - aFromIndex;
+        int bLength = bToIndex - bFromIndex;
+        if (aLength != bLength)
+            return false;
+
+        for (int i = 0; i < aLength; i++) {
+            Object av = at.get(a, aFromIndex++);
+            Object bv = at.get(b, bFromIndex++);
+            if (!Objects.equals(av, bv)) return false;
+        }
+
+        return true;
+    }
+
+    static boolean isEqual(ArrayType<?> at, Object a, int aFrom, Object b, int bFrom) {
+        Object av = at.get(a, aFrom);
+        Object bv = at.get(b, bFrom);
+
+        return Objects.equals(av, bv);
+    }
+
+    static int[] ranges(int from, int to) {
+        int width = to - from;
+        switch (width) {
+            case 0:
+                return new int[]{};
+            case 1:
+                return new int[]{from, to};
+            case 2:
+                return new int[]{from, from + 1, to};
+            case 3:
+                return new int[]{from, from + 1, from + 2, to};
+            default:
+                return IntStream.of(from, from + 1, from + 2, to / 2 - 1, to / 2, to / 2 + 1, to - 2, to - 1, to)
+                        .filter(i -> i >= from && i <= to)
+                        .distinct().toArray();
+        }
+    }
+
+
+    // Null array reference tests
+
+    @Test(dataProvider = "arrayTypesProvider")
+    public void testNullArrayRefs(ArrayType<?> arrayType) {
+        Object n = null;
+        Object a = arrayType.construct(0);
+
+        Assert.assertTrue(arrayType.equals(n, n));
+        Assert.assertFalse(arrayType.equals(n, a));
+        Assert.assertFalse(arrayType.equals(a, n));
+
+        Assert.assertEquals(arrayType.compare(n, n), 0);
+        Assert.assertTrue(arrayType.compare(n, a) < 0);
+        Assert.assertTrue(arrayType.compare(a, n) > 0);
+    }
+
+
+    // Exception throwing tests
+
+    @Test(dataProvider = "arrayTypesProvider")
+    public void testNPEs(ArrayType<?> arrayType) {
+        Object[] values = new Object[]{null, arrayType.construct(0)};
+
+        for (Object o1 : values) {
+            for (Object o2 : values) {
+                if (o1 != null && o2 != null)
+                    continue;
+
+                testNPE(() -> arrayType.equals(o1, 0, 0, o2, 0, 0));
+                testNPE(() -> arrayType.compare(o1, 0, 0, o2, 0, 0));
+                testNPE(() -> arrayType.mismatch(o1, o2));
+                testNPE(() -> arrayType.mismatch(o1, 0, 0, o2, 0, 0));
+            }
+        }
+    }
+
+    @Test
+    public void testObjectNPEs() {
+        String[][] values = new String[][]{null, new String[0]};
+        Comparator<String> c = String::compareTo;
+        Comparator[] cs = new Comparator[]{null, c};
+
+        for (String[] o1 : values) {
+            for (String[] o2 : values) {
+                for (Comparator o3 : cs) {
+                    if (o1 != null && o2 != null && o3 != null)
+                        continue;
+
+                    if (o3 == null) {
+                        testNPE(() -> Arrays.compare(o1, o2, o3));
+                        testNPE(() -> Arrays.mismatch(o1, o2, o3));
+                    }
+
+                    testNPE(() -> Arrays.compare(o1, 0, 0, o2, 0, 0, o3));
+                    testNPE(() -> Arrays.mismatch(o1, 0, 0, o2, 0, 0, o3));
+                }
+            }
+        }
+    }
+
+    @Test(dataProvider = "arrayTypesProvider")
+    public void testIAEs(ArrayType<?> arrayType) {
+        List<Integer> values = Arrays.asList(0, 1);
+
+        for (int s : values) {
+            Object a = arrayType.construct(s);
+
+            for (int o1 : values) {
+                for (int o2 : values) {
+                    if (o1 <= o2) continue;
+
+                    testIAE(() -> arrayType.equals(a, o1, 0, a, o2, 0));
+                    testIAE(() -> arrayType.compare(a, o1, 0, a, o2, 0));
+                    testIAE(() -> arrayType.mismatch(a, o1, 0, a, o2, 0));
+                }
+            }
+        }
+    }
+
+    @Test(dataProvider = "arrayTypesProvider")
+    public void testAIOBEs(ArrayType<?> arrayType) {
+        List<Integer> froms = Arrays.asList(-1, 0);
+
+        for (int s : Arrays.asList(0, 1)) {
+            List<Integer> tos = Arrays.asList(s, s + 1);
+            Object a = arrayType.construct(s);
+
+            for (int aFrom : froms) {
+                for (int aTo : tos) {
+                    for (int bFrom : froms) {
+                        for (int bTo : tos) {
+                            if (aFrom >= 0 && aTo <= s &&
+                                bFrom >= 0 && bTo <= s) continue;
+
+                            testAIOBE(() -> arrayType.equals(a, aFrom, aTo, a, bFrom, bTo));
+                            testAIOBE(() -> arrayType.compare(a, aFrom, aTo, a, bFrom, bTo));
+                            testAIOBE(() -> arrayType.mismatch(a, aFrom, aTo, a, bFrom, bTo));
+                        }
+                    }
+                }
+            }
+        }
+    }
+
+    static void testNPE(Runnable r) {
+        testThrowable(r, NullPointerException.class);
+    }
+
+    static void testIAE(Runnable r) {
+        testThrowable(r, IllegalArgumentException.class);
+    }
+
+    static void testAIOBE(Runnable r) {
+        testThrowable(r, ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException.class);
+    }
+
+    static void testThrowable(Runnable r, Class<? extends Throwable> expected) {
+        Throwable caught = null;
+        try {
+            r.run();
+        }
+        catch (Throwable t) {
+            caught = t;
+        }
+        Assert.assertNotNull(caught);
+        Assert.assertTrue(expected.isInstance(caught));
+    }
+}
\ No newline at end of file