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author duke
date Sat, 01 Dec 2007 00:00:00 +0000
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+Working on OpenJDK using NetBeans
+    This note describes how to work on the OpenJDK from NetBeans. We've
+    provided several NetBeans projects as starting points. Below we'll
+    describe how to use them, as well as how to create your own.
+
+Getting Started
+    In addition to the source bundle for Open JDK, you'll need to download
+    and install copies of the JDK and of NetBeans 6. And if you want to run
+    tests on the JDK (you do want to run tests, right?), you'll need to
+    install the jtreg test harness.
+
+    In this note, when pathnames are not fully specified, they should be
+    interpreted as being relative to the directory containing this README
+    and the NetBeans projects themselves.
+
+        The JDK build process is largely make-based, and is not
+        exceptionally tolerant of pathnames with spaces in them (such as
+        "Program Files". Please be sure to install everything in a
+        directories whose paths don't have any spaces!
+
+    Downloading the JDK
+        You've probably done this a million times. Download and install it
+        from http://java.sun.com/javase
+
+    Downloading the OpenJDK sources
+        Since you're reading this, d you've already downloaded the OpenJDK
+        source bundle.  Later in this document we'll refer to the location
+        where you installed the Open JDK sources as *install-dir*.
+
+    Downloading a pre-built, JDK 7
+        This will be necessary to do builds of some of the projects.  In
+        general, you want to download and install a pre-built JDK that
+        corresponds to the OpenJDK sources you download.  Building the entire
+        OpenJDK depends on a few parts of the pre-built JDK.  Get this from
+        http://download.java.net/jdk7/binaries
+
+        Note: For working on certain projects, like JMX and JConsole, you 
+              may find convenient to use a pre-built version of JDK 7 (or 
+              OpenJDK) rather than building your own. This will allow you
+              to build only that part of the OpenJDK sources which correspond
+              to that project. 
+
+    NetBeans 6
+        Yep, NetBeans *6*. Nope, not FCS'd yet. We're on the edge here,
+        enjoy it! Get the latest working development build of NetBeans 6
+        from http://netbeans.org
+
+    jtreg
+        "jtreg" is the test harness for running OpenJDK's regression tests.
+        Get it from http://openjdk.java.net/jtreg
+
+    Ant
+       NetBeans comes with ant, but if you use a separately-installed copy
+       please make sure that it is at least version 1.7.0.
+
+Configuring
+    Building OpenJDK is hard and complex. No, strike that. While it's not
+    exactly "easy", we've got it down to *relatively* small set of
+    properties you need to set.
+
+    The NetBeans projects provided here share a fair amount of common
+    structure. They share properties values where it makes sense. Each
+    project loads properties from these properties files, in this order
+
+        ${basedir}/nbproject/private/build.properties
+        $HOME/.openjdk/${ant.project.name}-build.properties
+        $HOME/.openjdk/build.properties
+        ${basedir}/build.properties
+
+    (${basedir} refers to the directory containing a particular NetBeans
+    project.) The first time a property defined determines value: it is
+    *not* overridden if it is read from properties files read later. The net
+    result is that by carefully choosing where to define a property, you can
+    have it for a specific project, all uses of a specific project (useful
+    if you work on multiple copies of the OpenJDK sources), all projects, or
+    only projects in a specific sandbox.
+
+    With that in mind, please set the following properties. Presuming you
+    want the same values for all your work, set them in
+    $HOME/.openjdk/build.properties.
+
+    * bootstrap.jdk
+        Set to the location where you installed JDK 7.
+
+    * jtreg.home
+        Set to the location where you installed jtreg.
+
+    * make.options
+        Some of the projects invoke "make", since they compile native code.
+        The make.options property is for passing information about what you
+        installed where to make.  Change the paths to fit your particular
+        situation:
+
+        make.options=\
+            ALT_BOOTDIR=/home/me/bin/jdk1.6.0 \
+            ALT_BINARY_PLUGS_PATH=/home/me/bin/openjdk-binary-plugs \
+            ALT_JDK_IMPORT_PATH=/home/me/bin/jdk1.7.0 \
+            OPENJDK=true
+
+        The trailing '\' are important, so that make gets the above as a
+        single set of options.
+
+        You might want to add additional additional options: see the README
+        for the project you're using for more information.  And see
+                 *install-dir*/jdk/make/README-builds.html
+        to read much more about building the JDK.
+
+  Windows-specific configuration
+    First, please note that the entire JDK cannot currently be built on
+    Windows platforms.  This will likely limit your ability to build
+    make-based projects.  See 
+         *install-dir*/jdk/make/README-builds.html
+    for full information on issues with building on the Windows platform.
+
+    That said, there are two ways to work with the Windows-required settings
+    for the Microsoft tools. Either:
+
+    * Set environment variables values in Windows
+        Doing so means accessing the System control panel in Windows, and
+        setting the environment variables there.
+
+        By doing so, you can launch NetBeans by double-clicking its icon,
+        and the environment variable values will be available.
+
+    * Set environment variable values in a shell
+        Doing so means adding the settings to an init file (e.g. .bashrc,
+        .cshrc, etc.) or a file that you source before running NetBeans. In
+        this case, you'll have to launch NetBeans from the command line in a
+        shell in which you've set the environment variables.
+
+    In either case, the end result should be that the settings are available
+    to the make-based build process when it runs from within NetBeans.
+
+    The make-based builds presumes that you're using cygwin, and expects to
+    find "make" in c:\cygwin\bin\make. If you've installed cygwin elsewhere,
+    set "make" in a properties file.
+
+  Configuring Project Properties
+    A note of caution is in order: These are NetBeans *freeform* projects.
+    If you use the NetBeans GUI to examine them, things are likely to not
+    look "right". Please don't edit them there, please instead use a text
+    editor.
+
+  Locale Requirements
+    To build the Open JDK sources, be certain that you are using the "C"
+    locale on Unix (R) platforms, or "English (United States)" locale on
+    Windows.
+
+Platforms and architectures, oh my!
+    The Open JDK can be built for a variety of operating system platforms
+    and hardware architectures. The resulting builds are always placed in a
+    directory which contains the platform and architecture as part of the
+    pathname, as in *platform*-*arch*. For example, if you build the jdk
+    project on a Linux platform running on x86 hardware, the resulting build
+    will be in:
+
+    *install-dir*/jdk/build/linux-i586
+
+    We've provided support for some platforms and architectures in
+    common/architectures. Add another, if your needs require it.
+
+Provided NetBeans projects
+    This section describes the NetBeans projects that help you work on
+    particular parts of the JDK. While they're largely similar in structure
+    and should work the way you expect NetBeans projects to work: edit,
+    build, test, etc. But there are some differences. They don't all support
+    the same targets (e.g., there's nothing to run in jarzip project).
+
+    Some projects are built by invoking make, since they involve compilation
+    of native code or other activities that cannot be done by javac. We call
+    these "make-based", and call all others "ant-based".
+
+    They all are configured by way of a build.properties file, which
+    specifies what subdirectories of the JDK sources they manipulate, what
+    directories contain their tests, whether they use make or ant, etc.
+
+    The very first time you open any one of these projects on set of Open
+    JDK sources, NetBeans will scan the entire set of sources, not just
+    those for the project you opened. This will take a few minutes, but will
+    ensure that Go To Type, Go To Source, and so on work as expected. Later,
+    when you open other projects on the same Open JDK sources, there will be
+    at most a slight delay.
+
+    There's a README accompanying each project. Most are text files, which
+    you can Open in NetBeans, some are HTML files, in which case unless you
+    enjoy reading raw HTML, you're better off choosing the *View* menu item
+    from the context menu, which will display the README in your web
+    browser.
+
+    Finally, note that these projects were all created by different people,
+    and are while some attempt has been made to make them look and behave
+    the same, they are maintained separately and will vary somewhat.
+
+    The projects currently provided are:
+
+    jdk (directory "jdk")
+        A convenient starting point for the other projects, and from which
+        you can build the entire OpenJDK. Please note that depending on your
+        hardware, this could take a *very* long time. The results of the
+        build are in *install-dir*/jdk/build/*platform*-*arch*.
+
+    world (directory "world")
+        This project builds both the Hotspot VM and all of JavaSE. Please
+        note that pretty much regardless of your hardware, this *will* take
+        a long time, and use *lots* of disk space (more than 3GB). The
+        results of the build are in
+        *install-dir*/control/build/*platform*-*arch* and
+        *install-dir*/control/build/*platform*-*arch*-fastdebug.
+
+        Consult the project's README file for details.
+
+    AWT & Java2d (directory "awt2d")
+        For working on AWT and Java2d. Supports running the Font2DTest demo.
+
+        This is a make-based project: In order to build this project, you
+        should build the jdk project first, since AWT and Java2d include
+        native code.
+
+    JConsole (directory "jconsole")
+        For working on JConsole. Creates ../dist/lib/jconsole.jar. Supports
+        running and debugging JConsole.
+
+        This ant-based project does *not* require that you build the jdk
+        project first, provided that you use a pre-built version of JDK 7. 
+
+    Java (TM) Management Extensions (JMX(TM)) API (directory "jmx")
+        For working on JMX source code. Creates ../dist/lib/jmx.jar.
+
+        This ant-based project does *not* require that you build the jdk
+        project first, provided that you use a pre-built version of JDK 7. 
+
+    Jar & Zip (directory "jarzip")
+        For working on jar & zip. It builds the zip library (including
+        native code), the jar library, and the jar tool. Creates an
+        executable jar program in ../build/*platform*-*arch*/bin/jar.
+
+        This is a make-based project: In order to build this project, you
+        should build the jdk project first, since AWT and Java2d include
+        native code.
+
+    Swing (directory "swing")
+        For working on Swing. Creates ../dist/lib/swing.jar. Supports
+        running and debugging the SampleTree demo.
+
+        This ant-based project does *not* require that you build the jdk
+        project first, provided that you use a pre-built version of JDK 7. 
+
+    In addition, there are projects for building the compiler, javadoc,
+    and related tools, in the OpenJDK langtools component.  These
+    projects are separate from those described here, and have their
+    own set of guidelines and conventions. For more details, see the 
+    README files in make/netbeans in the OpenJDK langtools component.
+
+Running Tests
+    We use the jtreg test harness, described more fully at
+    http://openjdk.java.net/jtreg
+
+    The OpenJDK tests are in the default Java package, are public classes,
+    and have a "static void main(String[] args)" with which they are
+    invoked. Some tests are actually shell scripts, which might compile
+    code, etc. jtreg is quite flexible.
+
+    To run tests for a project, use *Test Project* from NetBeans. From the
+    command line, you can invoke "ant jtreg" on any individual project's
+    build.xml file.
+
+    In either NetBeans of on the command line, jtreg prints summary output
+    about the pass/fail nature of each test. An HTML report of the entire
+    test run is
+
+    ../build/*platform*-*arch*/jtreg/*ant-project-name*/JTreport/report.html
+
+    In that same JTreport directory are also individual HTML files
+    summarizing the test environment, test passes and failures, etc.
+
+    More detail on any individual test is under
+
+    ../build/*platform*-*arch*/jtreg/*ant-project-name*/JTwork.
+
+    For example, details about the awt/Modal/SupportedTest/SupportedTest
+    test are under the JTwork directory at the same pathname as the test
+    itself in a ".jtr" file. For example:
+
+    ../build/*platform*-*arch*/jtreg/*ant-project-name*/JTwork/awt/Modal/SupportedTest/SupportedTest.jtr
+
+    Sometimes you will see that running jtreg has resulted in a failure.
+    This does not always mean that a test has an error in it. Jtreg
+    distinguishes between these two cases. There are a number of tests that
+    are "ignored", and not run, and these are reported as failures.
+
+    You can run a single test by right clicking on it and choosing *Run
+    File* from the context menu. Similarly, you can debug a single test by
+    choosing *Debug File*.
+
+Debugging
+    Debugging is enabled by default in ant-based projects, as if
+    "-g:lines,vars,source" were given. You can alter these settings via
+    entries in one of the configuration properties files. For example:
+
+     javac.debug=false
+     javac.debuglevel=<debug level options>
+
+    To debug a project or test, use NetBeans in the normal way, with *Debug
+    Project* or *Debug File*. Note that not all projects provide a target
+    that can be debugged, but tests can be debugged.
+
+Creating Javadoc
+    You can create Javadoc for any of the projects: just choose *Generate
+    Javadoc for Project* from the NetBeans menu. Your default browser will
+    open up, displaying the just-generated javadoc.
+
+    Javadoc gets generated into a separate subdirectory for each project.
+    For example, the Jar & Zip project's javadoc gets generated in
+
+    ../build/*platform*-*arch*/jtreg/*ant-project-name*/javadoc/jarzip
+
+Cleaning projects
+    Each project can of course be cleaned. Make-based and ant-based projects
+    differ a little in what exactly gets cleaned. In both cases, all jtreg
+    results and javadoc are removed.
+
+    In ant-based projects, project-specific files as determined by the
+    project's build.properties file are removed from the classes and gensrc
+    directories that are under ../build/*platform*-*arch*.
+
+    In make-based projects, "make clean" is run in the same directories as
+    "make all" is run when building the project.
+
+    Please note that the jdk project is "special" with respect to
+    cleaning: in this case, the entire ../build directory is removed.
+    Similar for the world project.
+
+Creating your own NetBeans project
+    The project's we've provided are hopefully a useful starting point, but
+    chances are that you want to work on something else. This section will
+    describe how to select an existing project, and then adapt it to your
+    needs.
+
+  Considerations
+    The first consideration is whether or not the code in which you're
+    interested needs anything beyond javac and copying of resources to
+    build. If so, then you'll need to create a make-based project. If not,
+    an ant-based project is possible. See the project descriptions above to
+    learn which are make-based, and which are ant-based.
+
+    The second consideration is to consider the files that you'll need. Each
+    project is defined by 3 files:
+
+    * build.xml
+        This is the ant build script. For a make-based project, they tend to
+        have a target for "make clean" and another for "make all", each of
+        which invokes "make-run" in the same set of directories. Take a look
+        at jarzip/build.xml for an example.
+
+        For an ant-based project, there might be nothing, with all the work
+        done via the declaration of properties in the build.properties file.
+        Take a look at jconsole/build.xml for an example, and notice how it
+        overrides the -pre-compile and -post-compile targets that are
+        defined in common/shared.xml (where they are defined to do nothing).
+
+    * build.properties
+        This file defines the directories (and possibly files) that are
+        included in and excluded from. Basically, a file is considered to be
+        in a project if it is mentioned in the includes list, or is
+        contained under a directory mentioned in that list, *unless* it is
+        explicitly excluded or is contained under a directory that is
+        excluded. Take a look awt2d/build.properties for an example.
+
+    * nbproject/project.xml
+        This file defines a project for NetBeans for a "freeform" project.
+        Each declares several entity references, which are used later in the
+        project. For an example, see javadoc/nbproject/project.xml, which is
+        an ant-based project. Compare that with
+        jarzip/nbproject/project.xml, which is make-based. Not much
+        difference! That's because while the jarzip project is make-based,
+        it does not have any platform-specifc native code. Contrast that
+        with awt2d/nbproject/project.xml, which does have native code;
+        notice that it uses platform-specific entity references.
+
+    In summary, we recommend exploring the given projects, and choosing one
+    that most closely suits our needs.
+
+  Example: A project for working on collections
+    Let's create a project to work with on the collections classes. There's no native
+    code here, so an ant-based project will do. Therefore, the jconsole
+    project is a reasonable project to use as a starting point.
+
+   Clone the existing project
+    Make a directory for the collections project next to the existing projects:
+
+        % mkdir -p collections/nbproject
+
+    Copy files from the jconsole project:
+
+        % cp jconsole/build.properties collections
+        % cp jconsole/build.xml collections
+        % cp jconsole/nbproject/project.xml collections/nbproject
+
+   Change the set of files included in the project
+    The collections sources are all under one directory, and we want to include
+    them all. The same is true of the tests. So edit
+    collections/build.properties so that it contains these lines:
+
+        includes=\
+            java/util/
+        excludes=\
+            java/util/Calendar.java,\
+            java/util/jar/,\
+            java/util/logging/,\
+            java/util/prefs/,\
+            java/util/regex/,\
+            java/util/spi/,\
+            java/util/zip/,\
+            **/*-XLocales.java
+        jtreg.tests=\
+            java/util/**/*Collection/ \
+            java/util/**/*Map/ \
+            java/util/**/*Set/ \
+            java/util/**/*List/
+
+    Notice the trailing "/" in some of those pathnames: that tells NetBeans to
+    treat the path as a directory and include (or exclude) everything beneath
+    it in the hierarchy.  Note also how we include java/util, but then exclude
+    several directories under that which are not related to collections.
+
+    The build.xml for collections is about as simple as can be. First, change the
+    name of the project:
+
+        <project name="collections" default="build" basedir=".">
+
+    Then remove the -pre-compile target from the build.xml.  Change the
+    -post-compile target to create collections.jar without any manifest, and
+    to only contain the collections-related classes.  The jar task now looks
+    like this:
+
+        <jar destfile="${dist.dir}/lib/collections.jar">
+            <fileset dir="${classes.dir}">
+                <include name="java/util/*.class"/>
+                <exclude name="java/util/Calendar*.class"/>
+            </fileset>
+        </jar>
+
+    Also, change the clean target to remove collections.jar instead of
+    jconsole.jar.
+
+    Now edit project.xml file. NetBeans uses an internal name and a
+    user-visible name, both of which should be changed:
+
+        <name>Collections</name> <!-- Customized -->
+
+        <property name="name">collections</property> <!-- Customized -->
+
+    Inside of <ide-actions>, you'll see actions defined for "run" and
+    "debug". The Open JDK sources don't include any interesting Collections
+    demos, but leave these here for now: Chances are you'll find or create
+    some collections app of your own, and want to run and or debug it.
+
+    Now, open the Collections project in NetBeans. You'll find that it operates
+    just like all the other projects.
+
+    If/when you want to have this project run a collections demo, change the run
+    target in collections/build.xml to invoke it in whatever manner is appropriate
+    for the app. From NetBeans, you should be able to run and debug the app,
+    including setting breakpoints in collections code.
+
+Appendix 1: Customizations
+    There are several ways to customize NetBeans projects. These projects
+    share a common structure, based on common/shared.xml and
+    common/make.xml. Because of that sharing, some mechanisms described
+    below apply to most any project.
+
+    Several properties can be user-defined (and several should not be
+    user-defined!). There are different properties files read. Some default
+    targets can be overridden.
+
+  Property files
+    When projects are started, and when when ant runs (whether from NetBeans
+    or the command line), these properties files are loaded in the order
+    shown:
+
+        ${basedir}/nbproject/private/build.properties
+        $HOME/.openjdk/${ant.project.name}-build.properties
+        $HOME/.openjdk/build.properties
+        ${basedir}/build.properties
+
+    Recall that with ant, once a property is defined, its value cannot be
+    changed, so it's "first one wins".
+
+    To set or change a property for all your projects, put the change into
+    $HOME/.openjdk/build.properties. This will affect all projects,
+    regardless of how many copies of the Open JDK sources you have
+    installed.
+
+    Let's say you have 2 copies of the Open JDK sources installed on your
+    machine. To set or change a property for only the jconsole projects, but
+    for both of them, make the change in
+    $HOME/.openjdk/${ant.project.name}-build.properties. If you wanted to
+    make the change for only one of them, do it in that project's
+    ${basedir}/build.properties or
+    ${basedir}/nbproject/private/build.properties.
+
+    Note that the ${basedir}/build.properties file is provided as part of
+    the Open JDK sources. If you want to make a change for a particular
+    project, you can do so there. To be sure that you don't ever
+    accidentally check it in to the Open JDK sources, you might prefer to
+    change it in ${basedir}/nbproject/private/build.properties.
+
+  User-definable Properties
+    You can provide your own definitions for the properties listed below. We
+    don't recommend overriding the definitions of other properties.
+
+    The following two properties should be set before you try to use the
+    projects with NetBeans or ant:
+
+    * bootstrap.jdk
+        Default: None. Please set this, normally in
+        $HOME/.openjdk/build.properties.
+
+    * jtreg.home
+        Default: None. Please set this, normally in
+        $HOME/.openjdk/build.properties.
+
+    These options are for configuring the behavior of make:
+
+    * use.make
+        Default: Not set. Set this, normally in ${basedir}/build.properties,
+        for a project which is make-based.
+
+    * make
+        Default: The right make for the platform, at the normal location, set
+        in *install-dir*/jdk/make/netbeans/common/make.xml
+
+    * make.options
+        Default: Empty string. Set this to any options you want to pass to
+        make, normally in ${basedir}/build.properties.
+
+    The remaining options are for use at your discretion:
+
+    * javac.options
+        Default: -Xlint
+
+    * javac.debug
+        Default: true
+
+    * javac.debuglevel
+        Default: lines,vars,source
+
+    * javadoc.options
+        Default: Empty string.  Some projects will need to set this to
+        increase the heap for running javadoc.  For example, see the jconsole
+        project.
+
+    * javadoc.packagenames
+        Default: "none".  Set this only if your project has packages that
+        should be javadoc'd which are outside of those listed in the javadoc
+        target's packageset.  See the jconsole project for an example.
+
+    * jtreg.tests
+        Default: None. Set this to a list of tests and/or directories
+        containing regression tests, normally in
+        ${basedir}/build.properties.
+
+    * jtreg.options
+        Default: Empty string. See http://openjdk.java.net/jtreg
+
+    * jtreg.vm.options
+        Default: Empty string. See http://openjdk.java.net/jtreg
+
+    * jtreg.samevm
+        Default: false. See http://openjdk.java.net/jtreg
+
+  User-overridable Targets
+    The following targets are provided for your convenience in customizing
+    various standard actions of the build process. The default action for
+    each one is to do nothing.
+
+    These come in pairs, allowing your scripts to take some action before or
+    after a standard action.
+
+    * -pre-init
+        Runs before any other initialization has been done.
+
+    * -post-init
+        Runs before after all other initialization has been done.
+
+    * -pre-compile
+        Runs before compilation, whether via ant or make. Note that in the
+        case of make, it is before the -build-make target has run, not after
+        each individual make-run has run.
+
+    * -post-compile
+        Runs after compilation, whether via ant or make.
+
+    * -pre-jtreg
+        Runs before regression tests are run.
+
+    * -post-jtreg
+        Runs before after regression tests are run.
+
+    In a make-based project, you should override these targets to do the
+    build and clean actions required of your project.
+
+    * -build-make
+    * -clean-make
+
+Known Issues
+  Tests won't run: waiting for lock
+    Occasionally when running tests, there will be a delay, followed by a
+    message like this:
+        Waiting to lock test result cache for
+           /tmp/jdk/build/linux-i586/jtreg/jconsole/JTwork for 20 seconds
+    The workaround is to stop the tests, rm -rf the offending jtreg/<project>
+    directory by hand, and re-run the tests.
+
+  Can't run nor debug a single test in the JConsole test
+    In most projects, you can run a single test by opening it in the editor,
+    and choosing Run File from the context menu.  If you try this with the a
+    JConsole test, instead you'll see that *all* tests from *all* projects
+    are run.  The workaround is to not try to run a single JConsole test.
+    Debugging is similarly problematic (both running and debugging use the
+    same underlying infrastructure).
+
+    If you do Run File a JConsole tests, you can always stop them by pressing
+    the stop button in the NetBeans output window.  But you'll be surprised to
+    learn that they are actually still running in the background.  The only
+    way out of this situation is to exit NetBeans.  A few more tests will run,
+    but after restarting NetBeans things will be OK.
+
+Attribution
+    UNIX is a registered trademark in the United States and other countries,
+    exclusively licensed through X/Open Company, Ltd.
+