view src/share/vm/classfile/javaClasses.cpp @ 12121:b1c62e595c4a

8166364: fatal error: acquiring lock DirtyCardQ_CBL_mon/16 out of order with lock Module_lock/6 -- possible deadlock Summary: Set the mirror's module field outside of the module lock. Reviewed-by: dsamersoff, dholmes, rehn
author hseigel
date Mon, 10 Oct 2016 08:34:32 -0400
parents b48a9e9bfd73
children 48fce55afe71
line wrap: on
line source
/*
 * Copyright (c) 1997, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
 *
 * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
 * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
 * published by the Free Software Foundation.
 *
 * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
 * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
 * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
 * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
 * accompanied this code).
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
 * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
 * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
 *
 * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
 * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
 * questions.
 *
 */

#include "precompiled.hpp"
#include "classfile/altHashing.hpp"
#include "classfile/classLoaderData.inline.hpp"
#include "classfile/javaClasses.inline.hpp"
#include "classfile/moduleEntry.hpp"
#include "classfile/stringTable.hpp"
#include "classfile/vmSymbols.hpp"
#include "code/debugInfo.hpp"
#include "code/dependencyContext.hpp"
#include "code/pcDesc.hpp"
#include "interpreter/interpreter.hpp"
#include "memory/oopFactory.hpp"
#include "memory/resourceArea.hpp"
#include "memory/universe.inline.hpp"
#include "oops/fieldStreams.hpp"
#include "oops/instanceKlass.hpp"
#include "oops/instanceMirrorKlass.hpp"
#include "oops/klass.hpp"
#include "oops/method.hpp"
#include "oops/objArrayOop.inline.hpp"
#include "oops/oop.inline.hpp"
#include "oops/symbol.hpp"
#include "oops/typeArrayOop.hpp"
#include "runtime/fieldDescriptor.hpp"
#include "runtime/handles.inline.hpp"
#include "runtime/interfaceSupport.hpp"
#include "runtime/java.hpp"
#include "runtime/javaCalls.hpp"
#include "runtime/safepoint.hpp"
#include "runtime/thread.inline.hpp"
#include "runtime/vframe.hpp"
#include "utilities/preserveException.hpp"

#if INCLUDE_JVMCI
#include "jvmci/jvmciJavaClasses.hpp"
#endif

#define INJECTED_FIELD_COMPUTE_OFFSET(klass, name, signature, may_be_java)    \
  klass::_##name##_offset = JavaClasses::compute_injected_offset(JavaClasses::klass##_##name##_enum);

#define DECLARE_INJECTED_FIELD(klass, name, signature, may_be_java)           \
  { SystemDictionary::WK_KLASS_ENUM_NAME(klass), vmSymbols::VM_SYMBOL_ENUM_NAME(name##_name), vmSymbols::VM_SYMBOL_ENUM_NAME(signature), may_be_java },

InjectedField JavaClasses::_injected_fields[] = {
  ALL_INJECTED_FIELDS(DECLARE_INJECTED_FIELD)
};

int JavaClasses::compute_injected_offset(InjectedFieldID id) {
  return _injected_fields[id].compute_offset();
}


InjectedField* JavaClasses::get_injected(Symbol* class_name, int* field_count) {
  *field_count = 0;

  vmSymbols::SID sid = vmSymbols::find_sid(class_name);
  if (sid == vmSymbols::NO_SID) {
    // Only well known classes can inject fields
    return NULL;
  }

  int count = 0;
  int start = -1;

#define LOOKUP_INJECTED_FIELD(klass, name, signature, may_be_java) \
  if (sid == vmSymbols::VM_SYMBOL_ENUM_NAME(klass)) {              \
    count++;                                                       \
    if (start == -1) start = klass##_##name##_enum;                \
  }
  ALL_INJECTED_FIELDS(LOOKUP_INJECTED_FIELD);
#undef LOOKUP_INJECTED_FIELD

  if (start != -1) {
    *field_count = count;
    return _injected_fields + start;
  }
  return NULL;
}


static bool find_field(InstanceKlass* ik,
                       Symbol* name_symbol, Symbol* signature_symbol,
                       fieldDescriptor* fd,
                       bool is_static = false, bool allow_super = false) {
  if (allow_super || is_static) {
    return ik->find_field(name_symbol, signature_symbol, is_static, fd) != NULL;
  } else {
    return ik->find_local_field(name_symbol, signature_symbol, fd);
  }
}

// Helpful routine for computing field offsets at run time rather than hardcoding them
static void
compute_offset(int &dest_offset,
               Klass* klass, Symbol* name_symbol, Symbol* signature_symbol,
               bool is_static = false, bool allow_super = false) {
  fieldDescriptor fd;
  InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(klass);
  if (!find_field(ik, name_symbol, signature_symbol, &fd, is_static, allow_super)) {
    ResourceMark rm;
    tty->print_cr("Invalid layout of %s at %s", ik->external_name(), name_symbol->as_C_string());
#ifndef PRODUCT
    ik->print();
    tty->print_cr("all fields:");
    for (AllFieldStream fs(ik); !fs.done(); fs.next()) {
      tty->print_cr("  name: %s, sig: %s, flags: %08x", fs.name()->as_C_string(), fs.signature()->as_C_string(), fs.access_flags().as_int());
    }
#endif //PRODUCT
    vm_exit_during_initialization("Invalid layout of preloaded class: use -Xlog:class+load=info to see the origin of the problem class");
  }
  dest_offset = fd.offset();
}

// Same as above but for "optional" offsets that might not be present in certain JDK versions
static void
compute_optional_offset(int& dest_offset,
                        Klass* klass, Symbol* name_symbol, Symbol* signature_symbol,
                        bool allow_super = false) {
  fieldDescriptor fd;
  InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(klass);
  if (find_field(ik, name_symbol, signature_symbol, &fd, allow_super)) {
    dest_offset = fd.offset();
  }
}


int java_lang_String::value_offset  = 0;
int java_lang_String::hash_offset   = 0;
int java_lang_String::coder_offset  = 0;

bool java_lang_String::initialized  = false;

bool java_lang_String::is_instance(oop obj) {
  return is_instance_inlined(obj);
}

void java_lang_String::compute_offsets() {
  assert(!initialized, "offsets should be initialized only once");

  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::String_klass();
  compute_offset(value_offset,           k, vmSymbols::value_name(),  vmSymbols::byte_array_signature());
  compute_optional_offset(hash_offset,   k, vmSymbols::hash_name(),   vmSymbols::int_signature());
  compute_optional_offset(coder_offset,  k, vmSymbols::coder_name(),  vmSymbols::byte_signature());

  initialized = true;
}

class CompactStringsFixup : public FieldClosure {
private:
  bool _value;

public:
  CompactStringsFixup(bool value) : _value(value) {}

  void do_field(fieldDescriptor* fd) {
    if (fd->name() == vmSymbols::compact_strings_name()) {
      oop mirror = fd->field_holder()->java_mirror();
      assert(fd->field_holder() == SystemDictionary::String_klass(), "Should be String");
      assert(mirror != NULL, "String must have mirror already");
      mirror->bool_field_put(fd->offset(), _value);
    }
  }
};

void java_lang_String::set_compact_strings(bool value) {
  CompactStringsFixup fix(value);
  InstanceKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::String_klass())->do_local_static_fields(&fix);
}

Handle java_lang_String::basic_create(int length, bool is_latin1, TRAPS) {
  assert(initialized, "Must be initialized");
  assert(CompactStrings || !is_latin1, "Must be UTF16 without CompactStrings");

  // Create the String object first, so there's a chance that the String
  // and the char array it points to end up in the same cache line.
  oop obj;
  obj = SystemDictionary::String_klass()->allocate_instance(CHECK_NH);

  // Create the char array.  The String object must be handlized here
  // because GC can happen as a result of the allocation attempt.
  Handle h_obj(THREAD, obj);
  int arr_length = is_latin1 ? length : length << 1; // 2 bytes per UTF16.
  typeArrayOop buffer = oopFactory::new_byteArray(arr_length, CHECK_NH);;

  // Point the String at the char array
  obj = h_obj();
  set_value(obj, buffer);
  // No need to zero the offset, allocation zero'ed the entire String object
  set_coder(obj, is_latin1 ? CODER_LATIN1 : CODER_UTF16);
  return h_obj;
}

Handle java_lang_String::create_from_unicode(jchar* unicode, int length, TRAPS) {
  bool is_latin1 = CompactStrings && UNICODE::is_latin1(unicode, length);
  Handle h_obj = basic_create(length, is_latin1, CHECK_NH);
  typeArrayOop buffer = value(h_obj());
  assert(TypeArrayKlass::cast(buffer->klass())->element_type() == T_BYTE, "only byte[]");
  if (is_latin1) {
    for (int index = 0; index < length; index++) {
      buffer->byte_at_put(index, (jbyte)unicode[index]);
    }
  } else {
    for (int index = 0; index < length; index++) {
      buffer->char_at_put(index, unicode[index]);
    }
  }

#ifdef ASSERT
  {
    ResourceMark rm;
    char* expected = UNICODE::as_utf8(unicode, length);
    char* actual = as_utf8_string(h_obj());
    if (strcmp(expected, actual) != 0) {
      tty->print_cr("Unicode conversion failure: %s --> %s", expected, actual);
      ShouldNotReachHere();
    }
  }
#endif

  return h_obj;
}

oop java_lang_String::create_oop_from_unicode(jchar* unicode, int length, TRAPS) {
  Handle h_obj = create_from_unicode(unicode, length, CHECK_0);
  return h_obj();
}

Handle java_lang_String::create_from_str(const char* utf8_str, TRAPS) {
  if (utf8_str == NULL) {
    return Handle();
  }
  bool has_multibyte, is_latin1;
  int length = UTF8::unicode_length(utf8_str, is_latin1, has_multibyte);
  if (!CompactStrings) {
    has_multibyte = true;
    is_latin1 = false;
  }

  Handle h_obj = basic_create(length, is_latin1, CHECK_NH);
  if (length > 0) {
    if (!has_multibyte) {
      strncpy((char*)value(h_obj())->byte_at_addr(0), utf8_str, length);
    } else if (is_latin1) {
      UTF8::convert_to_unicode(utf8_str, value(h_obj())->byte_at_addr(0), length);
    } else {
      UTF8::convert_to_unicode(utf8_str, value(h_obj())->char_at_addr(0), length);
    }
  }

#ifdef ASSERT
  // This check is too strict because the input string is not necessarily valid UTF8.
  // For example, it may be created with arbitrary content via jni_NewStringUTF.
  /*
  {
    ResourceMark rm;
    const char* expected = utf8_str;
    char* actual = as_utf8_string(h_obj());
    if (strcmp(expected, actual) != 0) {
      tty->print_cr("String conversion failure: %s --> %s", expected, actual);
      ShouldNotReachHere();
    }
  }
  */
#endif

  return h_obj;
}

oop java_lang_String::create_oop_from_str(const char* utf8_str, TRAPS) {
  Handle h_obj = create_from_str(utf8_str, CHECK_0);
  return h_obj();
}

Handle java_lang_String::create_from_symbol(Symbol* symbol, TRAPS) {
  const char* utf8_str = (char*)symbol->bytes();
  int utf8_len = symbol->utf8_length();

  bool has_multibyte, is_latin1;
  int length = UTF8::unicode_length(utf8_str, utf8_len, is_latin1, has_multibyte);
  if (!CompactStrings) {
    has_multibyte = true;
    is_latin1 = false;
  }

  Handle h_obj = basic_create(length, is_latin1, CHECK_NH);
  if (length > 0) {
    if (!has_multibyte) {
      strncpy((char*)value(h_obj())->byte_at_addr(0), utf8_str, length);
    } else if (is_latin1) {
      UTF8::convert_to_unicode(utf8_str, value(h_obj())->byte_at_addr(0), length);
    } else {
      UTF8::convert_to_unicode(utf8_str, value(h_obj())->char_at_addr(0), length);
    }
  }

#ifdef ASSERT
  {
    ResourceMark rm;
    const char* expected = symbol->as_utf8();
    char* actual = as_utf8_string(h_obj());
    if (strncmp(expected, actual, utf8_len) != 0) {
      tty->print_cr("Symbol conversion failure: %s --> %s", expected, actual);
      ShouldNotReachHere();
    }
  }
#endif

  return h_obj;
}

// Converts a C string to a Java String based on current encoding
Handle java_lang_String::create_from_platform_dependent_str(const char* str, TRAPS) {
  assert(str != NULL, "bad arguments");

  typedef jstring (*to_java_string_fn_t)(JNIEnv*, const char *);
  static to_java_string_fn_t _to_java_string_fn = NULL;

  if (_to_java_string_fn == NULL) {
    void *lib_handle = os::native_java_library();
    _to_java_string_fn = CAST_TO_FN_PTR(to_java_string_fn_t, os::dll_lookup(lib_handle, "NewStringPlatform"));
    if (_to_java_string_fn == NULL) {
      fatal("NewStringPlatform missing");
    }
  }

  jstring js = NULL;
  { JavaThread* thread = (JavaThread*)THREAD;
    assert(thread->is_Java_thread(), "must be java thread");
    HandleMark hm(thread);
    ThreadToNativeFromVM ttn(thread);
    js = (_to_java_string_fn)(thread->jni_environment(), str);
  }
  return Handle(THREAD, JNIHandles::resolve(js));
}

// Converts a Java String to a native C string that can be used for
// native OS calls.
char* java_lang_String::as_platform_dependent_str(Handle java_string, TRAPS) {
  typedef char* (*to_platform_string_fn_t)(JNIEnv*, jstring, bool*);
  static to_platform_string_fn_t _to_platform_string_fn = NULL;

  if (_to_platform_string_fn == NULL) {
    void *lib_handle = os::native_java_library();
    _to_platform_string_fn = CAST_TO_FN_PTR(to_platform_string_fn_t, os::dll_lookup(lib_handle, "GetStringPlatformChars"));
    if (_to_platform_string_fn == NULL) {
      fatal("GetStringPlatformChars missing");
    }
  }

  char *native_platform_string;
  { JavaThread* thread = (JavaThread*)THREAD;
    assert(thread->is_Java_thread(), "must be java thread");
    JNIEnv *env = thread->jni_environment();
    jstring js = (jstring) JNIHandles::make_local(env, java_string());
    bool is_copy;
    HandleMark hm(thread);
    ThreadToNativeFromVM ttn(thread);
    native_platform_string = (_to_platform_string_fn)(env, js, &is_copy);
    assert(is_copy == JNI_TRUE, "is_copy value changed");
    JNIHandles::destroy_local(js);
  }
  return native_platform_string;
}

Handle java_lang_String::char_converter(Handle java_string, jchar from_char, jchar to_char, TRAPS) {
  oop          obj    = java_string();
  // Typical usage is to convert all '/' to '.' in string.
  typeArrayOop value  = java_lang_String::value(obj);
  int          length = java_lang_String::length(obj);
  bool      is_latin1 = java_lang_String::is_latin1(obj);

  // First check if any from_char exist
  int index; // Declared outside, used later
  for (index = 0; index < length; index++) {
    jchar c = !is_latin1 ? value->char_at(index) :
                  ((jchar) value->byte_at(index)) & 0xff;
    if (c == from_char) {
      break;
    }
  }
  if (index == length) {
    // No from_char, so do not copy.
    return java_string;
  }

  // Check if result string will be latin1
  bool to_is_latin1 = false;

  // Replacement char must be latin1
  if (CompactStrings && UNICODE::is_latin1(to_char)) {
    if (is_latin1) {
      // Source string is latin1 as well
      to_is_latin1 = true;
    } else if (!UNICODE::is_latin1(from_char)) {
      // We are replacing an UTF16 char. Scan string to
      // check if result can be latin1 encoded.
      to_is_latin1 = true;
      for (index = 0; index < length; index++) {
        jchar c = value->char_at(index);
        if (c != from_char && !UNICODE::is_latin1(c)) {
          to_is_latin1 = false;
          break;
        }
      }
    }
  }

  // Create new UNICODE (or byte) buffer. Must handlize value because GC
  // may happen during String and char array creation.
  typeArrayHandle h_value(THREAD, value);
  Handle string = basic_create(length, to_is_latin1, CHECK_NH);
  typeArrayOop from_buffer = h_value();
  typeArrayOop to_buffer = java_lang_String::value(string());

  // Copy contents
  for (index = 0; index < length; index++) {
    jchar c = (!is_latin1) ? from_buffer->char_at(index) :
                    ((jchar) from_buffer->byte_at(index)) & 0xff;
    if (c == from_char) {
      c = to_char;
    }
    if (!to_is_latin1) {
      to_buffer->char_at_put(index, c);
    } else {
      to_buffer->byte_at_put(index, (jbyte) c);
    }
  }
  return string;
}

jchar* java_lang_String::as_unicode_string(oop java_string, int& length, TRAPS) {
  typeArrayOop value  = java_lang_String::value(java_string);
               length = java_lang_String::length(java_string);
  bool      is_latin1 = java_lang_String::is_latin1(java_string);

  jchar* result = NEW_RESOURCE_ARRAY_RETURN_NULL(jchar, length);
  if (result != NULL) {
    if (!is_latin1) {
      for (int index = 0; index < length; index++) {
        result[index] = value->char_at(index);
      }
    } else {
      for (int index = 0; index < length; index++) {
        result[index] = ((jchar) value->byte_at(index)) & 0xff;
      }
    }
  } else {
    THROW_MSG_0(vmSymbols::java_lang_OutOfMemoryError(), "could not allocate Unicode string");
  }
  return result;
}

unsigned int java_lang_String::hash_code(oop java_string) {
  int          length = java_lang_String::length(java_string);
  // Zero length string will hash to zero with String.hashCode() function.
  if (length == 0) return 0;

  typeArrayOop value  = java_lang_String::value(java_string);
  bool      is_latin1 = java_lang_String::is_latin1(java_string);

  if (is_latin1) {
    return java_lang_String::hash_code(value->byte_at_addr(0), length);
  } else {
    return java_lang_String::hash_code(value->char_at_addr(0), length);
  }
}

char* java_lang_String::as_quoted_ascii(oop java_string) {
  typeArrayOop value  = java_lang_String::value(java_string);
  int          length = java_lang_String::length(java_string);
  bool      is_latin1 = java_lang_String::is_latin1(java_string);

  if (length == 0) return NULL;

  char* result;
  int result_length;
  if (!is_latin1) {
    jchar* base = value->char_at_addr(0);
    result_length = UNICODE::quoted_ascii_length(base, length) + 1;
    result = NEW_RESOURCE_ARRAY(char, result_length);
    UNICODE::as_quoted_ascii(base, length, result, result_length);
  } else {
    jbyte* base = value->byte_at_addr(0);
    result_length = UNICODE::quoted_ascii_length(base, length) + 1;
    result = NEW_RESOURCE_ARRAY(char, result_length);
    UNICODE::as_quoted_ascii(base, length, result, result_length);
  }
  assert(result_length >= length + 1, "must not be shorter");
  assert(result_length == (int)strlen(result) + 1, "must match");
  return result;
}

Symbol* java_lang_String::as_symbol(Handle java_string, TRAPS) {
  oop          obj    = java_string();
  typeArrayOop value  = java_lang_String::value(obj);
  int          length = java_lang_String::length(obj);
  bool      is_latin1 = java_lang_String::is_latin1(obj);
  if (!is_latin1) {
    jchar* base = (length == 0) ? NULL : value->char_at_addr(0);
    Symbol* sym = SymbolTable::lookup_unicode(base, length, THREAD);
    return sym;
  } else {
    ResourceMark rm;
    jbyte* position = (length == 0) ? NULL : value->byte_at_addr(0);
    const char* base = UNICODE::as_utf8(position, length);
    Symbol* sym = SymbolTable::lookup(base, length, THREAD);
    return sym;
  }
}

Symbol* java_lang_String::as_symbol_or_null(oop java_string) {
  typeArrayOop value  = java_lang_String::value(java_string);
  int          length = java_lang_String::length(java_string);
  bool      is_latin1 = java_lang_String::is_latin1(java_string);
  if (!is_latin1) {
    jchar* base = (length == 0) ? NULL : value->char_at_addr(0);
    return SymbolTable::probe_unicode(base, length);
  } else {
    ResourceMark rm;
    jbyte* position = (length == 0) ? NULL : value->byte_at_addr(0);
    const char* base = UNICODE::as_utf8(position, length);
    return SymbolTable::probe(base, length);
  }
}

int java_lang_String::utf8_length(oop java_string) {
  typeArrayOop value  = java_lang_String::value(java_string);
  int          length = java_lang_String::length(java_string);
  bool      is_latin1 = java_lang_String::is_latin1(java_string);
  if (length == 0) {
    return 0;
  }
  if (!is_latin1) {
    return UNICODE::utf8_length(value->char_at_addr(0), length);
  } else {
    return UNICODE::utf8_length(value->byte_at_addr(0), length);
  }
}

char* java_lang_String::as_utf8_string(oop java_string) {
  typeArrayOop value  = java_lang_String::value(java_string);
  int          length = java_lang_String::length(java_string);
  bool      is_latin1 = java_lang_String::is_latin1(java_string);
  if (!is_latin1) {
    jchar* position = (length == 0) ? NULL : value->char_at_addr(0);
    return UNICODE::as_utf8(position, length);
  } else {
    jbyte* position = (length == 0) ? NULL : value->byte_at_addr(0);
    return UNICODE::as_utf8(position, length);
  }
}

char* java_lang_String::as_utf8_string(oop java_string, char* buf, int buflen) {
  typeArrayOop value  = java_lang_String::value(java_string);
  int          length = java_lang_String::length(java_string);
  bool      is_latin1 = java_lang_String::is_latin1(java_string);
  if (!is_latin1) {
    jchar* position = (length == 0) ? NULL : value->char_at_addr(0);
    return UNICODE::as_utf8(position, length, buf, buflen);
  } else {
    jbyte* position = (length == 0) ? NULL : value->byte_at_addr(0);
    return UNICODE::as_utf8(position, length, buf, buflen);
  }
}

char* java_lang_String::as_utf8_string(oop java_string, int start, int len) {
  typeArrayOop value  = java_lang_String::value(java_string);
  int          length = java_lang_String::length(java_string);
  assert(start + len <= length, "just checking");
  bool      is_latin1 = java_lang_String::is_latin1(java_string);
  if (!is_latin1) {
    jchar* position = value->char_at_addr(start);
    return UNICODE::as_utf8(position, len);
  } else {
    jbyte* position = value->byte_at_addr(start);
    return UNICODE::as_utf8(position, len);
  }
}

char* java_lang_String::as_utf8_string(oop java_string, int start, int len, char* buf, int buflen) {
  typeArrayOop value  = java_lang_String::value(java_string);
  int          length = java_lang_String::length(java_string);
  assert(start + len <= length, "just checking");
  bool      is_latin1 = java_lang_String::is_latin1(java_string);
  if (!is_latin1) {
    jchar* position = value->char_at_addr(start);
    return UNICODE::as_utf8(position, len, buf, buflen);
  } else {
    jbyte* position = value->byte_at_addr(start);
    return UNICODE::as_utf8(position, len, buf, buflen);
  }
}

bool java_lang_String::equals(oop java_string, jchar* chars, int len) {
  assert(java_string->klass() == SystemDictionary::String_klass(),
         "must be java_string");
  typeArrayOop value  = java_lang_String::value(java_string);
  int          length = java_lang_String::length(java_string);
  if (length != len) {
    return false;
  }
  bool      is_latin1 = java_lang_String::is_latin1(java_string);
  if (!is_latin1) {
    for (int i = 0; i < len; i++) {
      if (value->char_at(i) != chars[i]) {
        return false;
      }
    }
  } else {
    for (int i = 0; i < len; i++) {
      if ((((jchar) value->byte_at(i)) & 0xff) != chars[i]) {
        return false;
      }
    }
  }
  return true;
}

bool java_lang_String::equals(oop str1, oop str2) {
  assert(str1->klass() == SystemDictionary::String_klass(),
         "must be java String");
  assert(str2->klass() == SystemDictionary::String_klass(),
         "must be java String");
  typeArrayOop value1  = java_lang_String::value(str1);
  int          length1 = java_lang_String::length(str1);
  bool       is_latin1 = java_lang_String::is_latin1(str1);
  typeArrayOop value2  = java_lang_String::value(str2);
  int          length2 = java_lang_String::length(str2);
  bool       is_latin2 = java_lang_String::is_latin1(str2);

  if ((length1 != length2) || (is_latin1 != is_latin2)) {
    // Strings of different size or with different
    // coders are never equal.
    return false;
  }
  int blength1 = value1->length();
  for (int i = 0; i < value1->length(); i++) {
    if (value1->byte_at(i) != value2->byte_at(i)) {
      return false;
    }
  }
  return true;
}

void java_lang_String::print(oop java_string, outputStream* st) {
  assert(java_string->klass() == SystemDictionary::String_klass(), "must be java_string");
  typeArrayOop value  = java_lang_String::value(java_string);

  if (value == NULL) {
    // This can happen if, e.g., printing a String
    // object before its initializer has been called
    st->print("NULL");
    return;
  }

  int length = java_lang_String::length(java_string);
  bool is_latin1 = java_lang_String::is_latin1(java_string);

  st->print("\"");
  for (int index = 0; index < length; index++) {
    st->print("%c", (!is_latin1) ?  value->char_at(index) :
                           ((jchar) value->byte_at(index)) & 0xff );
  }
  st->print("\"");
}


static void initialize_static_field(fieldDescriptor* fd, Handle mirror, TRAPS) {
  assert(mirror.not_null() && fd->is_static(), "just checking");
  if (fd->has_initial_value()) {
    BasicType t = fd->field_type();
    switch (t) {
      case T_BYTE:
        mirror()->byte_field_put(fd->offset(), fd->int_initial_value());
              break;
      case T_BOOLEAN:
        mirror()->bool_field_put(fd->offset(), fd->int_initial_value());
              break;
      case T_CHAR:
        mirror()->char_field_put(fd->offset(), fd->int_initial_value());
              break;
      case T_SHORT:
        mirror()->short_field_put(fd->offset(), fd->int_initial_value());
              break;
      case T_INT:
        mirror()->int_field_put(fd->offset(), fd->int_initial_value());
        break;
      case T_FLOAT:
        mirror()->float_field_put(fd->offset(), fd->float_initial_value());
        break;
      case T_DOUBLE:
        mirror()->double_field_put(fd->offset(), fd->double_initial_value());
        break;
      case T_LONG:
        mirror()->long_field_put(fd->offset(), fd->long_initial_value());
        break;
      case T_OBJECT:
        {
          #ifdef ASSERT
          TempNewSymbol sym = SymbolTable::new_symbol("Ljava/lang/String;", CHECK);
          assert(fd->signature() == sym, "just checking");
          #endif
          oop string = fd->string_initial_value(CHECK);
          mirror()->obj_field_put(fd->offset(), string);
        }
        break;
      default:
        THROW_MSG(vmSymbols::java_lang_ClassFormatError(),
                  "Illegal ConstantValue attribute in class file");
    }
  }
}


void java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror(KlassHandle k, TRAPS) {
  assert(InstanceMirrorKlass::offset_of_static_fields() != 0, "must have been computed already");

  // If the offset was read from the shared archive, it was fixed up already
  if (!k->is_shared()) {
    if (k->is_instance_klass()) {
      // During bootstrap, java.lang.Class wasn't loaded so static field
      // offsets were computed without the size added it.  Go back and
      // update all the static field offsets to included the size.
        for (JavaFieldStream fs(InstanceKlass::cast(k())); !fs.done(); fs.next()) {
        if (fs.access_flags().is_static()) {
          int real_offset = fs.offset() + InstanceMirrorKlass::offset_of_static_fields();
          fs.set_offset(real_offset);
        }
      }
    }
  }
  create_mirror(k, Handle(NULL), Handle(NULL), Handle(NULL), CHECK);
}

void java_lang_Class::initialize_mirror_fields(KlassHandle k,
                                               Handle mirror,
                                               Handle protection_domain,
                                               TRAPS) {
  // Allocate a simple java object for a lock.
  // This needs to be a java object because during class initialization
  // it can be held across a java call.
  typeArrayOop r = oopFactory::new_typeArray(T_INT, 0, CHECK);
  set_init_lock(mirror(), r);

  // Set protection domain also
  set_protection_domain(mirror(), protection_domain());

  // Initialize static fields
  InstanceKlass::cast(k())->do_local_static_fields(&initialize_static_field, mirror, CHECK);
}

// Set the java.lang.reflect.Module module field in the java_lang_Class mirror
void java_lang_Class::set_mirror_module_field(KlassHandle k, Handle mirror, Handle module, TRAPS) {
  if (module.is_null()) {
    // During startup, the module may be NULL only if java.base has not been defined yet.
    // Put the class on the fixup_module_list to patch later when the java.lang.reflect.Module
    // for java.base is known.
    assert(!Universe::is_module_initialized(), "Incorrect java.lang.reflect.Module pre module system initialization");

    bool javabase_was_defined = false;
    {
      MutexLocker m1(Module_lock, THREAD);
      // Keep list of classes needing java.base module fixup
      if (!ModuleEntryTable::javabase_defined()) {
        if (fixup_module_field_list() == NULL) {
          GrowableArray<Klass*>* list =
            new (ResourceObj::C_HEAP, mtModule) GrowableArray<Klass*>(500, true);
          set_fixup_module_field_list(list);
        }
        k->class_loader_data()->inc_keep_alive();
        fixup_module_field_list()->push(k());
      } else {
        javabase_was_defined = true;
      }
    }

    // If java.base was already defined then patch this particular class with java.base.
    if (javabase_was_defined) {
      ModuleEntry *javabase_entry = ModuleEntryTable::javabase_moduleEntry();
      assert(javabase_entry != NULL && javabase_entry->module() != NULL,
             "Setting class module field, java.base should be defined");
      Handle javabase_handle(THREAD, JNIHandles::resolve(javabase_entry->module()));
      set_module(mirror(), javabase_handle());
    }
  } else {
    assert(Universe::is_module_initialized() ||
           (ModuleEntryTable::javabase_defined() &&
            (module() == JNIHandles::resolve(ModuleEntryTable::javabase_moduleEntry()->module()))),
           "Incorrect java.lang.reflect.Module specification while creating mirror");
    set_module(mirror(), module());
  }
}

void java_lang_Class::create_mirror(KlassHandle k, Handle class_loader,
                                    Handle module, Handle protection_domain, TRAPS) {
  assert(k->java_mirror() == NULL, "should only assign mirror once");
  // Use this moment of initialization to cache modifier_flags also,
  // to support Class.getModifiers().  Instance classes recalculate
  // the cached flags after the class file is parsed, but before the
  // class is put into the system dictionary.
  int computed_modifiers = k->compute_modifier_flags(CHECK);
  k->set_modifier_flags(computed_modifiers);
  // Class_klass has to be loaded because it is used to allocate
  // the mirror.
  if (SystemDictionary::Class_klass_loaded()) {
    // Allocate mirror (java.lang.Class instance)
    Handle mirror = InstanceMirrorKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::Class_klass())->allocate_instance(k, CHECK);

    // Setup indirection from mirror->klass
    if (!k.is_null()) {
      java_lang_Class::set_klass(mirror(), k());
    }

    InstanceMirrorKlass* mk = InstanceMirrorKlass::cast(mirror->klass());
    assert(oop_size(mirror()) == mk->instance_size(k), "should have been set");

    java_lang_Class::set_static_oop_field_count(mirror(), mk->compute_static_oop_field_count(mirror()));

    // It might also have a component mirror.  This mirror must already exist.
    if (k->is_array_klass()) {
      Handle comp_mirror;
      if (k->is_typeArray_klass()) {
        BasicType type = TypeArrayKlass::cast(k())->element_type();
        comp_mirror = Universe::java_mirror(type);
      } else {
        assert(k->is_objArray_klass(), "Must be");
        Klass* element_klass = ObjArrayKlass::cast(k())->element_klass();
        assert(element_klass != NULL, "Must have an element klass");
        comp_mirror = element_klass->java_mirror();
      }
      assert(comp_mirror.not_null(), "must have a mirror");

      // Two-way link between the array klass and its component mirror:
      // (array_klass) k -> mirror -> component_mirror -> array_klass -> k
      set_component_mirror(mirror(), comp_mirror());
      set_array_klass(comp_mirror(), k());
    } else {
      assert(k->is_instance_klass(), "Must be");

      initialize_mirror_fields(k, mirror, protection_domain, THREAD);
      if (HAS_PENDING_EXCEPTION) {
        // If any of the fields throws an exception like OOM remove the klass field
        // from the mirror so GC doesn't follow it after the klass has been deallocated.
        // This mirror looks like a primitive type, which logically it is because it
        // it represents no class.
        java_lang_Class::set_klass(mirror(), NULL);
        return;
      }
    }

    // set the classLoader field in the java_lang_Class instance
    assert(class_loader() == k->class_loader(), "should be same");
    set_class_loader(mirror(), class_loader());

    // set the module field in the java_lang_Class instance
    set_mirror_module_field(k, mirror, module, THREAD);

    // Setup indirection from klass->mirror last
    // after any exceptions can happen during allocations.
    if (!k.is_null()) {
      k->set_java_mirror(mirror());
    }
  } else {
    if (fixup_mirror_list() == NULL) {
      GrowableArray<Klass*>* list =
       new (ResourceObj::C_HEAP, mtClass) GrowableArray<Klass*>(40, true);
      set_fixup_mirror_list(list);
    }
    fixup_mirror_list()->push(k());
  }
}

void java_lang_Class::fixup_module_field(KlassHandle k, Handle module) {
  assert(_module_offset != 0, "must have been computed already");
  java_lang_Class::set_module(k->java_mirror(), module());
}

int  java_lang_Class::oop_size(oop java_class) {
  assert(_oop_size_offset != 0, "must be set");
  int size = java_class->int_field(_oop_size_offset);
  assert(size > 0, "Oop size must be greater than zero, not %d", size);
  return size;
}

void java_lang_Class::set_oop_size(oop java_class, int size) {
  assert(_oop_size_offset != 0, "must be set");
  assert(size > 0, "Oop size must be greater than zero, not %d", size);
  java_class->int_field_put(_oop_size_offset, size);
}

int  java_lang_Class::static_oop_field_count(oop java_class) {
  assert(_static_oop_field_count_offset != 0, "must be set");
  return java_class->int_field(_static_oop_field_count_offset);
}
void java_lang_Class::set_static_oop_field_count(oop java_class, int size) {
  assert(_static_oop_field_count_offset != 0, "must be set");
  java_class->int_field_put(_static_oop_field_count_offset, size);
}

oop java_lang_Class::protection_domain(oop java_class) {
  assert(_protection_domain_offset != 0, "must be set");
  return java_class->obj_field(_protection_domain_offset);
}
void java_lang_Class::set_protection_domain(oop java_class, oop pd) {
  assert(_protection_domain_offset != 0, "must be set");
  java_class->obj_field_put(_protection_domain_offset, pd);
}

void java_lang_Class::set_component_mirror(oop java_class, oop comp_mirror) {
  assert(_component_mirror_offset != 0, "must be set");
    java_class->obj_field_put(_component_mirror_offset, comp_mirror);
  }
oop java_lang_Class::component_mirror(oop java_class) {
  assert(_component_mirror_offset != 0, "must be set");
  return java_class->obj_field(_component_mirror_offset);
}

oop java_lang_Class::init_lock(oop java_class) {
  assert(_init_lock_offset != 0, "must be set");
  return java_class->obj_field(_init_lock_offset);
}
void java_lang_Class::set_init_lock(oop java_class, oop init_lock) {
  assert(_init_lock_offset != 0, "must be set");
  java_class->obj_field_put(_init_lock_offset, init_lock);
}

objArrayOop java_lang_Class::signers(oop java_class) {
  assert(_signers_offset != 0, "must be set");
  return (objArrayOop)java_class->obj_field(_signers_offset);
}
void java_lang_Class::set_signers(oop java_class, objArrayOop signers) {
  assert(_signers_offset != 0, "must be set");
  java_class->obj_field_put(_signers_offset, (oop)signers);
}


void java_lang_Class::set_class_loader(oop java_class, oop loader) {
  // jdk7 runs Queens in bootstrapping and jdk8-9 has no coordinated pushes yet.
  if (_class_loader_offset != 0) {
    java_class->obj_field_put(_class_loader_offset, loader);
  }
}

oop java_lang_Class::class_loader(oop java_class) {
  assert(_class_loader_offset != 0, "must be set");
  return java_class->obj_field(_class_loader_offset);
}

oop java_lang_Class::module(oop java_class) {
  assert(_module_offset != 0, "must be set");
  return java_class->obj_field(_module_offset);
}

void java_lang_Class::set_module(oop java_class, oop module) {
  assert(_module_offset != 0, "must be set");
  java_class->obj_field_put(_module_offset, module);
}

oop java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror(const char* basic_type_name, BasicType type, TRAPS) {
  // This should be improved by adding a field at the Java level or by
  // introducing a new VM klass (see comment in ClassFileParser)
  oop java_class = InstanceMirrorKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::Class_klass())->allocate_instance(NULL, CHECK_0);
  if (type != T_VOID) {
    Klass* aklass = Universe::typeArrayKlassObj(type);
    assert(aklass != NULL, "correct bootstrap");
    set_array_klass(java_class, aklass);
  }
#ifdef ASSERT
  InstanceMirrorKlass* mk = InstanceMirrorKlass::cast(SystemDictionary::Class_klass());
  assert(java_lang_Class::static_oop_field_count(java_class) == 0, "should have been zeroed by allocation");
#endif
  return java_class;
}


Klass* java_lang_Class::as_Klass(oop java_class) {
  //%note memory_2
  assert(java_lang_Class::is_instance(java_class), "must be a Class object");
  Klass* k = ((Klass*)java_class->metadata_field(_klass_offset));
  assert(k == NULL || k->is_klass(), "type check");
  return k;
}


void java_lang_Class::set_klass(oop java_class, Klass* klass) {
  assert(java_lang_Class::is_instance(java_class), "must be a Class object");
  java_class->metadata_field_put(_klass_offset, klass);
}


void java_lang_Class::print_signature(oop java_class, outputStream* st) {
  assert(java_lang_Class::is_instance(java_class), "must be a Class object");
  Symbol* name = NULL;
  bool is_instance = false;
  if (is_primitive(java_class)) {
    name = vmSymbols::type_signature(primitive_type(java_class));
  } else {
    Klass* k = as_Klass(java_class);
    is_instance = k->is_instance_klass();
    name = k->name();
  }
  if (name == NULL) {
    st->print("<null>");
    return;
  }
  if (is_instance)  st->print("L");
  st->write((char*) name->base(), (int) name->utf8_length());
  if (is_instance)  st->print(";");
}

Symbol* java_lang_Class::as_signature(oop java_class, bool intern_if_not_found, TRAPS) {
  assert(java_lang_Class::is_instance(java_class), "must be a Class object");
  Symbol* name;
  if (is_primitive(java_class)) {
    name = vmSymbols::type_signature(primitive_type(java_class));
    // Because this can create a new symbol, the caller has to decrement
    // the refcount, so make adjustment here and below for symbols returned
    // that are not created or incremented due to a successful lookup.
    name->increment_refcount();
  } else {
    Klass* k = as_Klass(java_class);
    if (!k->is_instance_klass()) {
      name = k->name();
      name->increment_refcount();
    } else {
      ResourceMark rm;
      const char* sigstr = k->signature_name();
      int         siglen = (int) strlen(sigstr);
      if (!intern_if_not_found) {
        name = SymbolTable::probe(sigstr, siglen);
      } else {
        name = SymbolTable::new_symbol(sigstr, siglen, THREAD);
      }
    }
  }
  return name;
}

// Returns the Java name for this Java mirror (Resource allocated)
// See Klass::external_name().
// For primitive type Java mirrors, its type name is returned.
const char* java_lang_Class::as_external_name(oop java_class) {
  assert(java_lang_Class::is_instance(java_class), "must be a Class object");
  const char* name = NULL;
  if (is_primitive(java_class)) {
    name = type2name(primitive_type(java_class));
  } else {
    name = as_Klass(java_class)->external_name();
  }
  if (name == NULL) {
    name = "<null>";
  }
  return name;
}

Klass* java_lang_Class::array_klass(oop java_class) {
  Klass* k = ((Klass*)java_class->metadata_field(_array_klass_offset));
  assert(k == NULL || k->is_klass() && k->is_array_klass(), "should be array klass");
  return k;
}


void java_lang_Class::set_array_klass(oop java_class, Klass* klass) {
  assert(klass->is_klass() && klass->is_array_klass(), "should be array klass");
  java_class->metadata_field_put(_array_klass_offset, klass);
}


bool java_lang_Class::is_primitive(oop java_class) {
  // should assert:
  //assert(java_lang_Class::is_instance(java_class), "must be a Class object");
  bool is_primitive = (java_class->metadata_field(_klass_offset) == NULL);

#ifdef ASSERT
  if (is_primitive) {
    Klass* k = ((Klass*)java_class->metadata_field(_array_klass_offset));
    assert(k == NULL || is_java_primitive(ArrayKlass::cast(k)->element_type()),
        "Should be either the T_VOID primitive or a java primitive");
  }
#endif

  return is_primitive;
}


BasicType java_lang_Class::primitive_type(oop java_class) {
  assert(java_lang_Class::is_primitive(java_class), "just checking");
  Klass* ak = ((Klass*)java_class->metadata_field(_array_klass_offset));
  BasicType type = T_VOID;
  if (ak != NULL) {
    // Note: create_basic_type_mirror above initializes ak to a non-null value.
    type = ArrayKlass::cast(ak)->element_type();
  } else {
    assert(java_class == Universe::void_mirror(), "only valid non-array primitive");
  }
  assert(Universe::java_mirror(type) == java_class, "must be consistent");
  return type;
}

BasicType java_lang_Class::as_BasicType(oop java_class, Klass** reference_klass) {
  assert(java_lang_Class::is_instance(java_class), "must be a Class object");
  if (is_primitive(java_class)) {
    if (reference_klass != NULL)
      (*reference_klass) = NULL;
    return primitive_type(java_class);
  } else {
    if (reference_klass != NULL)
      (*reference_klass) = as_Klass(java_class);
    return T_OBJECT;
  }
}


oop java_lang_Class::primitive_mirror(BasicType t) {
  oop mirror = Universe::java_mirror(t);
  assert(mirror != NULL && mirror->is_a(SystemDictionary::Class_klass()), "must be a Class");
  assert(java_lang_Class::is_primitive(mirror), "must be primitive");
  return mirror;
}

bool java_lang_Class::offsets_computed = false;
int  java_lang_Class::classRedefinedCount_offset = -1;

void java_lang_Class::compute_offsets() {
  assert(!offsets_computed, "offsets should be initialized only once");
  offsets_computed = true;

  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::Class_klass();
  // The classRedefinedCount field is only present starting in 1.5,
  // so don't go fatal.
  compute_optional_offset(classRedefinedCount_offset,
                          k, vmSymbols::classRedefinedCount_name(), vmSymbols::int_signature());

  // Needs to be optional because the old build runs Queens during bootstrapping
  // and jdk8-9 doesn't have coordinated pushes yet.
  compute_optional_offset(_class_loader_offset,
                 k, vmSymbols::classLoader_name(),
                 vmSymbols::classloader_signature());

  compute_offset(_component_mirror_offset,
                 k, vmSymbols::componentType_name(),
                 vmSymbols::class_signature());

  compute_offset(_module_offset,
                 k, vmSymbols::module_name(),
                 vmSymbols::module_signature());

  // Init lock is a C union with component_mirror.  Only instanceKlass mirrors have
  // init_lock and only ArrayKlass mirrors have component_mirror.  Since both are oops
  // GC treats them the same.
  _init_lock_offset = _component_mirror_offset;

  CLASS_INJECTED_FIELDS(INJECTED_FIELD_COMPUTE_OFFSET);
}

int java_lang_Class::classRedefinedCount(oop the_class_mirror) {
  if (classRedefinedCount_offset == -1) {
    // If we don't have an offset for it then just return -1 as a marker.
    return -1;
  }

  return the_class_mirror->int_field(classRedefinedCount_offset);
}

void java_lang_Class::set_classRedefinedCount(oop the_class_mirror, int value) {
  if (classRedefinedCount_offset == -1) {
    // If we don't have an offset for it then nothing to set.
    return;
  }

  the_class_mirror->int_field_put(classRedefinedCount_offset, value);
}


// Note: JDK1.1 and before had a privateInfo_offset field which was used for the
//       platform thread structure, and a eetop offset which was used for thread
//       local storage (and unused by the HotSpot VM). In JDK1.2 the two structures
//       merged, so in the HotSpot VM we just use the eetop field for the thread
//       instead of the privateInfo_offset.
//
// Note: The stackSize field is only present starting in 1.4.

int java_lang_Thread::_name_offset = 0;
int java_lang_Thread::_group_offset = 0;
int java_lang_Thread::_contextClassLoader_offset = 0;
int java_lang_Thread::_inheritedAccessControlContext_offset = 0;
int java_lang_Thread::_priority_offset = 0;
int java_lang_Thread::_eetop_offset = 0;
int java_lang_Thread::_daemon_offset = 0;
int java_lang_Thread::_stillborn_offset = 0;
int java_lang_Thread::_stackSize_offset = 0;
int java_lang_Thread::_tid_offset = 0;
int java_lang_Thread::_thread_status_offset = 0;
int java_lang_Thread::_park_blocker_offset = 0;
int java_lang_Thread::_park_event_offset = 0 ;


void java_lang_Thread::compute_offsets() {
  assert(_group_offset == 0, "offsets should be initialized only once");

  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::Thread_klass();
  compute_offset(_name_offset,      k, vmSymbols::name_name(),      vmSymbols::string_signature());
  compute_offset(_group_offset,     k, vmSymbols::group_name(),     vmSymbols::threadgroup_signature());
  compute_offset(_contextClassLoader_offset, k, vmSymbols::contextClassLoader_name(), vmSymbols::classloader_signature());
  compute_offset(_inheritedAccessControlContext_offset, k, vmSymbols::inheritedAccessControlContext_name(), vmSymbols::accesscontrolcontext_signature());
  compute_offset(_priority_offset,  k, vmSymbols::priority_name(),  vmSymbols::int_signature());
  compute_offset(_daemon_offset,    k, vmSymbols::daemon_name(),    vmSymbols::bool_signature());
  compute_offset(_eetop_offset,     k, vmSymbols::eetop_name(),     vmSymbols::long_signature());
  compute_offset(_stillborn_offset, k, vmSymbols::stillborn_name(), vmSymbols::bool_signature());
  // The stackSize field is only present starting in 1.4, so don't go fatal.
  compute_optional_offset(_stackSize_offset, k, vmSymbols::stackSize_name(), vmSymbols::long_signature());
  // The tid and thread_status fields are only present starting in 1.5, so don't go fatal.
  compute_optional_offset(_tid_offset, k, vmSymbols::thread_id_name(), vmSymbols::long_signature());
  compute_optional_offset(_thread_status_offset, k, vmSymbols::thread_status_name(), vmSymbols::int_signature());
  // The parkBlocker field is only present starting in 1.6, so don't go fatal.
  compute_optional_offset(_park_blocker_offset, k, vmSymbols::park_blocker_name(), vmSymbols::object_signature());
  compute_optional_offset(_park_event_offset, k, vmSymbols::park_event_name(),
 vmSymbols::long_signature());
}


JavaThread* java_lang_Thread::thread(oop java_thread) {
  return (JavaThread*)java_thread->address_field(_eetop_offset);
}


void java_lang_Thread::set_thread(oop java_thread, JavaThread* thread) {
  java_thread->address_field_put(_eetop_offset, (address)thread);
}


oop java_lang_Thread::name(oop java_thread) {
  return java_thread->obj_field(_name_offset);
}


void java_lang_Thread::set_name(oop java_thread, oop name) {
  java_thread->obj_field_put(_name_offset, name);
}


ThreadPriority java_lang_Thread::priority(oop java_thread) {
  return (ThreadPriority)java_thread->int_field(_priority_offset);
}


void java_lang_Thread::set_priority(oop java_thread, ThreadPriority priority) {
  java_thread->int_field_put(_priority_offset, priority);
}


oop java_lang_Thread::threadGroup(oop java_thread) {
  return java_thread->obj_field(_group_offset);
}


bool java_lang_Thread::is_stillborn(oop java_thread) {
  return java_thread->bool_field(_stillborn_offset) != 0;
}


// We never have reason to turn the stillborn bit off
void java_lang_Thread::set_stillborn(oop java_thread) {
  java_thread->bool_field_put(_stillborn_offset, true);
}


bool java_lang_Thread::is_alive(oop java_thread) {
  JavaThread* thr = java_lang_Thread::thread(java_thread);
  return (thr != NULL);
}


bool java_lang_Thread::is_daemon(oop java_thread) {
  return java_thread->bool_field(_daemon_offset) != 0;
}


void java_lang_Thread::set_daemon(oop java_thread) {
  java_thread->bool_field_put(_daemon_offset, true);
}

oop java_lang_Thread::context_class_loader(oop java_thread) {
  return java_thread->obj_field(_contextClassLoader_offset);
}

oop java_lang_Thread::inherited_access_control_context(oop java_thread) {
  return java_thread->obj_field(_inheritedAccessControlContext_offset);
}


jlong java_lang_Thread::stackSize(oop java_thread) {
  if (_stackSize_offset > 0) {
    return java_thread->long_field(_stackSize_offset);
  } else {
    return 0;
  }
}

// Write the thread status value to threadStatus field in java.lang.Thread java class.
void java_lang_Thread::set_thread_status(oop java_thread,
                                         java_lang_Thread::ThreadStatus status) {
  // The threadStatus is only present starting in 1.5
  if (_thread_status_offset > 0) {
    java_thread->int_field_put(_thread_status_offset, status);
  }
}

// Read thread status value from threadStatus field in java.lang.Thread java class.
java_lang_Thread::ThreadStatus java_lang_Thread::get_thread_status(oop java_thread) {
  assert(Thread::current()->is_Watcher_thread() || Thread::current()->is_VM_thread() ||
         JavaThread::current()->thread_state() == _thread_in_vm,
         "Java Thread is not running in vm");
  // The threadStatus is only present starting in 1.5
  if (_thread_status_offset > 0) {
    return (java_lang_Thread::ThreadStatus)java_thread->int_field(_thread_status_offset);
  } else {
    // All we can easily figure out is if it is alive, but that is
    // enough info for a valid unknown status.
    // These aren't restricted to valid set ThreadStatus values, so
    // use JVMTI values and cast.
    JavaThread* thr = java_lang_Thread::thread(java_thread);
    if (thr == NULL) {
      // the thread hasn't run yet or is in the process of exiting
      return NEW;
    }
    return (java_lang_Thread::ThreadStatus)JVMTI_THREAD_STATE_ALIVE;
  }
}


jlong java_lang_Thread::thread_id(oop java_thread) {
  // The thread ID field is only present starting in 1.5
  if (_tid_offset > 0) {
    return java_thread->long_field(_tid_offset);
  } else {
    return 0;
  }
}

oop java_lang_Thread::park_blocker(oop java_thread) {
  assert(JDK_Version::current().supports_thread_park_blocker() &&
         _park_blocker_offset != 0, "Must support parkBlocker field");

  if (_park_blocker_offset > 0) {
    return java_thread->obj_field(_park_blocker_offset);
  }

  return NULL;
}

jlong java_lang_Thread::park_event(oop java_thread) {
  if (_park_event_offset > 0) {
    return java_thread->long_field(_park_event_offset);
  }
  return 0;
}

bool java_lang_Thread::set_park_event(oop java_thread, jlong ptr) {
  if (_park_event_offset > 0) {
    java_thread->long_field_put(_park_event_offset, ptr);
    return true;
  }
  return false;
}


const char* java_lang_Thread::thread_status_name(oop java_thread) {
  assert(_thread_status_offset != 0, "Must have thread status");
  ThreadStatus status = (java_lang_Thread::ThreadStatus)java_thread->int_field(_thread_status_offset);
  switch (status) {
    case NEW                      : return "NEW";
    case RUNNABLE                 : return "RUNNABLE";
    case SLEEPING                 : return "TIMED_WAITING (sleeping)";
    case IN_OBJECT_WAIT           : return "WAITING (on object monitor)";
    case IN_OBJECT_WAIT_TIMED     : return "TIMED_WAITING (on object monitor)";
    case PARKED                   : return "WAITING (parking)";
    case PARKED_TIMED             : return "TIMED_WAITING (parking)";
    case BLOCKED_ON_MONITOR_ENTER : return "BLOCKED (on object monitor)";
    case TERMINATED               : return "TERMINATED";
    default                       : return "UNKNOWN";
  };
}
int java_lang_ThreadGroup::_parent_offset = 0;
int java_lang_ThreadGroup::_name_offset = 0;
int java_lang_ThreadGroup::_threads_offset = 0;
int java_lang_ThreadGroup::_groups_offset = 0;
int java_lang_ThreadGroup::_maxPriority_offset = 0;
int java_lang_ThreadGroup::_destroyed_offset = 0;
int java_lang_ThreadGroup::_daemon_offset = 0;
int java_lang_ThreadGroup::_nthreads_offset = 0;
int java_lang_ThreadGroup::_ngroups_offset = 0;

oop  java_lang_ThreadGroup::parent(oop java_thread_group) {
  assert(java_thread_group->is_oop(), "thread group must be oop");
  return java_thread_group->obj_field(_parent_offset);
}

// ("name as oop" accessor is not necessary)

const char* java_lang_ThreadGroup::name(oop java_thread_group) {
  oop name = java_thread_group->obj_field(_name_offset);
  // ThreadGroup.name can be null
  if (name != NULL) {
    return java_lang_String::as_utf8_string(name);
  }
  return NULL;
}

int java_lang_ThreadGroup::nthreads(oop java_thread_group) {
  assert(java_thread_group->is_oop(), "thread group must be oop");
  return java_thread_group->int_field(_nthreads_offset);
}

objArrayOop java_lang_ThreadGroup::threads(oop java_thread_group) {
  oop threads = java_thread_group->obj_field(_threads_offset);
  assert(threads != NULL, "threadgroups should have threads");
  assert(threads->is_objArray(), "just checking"); // Todo: Add better type checking code
  return objArrayOop(threads);
}

int java_lang_ThreadGroup::ngroups(oop java_thread_group) {
  assert(java_thread_group->is_oop(), "thread group must be oop");
  return java_thread_group->int_field(_ngroups_offset);
}

objArrayOop java_lang_ThreadGroup::groups(oop java_thread_group) {
  oop groups = java_thread_group->obj_field(_groups_offset);
  assert(groups == NULL || groups->is_objArray(), "just checking"); // Todo: Add better type checking code
  return objArrayOop(groups);
}

ThreadPriority java_lang_ThreadGroup::maxPriority(oop java_thread_group) {
  assert(java_thread_group->is_oop(), "thread group must be oop");
  return (ThreadPriority) java_thread_group->int_field(_maxPriority_offset);
}

bool java_lang_ThreadGroup::is_destroyed(oop java_thread_group) {
  assert(java_thread_group->is_oop(), "thread group must be oop");
  return java_thread_group->bool_field(_destroyed_offset) != 0;
}

bool java_lang_ThreadGroup::is_daemon(oop java_thread_group) {
  assert(java_thread_group->is_oop(), "thread group must be oop");
  return java_thread_group->bool_field(_daemon_offset) != 0;
}

void java_lang_ThreadGroup::compute_offsets() {
  assert(_parent_offset == 0, "offsets should be initialized only once");

  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::ThreadGroup_klass();

  compute_offset(_parent_offset,      k, vmSymbols::parent_name(),      vmSymbols::threadgroup_signature());
  compute_offset(_name_offset,        k, vmSymbols::name_name(),        vmSymbols::string_signature());
  compute_offset(_threads_offset,     k, vmSymbols::threads_name(),     vmSymbols::thread_array_signature());
  compute_offset(_groups_offset,      k, vmSymbols::groups_name(),      vmSymbols::threadgroup_array_signature());
  compute_offset(_maxPriority_offset, k, vmSymbols::maxPriority_name(), vmSymbols::int_signature());
  compute_offset(_destroyed_offset,   k, vmSymbols::destroyed_name(),   vmSymbols::bool_signature());
  compute_offset(_daemon_offset,      k, vmSymbols::daemon_name(),      vmSymbols::bool_signature());
  compute_offset(_nthreads_offset,    k, vmSymbols::nthreads_name(),    vmSymbols::int_signature());
  compute_offset(_ngroups_offset,     k, vmSymbols::ngroups_name(),     vmSymbols::int_signature());
}


void java_lang_Throwable::compute_offsets() {
  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::Throwable_klass();
  compute_offset(depth_offset, k, vmSymbols::depth_name(), vmSymbols::int_signature());
}

oop java_lang_Throwable::unassigned_stacktrace() {
  InstanceKlass* ik = SystemDictionary::Throwable_klass();
  address addr = ik->static_field_addr(static_unassigned_stacktrace_offset);
  if (UseCompressedOops) {
    return oopDesc::load_decode_heap_oop((narrowOop *)addr);
  } else {
    return oopDesc::load_decode_heap_oop((oop*)addr);
  }
}

oop java_lang_Throwable::backtrace(oop throwable) {
  return throwable->obj_field_acquire(backtrace_offset);
}


void java_lang_Throwable::set_backtrace(oop throwable, oop value) {
  throwable->release_obj_field_put(backtrace_offset, value);
}

int java_lang_Throwable::depth(oop throwable) {
  return throwable->int_field(depth_offset);
}

void java_lang_Throwable::set_depth(oop throwable, int value) {
  throwable->int_field_put(depth_offset, value);
}

oop java_lang_Throwable::message(Handle throwable) {
  return throwable->obj_field(detailMessage_offset);
}


// Return Symbol for detailed_message or NULL
Symbol* java_lang_Throwable::detail_message(oop throwable) {
  PRESERVE_EXCEPTION_MARK;  // Keep original exception
  oop detailed_message = java_lang_Throwable::message(throwable);
  if (detailed_message != NULL) {
    return java_lang_String::as_symbol(detailed_message, THREAD);
  }
  return NULL;
}

void java_lang_Throwable::set_message(oop throwable, oop value) {
  throwable->obj_field_put(detailMessage_offset, value);
}


void java_lang_Throwable::set_stacktrace(oop throwable, oop st_element_array) {
  throwable->obj_field_put(stackTrace_offset, st_element_array);
}

void java_lang_Throwable::clear_stacktrace(oop throwable) {
  set_stacktrace(throwable, NULL);
}


void java_lang_Throwable::print(Handle throwable, outputStream* st) {
  ResourceMark rm;
  Klass* k = throwable->klass();
  assert(k != NULL, "just checking");
  st->print("%s", k->external_name());
  oop msg = message(throwable);
  if (msg != NULL) {
    st->print(": %s", java_lang_String::as_utf8_string(msg));
  }
}

// After this many redefines, the stack trace is unreliable.
const int MAX_VERSION = USHRT_MAX;

static inline bool version_matches(Method* method, int version) {
  assert(version < MAX_VERSION, "version is too big");
  return method != NULL && (method->constants()->version() == version);
}


// This class provides a simple wrapper over the internal structure of
// exception backtrace to insulate users of the backtrace from needing
// to know what it looks like.
class BacktraceBuilder: public StackObj {
 friend class BacktraceIterator;
 private:
  Handle          _backtrace;
  objArrayOop     _head;
  typeArrayOop    _methods;
  typeArrayOop    _bcis;
  objArrayOop     _mirrors;
  typeArrayOop    _cprefs; // needed to insulate method name against redefinition
  int             _index;
  NoSafepointVerifier _nsv;

  enum {
    trace_methods_offset = java_lang_Throwable::trace_methods_offset,
    trace_bcis_offset    = java_lang_Throwable::trace_bcis_offset,
    trace_mirrors_offset = java_lang_Throwable::trace_mirrors_offset,
    trace_cprefs_offset  = java_lang_Throwable::trace_cprefs_offset,
    trace_next_offset    = java_lang_Throwable::trace_next_offset,
    trace_size           = java_lang_Throwable::trace_size,
    trace_chunk_size     = java_lang_Throwable::trace_chunk_size
  };

  // get info out of chunks
  static typeArrayOop get_methods(objArrayHandle chunk) {
    typeArrayOop methods = typeArrayOop(chunk->obj_at(trace_methods_offset));
    assert(methods != NULL, "method array should be initialized in backtrace");
    return methods;
  }
  static typeArrayOop get_bcis(objArrayHandle chunk) {
    typeArrayOop bcis = typeArrayOop(chunk->obj_at(trace_bcis_offset));
    assert(bcis != NULL, "bci array should be initialized in backtrace");
    return bcis;
  }
  static objArrayOop get_mirrors(objArrayHandle chunk) {
    objArrayOop mirrors = objArrayOop(chunk->obj_at(trace_mirrors_offset));
    assert(mirrors != NULL, "mirror array should be initialized in backtrace");
    return mirrors;
  }
  static typeArrayOop get_cprefs(objArrayHandle chunk) {
    typeArrayOop cprefs = typeArrayOop(chunk->obj_at(trace_cprefs_offset));
    assert(cprefs != NULL, "cprefs array should be initialized in backtrace");
    return cprefs;
  }

 public:

  // constructor for new backtrace
  BacktraceBuilder(TRAPS): _methods(NULL), _bcis(NULL), _head(NULL), _mirrors(NULL), _cprefs(NULL) {
    expand(CHECK);
    _backtrace = _head;
    _index = 0;
  }

  BacktraceBuilder(objArrayHandle backtrace) {
    _methods = get_methods(backtrace);
    _bcis = get_bcis(backtrace);
    _mirrors = get_mirrors(backtrace);
    _cprefs = get_cprefs(backtrace);
    assert(_methods->length() == _bcis->length() &&
           _methods->length() == _mirrors->length(),
           "method and source information arrays should match");

    // head is the preallocated backtrace
    _backtrace = _head = backtrace();
    _index = 0;
  }

  void expand(TRAPS) {
    objArrayHandle old_head(THREAD, _head);
    PauseNoSafepointVerifier pnsv(&_nsv);

    objArrayOop head = oopFactory::new_objectArray(trace_size, CHECK);
    objArrayHandle new_head(THREAD, head);

    typeArrayOop methods = oopFactory::new_shortArray(trace_chunk_size, CHECK);
    typeArrayHandle new_methods(THREAD, methods);

    typeArrayOop bcis = oopFactory::new_intArray(trace_chunk_size, CHECK);
    typeArrayHandle new_bcis(THREAD, bcis);

    objArrayOop mirrors = oopFactory::new_objectArray(trace_chunk_size, CHECK);
    objArrayHandle new_mirrors(THREAD, mirrors);

    typeArrayOop cprefs = oopFactory::new_shortArray(trace_chunk_size, CHECK);
    typeArrayHandle new_cprefs(THREAD, cprefs);

    if (!old_head.is_null()) {
      old_head->obj_at_put(trace_next_offset, new_head());
    }
    new_head->obj_at_put(trace_methods_offset, new_methods());
    new_head->obj_at_put(trace_bcis_offset, new_bcis());
    new_head->obj_at_put(trace_mirrors_offset, new_mirrors());
    new_head->obj_at_put(trace_cprefs_offset, new_cprefs());

    _head    = new_head();
    _methods = new_methods();
    _bcis = new_bcis();
    _mirrors = new_mirrors();
    _cprefs  = new_cprefs();
    _index = 0;
  }

  oop backtrace() {
    return _backtrace();
  }

  inline void push(Method* method, int bci, TRAPS) {
    // Smear the -1 bci to 0 since the array only holds unsigned
    // shorts.  The later line number lookup would just smear the -1
    // to a 0 even if it could be recorded.
    if (bci == SynchronizationEntryBCI) bci = 0;

    if (_index >= trace_chunk_size) {
      methodHandle mhandle(THREAD, method);
      expand(CHECK);
      method = mhandle();
    }

    _methods->short_at_put(_index, method->orig_method_idnum());
    _bcis->int_at_put(_index, Backtrace::merge_bci_and_version(bci, method->constants()->version()));
    _cprefs->short_at_put(_index, method->name_index());

    // We need to save the mirrors in the backtrace to keep the class
    // from being unloaded while we still have this stack trace.
    assert(method->method_holder()->java_mirror() != NULL, "never push null for mirror");
    _mirrors->obj_at_put(_index, method->method_holder()->java_mirror());
    _index++;
  }

};

struct BacktraceElement : public StackObj {
  int _method_id;
  int _bci;
  int _version;
  int _cpref;
  Handle _mirror;
  BacktraceElement(Handle mirror, int mid, int version, int bci, int cpref) :
                   _mirror(mirror), _method_id(mid), _version(version), _bci(bci), _cpref(cpref) {}
};

class BacktraceIterator : public StackObj {
  int _index;
  objArrayHandle  _result;
  objArrayHandle  _mirrors;
  typeArrayHandle _methods;
  typeArrayHandle _bcis;
  typeArrayHandle _cprefs;

  void init(objArrayHandle result, Thread* thread) {
    // Get method id, bci, version and mirror from chunk
    _result = result;
    if (_result.not_null()) {
      _methods = typeArrayHandle(thread, BacktraceBuilder::get_methods(_result));
      _bcis = typeArrayHandle(thread, BacktraceBuilder::get_bcis(_result));
      _mirrors = objArrayHandle(thread, BacktraceBuilder::get_mirrors(_result));
      _cprefs = typeArrayHandle(thread, BacktraceBuilder::get_cprefs(_result));
      _index = 0;
    }
  }
 public:
  BacktraceIterator(objArrayHandle result, Thread* thread) {
    init(result, thread);
    assert(_methods.is_null() || _methods->length() == java_lang_Throwable::trace_chunk_size, "lengths don't match");
  }

  BacktraceElement next(Thread* thread) {
    BacktraceElement e (Handle(thread, _mirrors->obj_at(_index)),
                        _methods->short_at(_index),
                        Backtrace::version_at(_bcis->int_at(_index)),
                        Backtrace::bci_at(_bcis->int_at(_index)),
                        _cprefs->short_at(_index));
    _index++;

    if (_index >= java_lang_Throwable::trace_chunk_size) {
      int next_offset = java_lang_Throwable::trace_next_offset;
      // Get next chunk
      objArrayHandle result (thread, objArrayOop(_result->obj_at(next_offset)));
      init(result, thread);
    }
    return e;
  }

  bool repeat() {
    return _result.not_null() && _mirrors->obj_at(_index) != NULL;
  }
};


// Print stack trace element to resource allocated buffer
static void print_stack_element_to_stream(outputStream* st, Handle mirror, int method_id,
                                          int version, int bci, int cpref) {
  ResourceMark rm;

  // Get strings and string lengths
  InstanceKlass* holder = InstanceKlass::cast(java_lang_Class::as_Klass(mirror()));
  const char* klass_name  = holder->external_name();
  int buf_len = (int)strlen(klass_name);

  Method* method = holder->method_with_orig_idnum(method_id, version);

  // The method can be NULL if the requested class version is gone
  Symbol* sym = (method != NULL) ? method->name() : holder->constants()->symbol_at(cpref);
  char* method_name = sym->as_C_string();
  buf_len += (int)strlen(method_name);

  char* source_file_name = NULL;
  Symbol* source = Backtrace::get_source_file_name(holder, version);
  if (source != NULL) {
    source_file_name = source->as_C_string();
    buf_len += (int)strlen(source_file_name);
  }

  char *module_name = NULL, *module_version = NULL;
  ModuleEntry* module = holder->module();
  if (module->is_named()) {
    module_name = module->name()->as_C_string();
    buf_len += (int)strlen(module_name);
    if (module->version() != NULL) {
      module_version = module->version()->as_C_string();
      buf_len += (int)strlen(module_version);
    }
  }

  // Allocate temporary buffer with extra space for formatting and line number
  char* buf = NEW_RESOURCE_ARRAY(char, buf_len + 64);

  // Print stack trace line in buffer
  sprintf(buf, "\tat %s.%s(", klass_name, method_name);

  // Print module information
  if (module_name != NULL) {
    if (module_version != NULL) {
      sprintf(buf + (int)strlen(buf), "%s@%s/", module_name, module_version);
    } else {
      sprintf(buf + (int)strlen(buf), "%s/", module_name);
    }
  }

  if (!version_matches(method, version)) {
    strcat(buf, "Redefined)");
  } else {
    int line_number = Backtrace::get_line_number(method, bci);
    if (line_number == -2) {
      strcat(buf, "Native Method)");
    } else {
      if (source_file_name != NULL && (line_number != -1)) {
        // Sourcename and linenumber
        sprintf(buf + (int)strlen(buf), "%s:%d)", source_file_name, line_number);
      } else if (source_file_name != NULL) {
        // Just sourcename
        sprintf(buf + (int)strlen(buf), "%s)", source_file_name);
      } else {
        // Neither sourcename nor linenumber
        sprintf(buf + (int)strlen(buf), "Unknown Source)");
      }
      CompiledMethod* nm = method->code();
      if (WizardMode && nm != NULL) {
        sprintf(buf + (int)strlen(buf), "(nmethod " INTPTR_FORMAT ")", (intptr_t)nm);
      }
    }
  }

  st->print_cr("%s", buf);
}

void java_lang_Throwable::print_stack_element(outputStream *st, const methodHandle& method, int bci) {
  Handle mirror = method->method_holder()->java_mirror();
  int method_id = method->orig_method_idnum();
  int version = method->constants()->version();
  int cpref = method->name_index();
  print_stack_element_to_stream(st, mirror, method_id, version, bci, cpref);
}

/**
 * Print the throwable message and its stack trace plus all causes by walking the
 * cause chain.  The output looks the same as of Throwable.printStackTrace().
 */
void java_lang_Throwable::print_stack_trace(Handle throwable, outputStream* st) {
  // First, print the message.
  print(throwable, st);
  st->cr();

  // Now print the stack trace.
  Thread* THREAD = Thread::current();
  while (throwable.not_null()) {
    objArrayHandle result (THREAD, objArrayOop(backtrace(throwable())));
    if (result.is_null()) {
      st->print_raw_cr("\t<<no stack trace available>>");
      return;
    }
    BacktraceIterator iter(result, THREAD);

    while (iter.repeat()) {
      BacktraceElement bte = iter.next(THREAD);
      print_stack_element_to_stream(st, bte._mirror, bte._method_id, bte._version, bte._bci, bte._cpref);
    }
    {
      // Call getCause() which doesn't necessarily return the _cause field.
      EXCEPTION_MARK;
      JavaValue cause(T_OBJECT);
      JavaCalls::call_virtual(&cause,
                              throwable,
                              KlassHandle(THREAD, throwable->klass()),
                              vmSymbols::getCause_name(),
                              vmSymbols::void_throwable_signature(),
                              THREAD);
      // Ignore any exceptions. we are in the middle of exception handling. Same as classic VM.
      if (HAS_PENDING_EXCEPTION) {
        CLEAR_PENDING_EXCEPTION;
        throwable = Handle();
      } else {
        throwable = Handle(THREAD, (oop) cause.get_jobject());
        if (throwable.not_null()) {
          st->print("Caused by: ");
          print(throwable, st);
          st->cr();
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

/**
 * Print the throwable stack trace by calling the Java method java.lang.Throwable.printStackTrace().
 */
void java_lang_Throwable::java_printStackTrace(Handle throwable, TRAPS) {
  assert(throwable->is_a(SystemDictionary::Throwable_klass()), "Throwable instance expected");
  JavaValue result(T_VOID);
  JavaCalls::call_virtual(&result,
                          throwable,
                          KlassHandle(THREAD, SystemDictionary::Throwable_klass()),
                          vmSymbols::printStackTrace_name(),
                          vmSymbols::void_method_signature(),
                          THREAD);
}

void java_lang_Throwable::fill_in_stack_trace(Handle throwable, const methodHandle& method, TRAPS) {
  if (!StackTraceInThrowable) return;
  ResourceMark rm(THREAD);

  // Start out by clearing the backtrace for this object, in case the VM
  // runs out of memory while allocating the stack trace
  set_backtrace(throwable(), NULL);
  // Clear lazily constructed Java level stacktrace if refilling occurs
  // This is unnecessary in 1.7+ but harmless
  clear_stacktrace(throwable());

  int max_depth = MaxJavaStackTraceDepth;
  JavaThread* thread = (JavaThread*)THREAD;

  BacktraceBuilder bt(CHECK);

  // If there is no Java frame just return the method that was being called
  // with bci 0
  if (!thread->has_last_Java_frame()) {
    if (max_depth >= 1 && method() != NULL) {
      bt.push(method(), 0, CHECK);
      log_info(stacktrace)("%s, %d", throwable->klass()->external_name(), 1);
      set_depth(throwable(), 1);
      set_backtrace(throwable(), bt.backtrace());
    }
    return;
  }

  // Instead of using vframe directly, this version of fill_in_stack_trace
  // basically handles everything by hand. This significantly improved the
  // speed of this method call up to 28.5% on Solaris sparc. 27.1% on Windows.
  // See bug 6333838 for  more details.
  // The "ASSERT" here is to verify this method generates the exactly same stack
  // trace as utilizing vframe.
#ifdef ASSERT
  vframeStream st(thread);
  methodHandle st_method(THREAD, st.method());
#endif
  int total_count = 0;
  RegisterMap map(thread, false);
  int decode_offset = 0;
  CompiledMethod* nm = NULL;
  bool skip_fillInStackTrace_check = false;
  bool skip_throwableInit_check = false;
  bool skip_hidden = !ShowHiddenFrames;

  for (frame fr = thread->last_frame(); max_depth != total_count;) {
    Method* method = NULL;
    int bci = 0;

    // Compiled java method case.
    if (decode_offset != 0) {
      DebugInfoReadStream stream(nm, decode_offset);
      decode_offset = stream.read_int();
      method = (Method*)nm->metadata_at(stream.read_int());
      bci = stream.read_bci();
    } else {
      if (fr.is_first_frame()) break;
      address pc = fr.pc();
      if (fr.is_interpreted_frame()) {
        address bcp = fr.interpreter_frame_bcp();
        method = fr.interpreter_frame_method();
        bci =  method->bci_from(bcp);
        fr = fr.sender(&map);
      } else {
        CodeBlob* cb = fr.cb();
        // HMMM QQQ might be nice to have frame return nm as NULL if cb is non-NULL
        // but non nmethod
        fr = fr.sender(&map);
        if (cb == NULL || !cb->is_compiled()) {
          continue;
        }
        nm = cb->as_compiled_method();
        if (nm->method()->is_native()) {
          method = nm->method();
          bci = 0;
        } else {
          PcDesc* pd = nm->pc_desc_at(pc);
          decode_offset = pd->scope_decode_offset();
          // if decode_offset is not equal to 0, it will execute the
          // "compiled java method case" at the beginning of the loop.
          continue;
        }
      }
    }
#ifdef ASSERT
    assert(st_method() == method && st.bci() == bci,
           "Wrong stack trace");
    st.next();
    // vframeStream::method isn't GC-safe so store off a copy
    // of the Method* in case we GC.
    if (!st.at_end()) {
      st_method = st.method();
    }
#endif

    // the format of the stacktrace will be:
    // - 1 or more fillInStackTrace frames for the exception class (skipped)
    // - 0 or more <init> methods for the exception class (skipped)
    // - rest of the stack

    if (!skip_fillInStackTrace_check) {
      if (method->name() == vmSymbols::fillInStackTrace_name() &&
          throwable->is_a(method->method_holder())) {
        continue;
      }
      else {
        skip_fillInStackTrace_check = true; // gone past them all
      }
    }
    if (!skip_throwableInit_check) {
      assert(skip_fillInStackTrace_check, "logic error in backtrace filtering");

      // skip <init> methods of the exception class and superclasses
      // This is simlar to classic VM.
      if (method->name() == vmSymbols::object_initializer_name() &&
          throwable->is_a(method->method_holder())) {
        continue;
      } else {
        // there are none or we've seen them all - either way stop checking
        skip_throwableInit_check = true;
      }
    }
    if (method->is_hidden()) {
      if (skip_hidden)  continue;
    }
    bt.push(method, bci, CHECK);
    total_count++;
  }

  log_info(stacktrace)("%s, %d", throwable->klass()->external_name(), total_count);

  // Put completed stack trace into throwable object
  set_backtrace(throwable(), bt.backtrace());
  set_depth(throwable(), total_count);
}

void java_lang_Throwable::fill_in_stack_trace(Handle throwable, const methodHandle& method) {
  // No-op if stack trace is disabled
  if (!StackTraceInThrowable) {
    return;
  }

  // Disable stack traces for some preallocated out of memory errors
  if (!Universe::should_fill_in_stack_trace(throwable)) {
    return;
  }

  PRESERVE_EXCEPTION_MARK;

  JavaThread* thread = JavaThread::active();
  fill_in_stack_trace(throwable, method, thread);
  // ignore exceptions thrown during stack trace filling
  CLEAR_PENDING_EXCEPTION;
}

void java_lang_Throwable::allocate_backtrace(Handle throwable, TRAPS) {
  // Allocate stack trace - backtrace is created but not filled in

  // No-op if stack trace is disabled
  if (!StackTraceInThrowable) return;
  BacktraceBuilder bt(CHECK);   // creates a backtrace
  set_backtrace(throwable(), bt.backtrace());
}


void java_lang_Throwable::fill_in_stack_trace_of_preallocated_backtrace(Handle throwable) {
  // Fill in stack trace into preallocated backtrace (no GC)

  // No-op if stack trace is disabled
  if (!StackTraceInThrowable) return;

  assert(throwable->is_a(SystemDictionary::Throwable_klass()), "sanity check");

  JavaThread* THREAD = JavaThread::current();

  objArrayHandle backtrace (THREAD, (objArrayOop)java_lang_Throwable::backtrace(throwable()));
  assert(backtrace.not_null(), "backtrace should have been preallocated");

  ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
  vframeStream st(THREAD);

  BacktraceBuilder bt(backtrace);

  // Unlike fill_in_stack_trace we do not skip fillInStackTrace or throwable init
  // methods as preallocated errors aren't created by "java" code.

  // fill in as much stack trace as possible
  int chunk_count = 0;
  for (;!st.at_end(); st.next()) {
    bt.push(st.method(), st.bci(), CHECK);
    chunk_count++;

    // Bail-out for deep stacks
    if (chunk_count >= trace_chunk_size) break;
  }
  set_depth(throwable(), chunk_count);
  log_info(stacktrace)("%s, %d", throwable->klass()->external_name(), chunk_count);

  // We support the Throwable immutability protocol defined for Java 7.
  java_lang_Throwable::set_stacktrace(throwable(), java_lang_Throwable::unassigned_stacktrace());
  assert(java_lang_Throwable::unassigned_stacktrace() != NULL, "not initialized");
}

void java_lang_Throwable::get_stack_trace_elements(Handle throwable,
                                                   objArrayHandle stack_trace_array_h, TRAPS) {

  if (throwable.is_null() || stack_trace_array_h.is_null()) {
    THROW(vmSymbols::java_lang_NullPointerException());
  }

  assert(stack_trace_array_h->is_objArray(), "Stack trace array should be an array of StackTraceElenent");

  if (stack_trace_array_h->length() != depth(throwable())) {
    THROW(vmSymbols::java_lang_IndexOutOfBoundsException());
  }

  objArrayHandle result(THREAD, objArrayOop(backtrace(throwable())));
  BacktraceIterator iter(result, THREAD);

  int index = 0;
  while (iter.repeat()) {
    BacktraceElement bte = iter.next(THREAD);

    Handle stack_trace_element(THREAD, stack_trace_array_h->obj_at(index++));

    if (stack_trace_element.is_null()) {
      THROW(vmSymbols::java_lang_NullPointerException());
    }

    InstanceKlass* holder = InstanceKlass::cast(java_lang_Class::as_Klass(bte._mirror()));
    methodHandle method (THREAD, holder->method_with_orig_idnum(bte._method_id, bte._version));

    java_lang_StackTraceElement::fill_in(stack_trace_element, holder,
                                         method,
                                         bte._version,
                                         bte._bci,
                                         bte._cpref, CHECK);
  }
}

oop java_lang_StackTraceElement::create(const methodHandle& method, int bci, TRAPS) {
  // Allocate java.lang.StackTraceElement instance
  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::StackTraceElement_klass();
  assert(k != NULL, "must be loaded in 1.4+");
  instanceKlassHandle ik (THREAD, k);
  if (ik->should_be_initialized()) {
    ik->initialize(CHECK_0);
  }

  Handle element = ik->allocate_instance_handle(CHECK_0);

  int cpref = method->name_index();
  int version = method->constants()->version();
  fill_in(element, method->method_holder(), method, version, bci, cpref, CHECK_0);
  return element();
}

void java_lang_StackTraceElement::fill_in(Handle element,
                                          InstanceKlass* holder, const methodHandle& method,
                                          int version, int bci, int cpref, TRAPS) {
  assert(element->is_a(SystemDictionary::StackTraceElement_klass()), "sanity check");

  // Fill in class name
  ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
  const char* str = holder->external_name();
  oop classname = StringTable::intern((char*) str, CHECK);
  java_lang_StackTraceElement::set_declaringClass(element(), classname);

  // The method can be NULL if the requested class version is gone
  Symbol* sym = !method.is_null() ? method->name() : holder->constants()->symbol_at(cpref);

  // Fill in method name
  oop methodname = StringTable::intern(sym, CHECK);
  java_lang_StackTraceElement::set_methodName(element(), methodname);

  // Fill in module name and version
  ModuleEntry* module = holder->module();
  if (module->is_named()) {
    oop module_name = StringTable::intern(module->name(), CHECK);
    java_lang_StackTraceElement::set_moduleName(element(), module_name);
    oop module_version;
    if (module->version() != NULL) {
      module_version = StringTable::intern(module->version(), CHECK);
    } else {
      module_version = NULL;
    }
    java_lang_StackTraceElement::set_moduleVersion(element(), module_version);
  }

  if (!version_matches(method(), version)) {
    // The method was redefined, accurate line number information isn't available
    java_lang_StackTraceElement::set_fileName(element(), NULL);
    java_lang_StackTraceElement::set_lineNumber(element(), -1);
  } else {
    // Fill in source file name and line number.
    Symbol* source = Backtrace::get_source_file_name(holder, version);
    if (ShowHiddenFrames && source == NULL)
      source = vmSymbols::unknown_class_name();
    oop filename = StringTable::intern(source, CHECK);
    java_lang_StackTraceElement::set_fileName(element(), filename);

    int line_number = Backtrace::get_line_number(method, bci);
    java_lang_StackTraceElement::set_lineNumber(element(), line_number);
  }
}

Method* java_lang_StackFrameInfo::get_method(Handle stackFrame, InstanceKlass* holder, TRAPS) {
  Handle mname(THREAD, stackFrame->obj_field(_memberName_offset));
  Method* method = (Method*)java_lang_invoke_MemberName::vmtarget(mname());
  // we should expand MemberName::name when Throwable uses StackTrace
  // MethodHandles::expand_MemberName(mname, MethodHandles::_suppress_defc|MethodHandles::_suppress_type, CHECK_NULL);
  return method;
}

void java_lang_StackFrameInfo::set_method_and_bci(Handle stackFrame, const methodHandle& method, int bci) {
  // set Method* or mid/cpref
  oop mname = stackFrame->obj_field(_memberName_offset);
  InstanceKlass* ik = method->method_holder();
  CallInfo info(method(), ik);
  MethodHandles::init_method_MemberName(mname, info);
  // set bci
  java_lang_StackFrameInfo::set_bci(stackFrame(), bci);
  // method may be redefined; store the version
  int version = method->constants()->version();
  assert((jushort)version == version, "version should be short");
  java_lang_StackFrameInfo::set_version(stackFrame(), (short)version);
}

void java_lang_StackFrameInfo::to_stack_trace_element(Handle stackFrame, Handle stack_trace_element, TRAPS) {
  ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
  Handle k (THREAD, stackFrame->obj_field(_declaringClass_offset));
  InstanceKlass* holder = InstanceKlass::cast(java_lang_Class::as_Klass(k()));
  Method* method = java_lang_StackFrameInfo::get_method(stackFrame, holder, CHECK);

  short version = stackFrame->short_field(_version_offset);
  short bci = stackFrame->short_field(_bci_offset);
  int cpref = method->name_index();
  java_lang_StackTraceElement::fill_in(stack_trace_element, holder, method, version, bci, cpref, CHECK);
}

void java_lang_StackFrameInfo::compute_offsets() {
  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::StackFrameInfo_klass();
  compute_offset(_declaringClass_offset, k, vmSymbols::declaringClass_name(),  vmSymbols::class_signature());
  compute_offset(_memberName_offset,     k, vmSymbols::memberName_name(),  vmSymbols::object_signature());
  compute_offset(_bci_offset,            k, vmSymbols::bci_name(),         vmSymbols::short_signature());
  STACKFRAMEINFO_INJECTED_FIELDS(INJECTED_FIELD_COMPUTE_OFFSET);
}

void java_lang_LiveStackFrameInfo::compute_offsets() {
  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::LiveStackFrameInfo_klass();
  compute_offset(_monitors_offset,   k, vmSymbols::monitors_name(),    vmSymbols::object_array_signature());
  compute_offset(_locals_offset,     k, vmSymbols::locals_name(),      vmSymbols::object_array_signature());
  compute_offset(_operands_offset,   k, vmSymbols::operands_name(),    vmSymbols::object_array_signature());
}

void java_lang_reflect_AccessibleObject::compute_offsets() {
  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::reflect_AccessibleObject_klass();
  compute_offset(override_offset, k, vmSymbols::override_name(), vmSymbols::bool_signature());
}

jboolean java_lang_reflect_AccessibleObject::override(oop reflect) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  return (jboolean) reflect->bool_field(override_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_AccessibleObject::set_override(oop reflect, jboolean value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  reflect->bool_field_put(override_offset, (int) value);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Method::compute_offsets() {
  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::reflect_Method_klass();
  compute_offset(clazz_offset,          k, vmSymbols::clazz_name(),          vmSymbols::class_signature());
  compute_offset(name_offset,           k, vmSymbols::name_name(),           vmSymbols::string_signature());
  compute_offset(returnType_offset,     k, vmSymbols::returnType_name(),     vmSymbols::class_signature());
  compute_offset(parameterTypes_offset, k, vmSymbols::parameterTypes_name(), vmSymbols::class_array_signature());
  compute_offset(exceptionTypes_offset, k, vmSymbols::exceptionTypes_name(), vmSymbols::class_array_signature());
  compute_offset(slot_offset,           k, vmSymbols::slot_name(),           vmSymbols::int_signature());
  compute_offset(modifiers_offset,      k, vmSymbols::modifiers_name(),      vmSymbols::int_signature());
  // The generic signature and annotations fields are only present in 1.5
  signature_offset = -1;
  annotations_offset = -1;
  parameter_annotations_offset = -1;
  annotation_default_offset = -1;
  type_annotations_offset = -1;
  compute_optional_offset(signature_offset,             k, vmSymbols::signature_name(),             vmSymbols::string_signature());
  compute_optional_offset(annotations_offset,           k, vmSymbols::annotations_name(),           vmSymbols::byte_array_signature());
  compute_optional_offset(parameter_annotations_offset, k, vmSymbols::parameter_annotations_name(), vmSymbols::byte_array_signature());
  compute_optional_offset(annotation_default_offset,    k, vmSymbols::annotation_default_name(),    vmSymbols::byte_array_signature());
  compute_optional_offset(type_annotations_offset,      k, vmSymbols::type_annotations_name(),      vmSymbols::byte_array_signature());
}

Handle java_lang_reflect_Method::create(TRAPS) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  Klass* klass = SystemDictionary::reflect_Method_klass();
  // This class is eagerly initialized during VM initialization, since we keep a refence
  // to one of the methods
  assert(InstanceKlass::cast(klass)->is_initialized(), "must be initialized");
  return InstanceKlass::cast(klass)->allocate_instance_handle(THREAD);
}

oop java_lang_reflect_Method::clazz(oop reflect) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  return reflect->obj_field(clazz_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Method::set_clazz(oop reflect, oop value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
   reflect->obj_field_put(clazz_offset, value);
}

int java_lang_reflect_Method::slot(oop reflect) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  return reflect->int_field(slot_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Method::set_slot(oop reflect, int value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  reflect->int_field_put(slot_offset, value);
}

oop java_lang_reflect_Method::name(oop method) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  return method->obj_field(name_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Method::set_name(oop method, oop value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  method->obj_field_put(name_offset, value);
}

oop java_lang_reflect_Method::return_type(oop method) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  return method->obj_field(returnType_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Method::set_return_type(oop method, oop value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  method->obj_field_put(returnType_offset, value);
}

oop java_lang_reflect_Method::parameter_types(oop method) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  return method->obj_field(parameterTypes_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Method::set_parameter_types(oop method, oop value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  method->obj_field_put(parameterTypes_offset, value);
}

oop java_lang_reflect_Method::exception_types(oop method) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  return method->obj_field(exceptionTypes_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Method::set_exception_types(oop method, oop value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  method->obj_field_put(exceptionTypes_offset, value);
}

int java_lang_reflect_Method::modifiers(oop method) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  return method->int_field(modifiers_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Method::set_modifiers(oop method, int value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  method->int_field_put(modifiers_offset, value);
}

bool java_lang_reflect_Method::has_signature_field() {
  return (signature_offset >= 0);
}

oop java_lang_reflect_Method::signature(oop method) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  assert(has_signature_field(), "signature field must be present");
  return method->obj_field(signature_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Method::set_signature(oop method, oop value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  assert(has_signature_field(), "signature field must be present");
  method->obj_field_put(signature_offset, value);
}

bool java_lang_reflect_Method::has_annotations_field() {
  return (annotations_offset >= 0);
}

oop java_lang_reflect_Method::annotations(oop method) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  assert(has_annotations_field(), "annotations field must be present");
  return method->obj_field(annotations_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Method::set_annotations(oop method, oop value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  assert(has_annotations_field(), "annotations field must be present");
  method->obj_field_put(annotations_offset, value);
}

bool java_lang_reflect_Method::has_parameter_annotations_field() {
  return (parameter_annotations_offset >= 0);
}

oop java_lang_reflect_Method::parameter_annotations(oop method) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  assert(has_parameter_annotations_field(), "parameter annotations field must be present");
  return method->obj_field(parameter_annotations_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Method::set_parameter_annotations(oop method, oop value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  assert(has_parameter_annotations_field(), "parameter annotations field must be present");
  method->obj_field_put(parameter_annotations_offset, value);
}

bool java_lang_reflect_Method::has_annotation_default_field() {
  return (annotation_default_offset >= 0);
}

oop java_lang_reflect_Method::annotation_default(oop method) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  assert(has_annotation_default_field(), "annotation default field must be present");
  return method->obj_field(annotation_default_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Method::set_annotation_default(oop method, oop value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  assert(has_annotation_default_field(), "annotation default field must be present");
  method->obj_field_put(annotation_default_offset, value);
}

bool java_lang_reflect_Method::has_type_annotations_field() {
  return (type_annotations_offset >= 0);
}

oop java_lang_reflect_Method::type_annotations(oop method) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  assert(has_type_annotations_field(), "type_annotations field must be present");
  return method->obj_field(type_annotations_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Method::set_type_annotations(oop method, oop value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  assert(has_type_annotations_field(), "type_annotations field must be present");
  method->obj_field_put(type_annotations_offset, value);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Constructor::compute_offsets() {
  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::reflect_Constructor_klass();
  compute_offset(clazz_offset,          k, vmSymbols::clazz_name(),          vmSymbols::class_signature());
  compute_offset(parameterTypes_offset, k, vmSymbols::parameterTypes_name(), vmSymbols::class_array_signature());
  compute_offset(exceptionTypes_offset, k, vmSymbols::exceptionTypes_name(), vmSymbols::class_array_signature());
  compute_offset(slot_offset,           k, vmSymbols::slot_name(),           vmSymbols::int_signature());
  compute_offset(modifiers_offset,      k, vmSymbols::modifiers_name(),      vmSymbols::int_signature());
  // The generic signature and annotations fields are only present in 1.5
  signature_offset = -1;
  annotations_offset = -1;
  parameter_annotations_offset = -1;
  type_annotations_offset = -1;
  compute_optional_offset(signature_offset,             k, vmSymbols::signature_name(),             vmSymbols::string_signature());
  compute_optional_offset(annotations_offset,           k, vmSymbols::annotations_name(),           vmSymbols::byte_array_signature());
  compute_optional_offset(parameter_annotations_offset, k, vmSymbols::parameter_annotations_name(), vmSymbols::byte_array_signature());
  compute_optional_offset(type_annotations_offset,      k, vmSymbols::type_annotations_name(),      vmSymbols::byte_array_signature());
}

Handle java_lang_reflect_Constructor::create(TRAPS) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  Symbol* name = vmSymbols::java_lang_reflect_Constructor();
  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(name, true, CHECK_NH);
  instanceKlassHandle klass (THREAD, k);
  // Ensure it is initialized
  klass->initialize(CHECK_NH);
  return klass->allocate_instance_handle(THREAD);
}

oop java_lang_reflect_Constructor::clazz(oop reflect) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  return reflect->obj_field(clazz_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Constructor::set_clazz(oop reflect, oop value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
   reflect->obj_field_put(clazz_offset, value);
}

oop java_lang_reflect_Constructor::parameter_types(oop constructor) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  return constructor->obj_field(parameterTypes_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Constructor::set_parameter_types(oop constructor, oop value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  constructor->obj_field_put(parameterTypes_offset, value);
}

oop java_lang_reflect_Constructor::exception_types(oop constructor) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  return constructor->obj_field(exceptionTypes_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Constructor::set_exception_types(oop constructor, oop value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  constructor->obj_field_put(exceptionTypes_offset, value);
}

int java_lang_reflect_Constructor::slot(oop reflect) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  return reflect->int_field(slot_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Constructor::set_slot(oop reflect, int value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  reflect->int_field_put(slot_offset, value);
}

int java_lang_reflect_Constructor::modifiers(oop constructor) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  return constructor->int_field(modifiers_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Constructor::set_modifiers(oop constructor, int value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  constructor->int_field_put(modifiers_offset, value);
}

bool java_lang_reflect_Constructor::has_signature_field() {
  return (signature_offset >= 0);
}

oop java_lang_reflect_Constructor::signature(oop constructor) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  assert(has_signature_field(), "signature field must be present");
  return constructor->obj_field(signature_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Constructor::set_signature(oop constructor, oop value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  assert(has_signature_field(), "signature field must be present");
  constructor->obj_field_put(signature_offset, value);
}

bool java_lang_reflect_Constructor::has_annotations_field() {
  return (annotations_offset >= 0);
}

oop java_lang_reflect_Constructor::annotations(oop constructor) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  assert(has_annotations_field(), "annotations field must be present");
  return constructor->obj_field(annotations_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Constructor::set_annotations(oop constructor, oop value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  assert(has_annotations_field(), "annotations field must be present");
  constructor->obj_field_put(annotations_offset, value);
}

bool java_lang_reflect_Constructor::has_parameter_annotations_field() {
  return (parameter_annotations_offset >= 0);
}

oop java_lang_reflect_Constructor::parameter_annotations(oop method) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  assert(has_parameter_annotations_field(), "parameter annotations field must be present");
  return method->obj_field(parameter_annotations_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Constructor::set_parameter_annotations(oop method, oop value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  assert(has_parameter_annotations_field(), "parameter annotations field must be present");
  method->obj_field_put(parameter_annotations_offset, value);
}

bool java_lang_reflect_Constructor::has_type_annotations_field() {
  return (type_annotations_offset >= 0);
}

oop java_lang_reflect_Constructor::type_annotations(oop constructor) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  assert(has_type_annotations_field(), "type_annotations field must be present");
  return constructor->obj_field(type_annotations_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Constructor::set_type_annotations(oop constructor, oop value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  assert(has_type_annotations_field(), "type_annotations field must be present");
  constructor->obj_field_put(type_annotations_offset, value);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Field::compute_offsets() {
  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::reflect_Field_klass();
  compute_offset(clazz_offset,     k, vmSymbols::clazz_name(),     vmSymbols::class_signature());
  compute_offset(name_offset,      k, vmSymbols::name_name(),      vmSymbols::string_signature());
  compute_offset(type_offset,      k, vmSymbols::type_name(),      vmSymbols::class_signature());
  compute_offset(slot_offset,      k, vmSymbols::slot_name(),      vmSymbols::int_signature());
  compute_offset(modifiers_offset, k, vmSymbols::modifiers_name(), vmSymbols::int_signature());
  // The generic signature and annotations fields are only present in 1.5
  signature_offset = -1;
  annotations_offset = -1;
  type_annotations_offset = -1;
  compute_optional_offset(signature_offset, k, vmSymbols::signature_name(), vmSymbols::string_signature());
  compute_optional_offset(annotations_offset,  k, vmSymbols::annotations_name(),  vmSymbols::byte_array_signature());
  compute_optional_offset(type_annotations_offset,  k, vmSymbols::type_annotations_name(),  vmSymbols::byte_array_signature());
}

Handle java_lang_reflect_Field::create(TRAPS) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  Symbol* name = vmSymbols::java_lang_reflect_Field();
  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(name, true, CHECK_NH);
  instanceKlassHandle klass (THREAD, k);
  // Ensure it is initialized
  klass->initialize(CHECK_NH);
  return klass->allocate_instance_handle(THREAD);
}

oop java_lang_reflect_Field::clazz(oop reflect) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  return reflect->obj_field(clazz_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Field::set_clazz(oop reflect, oop value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
   reflect->obj_field_put(clazz_offset, value);
}

oop java_lang_reflect_Field::name(oop field) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  return field->obj_field(name_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Field::set_name(oop field, oop value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  field->obj_field_put(name_offset, value);
}

oop java_lang_reflect_Field::type(oop field) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  return field->obj_field(type_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Field::set_type(oop field, oop value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  field->obj_field_put(type_offset, value);
}

int java_lang_reflect_Field::slot(oop reflect) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  return reflect->int_field(slot_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Field::set_slot(oop reflect, int value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  reflect->int_field_put(slot_offset, value);
}

int java_lang_reflect_Field::modifiers(oop field) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  return field->int_field(modifiers_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Field::set_modifiers(oop field, int value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  field->int_field_put(modifiers_offset, value);
}

bool java_lang_reflect_Field::has_signature_field() {
  return (signature_offset >= 0);
}

oop java_lang_reflect_Field::signature(oop field) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  assert(has_signature_field(), "signature field must be present");
  return field->obj_field(signature_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Field::set_signature(oop field, oop value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  assert(has_signature_field(), "signature field must be present");
  field->obj_field_put(signature_offset, value);
}

bool java_lang_reflect_Field::has_annotations_field() {
  return (annotations_offset >= 0);
}

oop java_lang_reflect_Field::annotations(oop field) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  assert(has_annotations_field(), "annotations field must be present");
  return field->obj_field(annotations_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Field::set_annotations(oop field, oop value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  assert(has_annotations_field(), "annotations field must be present");
  field->obj_field_put(annotations_offset, value);
}

bool java_lang_reflect_Field::has_type_annotations_field() {
  return (type_annotations_offset >= 0);
}

oop java_lang_reflect_Field::type_annotations(oop field) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  assert(has_type_annotations_field(), "type_annotations field must be present");
  return field->obj_field(type_annotations_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Field::set_type_annotations(oop field, oop value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  assert(has_type_annotations_field(), "type_annotations field must be present");
  field->obj_field_put(type_annotations_offset, value);
}

void reflect_ConstantPool::compute_offsets() {
  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::reflect_ConstantPool_klass();
  // This null test can be removed post beta
  if (k != NULL) {
    // The field is called ConstantPool* in the sun.reflect.ConstantPool class.
    compute_offset(_oop_offset, k, vmSymbols::ConstantPool_name(), vmSymbols::object_signature());
  }
}

void java_lang_reflect_Parameter::compute_offsets() {
  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::reflect_Parameter_klass();
  if(NULL != k) {
    compute_offset(name_offset,        k, vmSymbols::name_name(),        vmSymbols::string_signature());
    compute_offset(modifiers_offset,   k, vmSymbols::modifiers_name(),   vmSymbols::int_signature());
    compute_offset(index_offset,       k, vmSymbols::index_name(),       vmSymbols::int_signature());
    compute_offset(executable_offset,  k, vmSymbols::executable_name(),  vmSymbols::executable_signature());
  }
}

Handle java_lang_reflect_Parameter::create(TRAPS) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  Symbol* name = vmSymbols::java_lang_reflect_Parameter();
  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(name, true, CHECK_NH);
  instanceKlassHandle klass (THREAD, k);
  // Ensure it is initialized
  klass->initialize(CHECK_NH);
  return klass->allocate_instance_handle(THREAD);
}

oop java_lang_reflect_Parameter::name(oop param) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  return param->obj_field(name_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Parameter::set_name(oop param, oop value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  param->obj_field_put(name_offset, value);
}

int java_lang_reflect_Parameter::modifiers(oop param) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  return param->int_field(modifiers_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Parameter::set_modifiers(oop param, int value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  param->int_field_put(modifiers_offset, value);
}

int java_lang_reflect_Parameter::index(oop param) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  return param->int_field(index_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Parameter::set_index(oop param, int value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  param->int_field_put(index_offset, value);
}

oop java_lang_reflect_Parameter::executable(oop param) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  return param->obj_field(executable_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Parameter::set_executable(oop param, oop value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  param->obj_field_put(executable_offset, value);
}


int java_lang_reflect_Module::loader_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Module::name_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Module::_module_entry_offset = -1;

Handle java_lang_reflect_Module::create(Handle loader, Handle module_name, TRAPS) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");

  Symbol* name = vmSymbols::java_lang_reflect_Module();
  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(name, true, CHECK_NH);
  instanceKlassHandle klass (THREAD, k);

  Handle jlrmh = klass->allocate_instance_handle(CHECK_NH);
  JavaValue result(T_VOID);
  JavaCalls::call_special(&result, jlrmh, KlassHandle(THREAD, klass()),
                          vmSymbols::object_initializer_name(),
                          vmSymbols::java_lang_reflect_module_init_signature(),
                          loader, module_name, CHECK_NH);
  return jlrmh;
}

void java_lang_reflect_Module::compute_offsets() {
  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::reflect_Module_klass();
  if(NULL != k) {
    compute_offset(loader_offset,  k, vmSymbols::loader_name(),  vmSymbols::classloader_signature());
    compute_offset(name_offset,    k, vmSymbols::name_name(),    vmSymbols::string_signature());
    MODULE_INJECTED_FIELDS(INJECTED_FIELD_COMPUTE_OFFSET);
  }
}


oop java_lang_reflect_Module::loader(oop module) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  return module->obj_field(loader_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Module::set_loader(oop module, oop value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  module->obj_field_put(loader_offset, value);
}

oop java_lang_reflect_Module::name(oop module) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  return module->obj_field(name_offset);
}

void java_lang_reflect_Module::set_name(oop module, oop value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  module->obj_field_put(name_offset, value);
}

ModuleEntry* java_lang_reflect_Module::module_entry(oop module, TRAPS) {
  assert(_module_entry_offset != -1, "Uninitialized module_entry_offset");
  assert(module != NULL, "module can't be null");
  assert(module->is_oop(), "module must be oop");

  ModuleEntry* module_entry = (ModuleEntry*)module->address_field(_module_entry_offset);
  if (module_entry == NULL) {
    // If the inject field containing the ModuleEntry* is null then return the
    // class loader's unnamed module.
    oop loader = java_lang_reflect_Module::loader(module);
    Handle h_loader = Handle(THREAD, loader);
    ClassLoaderData* loader_cld = SystemDictionary::register_loader(h_loader, CHECK_NULL);
    return loader_cld->modules()->unnamed_module();
  }
  return module_entry;
}

void java_lang_reflect_Module::set_module_entry(oop module, ModuleEntry* module_entry) {
  assert(_module_entry_offset != -1, "Uninitialized module_entry_offset");
  assert(module != NULL, "module can't be null");
  assert(module->is_oop(), "module must be oop");
  module->address_field_put(_module_entry_offset, (address)module_entry);
}

Handle reflect_ConstantPool::create(TRAPS) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::reflect_ConstantPool_klass();
  instanceKlassHandle klass (THREAD, k);
  // Ensure it is initialized
  klass->initialize(CHECK_NH);
  return klass->allocate_instance_handle(THREAD);
}


void reflect_ConstantPool::set_cp(oop reflect, ConstantPool* value) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");
  oop mirror = value->pool_holder()->java_mirror();
  // Save the mirror to get back the constant pool.
  reflect->obj_field_put(_oop_offset, mirror);
}

ConstantPool* reflect_ConstantPool::get_cp(oop reflect) {
  assert(Universe::is_fully_initialized(), "Need to find another solution to the reflection problem");

  oop mirror = reflect->obj_field(_oop_offset);
  Klass* k = java_lang_Class::as_Klass(mirror);
  assert(k->is_instance_klass(), "Must be");

  // Get the constant pool back from the klass.  Since class redefinition
  // merges the new constant pool into the old, this is essentially the
  // same constant pool as the original.  If constant pool merging is
  // no longer done in the future, this will have to change to save
  // the original.
  return InstanceKlass::cast(k)->constants();
}

void reflect_UnsafeStaticFieldAccessorImpl::compute_offsets() {
  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::reflect_UnsafeStaticFieldAccessorImpl_klass();
  // This null test can be removed post beta
  if (k != NULL) {
    compute_offset(_base_offset, k,
                   vmSymbols::base_name(), vmSymbols::object_signature());
  }
}

oop java_lang_boxing_object::initialize_and_allocate(BasicType type, TRAPS) {
  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::box_klass(type);
  if (k == NULL)  return NULL;
  instanceKlassHandle h (THREAD, k);
  if (!h->is_initialized())  h->initialize(CHECK_0);
  return h->allocate_instance(THREAD);
}


oop java_lang_boxing_object::create(BasicType type, jvalue* value, TRAPS) {
  oop box = initialize_and_allocate(type, CHECK_0);
  if (box == NULL)  return NULL;
  switch (type) {
    case T_BOOLEAN:
      box->bool_field_put(value_offset, value->z);
      break;
    case T_CHAR:
      box->char_field_put(value_offset, value->c);
      break;
    case T_FLOAT:
      box->float_field_put(value_offset, value->f);
      break;
    case T_DOUBLE:
      box->double_field_put(long_value_offset, value->d);
      break;
    case T_BYTE:
      box->byte_field_put(value_offset, value->b);
      break;
    case T_SHORT:
      box->short_field_put(value_offset, value->s);
      break;
    case T_INT:
      box->int_field_put(value_offset, value->i);
      break;
    case T_LONG:
      box->long_field_put(long_value_offset, value->j);
      break;
    default:
      return NULL;
  }
  return box;
}


BasicType java_lang_boxing_object::basic_type(oop box) {
  if (box == NULL)  return T_ILLEGAL;
  BasicType type = SystemDictionary::box_klass_type(box->klass());
  if (type == T_OBJECT)         // 'unknown' value returned by SD::bkt
    return T_ILLEGAL;
  return type;
}


BasicType java_lang_boxing_object::get_value(oop box, jvalue* value) {
  BasicType type = SystemDictionary::box_klass_type(box->klass());
  switch (type) {
  case T_BOOLEAN:
    value->z = box->bool_field(value_offset);
    break;
  case T_CHAR:
    value->c = box->char_field(value_offset);
    break;
  case T_FLOAT:
    value->f = box->float_field(value_offset);
    break;
  case T_DOUBLE:
    value->d = box->double_field(long_value_offset);
    break;
  case T_BYTE:
    value->b = box->byte_field(value_offset);
    break;
  case T_SHORT:
    value->s = box->short_field(value_offset);
    break;
  case T_INT:
    value->i = box->int_field(value_offset);
    break;
  case T_LONG:
    value->j = box->long_field(long_value_offset);
    break;
  default:
    return T_ILLEGAL;
  } // end switch
  return type;
}


BasicType java_lang_boxing_object::set_value(oop box, jvalue* value) {
  BasicType type = SystemDictionary::box_klass_type(box->klass());
  switch (type) {
  case T_BOOLEAN:
    box->bool_field_put(value_offset, value->z);
    break;
  case T_CHAR:
    box->char_field_put(value_offset, value->c);
    break;
  case T_FLOAT:
    box->float_field_put(value_offset, value->f);
    break;
  case T_DOUBLE:
    box->double_field_put(long_value_offset, value->d);
    break;
  case T_BYTE:
    box->byte_field_put(value_offset, value->b);
    break;
  case T_SHORT:
    box->short_field_put(value_offset, value->s);
    break;
  case T_INT:
    box->int_field_put(value_offset, value->i);
    break;
  case T_LONG:
    box->long_field_put(long_value_offset, value->j);
    break;
  default:
    return T_ILLEGAL;
  } // end switch
  return type;
}


void java_lang_boxing_object::print(BasicType type, jvalue* value, outputStream* st) {
  switch (type) {
  case T_BOOLEAN:   st->print("%s", value->z ? "true" : "false");   break;
  case T_CHAR:      st->print("%d", value->c);                      break;
  case T_BYTE:      st->print("%d", value->b);                      break;
  case T_SHORT:     st->print("%d", value->s);                      break;
  case T_INT:       st->print("%d", value->i);                      break;
  case T_LONG:      st->print(INT64_FORMAT, value->j);              break;
  case T_FLOAT:     st->print("%f", value->f);                      break;
  case T_DOUBLE:    st->print("%lf", value->d);                     break;
  default:          st->print("type %d?", type);                    break;
  }
}

// Support for java_lang_ref_SoftReference

jlong java_lang_ref_SoftReference::timestamp(oop ref) {
  return ref->long_field(timestamp_offset);
}

jlong java_lang_ref_SoftReference::clock() {
  InstanceKlass* ik = SystemDictionary::SoftReference_klass();
  jlong* offset = (jlong*)ik->static_field_addr(static_clock_offset);
  return *offset;
}

void java_lang_ref_SoftReference::set_clock(jlong value) {
  InstanceKlass* ik = SystemDictionary::SoftReference_klass();
  jlong* offset = (jlong*)ik->static_field_addr(static_clock_offset);
  *offset = value;
}

// Support for java_lang_invoke_DirectMethodHandle

int java_lang_invoke_DirectMethodHandle::_member_offset;

oop java_lang_invoke_DirectMethodHandle::member(oop dmh) {
  oop member_name = NULL;
  bool is_dmh = dmh->is_oop() && java_lang_invoke_DirectMethodHandle::is_instance(dmh);
  assert(is_dmh, "a DirectMethodHandle oop is expected");
  if (is_dmh) {
    member_name = dmh->obj_field(member_offset_in_bytes());
  }
  return member_name;
}

void java_lang_invoke_DirectMethodHandle::compute_offsets() {
  Klass* klass_oop = SystemDictionary::DirectMethodHandle_klass();
  if (klass_oop != NULL) {
    compute_offset(_member_offset, klass_oop, vmSymbols::member_name(), vmSymbols::java_lang_invoke_MemberName_signature());
  }
}

// Support for java_lang_invoke_MethodHandle

int java_lang_invoke_MethodHandle::_type_offset;
int java_lang_invoke_MethodHandle::_form_offset;

int java_lang_invoke_MemberName::_clazz_offset;
int java_lang_invoke_MemberName::_name_offset;
int java_lang_invoke_MemberName::_type_offset;
int java_lang_invoke_MemberName::_flags_offset;
int java_lang_invoke_MemberName::_vmtarget_offset;
int java_lang_invoke_MemberName::_vmloader_offset;
int java_lang_invoke_MemberName::_vmindex_offset;

int java_lang_invoke_LambdaForm::_vmentry_offset;

void java_lang_invoke_MethodHandle::compute_offsets() {
  Klass* klass_oop = SystemDictionary::MethodHandle_klass();
  if (klass_oop != NULL) {
    compute_offset(_type_offset, klass_oop, vmSymbols::type_name(), vmSymbols::java_lang_invoke_MethodType_signature());
    compute_offset(_form_offset, klass_oop, vmSymbols::form_name(), vmSymbols::java_lang_invoke_LambdaForm_signature());
  }
}

void java_lang_invoke_MemberName::compute_offsets() {
  Klass* klass_oop = SystemDictionary::MemberName_klass();
  if (klass_oop != NULL) {
    compute_offset(_clazz_offset,     klass_oop, vmSymbols::clazz_name(),     vmSymbols::class_signature());
    compute_offset(_name_offset,      klass_oop, vmSymbols::name_name(),      vmSymbols::string_signature());
    compute_offset(_type_offset,      klass_oop, vmSymbols::type_name(),      vmSymbols::object_signature());
    compute_offset(_flags_offset,     klass_oop, vmSymbols::flags_name(),     vmSymbols::int_signature());
    MEMBERNAME_INJECTED_FIELDS(INJECTED_FIELD_COMPUTE_OFFSET);
  }
}

void java_lang_invoke_LambdaForm::compute_offsets() {
  Klass* klass_oop = SystemDictionary::LambdaForm_klass();
  if (klass_oop != NULL) {
    compute_offset(_vmentry_offset, klass_oop, vmSymbols::vmentry_name(), vmSymbols::java_lang_invoke_MemberName_signature());
  }
}

bool java_lang_invoke_LambdaForm::is_instance(oop obj) {
  return obj != NULL && is_subclass(obj->klass());
}


oop java_lang_invoke_MethodHandle::type(oop mh) {
  return mh->obj_field(_type_offset);
}

void java_lang_invoke_MethodHandle::set_type(oop mh, oop mtype) {
  mh->obj_field_put(_type_offset, mtype);
}

oop java_lang_invoke_MethodHandle::form(oop mh) {
  assert(_form_offset != 0, "");
  return mh->obj_field(_form_offset);
}

void java_lang_invoke_MethodHandle::set_form(oop mh, oop lform) {
  assert(_form_offset != 0, "");
  mh->obj_field_put(_form_offset, lform);
}

/// MemberName accessors

oop java_lang_invoke_MemberName::clazz(oop mname) {
  assert(is_instance(mname), "wrong type");
  return mname->obj_field(_clazz_offset);
}

void java_lang_invoke_MemberName::set_clazz(oop mname, oop clazz) {
  assert(is_instance(mname), "wrong type");
  mname->obj_field_put(_clazz_offset, clazz);
}

oop java_lang_invoke_MemberName::name(oop mname) {
  assert(is_instance(mname), "wrong type");
  return mname->obj_field(_name_offset);
}

void java_lang_invoke_MemberName::set_name(oop mname, oop name) {
  assert(is_instance(mname), "wrong type");
  mname->obj_field_put(_name_offset, name);
}

oop java_lang_invoke_MemberName::type(oop mname) {
  assert(is_instance(mname), "wrong type");
  return mname->obj_field(_type_offset);
}

void java_lang_invoke_MemberName::set_type(oop mname, oop type) {
  assert(is_instance(mname), "wrong type");
  mname->obj_field_put(_type_offset, type);
}

int java_lang_invoke_MemberName::flags(oop mname) {
  assert(is_instance(mname), "wrong type");
  return mname->int_field(_flags_offset);
}

void java_lang_invoke_MemberName::set_flags(oop mname, int flags) {
  assert(is_instance(mname), "wrong type");
  mname->int_field_put(_flags_offset, flags);
}

Metadata* java_lang_invoke_MemberName::vmtarget(oop mname) {
  assert(is_instance(mname), "wrong type");
  return (Metadata*)mname->address_field(_vmtarget_offset);
}

bool java_lang_invoke_MemberName::is_method(oop mname) {
  assert(is_instance(mname), "must be MemberName");
  return (flags(mname) & (MN_IS_METHOD | MN_IS_CONSTRUCTOR)) > 0;
}

void java_lang_invoke_MemberName::set_vmtarget(oop mname, Metadata* ref) {
  assert(is_instance(mname), "wrong type");
  // check the type of the vmtarget
  oop dependency = NULL;
  if (ref != NULL) {
    switch (flags(mname) & (MN_IS_METHOD |
                            MN_IS_CONSTRUCTOR |
                            MN_IS_FIELD)) {
    case MN_IS_METHOD:
    case MN_IS_CONSTRUCTOR:
      assert(ref->is_method(), "should be a method");
      dependency = ((Method*)ref)->method_holder()->java_mirror();
      break;
    case MN_IS_FIELD:
      assert(ref->is_klass(), "should be a class");
      dependency = ((Klass*)ref)->java_mirror();
      break;
    default:
      ShouldNotReachHere();
    }
  }
  mname->address_field_put(_vmtarget_offset, (address)ref);
  // Add a reference to the loader (actually mirror because anonymous classes will not have
  // distinct loaders) to ensure the metadata is kept alive
  // This mirror may be different than the one in clazz field.
  mname->obj_field_put(_vmloader_offset, dependency);
}

intptr_t java_lang_invoke_MemberName::vmindex(oop mname) {
  assert(is_instance(mname), "wrong type");
  return (intptr_t) mname->address_field(_vmindex_offset);
}

void java_lang_invoke_MemberName::set_vmindex(oop mname, intptr_t index) {
  assert(is_instance(mname), "wrong type");
  mname->address_field_put(_vmindex_offset, (address) index);
}

oop java_lang_invoke_LambdaForm::vmentry(oop lform) {
  assert(is_instance(lform), "wrong type");
  return lform->obj_field(_vmentry_offset);
}


// Support for java_lang_invoke_MethodType

int java_lang_invoke_MethodType::_rtype_offset;
int java_lang_invoke_MethodType::_ptypes_offset;

void java_lang_invoke_MethodType::compute_offsets() {
  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::MethodType_klass();
  if (k != NULL) {
    compute_offset(_rtype_offset,  k, vmSymbols::rtype_name(),  vmSymbols::class_signature());
    compute_offset(_ptypes_offset, k, vmSymbols::ptypes_name(), vmSymbols::class_array_signature());
  }
}

void java_lang_invoke_MethodType::print_signature(oop mt, outputStream* st) {
  st->print("(");
  objArrayOop pts = ptypes(mt);
  for (int i = 0, limit = pts->length(); i < limit; i++) {
    java_lang_Class::print_signature(pts->obj_at(i), st);
  }
  st->print(")");
  java_lang_Class::print_signature(rtype(mt), st);
}

Symbol* java_lang_invoke_MethodType::as_signature(oop mt, bool intern_if_not_found, TRAPS) {
  ResourceMark rm;
  stringStream buffer(128);
  print_signature(mt, &buffer);
  const char* sigstr =       buffer.base();
  int         siglen = (int) buffer.size();
  Symbol *name;
  if (!intern_if_not_found) {
    name = SymbolTable::probe(sigstr, siglen);
  } else {
    name = SymbolTable::new_symbol(sigstr, siglen, THREAD);
  }
  return name;
}

bool java_lang_invoke_MethodType::equals(oop mt1, oop mt2) {
  if (mt1 == mt2)
    return true;
  if (rtype(mt1) != rtype(mt2))
    return false;
  if (ptype_count(mt1) != ptype_count(mt2))
    return false;
  for (int i = ptype_count(mt1) - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
    if (ptype(mt1, i) != ptype(mt2, i))
      return false;
  }
  return true;
}

oop java_lang_invoke_MethodType::rtype(oop mt) {
  assert(is_instance(mt), "must be a MethodType");
  return mt->obj_field(_rtype_offset);
}

objArrayOop java_lang_invoke_MethodType::ptypes(oop mt) {
  assert(is_instance(mt), "must be a MethodType");
  return (objArrayOop) mt->obj_field(_ptypes_offset);
}

oop java_lang_invoke_MethodType::ptype(oop mt, int idx) {
  return ptypes(mt)->obj_at(idx);
}

int java_lang_invoke_MethodType::ptype_count(oop mt) {
  return ptypes(mt)->length();
}

int java_lang_invoke_MethodType::ptype_slot_count(oop mt) {
  objArrayOop pts = ptypes(mt);
  int count = pts->length();
  int slots = 0;
  for (int i = 0; i < count; i++) {
    BasicType bt = java_lang_Class::as_BasicType(pts->obj_at(i));
    slots += type2size[bt];
  }
  return slots;
}

int java_lang_invoke_MethodType::rtype_slot_count(oop mt) {
  BasicType bt = java_lang_Class::as_BasicType(rtype(mt));
  return type2size[bt];
}


// Support for java_lang_invoke_CallSite

int java_lang_invoke_CallSite::_target_offset;
int java_lang_invoke_CallSite::_context_offset;

void java_lang_invoke_CallSite::compute_offsets() {
  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::CallSite_klass();
  if (k != NULL) {
    compute_offset(_target_offset, k, vmSymbols::target_name(), vmSymbols::java_lang_invoke_MethodHandle_signature());
    compute_offset(_context_offset, k, vmSymbols::context_name(),
                   vmSymbols::java_lang_invoke_MethodHandleNatives_CallSiteContext_signature());
  }
}

oop java_lang_invoke_CallSite::context(oop call_site) {
  assert(java_lang_invoke_CallSite::is_instance(call_site), "");

  oop dep_oop = call_site->obj_field(_context_offset);
  return dep_oop;
}

// Support for java_lang_invoke_MethodHandleNatives_CallSiteContext

int java_lang_invoke_MethodHandleNatives_CallSiteContext::_vmdependencies_offset;

void java_lang_invoke_MethodHandleNatives_CallSiteContext::compute_offsets() {
  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::Context_klass();
  if (k != NULL) {
    CALLSITECONTEXT_INJECTED_FIELDS(INJECTED_FIELD_COMPUTE_OFFSET);
  }
}

DependencyContext java_lang_invoke_MethodHandleNatives_CallSiteContext::vmdependencies(oop call_site) {
  assert(java_lang_invoke_MethodHandleNatives_CallSiteContext::is_instance(call_site), "");
  intptr_t* vmdeps_addr = (intptr_t*)call_site->address_field_addr(_vmdependencies_offset);
  DependencyContext dep_ctx(vmdeps_addr);
  return dep_ctx;
}

// Support for java_security_AccessControlContext

int java_security_AccessControlContext::_context_offset = 0;
int java_security_AccessControlContext::_privilegedContext_offset = 0;
int java_security_AccessControlContext::_isPrivileged_offset = 0;
int java_security_AccessControlContext::_isAuthorized_offset = -1;

void java_security_AccessControlContext::compute_offsets() {
  assert(_isPrivileged_offset == 0, "offsets should be initialized only once");
  fieldDescriptor fd;
  InstanceKlass* ik = SystemDictionary::AccessControlContext_klass();

  if (!ik->find_local_field(vmSymbols::context_name(), vmSymbols::protectiondomain_signature(), &fd)) {
    fatal("Invalid layout of java.security.AccessControlContext");
  }
  _context_offset = fd.offset();

  if (!ik->find_local_field(vmSymbols::privilegedContext_name(), vmSymbols::accesscontrolcontext_signature(), &fd)) {
    fatal("Invalid layout of java.security.AccessControlContext");
  }
  _privilegedContext_offset = fd.offset();

  if (!ik->find_local_field(vmSymbols::isPrivileged_name(), vmSymbols::bool_signature(), &fd)) {
    fatal("Invalid layout of java.security.AccessControlContext");
  }
  _isPrivileged_offset = fd.offset();

  // The offset may not be present for bootstrapping with older JDK.
  if (ik->find_local_field(vmSymbols::isAuthorized_name(), vmSymbols::bool_signature(), &fd)) {
    _isAuthorized_offset = fd.offset();
  }
}


bool java_security_AccessControlContext::is_authorized(Handle context) {
  assert(context.not_null() && context->klass() == SystemDictionary::AccessControlContext_klass(), "Invalid type");
  assert(_isAuthorized_offset != -1, "should be set");
  return context->bool_field(_isAuthorized_offset) != 0;
}

oop java_security_AccessControlContext::create(objArrayHandle context, bool isPrivileged, Handle privileged_context, TRAPS) {
  assert(_isPrivileged_offset != 0, "offsets should have been initialized");
  // Ensure klass is initialized
  SystemDictionary::AccessControlContext_klass()->initialize(CHECK_0);
  // Allocate result
  oop result = SystemDictionary::AccessControlContext_klass()->allocate_instance(CHECK_0);
  // Fill in values
  result->obj_field_put(_context_offset, context());
  result->obj_field_put(_privilegedContext_offset, privileged_context());
  result->bool_field_put(_isPrivileged_offset, isPrivileged);
  // whitelist AccessControlContexts created by the JVM if present
  if (_isAuthorized_offset != -1) {
    result->bool_field_put(_isAuthorized_offset, true);
  }
  return result;
}


// Support for java_lang_ClassLoader

bool java_lang_ClassLoader::offsets_computed = false;
int  java_lang_ClassLoader::_loader_data_offset = -1;
int  java_lang_ClassLoader::parallelCapable_offset = -1;
int  java_lang_ClassLoader::unnamedModule_offset = -1;

ClassLoaderData** java_lang_ClassLoader::loader_data_addr(oop loader) {
    assert(loader != NULL && loader->is_oop(), "loader must be oop");
    return (ClassLoaderData**) loader->address_field_addr(_loader_data_offset);
}

ClassLoaderData* java_lang_ClassLoader::loader_data(oop loader) {
  return *java_lang_ClassLoader::loader_data_addr(loader);
}

void java_lang_ClassLoader::compute_offsets() {
  assert(!offsets_computed, "offsets should be initialized only once");
  offsets_computed = true;

  // The field indicating parallelCapable (parallelLockMap) is only present starting in 7,
  Klass* k1 = SystemDictionary::ClassLoader_klass();
  compute_optional_offset(parallelCapable_offset,
    k1, vmSymbols::parallelCapable_name(), vmSymbols::concurrenthashmap_signature());

  compute_offset(unnamedModule_offset,
    k1, vmSymbols::unnamedModule_name(), vmSymbols::module_signature());

  CLASSLOADER_INJECTED_FIELDS(INJECTED_FIELD_COMPUTE_OFFSET);
}

oop java_lang_ClassLoader::parent(oop loader) {
  assert(is_instance(loader), "loader must be oop");
  return loader->obj_field(parent_offset);
}

bool java_lang_ClassLoader::isAncestor(oop loader, oop cl) {
  assert(is_instance(loader), "loader must be oop");
  assert(cl == NULL || is_instance(cl), "cl argument must be oop");
  oop acl = loader;
  debug_only(jint loop_count = 0);
  // This loop taken verbatim from ClassLoader.java:
  do {
    acl = parent(acl);
    if (cl == acl) {
      return true;
    }
    assert(++loop_count > 0, "loop_count overflow");
  } while (acl != NULL);
  return false;
}

bool java_lang_ClassLoader::is_instance(oop obj) {
  return obj != NULL && is_subclass(obj->klass());
}


// For class loader classes, parallelCapable defined
// based on non-null field
// Written to by java.lang.ClassLoader, vm only reads this field, doesn't set it
bool java_lang_ClassLoader::parallelCapable(oop class_loader) {
  if (parallelCapable_offset == -1) {
     // Default for backward compatibility is false
     return false;
  }
  return (class_loader->obj_field(parallelCapable_offset) != NULL);
}

bool java_lang_ClassLoader::is_trusted_loader(oop loader) {
  // Fix for 4474172; see evaluation for more details
  loader = non_reflection_class_loader(loader);

  oop cl = SystemDictionary::java_system_loader();
  while(cl != NULL) {
    if (cl == loader) return true;
    cl = parent(cl);
  }
  return false;
}

oop java_lang_ClassLoader::non_reflection_class_loader(oop loader) {
  if (loader != NULL) {
    // See whether this is one of the class loaders associated with
    // the generated bytecodes for reflection, and if so, "magically"
    // delegate to its parent to prevent class loading from occurring
    // in places where applications using reflection didn't expect it.
    Klass* delegating_cl_class = SystemDictionary::reflect_DelegatingClassLoader_klass();
    // This might be null in non-1.4 JDKs
    if (delegating_cl_class != NULL && loader->is_a(delegating_cl_class)) {
      return parent(loader);
    }
  }
  return loader;
}

oop java_lang_ClassLoader::unnamedModule(oop loader) {
  assert(is_instance(loader), "loader must be oop");
  return loader->obj_field(unnamedModule_offset);
}

// Support for java_lang_System
int java_lang_System::in_offset_in_bytes() {
  return (InstanceMirrorKlass::offset_of_static_fields() + static_in_offset);
}


int java_lang_System::out_offset_in_bytes() {
  return (InstanceMirrorKlass::offset_of_static_fields() + static_out_offset);
}


int java_lang_System::err_offset_in_bytes() {
  return (InstanceMirrorKlass::offset_of_static_fields() + static_err_offset);
}


bool java_lang_System::has_security_manager() {
  InstanceKlass* ik = SystemDictionary::System_klass();
  address addr = ik->static_field_addr(static_security_offset);
  if (UseCompressedOops) {
    return oopDesc::load_decode_heap_oop((narrowOop *)addr) != NULL;
  } else {
    return oopDesc::load_decode_heap_oop((oop*)addr) != NULL;
  }
}

int java_lang_Class::_klass_offset;
int java_lang_Class::_array_klass_offset;
int java_lang_Class::_oop_size_offset;
int java_lang_Class::_static_oop_field_count_offset;
int java_lang_Class::_class_loader_offset;
int java_lang_Class::_module_offset;
int java_lang_Class::_protection_domain_offset;
int java_lang_Class::_component_mirror_offset;
int java_lang_Class::_init_lock_offset;
int java_lang_Class::_signers_offset;
GrowableArray<Klass*>* java_lang_Class::_fixup_mirror_list = NULL;
GrowableArray<Klass*>* java_lang_Class::_fixup_module_field_list = NULL;
int java_lang_Throwable::backtrace_offset;
int java_lang_Throwable::detailMessage_offset;
int java_lang_Throwable::stackTrace_offset;
int java_lang_Throwable::depth_offset;
int java_lang_Throwable::static_unassigned_stacktrace_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_AccessibleObject::override_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Method::clazz_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Method::name_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Method::returnType_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Method::parameterTypes_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Method::exceptionTypes_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Method::slot_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Method::modifiers_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Method::signature_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Method::annotations_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Method::parameter_annotations_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Method::annotation_default_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Method::type_annotations_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Constructor::clazz_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Constructor::parameterTypes_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Constructor::exceptionTypes_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Constructor::slot_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Constructor::modifiers_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Constructor::signature_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Constructor::annotations_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Constructor::parameter_annotations_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Constructor::type_annotations_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Field::clazz_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Field::name_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Field::type_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Field::slot_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Field::modifiers_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Field::signature_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Field::annotations_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Field::type_annotations_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Parameter::name_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Parameter::modifiers_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Parameter::index_offset;
int java_lang_reflect_Parameter::executable_offset;
int java_lang_boxing_object::value_offset;
int java_lang_boxing_object::long_value_offset;
int java_lang_ref_Reference::referent_offset;
int java_lang_ref_Reference::queue_offset;
int java_lang_ref_Reference::next_offset;
int java_lang_ref_Reference::discovered_offset;
int java_lang_ref_Reference::number_of_fake_oop_fields;
int java_lang_ref_SoftReference::timestamp_offset;
int java_lang_ref_SoftReference::static_clock_offset;
int java_lang_ClassLoader::parent_offset;
int java_lang_System::static_in_offset;
int java_lang_System::static_out_offset;
int java_lang_System::static_err_offset;
int java_lang_System::static_security_offset;
int java_lang_StackTraceElement::declaringClass_offset;
int java_lang_StackTraceElement::methodName_offset;
int java_lang_StackTraceElement::fileName_offset;
int java_lang_StackTraceElement::lineNumber_offset;
int java_lang_StackTraceElement::moduleName_offset;
int java_lang_StackTraceElement::moduleVersion_offset;
int java_lang_StackFrameInfo::_declaringClass_offset;
int java_lang_StackFrameInfo::_memberName_offset;
int java_lang_StackFrameInfo::_bci_offset;
int java_lang_StackFrameInfo::_version_offset;
int java_lang_LiveStackFrameInfo::_monitors_offset;
int java_lang_LiveStackFrameInfo::_locals_offset;
int java_lang_LiveStackFrameInfo::_operands_offset;
int java_lang_AssertionStatusDirectives::classes_offset;
int java_lang_AssertionStatusDirectives::classEnabled_offset;
int java_lang_AssertionStatusDirectives::packages_offset;
int java_lang_AssertionStatusDirectives::packageEnabled_offset;
int java_lang_AssertionStatusDirectives::deflt_offset;
int java_nio_Buffer::_limit_offset;
int java_util_concurrent_locks_AbstractOwnableSynchronizer::_owner_offset = 0;
int reflect_ConstantPool::_oop_offset;
int reflect_UnsafeStaticFieldAccessorImpl::_base_offset;


// Support for java_lang_StackTraceElement

void java_lang_StackTraceElement::set_fileName(oop element, oop value) {
  element->obj_field_put(fileName_offset, value);
}

void java_lang_StackTraceElement::set_declaringClass(oop element, oop value) {
  element->obj_field_put(declaringClass_offset, value);
}

void java_lang_StackTraceElement::set_methodName(oop element, oop value) {
  element->obj_field_put(methodName_offset, value);
}

void java_lang_StackTraceElement::set_lineNumber(oop element, int value) {
  element->int_field_put(lineNumber_offset, value);
}

void java_lang_StackTraceElement::set_moduleName(oop element, oop value) {
  element->obj_field_put(moduleName_offset, value);
}

void java_lang_StackTraceElement::set_moduleVersion(oop element, oop value) {
  element->obj_field_put(moduleVersion_offset, value);
}

// Support for java_lang_StackFrameInfo
void java_lang_StackFrameInfo::set_declaringClass(oop element, oop value) {
  element->obj_field_put(_declaringClass_offset, value);
}

void java_lang_StackFrameInfo::set_version(oop element, short value) {
  element->short_field_put(_version_offset, value);
}

void java_lang_StackFrameInfo::set_bci(oop element, int value) {
  element->int_field_put(_bci_offset, value);
}

void java_lang_LiveStackFrameInfo::set_monitors(oop element, oop value) {
  element->obj_field_put(_monitors_offset, value);
}

void java_lang_LiveStackFrameInfo::set_locals(oop element, oop value) {
  element->obj_field_put(_locals_offset, value);
}

void java_lang_LiveStackFrameInfo::set_operands(oop element, oop value) {
  element->obj_field_put(_operands_offset, value);
}

// Support for java Assertions - java_lang_AssertionStatusDirectives.

void java_lang_AssertionStatusDirectives::set_classes(oop o, oop val) {
  o->obj_field_put(classes_offset, val);
}

void java_lang_AssertionStatusDirectives::set_classEnabled(oop o, oop val) {
  o->obj_field_put(classEnabled_offset, val);
}

void java_lang_AssertionStatusDirectives::set_packages(oop o, oop val) {
  o->obj_field_put(packages_offset, val);
}

void java_lang_AssertionStatusDirectives::set_packageEnabled(oop o, oop val) {
  o->obj_field_put(packageEnabled_offset, val);
}

void java_lang_AssertionStatusDirectives::set_deflt(oop o, bool val) {
  o->bool_field_put(deflt_offset, val);
}


// Support for intrinsification of java.nio.Buffer.checkIndex
int java_nio_Buffer::limit_offset() {
  return _limit_offset;
}


void java_nio_Buffer::compute_offsets() {
  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::nio_Buffer_klass();
  assert(k != NULL, "must be loaded in 1.4+");
  compute_offset(_limit_offset, k, vmSymbols::limit_name(), vmSymbols::int_signature());
}

void java_util_concurrent_locks_AbstractOwnableSynchronizer::initialize(TRAPS) {
  if (_owner_offset != 0) return;

  SystemDictionary::load_abstract_ownable_synchronizer_klass(CHECK);
  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::abstract_ownable_synchronizer_klass();
  compute_offset(_owner_offset, k,
                 vmSymbols::exclusive_owner_thread_name(), vmSymbols::thread_signature());
}

oop java_util_concurrent_locks_AbstractOwnableSynchronizer::get_owner_threadObj(oop obj) {
  assert(_owner_offset != 0, "Must be initialized");
  return obj->obj_field(_owner_offset);
}

// Compute hard-coded offsets
// Invoked before SystemDictionary::initialize, so pre-loaded classes
// are not available to determine the offset_of_static_fields.
void JavaClasses::compute_hard_coded_offsets() {
  const int x = heapOopSize;
  const int header = instanceOopDesc::base_offset_in_bytes();

  // Throwable Class
  java_lang_Throwable::backtrace_offset  = java_lang_Throwable::hc_backtrace_offset  * x + header;
  java_lang_Throwable::detailMessage_offset = java_lang_Throwable::hc_detailMessage_offset * x + header;
  java_lang_Throwable::stackTrace_offset = java_lang_Throwable::hc_stackTrace_offset * x + header;
  java_lang_Throwable::static_unassigned_stacktrace_offset = java_lang_Throwable::hc_static_unassigned_stacktrace_offset *  x;

  // java_lang_boxing_object
  java_lang_boxing_object::value_offset = java_lang_boxing_object::hc_value_offset + header;
  java_lang_boxing_object::long_value_offset = align_size_up((java_lang_boxing_object::hc_value_offset + header), BytesPerLong);

  // java_lang_ref_Reference:
  java_lang_ref_Reference::referent_offset = java_lang_ref_Reference::hc_referent_offset * x + header;
  java_lang_ref_Reference::queue_offset = java_lang_ref_Reference::hc_queue_offset * x + header;
  java_lang_ref_Reference::next_offset  = java_lang_ref_Reference::hc_next_offset * x + header;
  java_lang_ref_Reference::discovered_offset  = java_lang_ref_Reference::hc_discovered_offset * x + header;
  // Artificial fields for java_lang_ref_Reference
  // The first field is for the discovered field added in 1.4
  java_lang_ref_Reference::number_of_fake_oop_fields = 1;

  // java_lang_ref_SoftReference Class
  java_lang_ref_SoftReference::timestamp_offset = align_size_up((java_lang_ref_SoftReference::hc_timestamp_offset * x + header), BytesPerLong);
  // Don't multiply static fields because they are always in wordSize units
  java_lang_ref_SoftReference::static_clock_offset = java_lang_ref_SoftReference::hc_static_clock_offset * x;

  // java_lang_ClassLoader
  java_lang_ClassLoader::parent_offset = java_lang_ClassLoader::hc_parent_offset * x + header;

  // java_lang_System
  java_lang_System::static_in_offset  = java_lang_System::hc_static_in_offset  * x;
  java_lang_System::static_out_offset = java_lang_System::hc_static_out_offset * x;
  java_lang_System::static_err_offset = java_lang_System::hc_static_err_offset * x;
  java_lang_System::static_security_offset = java_lang_System::hc_static_security_offset * x;

  // java_lang_StackTraceElement
  java_lang_StackTraceElement::moduleName_offset = java_lang_StackTraceElement::hc_moduleName_offset * x + header;
  java_lang_StackTraceElement::moduleVersion_offset = java_lang_StackTraceElement::hc_moduleVersion_offset * x + header;
  java_lang_StackTraceElement::declaringClass_offset = java_lang_StackTraceElement::hc_declaringClass_offset  * x + header;
  java_lang_StackTraceElement::methodName_offset = java_lang_StackTraceElement::hc_methodName_offset * x + header;
  java_lang_StackTraceElement::fileName_offset   = java_lang_StackTraceElement::hc_fileName_offset   * x + header;
  java_lang_StackTraceElement::lineNumber_offset = java_lang_StackTraceElement::hc_lineNumber_offset * x + header;
  java_lang_AssertionStatusDirectives::classes_offset = java_lang_AssertionStatusDirectives::hc_classes_offset * x + header;
  java_lang_AssertionStatusDirectives::classEnabled_offset = java_lang_AssertionStatusDirectives::hc_classEnabled_offset * x + header;
  java_lang_AssertionStatusDirectives::packages_offset = java_lang_AssertionStatusDirectives::hc_packages_offset * x + header;
  java_lang_AssertionStatusDirectives::packageEnabled_offset = java_lang_AssertionStatusDirectives::hc_packageEnabled_offset * x + header;
  java_lang_AssertionStatusDirectives::deflt_offset = java_lang_AssertionStatusDirectives::hc_deflt_offset * x + header;

}


// Compute non-hard-coded field offsets of all the classes in this file
void JavaClasses::compute_offsets() {
  // java_lang_Class::compute_offsets was called earlier in bootstrap
  java_lang_ClassLoader::compute_offsets();
  java_lang_Throwable::compute_offsets();
  java_lang_Thread::compute_offsets();
  java_lang_ThreadGroup::compute_offsets();
  java_lang_invoke_MethodHandle::compute_offsets();
  java_lang_invoke_DirectMethodHandle::compute_offsets();
  java_lang_invoke_MemberName::compute_offsets();
  java_lang_invoke_LambdaForm::compute_offsets();
  java_lang_invoke_MethodType::compute_offsets();
  java_lang_invoke_CallSite::compute_offsets();
  java_lang_invoke_MethodHandleNatives_CallSiteContext::compute_offsets();
  java_security_AccessControlContext::compute_offsets();
  // Initialize reflection classes. The layouts of these classes
  // changed with the new reflection implementation in JDK 1.4, and
  // since the Universe doesn't know what JDK version it is until this
  // point we defer computation of these offsets until now.
  java_lang_reflect_AccessibleObject::compute_offsets();
  java_lang_reflect_Method::compute_offsets();
  java_lang_reflect_Constructor::compute_offsets();
  java_lang_reflect_Field::compute_offsets();
  java_nio_Buffer::compute_offsets();
  reflect_ConstantPool::compute_offsets();
  reflect_UnsafeStaticFieldAccessorImpl::compute_offsets();
  java_lang_reflect_Parameter::compute_offsets();
  java_lang_reflect_Module::compute_offsets();
  java_lang_StackFrameInfo::compute_offsets();
  java_lang_LiveStackFrameInfo::compute_offsets();

  // generated interpreter code wants to know about the offsets we just computed:
  AbstractAssembler::update_delayed_values();
}

#ifndef PRODUCT

// These functions exist to assert the validity of hard-coded field offsets to guard
// against changes in the class files

bool JavaClasses::check_offset(const char *klass_name, int hardcoded_offset, const char *field_name, const char* field_sig) {
  EXCEPTION_MARK;
  fieldDescriptor fd;
  TempNewSymbol klass_sym = SymbolTable::new_symbol(klass_name, CATCH);
  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(klass_sym, true, CATCH);
  instanceKlassHandle h_klass (THREAD, k);
  TempNewSymbol f_name = SymbolTable::new_symbol(field_name, CATCH);
  TempNewSymbol f_sig  = SymbolTable::new_symbol(field_sig, CATCH);
  if (!h_klass->find_local_field(f_name, f_sig, &fd)) {
    tty->print_cr("Nonstatic field %s.%s not found", klass_name, field_name);
    return false;
  }
  if (fd.is_static()) {
    tty->print_cr("Nonstatic field %s.%s appears to be static", klass_name, field_name);
    return false;
  }
  if (fd.offset() == hardcoded_offset ) {
    return true;
  } else {
    tty->print_cr("Offset of nonstatic field %s.%s is hardcoded as %d but should really be %d.",
                  klass_name, field_name, hardcoded_offset, fd.offset());
    return false;
  }
}


bool JavaClasses::check_static_offset(const char *klass_name, int hardcoded_offset, const char *field_name, const char* field_sig) {
  EXCEPTION_MARK;
  fieldDescriptor fd;
  TempNewSymbol klass_sym = SymbolTable::new_symbol(klass_name, CATCH);
  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(klass_sym, true, CATCH);
  instanceKlassHandle h_klass (THREAD, k);
  TempNewSymbol f_name = SymbolTable::new_symbol(field_name, CATCH);
  TempNewSymbol f_sig  = SymbolTable::new_symbol(field_sig, CATCH);
  if (!h_klass->find_local_field(f_name, f_sig, &fd)) {
    tty->print_cr("Static field %s.%s not found", klass_name, field_name);
    return false;
  }
  if (!fd.is_static()) {
    tty->print_cr("Static field %s.%s appears to be nonstatic", klass_name, field_name);
    return false;
  }
  if (fd.offset() == hardcoded_offset + InstanceMirrorKlass::offset_of_static_fields()) {
    return true;
  } else {
    tty->print_cr("Offset of static field %s.%s is hardcoded as %d but should really be %d.", klass_name, field_name, hardcoded_offset, fd.offset() - InstanceMirrorKlass::offset_of_static_fields());
    return false;
  }
}


bool JavaClasses::check_constant(const char *klass_name, int hardcoded_constant, const char *field_name, const char* field_sig) {
  EXCEPTION_MARK;
  fieldDescriptor fd;
  TempNewSymbol klass_sym = SymbolTable::new_symbol(klass_name, CATCH);
  Klass* k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(klass_sym, true, CATCH);
  instanceKlassHandle h_klass (THREAD, k);
  TempNewSymbol f_name = SymbolTable::new_symbol(field_name, CATCH);
  TempNewSymbol f_sig  = SymbolTable::new_symbol(field_sig, CATCH);
  if (!h_klass->find_local_field(f_name, f_sig, &fd)) {
    tty->print_cr("Static field %s.%s not found", klass_name, field_name);
    return false;
  }
  if (!fd.is_static() || !fd.has_initial_value()) {
    tty->print_cr("Static field %s.%s appears to be non-constant", klass_name, field_name);
    return false;
  }
  if (!fd.initial_value_tag().is_int()) {
    tty->print_cr("Static field %s.%s is not an int", klass_name, field_name);
    return false;
  }
  jint field_value = fd.int_initial_value();
  if (field_value == hardcoded_constant) {
    return true;
  } else {
    tty->print_cr("Constant value of static field %s.%s is hardcoded as %d but should really be %d.", klass_name, field_name, hardcoded_constant, field_value);
    return false;
  }
}


// Check the hard-coded field offsets of all the classes in this file

void JavaClasses::check_offsets() {
  bool valid = true;
  HandleMark hm;

#define CHECK_OFFSET(klass_name, cpp_klass_name, field_name, field_sig) \
  valid &= check_offset(klass_name, cpp_klass_name :: field_name ## _offset, #field_name, field_sig)

#define CHECK_LONG_OFFSET(klass_name, cpp_klass_name, field_name, field_sig) \
  valid &= check_offset(klass_name, cpp_klass_name :: long_ ## field_name ## _offset, #field_name, field_sig)

#define CHECK_STATIC_OFFSET(klass_name, cpp_klass_name, field_name, field_sig) \
  valid &= check_static_offset(klass_name, cpp_klass_name :: static_ ## field_name ## _offset, #field_name, field_sig)

#define CHECK_CONSTANT(klass_name, cpp_klass_name, field_name, field_sig) \
  valid &= check_constant(klass_name, cpp_klass_name :: field_name, #field_name, field_sig)

  // java.lang.String

  CHECK_OFFSET("java/lang/String", java_lang_String, value, "[B");
  if (java_lang_String::has_hash_field()) {
    CHECK_OFFSET("java/lang/String", java_lang_String, hash, "I");
  }
  if (java_lang_String::has_coder_field()) {
    CHECK_OFFSET("java/lang/String", java_lang_String, coder, "B");
  }

  // java.lang.Class

  // Fake fields
  // CHECK_OFFSET("java/lang/Class", java_lang_Class, klass); // %%% this needs to be checked
  // CHECK_OFFSET("java/lang/Class", java_lang_Class, array_klass); // %%% this needs to be checked

  // java.lang.Throwable

  CHECK_OFFSET("java/lang/Throwable", java_lang_Throwable, backtrace, "Ljava/lang/Object;");
  CHECK_OFFSET("java/lang/Throwable", java_lang_Throwable, detailMessage, "Ljava/lang/String;");
  CHECK_OFFSET("java/lang/Throwable", java_lang_Throwable, stackTrace, "[Ljava/lang/StackTraceElement;");
  CHECK_OFFSET("java/lang/Throwable", java_lang_Throwable, depth, "I");

  // Boxed primitive objects (java_lang_boxing_object)

  CHECK_OFFSET("java/lang/Boolean",   java_lang_boxing_object, value, "Z");
  CHECK_OFFSET("java/lang/Character", java_lang_boxing_object, value, "C");
  CHECK_OFFSET("java/lang/Float",     java_lang_boxing_object, value, "F");
  CHECK_LONG_OFFSET("java/lang/Double", java_lang_boxing_object, value, "D");
  CHECK_OFFSET("java/lang/Byte",      java_lang_boxing_object, value, "B");
  CHECK_OFFSET("java/lang/Short",     java_lang_boxing_object, value, "S");
  CHECK_OFFSET("java/lang/Integer",   java_lang_boxing_object, value, "I");
  CHECK_LONG_OFFSET("java/lang/Long", java_lang_boxing_object, value, "J");

  // java.lang.ClassLoader

  CHECK_OFFSET("java/lang/ClassLoader", java_lang_ClassLoader, parent,        "Ljava/lang/ClassLoader;");

  // java.lang.System

  CHECK_STATIC_OFFSET("java/lang/System", java_lang_System,  in, "Ljava/io/InputStream;");
  CHECK_STATIC_OFFSET("java/lang/System", java_lang_System, out, "Ljava/io/PrintStream;");
  CHECK_STATIC_OFFSET("java/lang/System", java_lang_System, err, "Ljava/io/PrintStream;");
  CHECK_STATIC_OFFSET("java/lang/System", java_lang_System, security, "Ljava/lang/SecurityManager;");

  // java.lang.StackTraceElement

  CHECK_OFFSET("java/lang/StackTraceElement", java_lang_StackTraceElement, declaringClass, "Ljava/lang/String;");
  CHECK_OFFSET("java/lang/StackTraceElement", java_lang_StackTraceElement, methodName, "Ljava/lang/String;");
  CHECK_OFFSET("java/lang/StackTraceElement", java_lang_StackTraceElement,   fileName, "Ljava/lang/String;");
  CHECK_OFFSET("java/lang/StackTraceElement", java_lang_StackTraceElement, lineNumber, "I");

  // java.lang.ref.Reference

  CHECK_OFFSET("java/lang/ref/Reference", java_lang_ref_Reference, referent, "Ljava/lang/Object;");
  CHECK_OFFSET("java/lang/ref/Reference", java_lang_ref_Reference, queue, "Ljava/lang/ref/ReferenceQueue;");
  CHECK_OFFSET("java/lang/ref/Reference", java_lang_ref_Reference, next, "Ljava/lang/ref/Reference;");
  // Fake field
  //CHECK_OFFSET("java/lang/ref/Reference", java_lang_ref_Reference, discovered, "Ljava/lang/ref/Reference;");

  // java.lang.ref.SoftReference

  CHECK_OFFSET("java/lang/ref/SoftReference", java_lang_ref_SoftReference, timestamp, "J");
  CHECK_STATIC_OFFSET("java/lang/ref/SoftReference", java_lang_ref_SoftReference, clock, "J");

  // java.lang.AssertionStatusDirectives
  //
  // The CheckAssertionStatusDirectives boolean can be removed from here and
  // globals.hpp after the AssertionStatusDirectives class has been integrated
  // into merlin "for some time."  Without it, the vm will fail with early
  // merlin builds.

  if (CheckAssertionStatusDirectives) {
    const char* nm = "java/lang/AssertionStatusDirectives";
    const char* sig = "[Ljava/lang/String;";
    CHECK_OFFSET(nm, java_lang_AssertionStatusDirectives, classes, sig);
    CHECK_OFFSET(nm, java_lang_AssertionStatusDirectives, classEnabled, "[Z");
    CHECK_OFFSET(nm, java_lang_AssertionStatusDirectives, packages, sig);
    CHECK_OFFSET(nm, java_lang_AssertionStatusDirectives, packageEnabled, "[Z");
    CHECK_OFFSET(nm, java_lang_AssertionStatusDirectives, deflt, "Z");
  }

  if (!valid) vm_exit_during_initialization("Hard-coded field offset verification failed");
}

#endif // PRODUCT

int InjectedField::compute_offset() {
  InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(klass());
  for (AllFieldStream fs(ik); !fs.done(); fs.next()) {
    if (!may_be_java && !fs.access_flags().is_internal()) {
      // Only look at injected fields
      continue;
    }
    if (fs.name() == name() && fs.signature() == signature()) {
      return fs.offset();
    }
  }
  ResourceMark rm;
  tty->print_cr("Invalid layout of %s at %s/%s%s", ik->external_name(), name()->as_C_string(), signature()->as_C_string(), may_be_java ? " (may_be_java)" : "");
#ifndef PRODUCT
  ik->print();
  tty->print_cr("all fields:");
  for (AllFieldStream fs(ik); !fs.done(); fs.next()) {
    tty->print_cr("  name: %s, sig: %s, flags: %08x", fs.name()->as_C_string(), fs.signature()->as_C_string(), fs.access_flags().as_int());
  }
#endif //PRODUCT
  vm_exit_during_initialization("Invalid layout of preloaded class: use -Xlog:class+load=info to see the origin of the problem class");
  return -1;
}

void javaClasses_init() {
  JavaClasses::compute_offsets();
  JavaClasses::check_offsets();
  FilteredFieldsMap::initialize();  // must be done after computing offsets.
}