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Provides the management interfaces for monitoring and management of the
Java virtual machine and other components in the Java runtime.
It allows both local and remote
monitoring and management of the running Java virtual machine.
<p>

<h4><a name="MXBean">Platform MXBean</a></h4>
<p>
A platform MXBean is a <i>managed bean</i> that
conforms to the <a href="../../../javax/management/package-summary.html">JMX</a>
Instrumentation Specification and only uses a set of basic data types.
Each platform MXBean is a {@link java.lang.management.PlatformManagedObject}
with a unique
{@linkplain java.lang.management.PlatformManagedObject#getObjectName name}.
<p>
<h4>ManagementFactory</h4>

<p>The {@link java.lang.management.ManagementFactory} class is the management
factory class for the Java platform.  This class provides a set of
static factory methods to obtain the MXBeans for the Java platform
to allow an application to access the MXBeans directly.

<p>A <em>platform MBeanServer</em> can be accessed with the
{@link java.lang.management.ManagementFactory#getPlatformMBeanServer
 getPlatformMBeanServer} method.  On the first call to this method,
it creates the platform MBeanServer and registers all platform MXBeans
including {@linkplain java.lang.management.PlatformManagedObject
platform MXBeans}.
Each platform MXBean is registered with a unique name defined in
the specification of the management interface.
This is a single MBeanServer that can be shared by different managed
components running within the same Java virtual machine.

<h4>Interoperability</h4>

<p>A management application and a platform MBeanServer of a running
virtual machine can interoperate
without requiring classes used by the platform MXBean interfaces.
The data types being transmitted between the JMX connector
server and the connector client are JMX
{@linkplain javax.management.openmbean.OpenType open types} and
this allows interoperation across versions.
A data type used by the MXBean interfaces are mapped to an
open type when being accessed via MBeanServer interface.
See the <a href="../../../javax/management/MXBean.html#MXBean-spec">
MXBean</a> specification for details.

<h4><a name="examples">Ways to Access MXBeans</a></h4>

<p>An application can monitor the instrumentation of the
Java virtual machine and the runtime in the following ways:
<p>
<b>1. Direct access to an MXBean interface</b>
<p>
<ul>
<li>Get an MXBean instance locally in the running Java virtual machine:<p>
<pre>
   RuntimeMXBean mxbean = ManagementFactory.getRuntimeMXBean();

   // Get the standard attribute "VmVendor"
   String vendor = mxbean.getVmVendor();
</pre>
<p>Or by calling the
        {@link java.lang.management.ManagementFactory#getPlatformMXBean(Class)
               getPlatformMXBean} or
        {@link java.lang.management.ManagementFactory#getPlatformMXBeans(Class)
               getPlatformMXBeans} method:
<pre>
   RuntimeMXBean mxbean = ManagementFactory.getPlatformMXBean(RuntimeMXBean.class);

   // Get the standard attribute "VmVendor"
   String vendor = mxbean.getVmVendor();
</pre>
<p>
</li>
<li>Construct an MXBean proxy instance that forwards the
    method calls to a given MBeanServer:<p>
<pre>
   MBeanServerConnection mbs;

   // Connect to a running JVM (or itself) and get MBeanServerConnection
   // that has the JVM MBeans registered in it
   ...

   // Get a MBean proxy for RuntimeMXBean interface
   RuntimeMXBean proxy =
       {@link java.lang.management.ManagementFactory#getPlatformMXBean(MBeanServerConnection, Class)
       ManagementFactory.getPlatformMXBean}(mbs,
                                           RuntimeMXBean.class);
   // Get standard attribute "VmVendor"
   String vendor = proxy.getVmVendor();
</pre>
<p>A proxy is typically used to access an MXBean
   in a remote Java virtual machine.
   An alternative way to create an MXBean proxy is:
<pre>
   RuntimeMXBean proxy =
       {@link java.lang.management.ManagementFactory#newPlatformMXBeanProxy
              ManagementFactory.newPlatformMXBeanProxy}(mbs,
                                                ManagementFactory.RUNTIME_MXBEAN_NAME,
                                                RuntimeMXBean.class);
</pre>
</li>
</ul>
<p>
<b>2. Indirect access to an MXBean interface via MBeanServer</b><p>
<ul>
<li>Go through the
    {@link java.lang.management.ManagementFactory#getPlatformMBeanServer
    platform MBeanServer} to access MXBeans locally or
    a specific {@code MBeanServerConnection} to access
    MXBeans remotely.
    The attributes and operations of an MXBean use only
    <em>JMX open types</em> which include basic data types,
    {@link javax.management.openmbean.CompositeData CompositeData},
    and {@link javax.management.openmbean.TabularData TabularData}
    defined in {@link javax.management.openmbean.OpenType OpenType}.<p>
<pre>
   MBeanServerConnection mbs;

   // Connect to a running JVM (or itself) and get MBeanServerConnection
   // that has the JVM MXBeans registered in it
   ...

   try {
       // Assuming the RuntimeMXBean has been registered in mbs
       ObjectName oname = new ObjectName(ManagementFactory.RUNTIME_MXBEAN_NAME);

       // Get standard attribute "VmVendor"
       String vendor = (String) mbs.getAttribute(oname, "VmVendor");
   } catch (....) {
       // Catch the exceptions thrown by ObjectName constructor
       // and MBeanServer.getAttribute method
       ...
   }
</pre>
</li>
</ul>


<h4><a name="extension">Platform Extension</a></h4>

<p>A Java virtual machine implementation may add its platform extension to
the management interface by defining platform-dependent
interfaces that extend the standard management interfaces to include
platform-specific metrics and management operations.
The static factory methods in the <tt>ManagementFactory</tt> class will
return the MXBeans with the platform extension.

<p>
It is recommended to name the platform-specific attributes with
a vendor-specific prefix such as the vendor's name to
avoid collisions of the attribute name between the future extension
to the standard management interface and the platform extension.
If the future extension to the standard management interface defines
a new attribute for a management interface and the attribute name
is happened to be same as some vendor-specific attribute's name,
the applications accessing that vendor-specific attribute would have
to be modified to cope with versioning and compatibility issues.

<p>Below is an example showing how to access an attribute
from the platform extension:

<p>
1) Direct access to the Oracle-specific MXBean interface
<blockquote>
<pre>
   List&lt;com.sun.management.GarbageCollectorMXBean&gt; mxbeans =
       ManagementFactory.getPlatformMXBeans(com.sun.management.GarbageCollectorMXBean.class);

   for (com.sun.management.GarbageCollectorMXBean gc : mxbeans) {
       // Get the standard attribute "CollectionCount"
       String count = mxbean.getCollectionCount();

       // Get the platform-specific attribute "LastGcInfo"
       GcInfo gcinfo = gc.getLastGcInfo();
       ...
   }
</pre>
</blockquote>

<p>
2) Access the Oracle-specific MXBean interface via <tt>MBeanServer</tt>
   through proxy

<blockquote><pre>
   MBeanServerConnection mbs;

   // Connect to a running JVM (or itself) and get MBeanServerConnection
   // that has the JVM MXBeans registered in it
   ...

   List&lt;com.sun.management.GarbageCollectorMXBean&gt; mxbeans =
       ManagementFactory.getPlatformMXBeans(mbs, com.sun.management.GarbageCollectorMXBean.class);

   for (com.sun.management.GarbageCollectorMXBean gc : mxbeans) {
       // Get the standard attribute "CollectionCount"
       String count = mxbean.getCollectionCount();

       // Get the platform-specific attribute "LastGcInfo"
       GcInfo gcinfo = gc.getLastGcInfo();
       ...
   }
</pre></blockquote>

<p> Unless otherwise noted, passing a <tt>null</tt> argument to a constructor
or method in any class or interface in this package will cause a {@link
java.lang.NullPointerException NullPointerException} to be thrown.

<p> The java.lang.management API is thread-safe.

@see <a href="../../../javax/management/package-summary.html">
     JMX Specification.</a>

@author  Mandy Chung
@since   1.5

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