changeset 7935:f08ad5938709

8008378: FJP.commonPool support parallelism 0, add awaitQuiescence Reviewed-by: chegar Contributed-by: Doug Lea <dl@cs.oswego.edu>, Chris Hegarty <chris.hegarty@oracle.com>
author chegar
date Sat, 02 Mar 2013 08:54:37 +0000
parents 30e30ef6077e
children df76ba760eec 364e0871f7a3
files src/share/classes/java/util/concurrent/ForkJoinPool.java src/share/classes/java/util/concurrent/ForkJoinTask.java test/java/util/concurrent/forkjoin/ThreadLessCommon.java test/java/util/concurrent/forkjoin/ThrowingRunnable.java
diffstat 4 files changed, 601 insertions(+), 343 deletions(-) [+]
line wrap: on
line diff
--- a/src/share/classes/java/util/concurrent/ForkJoinPool.java	Fri Mar 01 14:12:59 2013 -0800
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/util/concurrent/ForkJoinPool.java	Sat Mar 02 08:54:37 2013 +0000
@@ -35,6 +35,7 @@
 
 package java.util.concurrent;
 
+import java.lang.Thread.UncaughtExceptionHandler;
 import java.util.ArrayList;
 import java.util.Arrays;
 import java.util.Collection;
@@ -104,38 +105,45 @@
  * there is little difference among choice of methods.
  *
  * <table BORDER CELLPADDING=3 CELLSPACING=1>
+ * <caption>Summary of task execution methods</caption>
  *  <tr>
  *    <td></td>
  *    <td ALIGN=CENTER> <b>Call from non-fork/join clients</b></td>
  *    <td ALIGN=CENTER> <b>Call from within fork/join computations</b></td>
  *  </tr>
  *  <tr>
- *    <td> <b>Arrange async execution</td>
+ *    <td> <b>Arrange async execution</b></td>
  *    <td> {@link #execute(ForkJoinTask)}</td>
  *    <td> {@link ForkJoinTask#fork}</td>
  *  </tr>
  *  <tr>
- *    <td> <b>Await and obtain result</td>
+ *    <td> <b>Await and obtain result</b></td>
  *    <td> {@link #invoke(ForkJoinTask)}</td>
  *    <td> {@link ForkJoinTask#invoke}</td>
  *  </tr>
  *  <tr>
- *    <td> <b>Arrange exec and obtain Future</td>
+ *    <td> <b>Arrange exec and obtain Future</b></td>
  *    <td> {@link #submit(ForkJoinTask)}</td>
  *    <td> {@link ForkJoinTask#fork} (ForkJoinTasks <em>are</em> Futures)</td>
  *  </tr>
  * </table>
  *
  * <p>The common pool is by default constructed with default
- * parameters, but these may be controlled by setting three {@link
- * System#getProperty system properties} with prefix {@code
- * java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool.common}: {@code parallelism} --
- * an integer greater than zero, {@code threadFactory} -- the class
- * name of a {@link ForkJoinWorkerThreadFactory}, and {@code
- * exceptionHandler} -- the class name of a {@link
- * java.lang.Thread.UncaughtExceptionHandler
- * Thread.UncaughtExceptionHandler}. Upon any error in establishing
- * these settings, default parameters are used.
+ * parameters, but these may be controlled by setting three
+ * {@linkplain System#getProperty system properties}:
+ * <ul>
+ * <li>{@code java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool.common.parallelism}
+ * - the parallelism level, a non-negative integer
+ * <li>{@code java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool.common.threadFactory}
+ * - the class name of a {@link ForkJoinWorkerThreadFactory}
+ * <li>{@code java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool.common.exceptionHandler}
+ * - the class name of a {@link UncaughtExceptionHandler}
+ * </ul>
+ * The system class loader is used to load these classes.
+ * Upon any error in establishing these settings, default parameters
+ * are used. It is possible to disable or limit the use of threads in
+ * the common pool by setting the parallelism property to zero, and/or
+ * using a factory that may return {@code null}.
  *
  * <p><b>Implementation notes</b>: This implementation restricts the
  * maximum number of running threads to 32767. Attempts to create
@@ -225,18 +233,18 @@
      * for work-stealing (this would contaminate lifo/fifo
      * processing). Instead, we randomly associate submission queues
      * with submitting threads, using a form of hashing.  The
-     * ThreadLocal Submitter class contains a value initially used as
-     * a hash code for choosing existing queues, but may be randomly
-     * repositioned upon contention with other submitters.  In
-     * essence, submitters act like workers except that they are
-     * restricted to executing local tasks that they submitted (or in
-     * the case of CountedCompleters, others with the same root task).
-     * However, because most shared/external queue operations are more
-     * expensive than internal, and because, at steady state, external
-     * submitters will compete for CPU with workers, ForkJoinTask.join
-     * and related methods disable them from repeatedly helping to
-     * process tasks if all workers are active.  Insertion of tasks in
-     * shared mode requires a lock (mainly to protect in the case of
+     * ThreadLocalRandom probe value serves as a hash code for
+     * choosing existing queues, and may be randomly repositioned upon
+     * contention with other submitters.  In essence, submitters act
+     * like workers except that they are restricted to executing local
+     * tasks that they submitted (or in the case of CountedCompleters,
+     * others with the same root task).  However, because most
+     * shared/external queue operations are more expensive than
+     * internal, and because, at steady state, external submitters
+     * will compete for CPU with workers, ForkJoinTask.join and
+     * related methods disable them from repeatedly helping to process
+     * tasks if all workers are active.  Insertion of tasks in shared
+     * mode requires a lock (mainly to protect in the case of
      * resizing) but we use only a simple spinlock (using bits in
      * field qlock), because submitters encountering a busy queue move
      * on to try or create other queues -- they block only when
@@ -469,7 +477,7 @@
      * Common Pool
      * ===========
      *
-     * The static commonPool always exists after static
+     * The static common Pool always exists after static
      * initialization.  Since it (or any other created pool) need
      * never be used, we minimize initial construction overhead and
      * footprint to the setup of about a dozen fields, with no nested
@@ -548,6 +556,7 @@
          *
          * @param pool the pool this thread works in
          * @throws NullPointerException if the pool is null
+         * @return the new worker thread
          */
         public ForkJoinWorkerThread newThread(ForkJoinPool pool);
     }
@@ -564,26 +573,6 @@
     }
 
     /**
-     * Per-thread records for threads that submit to pools. Currently
-     * holds only pseudo-random seed / index that is used to choose
-     * submission queues in method externalPush. In the future, this may
-     * also incorporate a means to implement different task rejection
-     * and resubmission policies.
-     *
-     * Seeds for submitters and workers/workQueues work in basically
-     * the same way but are initialized and updated using slightly
-     * different mechanics. Both are initialized using the same
-     * approach as in class ThreadLocal, where successive values are
-     * unlikely to collide with previous values. Seeds are then
-     * randomly modified upon collisions using xorshifts, which
-     * requires a non-zero seed.
-     */
-    static final class Submitter {
-        int seed;
-        Submitter(int s) { seed = s; }
-    }
-
-    /**
      * Class for artificial tasks that are used to replace the target
      * of local joins if they are removed from an interior queue slot
      * in WorkQueue.tryRemoveAndExec. We don't need the proxy to
@@ -737,7 +726,7 @@
          * shared-queue version is embedded in method externalPush.)
          *
          * @param task the task. Caller must ensure non-null.
-         * @throw RejectedExecutionException if array cannot be resized
+         * @throws RejectedExecutionException if array cannot be resized
          */
         final void push(ForkJoinTask<?> task) {
             ForkJoinTask<?>[] a; ForkJoinPool p;
@@ -936,7 +925,7 @@
          * or any other cancelled task. Returns (true) on any CAS
          * or consistency check failure so caller can retry.
          *
-         * @return false if no progress can be made, else true;
+         * @return false if no progress can be made, else true
          */
         final boolean tryRemoveAndExec(ForkJoinTask<?> task) {
             boolean stat = true, removed = false, empty = true;
@@ -981,7 +970,7 @@
 
         /**
          * Polls for and executes the given task or any other task in
-         * its CountedCompleter computation
+         * its CountedCompleter computation.
          */
         final boolean pollAndExecCC(ForkJoinTask<?> root) {
             ForkJoinTask<?>[] a; int b; Object o;
@@ -1055,7 +1044,6 @@
         private static final int ABASE;
         private static final int ASHIFT;
         static {
-            int s;
             try {
                 U = sun.misc.Unsafe.getUnsafe();
                 Class<?> k = WorkQueue.class;
@@ -1063,13 +1051,13 @@
                 QLOCK = U.objectFieldOffset
                     (k.getDeclaredField("qlock"));
                 ABASE = U.arrayBaseOffset(ak);
-                s = U.arrayIndexScale(ak);
+                int scale = U.arrayIndexScale(ak);
+                if ((scale & (scale - 1)) != 0)
+                    throw new Error("data type scale not a power of two");
+                ASHIFT = 31 - Integer.numberOfLeadingZeros(scale);
             } catch (Exception e) {
                 throw new Error(e);
             }
-            if ((s & (s-1)) != 0)
-                throw new Error("data type scale not a power of two");
-            ASHIFT = 31 - Integer.numberOfLeadingZeros(s);
         }
     }
 
@@ -1083,15 +1071,6 @@
         defaultForkJoinWorkerThreadFactory;
 
     /**
-     * Per-thread submission bookkeeping. Shared across all pools
-     * to reduce ThreadLocal pollution and because random motion
-     * to avoid contention in one pool is likely to hold for others.
-     * Lazily initialized on first submission (but null-checked
-     * in other contexts to avoid unnecessary initialization).
-     */
-    static final ThreadLocal<Submitter> submitters;
-
-    /**
      * Permission required for callers of methods that may start or
      * kill threads.
      */
@@ -1103,12 +1082,15 @@
      * to paranoically avoid potential initialization circularities
      * as well as to simplify generated code.
      */
-    static final ForkJoinPool commonPool;
+    static final ForkJoinPool common;
 
     /**
-     * Common pool parallelism. Must equal commonPool.parallelism.
+     * Common pool parallelism. To allow simpler use and management
+     * when common pool threads are disabled, we allow the underlying
+     * common.config field to be zero, but in that case still report
+     * parallelism as 1 to reflect resulting caller-runs mechanics.
      */
-    static final int commonPoolParallelism;
+    static final int commonParallelism;
 
     /**
      * Sequence number for creating workerNamePrefix.
@@ -1116,8 +1098,8 @@
     private static int poolNumberSequence;
 
     /**
-     * Return the next sequence number. We don't expect this to
-     * ever contend so use simple builtin sync.
+     * Returns the next sequence number. We don't expect this to
+     * ever contend, so use simple builtin sync.
      */
     private static final synchronized int nextPoolId() {
         return ++poolNumberSequence;
@@ -1161,7 +1143,7 @@
      */
     private static final int SEED_INCREMENT = 0x61c88647;
 
-    /**
+    /*
      * Bits and masks for control variables
      *
      * Field ctl is a long packed with:
@@ -1268,39 +1250,28 @@
     final int config;                          // mode and parallelism level
     WorkQueue[] workQueues;                    // main registry
     final ForkJoinWorkerThreadFactory factory;
-    final Thread.UncaughtExceptionHandler ueh; // per-worker UEH
+    final UncaughtExceptionHandler ueh;        // per-worker UEH
     final String workerNamePrefix;             // to create worker name string
 
     volatile Object pad10, pad11, pad12, pad13, pad14, pad15, pad16, pad17;
     volatile Object pad18, pad19, pad1a, pad1b;
 
-    /*
+    /**
      * Acquires the plock lock to protect worker array and related
      * updates. This method is called only if an initial CAS on plock
-     * fails. This acts as a spinLock for normal cases, but falls back
+     * fails. This acts as a spinlock for normal cases, but falls back
      * to builtin monitor to block when (rarely) needed. This would be
      * a terrible idea for a highly contended lock, but works fine as
      * a more conservative alternative to a pure spinlock.
      */
     private int acquirePlock() {
-        int spins = PL_SPINS, r = 0, ps, nps;
+        int spins = PL_SPINS, ps, nps;
         for (;;) {
             if (((ps = plock) & PL_LOCK) == 0 &&
                 U.compareAndSwapInt(this, PLOCK, ps, nps = ps + PL_LOCK))
                 return nps;
-            else if (r == 0) { // randomize spins if possible
-                Thread t = Thread.currentThread(); WorkQueue w; Submitter z;
-                if ((t instanceof ForkJoinWorkerThread) &&
-                    (w = ((ForkJoinWorkerThread)t).workQueue) != null)
-                    r = w.seed;
-                else if ((z = submitters.get()) != null)
-                    r = z.seed;
-                else
-                    r = 1;
-            }
             else if (spins >= 0) {
-                r ^= r << 1; r ^= r >>> 3; r ^= r << 10; // xorshift
-                if (r >= 0)
+                if (ThreadLocalRandom.nextSecondarySeed() >= 0)
                     --spins;
             }
             else if (U.compareAndSwapInt(this, PLOCK, ps, ps | PL_SIGNAL)) {
@@ -1332,39 +1303,6 @@
     }
 
     /**
-     * Performs secondary initialization, called when plock is zero.
-     * Creates workQueue array and sets plock to a valid value.  The
-     * lock body must be exception-free (so no try/finally) so we
-     * optimistically allocate new array outside the lock and throw
-     * away if (very rarely) not needed. (A similar tactic is used in
-     * fullExternalPush.)  Because the plock seq value can eventually
-     * wrap around zero, this method harmlessly fails to reinitialize
-     * if workQueues exists, while still advancing plock.
-     *
-     * Additionally tries to create the first worker.
-     */
-    private void initWorkers() {
-        WorkQueue[] ws, nws; int ps;
-        int p = config & SMASK;        // find power of two table size
-        int n = (p > 1) ? p - 1 : 1;   // ensure at least 2 slots
-        n |= n >>> 1; n |= n >>> 2; n |= n >>> 4; n |= n >>> 8; n |= n >>> 16;
-        n = (n + 1) << 1;
-        if ((ws = workQueues) == null || ws.length == 0)
-            nws = new WorkQueue[n];
-        else
-            nws = null;
-        if (((ps = plock) & PL_LOCK) != 0 ||
-            !U.compareAndSwapInt(this, PLOCK, ps, ps += PL_LOCK))
-            ps = acquirePlock();
-        if (((ws = workQueues) == null || ws.length == 0) && nws != null)
-            workQueues = nws;
-        int nps = (ps & SHUTDOWN) | ((ps + PL_LOCK) & ~SHUTDOWN);
-        if (!U.compareAndSwapInt(this, PLOCK, ps, nps))
-            releasePlock(nps);
-        tryAddWorker();
-    }
-
-    /**
      * Tries to create and start one worker if fewer than target
      * parallelism level exist. Adjusts counts etc on failure.
      */
@@ -1406,7 +1344,7 @@
      * @return the worker's queue
      */
     final WorkQueue registerWorker(ForkJoinWorkerThread wt) {
-        Thread.UncaughtExceptionHandler handler; WorkQueue[] ws; int s, ps;
+        UncaughtExceptionHandler handler; WorkQueue[] ws; int s, ps;
         wt.setDaemon(true);
         if ((handler = ueh) != null)
             wt.setUncaughtExceptionHandler(handler);
@@ -1450,7 +1388,7 @@
      * array, and adjusts counts. If pool is shutting down, tries to
      * complete termination.
      *
-     * @param wt the worker thread or null if construction failed
+     * @param wt the worker thread, or null if construction failed
      * @param ex the exception causing failure, or null if none
      */
     final void deregisterWorker(ForkJoinWorkerThread wt, Throwable ex) {
@@ -1489,7 +1427,7 @@
                 if (e > 0) {             // activate or create replacement
                     if ((ws = workQueues) == null ||
                         (i = e & SMASK) >= ws.length ||
-                        (v = ws[i]) != null)
+                        (v = ws[i]) == null)
                         break;
                     long nc = (((long)(v.nextWait & E_MASK)) |
                                ((long)(u + UAC_UNIT) << 32));
@@ -1526,10 +1464,10 @@
      * @param task the task. Caller must ensure non-null.
      */
     final void externalPush(ForkJoinTask<?> task) {
-        WorkQueue[] ws; WorkQueue q; Submitter z; int m; ForkJoinTask<?>[] a;
-        if ((z = submitters.get()) != null && plock > 0 &&
+        WorkQueue[] ws; WorkQueue q; int z, m; ForkJoinTask<?>[] a;
+        if ((z = ThreadLocalRandom.getProbe()) != 0 && plock > 0 &&
             (ws = workQueues) != null && (m = (ws.length - 1)) >= 0 &&
-            (q = ws[m & z.seed & SQMASK]) != null &&
+            (q = ws[m & z & SQMASK]) != null &&
             U.compareAndSwapInt(q, QLOCK, 0, 1)) { // lock
             int b = q.base, s = q.top, n, an;
             if ((a = q.array) != null && (an = a.length) > (n = s + 1 - b)) {
@@ -1549,34 +1487,48 @@
     /**
      * Full version of externalPush. This method is called, among
      * other times, upon the first submission of the first task to the
-     * pool, so must perform secondary initialization (via
-     * initWorkers). It also detects first submission by an external
-     * thread by looking up its ThreadLocal, and creates a new shared
-     * queue if the one at index if empty or contended. The plock lock
-     * body must be exception-free (so no try/finally) so we
-     * optimistically allocate new queues outside the lock and throw
-     * them away if (very rarely) not needed.
+     * pool, so must perform secondary initialization.  It also
+     * detects first submission by an external thread by looking up
+     * its ThreadLocal, and creates a new shared queue if the one at
+     * index if empty or contended. The plock lock body must be
+     * exception-free (so no try/finally) so we optimistically
+     * allocate new queues outside the lock and throw them away if
+     * (very rarely) not needed.
+     *
+     * Secondary initialization occurs when plock is zero, to create
+     * workQueue array and set plock to a valid value.  This lock body
+     * must also be exception-free. Because the plock seq value can
+     * eventually wrap around zero, this method harmlessly fails to
+     * reinitialize if workQueues exists, while still advancing plock.
      */
     private void fullExternalPush(ForkJoinTask<?> task) {
-        int r = 0; // random index seed
-        for (Submitter z = submitters.get();;) {
+        int r;
+        if ((r = ThreadLocalRandom.getProbe()) == 0) {
+            ThreadLocalRandom.localInit();
+            r = ThreadLocalRandom.getProbe();
+        }
+        for (;;) {
             WorkQueue[] ws; WorkQueue q; int ps, m, k;
-            if (z == null) {
-                if (U.compareAndSwapInt(this, INDEXSEED, r = indexSeed,
-                                        r += SEED_INCREMENT) && r != 0)
-                    submitters.set(z = new Submitter(r));
-            }
-            else if (r == 0) {               // move to a different index
-                r = z.seed;
-                r ^= r << 13;                // same xorshift as WorkQueues
-                r ^= r >>> 17;
-                z.seed = r ^ (r << 5);
-            }
-            else if ((ps = plock) < 0)
+            boolean move = false;
+            if ((ps = plock) < 0)
                 throw new RejectedExecutionException();
             else if (ps == 0 || (ws = workQueues) == null ||
-                     (m = ws.length - 1) < 0)
-                initWorkers();
+                     (m = ws.length - 1) < 0) { // initialize workQueues
+                int p = config & SMASK;         // find power of two table size
+                int n = (p > 1) ? p - 1 : 1;    // ensure at least 2 slots
+                n |= n >>> 1; n |= n >>> 2;  n |= n >>> 4;
+                n |= n >>> 8; n |= n >>> 16; n = (n + 1) << 1;
+                WorkQueue[] nws = ((ws = workQueues) == null || ws.length == 0 ?
+                                   new WorkQueue[n] : null);
+                if (((ps = plock) & PL_LOCK) != 0 ||
+                    !U.compareAndSwapInt(this, PLOCK, ps, ps += PL_LOCK))
+                    ps = acquirePlock();
+                if (((ws = workQueues) == null || ws.length == 0) && nws != null)
+                    workQueues = nws;
+                int nps = (ps & SHUTDOWN) | ((ps + PL_LOCK) & ~SHUTDOWN);
+                if (!U.compareAndSwapInt(this, PLOCK, ps, nps))
+                    releasePlock(nps);
+            }
             else if ((q = ws[k = r & m & SQMASK]) != null) {
                 if (q.qlock == 0 && U.compareAndSwapInt(q, QLOCK, 0, 1)) {
                     ForkJoinTask<?>[] a = q.array;
@@ -1598,7 +1550,7 @@
                         return;
                     }
                 }
-                r = 0; // move on failure
+                move = true; // move on failure
             }
             else if (((ps = plock) & PL_LOCK) == 0) { // create new queue
                 q = new WorkQueue(this, null, SHARED_QUEUE, r);
@@ -1612,7 +1564,9 @@
                     releasePlock(nps);
             }
             else
-                r = 0; // try elsewhere while lock held
+                move = true; // move if busy
+            if (move)
+                r = ThreadLocalRandom.advanceProbe(r);
         }
     }
 
@@ -1703,7 +1657,7 @@
      * park awaiting signal, else lingering to help scan and signal.
      *
      * * If a non-empty queue discovered or left as a hint,
-     * help wake up other workers before return
+     * help wake up other workers before return.
      *
      * @param w the worker (via its WorkQueue)
      * @return a task or null if none found
@@ -1758,14 +1712,13 @@
                         else if ((int)(c >> AC_SHIFT) == 1 - (config & SMASK))
                             idleAwaitWork(w, nc, c);
                     }
-                    else if (w.eventCount < 0 && !tryTerminate(false, false) &&
-                             ctl == c) {         // block
+                    else if (w.eventCount < 0 && ctl == c) {
                         Thread wt = Thread.currentThread();
                         Thread.interrupted();    // clear status
                         U.putObject(wt, PARKBLOCKER, this);
                         w.parker = wt;           // emulate LockSupport.park
                         if (w.eventCount < 0)    // recheck
-                            U.park(false, 0L);
+                            U.park(false, 0L);   // block
                         w.parker = null;
                         U.putObject(wt, PARKBLOCKER, null);
                     }
@@ -1774,7 +1727,7 @@
                     (ws = workQueues) != null && h < ws.length &&
                     (q = ws[h]) != null) {      // signal others before retry
                     WorkQueue v; Thread p; int u, i, s;
-                    for (int n = (config & SMASK) >>> 1;;) {
+                    for (int n = (config & SMASK) - 1;;) {
                         int idleCount = (w.eventCount < 0) ? 0 : -1;
                         if (((s = idleCount - q.base + q.top) <= n &&
                              (n = s) <= 0) ||
@@ -1814,7 +1767,8 @@
      */
     private void idleAwaitWork(WorkQueue w, long currentCtl, long prevCtl) {
         if (w != null && w.eventCount < 0 &&
-            !tryTerminate(false, false) && (int)prevCtl != 0) {
+            !tryTerminate(false, false) && (int)prevCtl != 0 &&
+            ctl == currentCtl) {
             int dc = -(short)(currentCtl >>> TC_SHIFT);
             long parkTime = dc < 0 ? FAST_IDLE_TIMEOUT: (dc + 1) * IDLE_TIMEOUT;
             long deadline = System.nanoTime() + parkTime - TIMEOUT_SLOP;
@@ -1832,6 +1786,7 @@
                 if (deadline - System.nanoTime() <= 0L &&
                     U.compareAndSwapLong(this, CTL, currentCtl, prevCtl)) {
                     w.eventCount = (w.eventCount + E_SEQ) | E_MASK;
+                    w.hint = -1;
                     w.qlock = -1;   // shrink
                     break;
                 }
@@ -1973,7 +1928,6 @@
      * @param task the task to join
      * @param mode if shared, exit upon completing any task
      * if all workers are active
-     *
      */
     private int helpComplete(ForkJoinTask<?> task, int mode) {
         WorkQueue[] ws; WorkQueue q; int m, n, s, u;
@@ -2125,29 +2079,22 @@
 
     /**
      * Returns a (probably) non-empty steal queue, if one is found
-     * during a random, then cyclic scan, else null.  This method must
-     * be retried by caller if, by the time it tries to use the queue,
-     * it is empty.
+     * during a scan, else null.  This method must be retried by
+     * caller if, by the time it tries to use the queue, it is empty.
      * @param r a (random) seed for scanning
      */
     private WorkQueue findNonEmptyStealQueue(int r) {
-        for (WorkQueue[] ws;;) {
-            int ps = plock, m, n;
-            if ((ws = workQueues) == null || (m = ws.length - 1) < 1)
-                return null;
-            for (int j = (m + 1) << 2; ;) {
-                WorkQueue q = ws[(((r + j) << 1) | 1) & m];
-                if (q != null && (n = q.base - q.top) < 0) {
-                    if (n < -1)
-                        signalWork(q);
-                    return q;
-                }
-                else if (--j < 0) {
-                    if (plock == ps)
-                        return null;
-                    break;
+        for (;;) {
+            int ps = plock, m; WorkQueue[] ws; WorkQueue q;
+            if ((ws = workQueues) != null && (m = ws.length - 1) >= 0) {
+                for (int j = (m + 1) << 2; j >= 0; --j) {
+                    if ((q = ws[(((r + j) << 1) | 1) & m]) != null &&
+                        q.base - q.top < 0)
+                        return q;
                 }
             }
+            if (plock == ps)
+                return null;
         }
     }
 
@@ -2159,37 +2106,34 @@
      */
     final void helpQuiescePool(WorkQueue w) {
         for (boolean active = true;;) {
-            ForkJoinTask<?> localTask; // exhaust local queue
-            while ((localTask = w.nextLocalTask()) != null)
-                localTask.doExec();
-            // Similar to loop in scan(), but ignoring submissions
-            WorkQueue q = findNonEmptyStealQueue(w.nextSeed());
-            if (q != null) {
-                ForkJoinTask<?> t; int b;
+            long c; WorkQueue q; ForkJoinTask<?> t; int b;
+            while ((t = w.nextLocalTask()) != null) {
+                if (w.base - w.top < 0)
+                    signalWork(w);
+                t.doExec();
+            }
+            if ((q = findNonEmptyStealQueue(w.nextSeed())) != null) {
                 if (!active) {      // re-establish active count
-                    long c;
                     active = true;
                     do {} while (!U.compareAndSwapLong
                                  (this, CTL, c = ctl, c + AC_UNIT));
                 }
-                if ((b = q.base) - q.top < 0 && (t = q.pollAt(b)) != null)
+                if ((b = q.base) - q.top < 0 && (t = q.pollAt(b)) != null) {
+                    if (q.base - q.top < 0)
+                        signalWork(q);
                     w.runSubtask(t);
-            }
-            else {
-                long c;
-                if (active) {       // decrement active count without queuing
-                    active = false;
-                    do {} while (!U.compareAndSwapLong
-                                 (this, CTL, c = ctl, c -= AC_UNIT));
-                }
-                else
-                    c = ctl;        // re-increment on exit
-                if ((int)(c >> AC_SHIFT) + (config & SMASK) == 0) {
-                    do {} while (!U.compareAndSwapLong
-                                 (this, CTL, c = ctl, c + AC_UNIT));
-                    break;
                 }
             }
+            else if (active) {       // decrement active count without queuing
+                long nc = (c = ctl) - AC_UNIT;
+                if ((int)(nc >> AC_SHIFT) + (config & SMASK) == 0)
+                    return;          // bypass decrement-then-increment
+                if (U.compareAndSwapLong(this, CTL, c, nc))
+                    active = false;
+            }
+            else if ((int)((c = ctl) >> AC_SHIFT) + (config & SMASK) == 0 &&
+                     U.compareAndSwapLong(this, CTL, c, c + AC_UNIT))
+                return;
         }
     }
 
@@ -2205,8 +2149,11 @@
                 return t;
             if ((q = findNonEmptyStealQueue(w.nextSeed())) == null)
                 return null;
-            if ((b = q.base) - q.top < 0 && (t = q.pollAt(b)) != null)
+            if ((b = q.base) - q.top < 0 && (t = q.pollAt(b)) != null) {
+                if (q.base - q.top < 0)
+                    signalWork(q);
                 return t;
+            }
         }
     }
 
@@ -2235,7 +2182,7 @@
      * producing extra tasks amortizes the uncertainty of progress and
      * diffusion assumptions.
      *
-     * So, users will want to use values larger, but not much larger
+     * So, users will want to use values larger (but not much larger)
      * than 1 to both smooth over transient shortages and hedge
      * against uneven progress; as traded off against the cost of
      * extra task overhead. We leave the user to pick a threshold
@@ -2288,45 +2235,49 @@
      * @return true if now terminating or terminated
      */
     private boolean tryTerminate(boolean now, boolean enable) {
-        if (this == commonPool)                     // cannot shut down
+        int ps;
+        if (this == common)                    // cannot shut down
             return false;
+        if ((ps = plock) >= 0) {                   // enable by setting plock
+            if (!enable)
+                return false;
+            if ((ps & PL_LOCK) != 0 ||
+                !U.compareAndSwapInt(this, PLOCK, ps, ps += PL_LOCK))
+                ps = acquirePlock();
+            int nps = ((ps + PL_LOCK) & ~SHUTDOWN) | SHUTDOWN;
+            if (!U.compareAndSwapInt(this, PLOCK, ps, nps))
+                releasePlock(nps);
+        }
         for (long c;;) {
-            if (((c = ctl) & STOP_BIT) != 0) {      // already terminating
+            if (((c = ctl) & STOP_BIT) != 0) {     // already terminating
                 if ((short)(c >>> TC_SHIFT) == -(config & SMASK)) {
                     synchronized (this) {
-                        notifyAll();                // signal when 0 workers
+                        notifyAll();               // signal when 0 workers
                     }
                 }
                 return true;
             }
-            if (plock >= 0) {                       // not yet enabled
-                int ps;
-                if (!enable)
+            if (!now) {                            // check if idle & no tasks
+                WorkQueue[] ws; WorkQueue w;
+                if ((int)(c >> AC_SHIFT) != -(config & SMASK))
                     return false;
-                if (((ps = plock) & PL_LOCK) != 0 ||
-                    !U.compareAndSwapInt(this, PLOCK, ps, ps += PL_LOCK))
-                    ps = acquirePlock();
-                if (!U.compareAndSwapInt(this, PLOCK, ps, SHUTDOWN))
-                    releasePlock(SHUTDOWN);
-            }
-            if (!now) {                             // check if idle & no tasks
-                if ((int)(c >> AC_SHIFT) != -(config & SMASK) ||
-                    hasQueuedSubmissions())
-                    return false;
-                // Check for unqueued inactive workers. One pass suffices.
-                WorkQueue[] ws = workQueues; WorkQueue w;
-                if (ws != null) {
-                    for (int i = 1; i < ws.length; i += 2) {
-                        if ((w = ws[i]) != null && w.eventCount >= 0)
-                            return false;
+                if ((ws = workQueues) != null) {
+                    for (int i = 0; i < ws.length; ++i) {
+                        if ((w = ws[i]) != null) {
+                            if (!w.isEmpty()) {    // signal unprocessed tasks
+                                signalWork(w);
+                                return false;
+                            }
+                            if ((i & 1) != 0 && w.eventCount >= 0)
+                                return false;      // unqueued inactive worker
+                        }
                     }
                 }
             }
             if (U.compareAndSwapLong(this, CTL, c, c | STOP_BIT)) {
                 for (int pass = 0; pass < 3; ++pass) {
-                    WorkQueue[] ws = workQueues;
-                    if (ws != null) {
-                        WorkQueue w; Thread wt;
+                    WorkQueue[] ws; WorkQueue w; Thread wt;
+                    if ((ws = workQueues) != null) {
                         int n = ws.length;
                         for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
                             if ((w = ws[i]) != null) {
@@ -2337,7 +2288,7 @@
                                         if (!wt.isInterrupted()) {
                                             try {
                                                 wt.interrupt();
-                                            } catch (SecurityException ignore) {
+                                            } catch (Throwable ignore) {
                                             }
                                         }
                                         U.unpark(wt);
@@ -2348,7 +2299,7 @@
                         // Wake up workers parked on event queue
                         int i, e; long cc; Thread p;
                         while ((e = (int)(cc = ctl) & E_MASK) != 0 &&
-                               (i = e & SMASK) < n &&
+                               (i = e & SMASK) < n && i >= 0 &&
                                (w = ws[i]) != null) {
                             long nc = ((long)(w.nextWait & E_MASK) |
                                        ((cc + AC_UNIT) & AC_MASK) |
@@ -2374,26 +2325,26 @@
      * least one task.
      */
     static WorkQueue commonSubmitterQueue() {
-        ForkJoinPool p; WorkQueue[] ws; int m; Submitter z;
-        return ((z = submitters.get()) != null &&
-                (p = commonPool) != null &&
+        ForkJoinPool p; WorkQueue[] ws; int m, z;
+        return ((z = ThreadLocalRandom.getProbe()) != 0 &&
+                (p = common) != null &&
                 (ws = p.workQueues) != null &&
                 (m = ws.length - 1) >= 0) ?
-            ws[m & z.seed & SQMASK] : null;
+            ws[m & z & SQMASK] : null;
     }
 
     /**
      * Tries to pop the given task from submitter's queue in common pool.
      */
     static boolean tryExternalUnpush(ForkJoinTask<?> t) {
-        ForkJoinPool p; WorkQueue[] ws; WorkQueue q; Submitter z;
-        ForkJoinTask<?>[] a;  int m, s;
+        ForkJoinPool p; WorkQueue[] ws; WorkQueue q;
+        ForkJoinTask<?>[] a;  int m, s, z;
         if (t != null &&
-            (z = submitters.get()) != null &&
-            (p = commonPool) != null &&
+            (z = ThreadLocalRandom.getProbe()) != 0 &&
+            (p = common) != null &&
             (ws = p.workQueues) != null &&
             (m = ws.length - 1) >= 0 &&
-            (q = ws[m & z.seed & SQMASK]) != null &&
+            (q = ws[m & z & SQMASK]) != null &&
             (s = q.top) != q.base &&
             (a = q.array) != null) {
             long j = (((a.length - 1) & (s - 1)) << ASHIFT) + ABASE;
@@ -2445,9 +2396,10 @@
                 if (task != null)
                     task.doExec();
                 if (root.status < 0 ||
-                    (u = (int)(ctl >>> 32)) >= 0 || (u >> UAC_SHIFT) >= 0)
+                    (config != 0 &&
+                     ((u = (int)(ctl >>> 32)) >= 0 || (u >> UAC_SHIFT) >= 0)))
                     break;
-                if (task == null) {
+               if (task == null) {
                     helpSignal(root, q.poolIndex);
                     if (root.status >= 0)
                         helpComplete(root, SHARED_QUEUE);
@@ -2463,14 +2415,14 @@
      */
     static void externalHelpJoin(ForkJoinTask<?> t) {
         // Some hard-to-avoid overlap with tryExternalUnpush
-        ForkJoinPool p; WorkQueue[] ws; WorkQueue q, w; Submitter z;
-        ForkJoinTask<?>[] a;  int m, s, n;
+        ForkJoinPool p; WorkQueue[] ws; WorkQueue q, w;
+        ForkJoinTask<?>[] a;  int m, s, n, z;
         if (t != null &&
-            (z = submitters.get()) != null &&
-            (p = commonPool) != null &&
+            (z = ThreadLocalRandom.getProbe()) != 0 &&
+            (p = common) != null &&
             (ws = p.workQueues) != null &&
             (m = ws.length - 1) >= 0 &&
-            (q = ws[m & z.seed & SQMASK]) != null &&
+            (q = ws[m & z & SQMASK]) != null &&
             (a = q.array) != null) {
             int am = a.length - 1;
             if ((s = q.top) != q.base) {
@@ -2496,18 +2448,6 @@
         }
     }
 
-    /**
-     * Restricted version of helpQuiescePool for external callers
-     */
-    static void externalHelpQuiescePool() {
-        ForkJoinPool p; ForkJoinTask<?> t; WorkQueue q; int b;
-        if ((p = commonPool) != null &&
-            (q = p.findNonEmptyStealQueue(1)) != null &&
-            (b = q.base) - q.top < 0 &&
-            (t = q.pollAt(b)) != null)
-            t.doExec();
-    }
-
     // Exported methods
 
     // Constructors
@@ -2524,7 +2464,7 @@
      *         java.lang.RuntimePermission}{@code ("modifyThread")}
      */
     public ForkJoinPool() {
-        this(Runtime.getRuntime().availableProcessors(),
+        this(Math.min(MAX_CAP, Runtime.getRuntime().availableProcessors()),
              defaultForkJoinWorkerThreadFactory, null, false);
     }
 
@@ -2572,50 +2512,63 @@
      */
     public ForkJoinPool(int parallelism,
                         ForkJoinWorkerThreadFactory factory,
-                        Thread.UncaughtExceptionHandler handler,
+                        UncaughtExceptionHandler handler,
                         boolean asyncMode) {
+        this(checkParallelism(parallelism),
+             checkFactory(factory),
+             handler,
+             asyncMode,
+             "ForkJoinPool-" + nextPoolId() + "-worker-");
         checkPermission();
+    }
+
+    private static int checkParallelism(int parallelism) {
+        if (parallelism <= 0 || parallelism > MAX_CAP)
+            throw new IllegalArgumentException();
+        return parallelism;
+    }
+
+    private static ForkJoinWorkerThreadFactory checkFactory
+        (ForkJoinWorkerThreadFactory factory) {
         if (factory == null)
             throw new NullPointerException();
-        if (parallelism <= 0 || parallelism > MAX_CAP)
-            throw new IllegalArgumentException();
+        return factory;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Creates a {@code ForkJoinPool} with the given parameters, without
+     * any security checks or parameter validation.  Invoked directly by
+     * makeCommonPool.
+     */
+    private ForkJoinPool(int parallelism,
+                         ForkJoinWorkerThreadFactory factory,
+                         UncaughtExceptionHandler handler,
+                         boolean asyncMode,
+                         String workerNamePrefix) {
+        this.workerNamePrefix = workerNamePrefix;
         this.factory = factory;
         this.ueh = handler;
         this.config = parallelism | (asyncMode ? (FIFO_QUEUE << 16) : 0);
         long np = (long)(-parallelism); // offset ctl counts
         this.ctl = ((np << AC_SHIFT) & AC_MASK) | ((np << TC_SHIFT) & TC_MASK);
-        int pn = nextPoolId();
-        StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder("ForkJoinPool-");
-        sb.append(Integer.toString(pn));
-        sb.append("-worker-");
-        this.workerNamePrefix = sb.toString();
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Constructor for common pool, suitable only for static initialization.
-     * Basically the same as above, but uses smallest possible initial footprint.
-     */
-    ForkJoinPool(int parallelism, long ctl,
-                 ForkJoinWorkerThreadFactory factory,
-                 Thread.UncaughtExceptionHandler handler) {
-        this.config = parallelism;
-        this.ctl = ctl;
-        this.factory = factory;
-        this.ueh = handler;
-        this.workerNamePrefix = "ForkJoinPool.commonPool-worker-";
     }
 
     /**
      * Returns the common pool instance. This pool is statically
-     * constructed; its run state is unaffected by attempts to
-     * {@link #shutdown} or {@link #shutdownNow}.
+     * constructed; its run state is unaffected by attempts to {@link
+     * #shutdown} or {@link #shutdownNow}. However this pool and any
+     * ongoing processing are automatically terminated upon program
+     * {@link System#exit}.  Any program that relies on asynchronous
+     * task processing to complete before program termination should
+     * invoke {@code commonPool().}{@link #awaitQuiescence awaitQuiescence},
+     * before exit.
      *
      * @return the common pool instance
      * @since 1.8
      */
     public static ForkJoinPool commonPool() {
-        // assert commonPool != null : "static init error";
-        return commonPool;
+        // assert common != null : "static init error";
+        return common;
     }
 
     // Execution methods
@@ -2671,7 +2624,7 @@
         if (task instanceof ForkJoinTask<?>) // avoid re-wrap
             job = (ForkJoinTask<?>) task;
         else
-            job = new ForkJoinTask.AdaptedRunnableAction(task);
+            job = new ForkJoinTask.RunnableExecuteAction(task);
         externalPush(job);
     }
 
@@ -2738,27 +2691,23 @@
         // In previous versions of this class, this method constructed
         // a task to run ForkJoinTask.invokeAll, but now external
         // invocation of multiple tasks is at least as efficient.
-        List<ForkJoinTask<T>> fs = new ArrayList<ForkJoinTask<T>>(tasks.size());
-        // Workaround needed because method wasn't declared with
-        // wildcards in return type but should have been.
-        @SuppressWarnings({"unchecked", "rawtypes"})
-            List<Future<T>> futures = (List<Future<T>>) (List) fs;
+        ArrayList<Future<T>> futures = new ArrayList<Future<T>>(tasks.size());
 
         boolean done = false;
         try {
             for (Callable<T> t : tasks) {
                 ForkJoinTask<T> f = new ForkJoinTask.AdaptedCallable<T>(t);
+                futures.add(f);
                 externalPush(f);
-                fs.add(f);
             }
-            for (ForkJoinTask<T> f : fs)
-                f.quietlyJoin();
+            for (int i = 0, size = futures.size(); i < size; i++)
+                ((ForkJoinTask<?>)futures.get(i)).quietlyJoin();
             done = true;
             return futures;
         } finally {
             if (!done)
-                for (ForkJoinTask<T> f : fs)
-                    f.cancel(false);
+                for (int i = 0, size = futures.size(); i < size; i++)
+                    futures.get(i).cancel(false);
         }
     }
 
@@ -2777,7 +2726,7 @@
      *
      * @return the handler, or {@code null} if none
      */
-    public Thread.UncaughtExceptionHandler getUncaughtExceptionHandler() {
+    public UncaughtExceptionHandler getUncaughtExceptionHandler() {
         return ueh;
     }
 
@@ -2787,7 +2736,8 @@
      * @return the targeted parallelism level of this pool
      */
     public int getParallelism() {
-        return config & SMASK;
+        int par = (config & SMASK);
+        return (par > 0) ? par : 1;
     }
 
     /**
@@ -2797,7 +2747,7 @@
      * @since 1.8
      */
     public static int getCommonPoolParallelism() {
-        return commonPoolParallelism;
+        return commonParallelism;
     }
 
     /**
@@ -3055,7 +3005,7 @@
      * Possibly initiates an orderly shutdown in which previously
      * submitted tasks are executed, but no new tasks will be
      * accepted. Invocation has no effect on execution state if this
-     * is the {@link #commonPool}, and no additional effect if
+     * is the {@link #commonPool()}, and no additional effect if
      * already shut down.  Tasks that are in the process of being
      * submitted concurrently during the course of this method may or
      * may not be rejected.
@@ -3073,7 +3023,7 @@
     /**
      * Possibly attempts to cancel and/or stop all tasks, and reject
      * all subsequently submitted tasks.  Invocation has no effect on
-     * execution state if this is the {@link #commonPool}, and no
+     * execution state if this is the {@link #commonPool()}, and no
      * additional effect if already shut down. Otherwise, tasks that
      * are in the process of being submitted or executed concurrently
      * during the course of this method may or may not be
@@ -3136,9 +3086,10 @@
     /**
      * Blocks until all tasks have completed execution after a
      * shutdown request, or the timeout occurs, or the current thread
-     * is interrupted, whichever happens first. Note that the {@link
-     * #commonPool()} never terminates until program shutdown so
-     * this method will always time out.
+     * is interrupted, whichever happens first. Because the {@link
+     * #commonPool()} never terminates until program shutdown, when
+     * applied to the common pool, this method is equivalent to {@link
+     * #awaitQuiescence(long, TimeUnit)} but always returns {@code false}.
      *
      * @param timeout the maximum time to wait
      * @param unit the time unit of the timeout argument
@@ -3148,6 +3099,12 @@
      */
     public boolean awaitTermination(long timeout, TimeUnit unit)
         throws InterruptedException {
+        if (Thread.interrupted())
+            throw new InterruptedException();
+        if (this == common) {
+            awaitQuiescence(timeout, unit);
+            return false;
+        }
         long nanos = unit.toNanos(timeout);
         if (isTerminated())
             return true;
@@ -3167,6 +3124,62 @@
     }
 
     /**
+     * If called by a ForkJoinTask operating in this pool, equivalent
+     * in effect to {@link ForkJoinTask#helpQuiesce}. Otherwise,
+     * waits and/or attempts to assist performing tasks until this
+     * pool {@link #isQuiescent} or the indicated timeout elapses.
+     *
+     * @param timeout the maximum time to wait
+     * @param unit the time unit of the timeout argument
+     * @return {@code true} if quiescent; {@code false} if the
+     * timeout elapsed.
+     */
+    public boolean awaitQuiescence(long timeout, TimeUnit unit) {
+        long nanos = unit.toNanos(timeout);
+        ForkJoinWorkerThread wt;
+        Thread thread = Thread.currentThread();
+        if ((thread instanceof ForkJoinWorkerThread) &&
+            (wt = (ForkJoinWorkerThread)thread).pool == this) {
+            helpQuiescePool(wt.workQueue);
+            return true;
+        }
+        long startTime = System.nanoTime();
+        WorkQueue[] ws;
+        int r = 0, m;
+        boolean found = true;
+        while (!isQuiescent() && (ws = workQueues) != null &&
+               (m = ws.length - 1) >= 0) {
+            if (!found) {
+                if ((System.nanoTime() - startTime) > nanos)
+                    return false;
+                Thread.yield(); // cannot block
+            }
+            found = false;
+            for (int j = (m + 1) << 2; j >= 0; --j) {
+                ForkJoinTask<?> t; WorkQueue q; int b;
+                if ((q = ws[r++ & m]) != null && (b = q.base) - q.top < 0) {
+                    found = true;
+                    if ((t = q.pollAt(b)) != null) {
+                        if (q.base - q.top < 0)
+                            signalWork(q);
+                        t.doExec();
+                    }
+                    break;
+                }
+            }
+        }
+        return true;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Waits and/or attempts to assist performing tasks indefinitely
+     * until the {@link #commonPool()} {@link #isQuiescent}.
+     */
+    static void quiesceCommonPool() {
+        common.awaitQuiescence(Long.MAX_VALUE, TimeUnit.NANOSECONDS);
+    }
+
+    /**
      * Interface for extending managed parallelism for tasks running
      * in {@link ForkJoinPool}s.
      *
@@ -3175,9 +3188,9 @@
      * not necessary. Method {@code block} blocks the current thread
      * if necessary (perhaps internally invoking {@code isReleasable}
      * before actually blocking). These actions are performed by any
-     * thread invoking {@link ForkJoinPool#managedBlock}.  The
-     * unusual methods in this API accommodate synchronizers that may,
-     * but don't usually, block for long periods. Similarly, they
+     * thread invoking {@link ForkJoinPool#managedBlock(ManagedBlocker)}.
+     * The unusual methods in this API accommodate synchronizers that
+     * may, but don't usually, block for long periods. Similarly, they
      * allow more efficient internal handling of cases in which
      * additional workers may be, but usually are not, needed to
      * ensure sufficient parallelism.  Toward this end,
@@ -3235,6 +3248,7 @@
 
         /**
          * Returns {@code true} if blocking is unnecessary.
+         * @return {@code true} if blocking is unnecessary
          */
         boolean isReleasable();
     }
@@ -3319,7 +3333,7 @@
     private static final long QLOCK;
 
     static {
-        int s; // initialize field offsets for CAS etc
+        // initialize field offsets for CAS etc
         try {
             U = sun.misc.Unsafe.getUnsafe();
             Class<?> k = ForkJoinPool.class;
@@ -3339,54 +3353,58 @@
                 (wk.getDeclaredField("qlock"));
             Class<?> ak = ForkJoinTask[].class;
             ABASE = U.arrayBaseOffset(ak);
-            s = U.arrayIndexScale(ak);
-            ASHIFT = 31 - Integer.numberOfLeadingZeros(s);
+            int scale = U.arrayIndexScale(ak);
+            if ((scale & (scale - 1)) != 0)
+                throw new Error("data type scale not a power of two");
+            ASHIFT = 31 - Integer.numberOfLeadingZeros(scale);
         } catch (Exception e) {
             throw new Error(e);
         }
-        if ((s & (s-1)) != 0)
-            throw new Error("data type scale not a power of two");
 
-        submitters = new ThreadLocal<Submitter>();
-        ForkJoinWorkerThreadFactory fac = defaultForkJoinWorkerThreadFactory =
+        defaultForkJoinWorkerThreadFactory =
             new DefaultForkJoinWorkerThreadFactory();
         modifyThreadPermission = new RuntimePermission("modifyThread");
 
-        /*
-         * Establish common pool parameters.  For extra caution,
-         * computations to set up common pool state are here; the
-         * constructor just assigns these values to fields.
-         */
+        common = java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged
+            (new java.security.PrivilegedAction<ForkJoinPool>() {
+                public ForkJoinPool run() { return makeCommonPool(); }});
+        int par = common.config; // report 1 even if threads disabled
+        commonParallelism = par > 0 ? par : 1;
+    }
 
-        int par = 0;
-        Thread.UncaughtExceptionHandler handler = null;
-        try {  // TBD: limit or report ignored exceptions?
+    /**
+     * Creates and returns the common pool, respecting user settings
+     * specified via system properties.
+     */
+    private static ForkJoinPool makeCommonPool() {
+        int parallelism = -1;
+        ForkJoinWorkerThreadFactory factory
+            = defaultForkJoinWorkerThreadFactory;
+        UncaughtExceptionHandler handler = null;
+        try {  // ignore exceptions in accesing/parsing properties
             String pp = System.getProperty
                 ("java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool.common.parallelism");
+            String fp = System.getProperty
+                ("java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool.common.threadFactory");
             String hp = System.getProperty
                 ("java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool.common.exceptionHandler");
-            String fp = System.getProperty
-                ("java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool.common.threadFactory");
+            if (pp != null)
+                parallelism = Integer.parseInt(pp);
             if (fp != null)
-                fac = ((ForkJoinWorkerThreadFactory)ClassLoader.
-                       getSystemClassLoader().loadClass(fp).newInstance());
+                factory = ((ForkJoinWorkerThreadFactory)ClassLoader.
+                           getSystemClassLoader().loadClass(fp).newInstance());
             if (hp != null)
-                handler = ((Thread.UncaughtExceptionHandler)ClassLoader.
+                handler = ((UncaughtExceptionHandler)ClassLoader.
                            getSystemClassLoader().loadClass(hp).newInstance());
-            if (pp != null)
-                par = Integer.parseInt(pp);
         } catch (Exception ignore) {
         }
 
-        if (par <= 0)
-            par = Runtime.getRuntime().availableProcessors();
-        if (par > MAX_CAP)
-            par = MAX_CAP;
-        commonPoolParallelism = par;
-        long np = (long)(-par); // precompute initial ctl value
-        long ct = ((np << AC_SHIFT) & AC_MASK) | ((np << TC_SHIFT) & TC_MASK);
-
-        commonPool = new ForkJoinPool(par, ct, fac, handler);
+        if (parallelism < 0)
+            parallelism = Runtime.getRuntime().availableProcessors();
+        if (parallelism > MAX_CAP)
+            parallelism = MAX_CAP;
+        return new ForkJoinPool(parallelism, factory, handler, false,
+                                "ForkJoinPool.commonPool-worker-");
     }
 
 }
--- a/src/share/classes/java/util/concurrent/ForkJoinTask.java	Fri Mar 01 14:12:59 2013 -0800
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/util/concurrent/ForkJoinTask.java	Sat Mar 02 08:54:37 2013 +0000
@@ -464,7 +464,7 @@
     }
 
     /**
-     * Records exception and possibly propagates
+     * Records exception and possibly propagates.
      *
      * @return status on exit
      */
@@ -497,7 +497,7 @@
     }
 
     /**
-     * Removes exception node and clears status
+     * Removes exception node and clears status.
      */
     private void clearExceptionalCompletion() {
         int h = System.identityHashCode(this);
@@ -635,7 +635,7 @@
                 throw (Error)ex;
             if (ex instanceof RuntimeException)
                 throw (RuntimeException)ex;
-            throw uncheckedThrowable(ex, RuntimeException.class);
+            ForkJoinTask.<RuntimeException>uncheckedThrow(ex);
         }
     }
 
@@ -645,8 +645,9 @@
      * unchecked exceptions
      */
     @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") static <T extends Throwable>
-        T uncheckedThrowable(final Throwable t, final Class<T> c) {
-        return (T)t; // rely on vacuous cast
+        void uncheckedThrow(Throwable t) throws T {
+        if (t != null)
+            throw (T)t; // rely on vacuous cast
     }
 
     /**
@@ -681,7 +682,7 @@
         if ((t = Thread.currentThread()) instanceof ForkJoinWorkerThread)
             ((ForkJoinWorkerThread)t).workQueue.push(this);
         else
-            ForkJoinPool.commonPool.externalPush(this);
+            ForkJoinPool.common.externalPush(this);
         return this;
     }
 
@@ -857,7 +858,7 @@
      * <p>This method is designed to be invoked by <em>other</em>
      * tasks. To terminate the current task, you can just return or
      * throw an unchecked exception from its computation method, or
-     * invoke {@link #completeExceptionally}.
+     * invoke {@link #completeExceptionally(Throwable)}.
      *
      * @param mayInterruptIfRunning this value has no effect in the
      * default implementation because interrupts are not used to
@@ -1007,8 +1008,9 @@
         if (Thread.interrupted())
             throw new InterruptedException();
         // Messy in part because we measure in nanosecs, but wait in millisecs
-        int s; long ns, ms;
-        if ((s = status) >= 0 && (ns = unit.toNanos(timeout)) > 0L) {
+        int s; long ms;
+        long ns = unit.toNanos(timeout);
+        if ((s = status) >= 0 && ns > 0L) {
             long deadline = System.nanoTime() + ns;
             ForkJoinPool p = null;
             ForkJoinPool.WorkQueue w = null;
@@ -1104,7 +1106,7 @@
             wt.pool.helpQuiescePool(wt.workQueue);
         }
         else
-            ForkJoinPool.externalHelpQuiescePool();
+            ForkJoinPool.quiesceCommonPool();
     }
 
     /**
@@ -1391,6 +1393,24 @@
     }
 
     /**
+     * Adaptor for Runnables in which failure forces worker exception
+     */
+    static final class RunnableExecuteAction extends ForkJoinTask<Void> {
+        final Runnable runnable;
+        RunnableExecuteAction(Runnable runnable) {
+            if (runnable == null) throw new NullPointerException();
+            this.runnable = runnable;
+        }
+        public final Void getRawResult() { return null; }
+        public final void setRawResult(Void v) { }
+        public final boolean exec() { runnable.run(); return true; }
+        void internalPropagateException(Throwable ex) {
+            rethrow(ex); // rethrow outside exec() catches.
+        }
+        private static final long serialVersionUID = 5232453952276885070L;
+    }
+
+    /**
      * Adaptor for Callables
      */
     static final class AdaptedCallable<T> extends ForkJoinTask<T>
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/test/java/util/concurrent/forkjoin/ThreadLessCommon.java	Sat Mar 02 08:54:37 2013 +0000
@@ -0,0 +1,135 @@
+/*
+ * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+ *
+ * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+ * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ *
+ * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+ * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+ * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
+ * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+ * accompanied this code).
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+ * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+ * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+ *
+ * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
+ * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
+ * questions.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * This file is available under and governed by the GNU General Public
+ * License version 2 only, as published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ * However, the following notice accompanied the original version of this
+ * file:
+ *
+ * Written by Doug Lea with assistance from members of JCP JSR-166
+ * Expert Group and released to the public domain, as explained at
+ * http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/
+ */
+
+/*
+ * @test
+ * @bug 8008378
+ * @summary Basic checks for parallelism 0, and null returning factory
+ * @run main/othervm -Djava.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool.common.parallelism=0 ThreadLessCommon
+ * @run main/othervm -Djava.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool.common.threadFactory=ThreadLessCommon$NullForkJoinWorkerThreadFactory ThreadLessCommon
+ * @author Chris Hegarty
+ */
+
+import java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool;
+import java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool.ForkJoinWorkerThreadFactory;
+import java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinWorkerThread;
+import java.util.concurrent.RecursiveTask;
+
+public class ThreadLessCommon {
+
+    static final int THRESHOLD = 1000;
+    static final boolean debug = true;
+
+    private static void realMain(String[] args) throws Throwable {
+        if (debug) {
+            String pp = System.getProperty(
+                    "java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool.common.parallelism");
+            System.out.println(
+                    "java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool.common.parallelism:" + pp);
+            String tf = System.getProperty(
+                    "java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool.common.threadFactory");
+            System.out.println(
+                    "java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool.common.threadFactory:" + tf);
+        }
+
+        long from = 0, to = 50000;
+        RecursiveTask<Long> task = new SumTask(from, to, Thread.currentThread());
+        long sum = task.invoke();
+        System.out.printf("%nSum: from [%d] to [%d] = [%d]%n", from, to, sum);
+
+        task.fork();
+        sum = task.join();
+        System.out.printf("%nSum: from [%d] to [%d] = [%d]%n", from, to, sum);
+
+        sum = ForkJoinPool.commonPool().invoke(task.fork());
+        System.out.printf("%nSum: from [%d] to [%d] = [%d]%n", from, to, sum);
+    }
+
+    static class SumTask extends RecursiveTask<Long> {
+        final Thread expectedThread;
+        final long from;
+        final long to;
+        SumTask(long from, long to, Thread thread) {
+            this.from = from; this.to = to; expectedThread = thread;
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        public Long compute() {
+            check(Thread.currentThread() == expectedThread,
+                  "Expected " + expectedThread + ", got " + Thread.currentThread());
+            long range = to - from;
+            if (range < THRESHOLD) {
+                long acc = 0;
+                for (long i = from; i <= to; i++)
+                    acc = acc + i;
+                return acc;
+            } else {
+                long half = from + range / 2;
+                SumTask t1 = new SumTask(from, half ,expectedThread);
+                SumTask t2 = new SumTask(half+1, to ,expectedThread);
+                if (half % 2 == 0) {
+                    t1.fork();
+                    return t2.compute() + t1.join();
+                } else {
+                    invokeAll(t1, t2);
+                    try { return t1.get() + t2.get(); }
+                    catch (Exception x) { unexpected(x); return 0L;}
+                }
+            }
+        }
+    }
+
+    public static class NullForkJoinWorkerThreadFactory
+        implements ForkJoinWorkerThreadFactory
+    {
+        @Override
+        public ForkJoinWorkerThread newThread(ForkJoinPool pool) {
+            return null;
+        }
+    }
+
+    //--------------------- Infrastructure ---------------------------
+    static volatile int passed = 0, failed = 0;
+    static void pass() {passed++;}
+    static void fail() {failed++; /*Thread.dumpStack();*/}
+    static void fail(String msg) {System.out.println(msg); fail();}
+    static void unexpected(Throwable t) {failed++; t.printStackTrace();}
+    static void check(boolean cond, String msg) {if (cond) pass(); else fail(msg);}
+    static void equal(Object x, Object y) {
+        if (x == null ? y == null : x.equals(y)) pass();
+        else fail(x + " not equal to " + y);}
+    public static void main(String[] args) throws Throwable {
+        try {realMain(args);} catch (Throwable t) {unexpected(t);}
+        System.out.printf("%nPassed = %d, failed = %d%n%n", passed, failed);
+        if (failed > 0) throw new AssertionError("Some tests failed");}
+}
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/test/java/util/concurrent/forkjoin/ThrowingRunnable.java	Sat Mar 02 08:54:37 2013 +0000
@@ -0,0 +1,85 @@
+/*
+ * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+ *
+ * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+ * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ *
+ * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+ * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+ * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
+ * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+ * accompanied this code).
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+ * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+ * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+ *
+ * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
+ * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
+ * questions.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * This file is available under and governed by the GNU General Public
+ * License version 2 only, as published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ * However, the following notice accompanied the original version of this
+ * file:
+ *
+ * Written by Doug Lea with assistance from members of JCP JSR-166
+ * Expert Group and released to the public domain, as explained at
+ * http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/
+ */
+
+/*
+ * @test
+ * @bug 8008378
+ * @run main/othervm -Djava.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool.common.exceptionHandler=ThrowingRunnable
+ *                   ThrowingRunnable
+ * @summary FJP.execute(Runnable), uncaught exception should cause worker thread
+ *          to die.
+ * @author Chris Hegarty
+ */
+
+import java.lang.Thread.UncaughtExceptionHandler;
+import java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool;
+import java.util.concurrent.Phaser;
+import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
+
+public class ThrowingRunnable implements Runnable, UncaughtExceptionHandler {
+
+    static final Phaser phaser = new Phaser(2);
+
+    private static void realMain(String[] args) throws Throwable {
+        ThrowingRunnable r = new ThrowingRunnable();
+        ForkJoinPool.commonPool().execute(r);
+        phaser.awaitAdvanceInterruptibly(phaser.arrive(), 10, TimeUnit.SECONDS);
+        pass();
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void run() {
+        throw new RuntimeException("This is an exception.");
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void uncaughtException(Thread t, Throwable e) {
+        pass();
+        phaser.arrive();
+    }
+
+    //--------------------- Infrastructure ---------------------------
+    static volatile int passed = 0, failed = 0;
+    static void pass() {passed++;}
+    static void fail() {failed++; /*Thread.dumpStack();*/}
+    static void fail(String msg) {System.out.println(msg); fail();}
+    static void unexpected(Throwable t) {failed++; t.printStackTrace();}
+    static void check(boolean cond, String msg) {if (cond) pass(); else fail(msg);}
+    static void equal(Object x, Object y) {
+        if (x == null ? y == null : x.equals(y)) pass();
+        else fail(x + " not equal to " + y);}
+    public static void main(String[] args) throws Throwable {
+        try {realMain(args);} catch (Throwable t) {unexpected(t);}
+        System.out.printf("%nPassed = %d, failed = %d%n%n", passed, failed);
+        if (failed > 0) throw new AssertionError("Some tests failed");}
+}