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Provides the API for accessing and processing data stored in a 
data source (usually a relational database) using the 
Java<sup><font size=-2>TM</font></sup> programming language. 
This API includes a framework whereby different
drivers can be installed dynamically to access different data sources.
Although the JDBC<sup><font size=-2>TM</font></sup> API is mainly geared 
to passing SQL statements to a database, it provides for reading and
writing data from any data source with a tabular format.
The reader/writer facility, available through the 
<code>javax.sql.RowSet</code> group of interfaces, can be customized to
use and update data from a spread sheet, flat file, or any other tabular 
data source.
<P>
<h2>What the JDBC<sup><font size=-2>TM</font></sup> 4.0 API Includes</h2>
The JDBC<sup><font size=-2>TM</font></sup> 4.0 API includes both
the <code>java.sql</code> package, referred to as the JDBC core API,
and the <code>javax.sql</code> package, referred to as the JDBC Optional
Package API. This complete JDBC API
is included in the Java<sup><font size=-2>TM</font></sup>  
Standard Edition (Java SE<sup><font size=-2>TM</font></sup>), version 6.  
The <code>javax.sql</code> package extends the functionality of the JDBC API 
from a client-side API to a server-side API, and it is an essential part
of the Java<sup><font size=-2>TM</font></sup>  Enterprise Edition
(Java EE<sup><font size=-2>TM</font></sup>) technology. 
<P>
<h2>Versions</h2>
The JDBC 4.0 API incorporates all of the previous JDBC API versions:
<UL>
 <LI> The JDBC 3.0 API
 <LI> The JDBC 2.1 core API
 <LI> The JDBC 2.0 Optional Package API<br>
      (Note that the JDBC 2.1 core API and the JDBC 2.0 Optional Package
      API together are referred to as the JDBC 2.0 API.)
 <LI> The JDBC 1.2 API
 <LI> The JDBC 1.0 API
</UL>
<P>
Classes, interfaces, methods, fields, constructors, and exceptions 
have the following "since" tags that indicate when they were introduced 
into the Java platform. When these "since" tags are used in
Javadoc<sup><font size=-2>TM</font></sup> comments for the JDBC API,
they indicate the following:
<UL>
 <LI>Since 1.6 -- new in the JDBC 4.0 API and part of the Java SE platform, 
     version 6
 <LI>Since 1.4 -- new in the JDBC 3.0 API and part of the J2SE platform, 
     version 1.4
 <LI>Since 1.2 -- new in the JDBC 2.0 API and part of the J2SE platform, 
     version 1.2
 <LI>Since 1.1 or no "since" tag -- in the original JDBC 1.0 API and part of
      the JDK<sup><font size=-2>TM</font></sup>, version 1.1
</UL>
<P>
<b>NOTE:</b> Many of the new features are optional; consequently, there is 
some variation in drivers and the features they support. Always 
check your driver's documentation to see whether it supports a feature before
you try to use it.
<P>
<b>NOTE:</b> The class <code>SQLPermission</code> was added in the
Java<sup><font size=-2>TM</font></sup> 2 SDK, Standard Edition, 
version 1.3 release. This class is used to prevent unauthorized
access to the logging stream associated with the <code>DriverManager</code>,
which may contain information such as table names, column data, and so on.
<p>

<h2>What the <code>java.sql</code> Package Contains</h2>
The <code>java.sql</code> package contains API for the following:
<UL>
  <LI>Making a connection with a database via the <code>DriverManager</code> facility
  <UL>
	 <LI><code>DriverManager</code> class -- makes a connection with a driver
	 <LI><code>SQLPermission</code> class -- provides permission when code
                  running within a Security Manager, such as an applet,
                  attempts to set up a logging stream through the
                  <code>DriverManager</code>
	 <LI><code>Driver</code> interface -- provides the API for registering
             and connecting drivers based on JDBC technology ("JDBC drivers"); 
             generally used only by the <code>DriverManager</code> class
	 <LI><code>DriverPropertyInfo</code> class -- provides properties for a
             JDBC driver; not used by the general user
  </UL>
  <LI>Sending SQL statements to a database
  <UL>
	 <LI><code>Statement</code> --  used to send basic SQL statements
	 <LI><code>PreparedStatement</code> --  used to send prepared statements or 
              basic SQL statements (derived from <code>Statement</code>)
	 <LI><code>CallableStatement</code> --  used to call database stored 
              procedures (derived from <code>PreparedStatement</code>)
	 <LI><code>Connection</code> interface --  provides methods for creating
             statements and managing connections and their properties
	 <LI><code>Savepoint</code> --  provides savepoints in a transaction

  </UL>
  <LI>Retrieving and updating the results of a query
  <UL>
	 <LI><code>ResultSet</code> interface
  </UL>
  <LI>Standard mappings for SQL types to classes and interfaces in the 
      Java programming language
  <UL>
	 <LI><code>Array</code> interface -- mapping for SQL <code>ARRAY</code> 
	 <LI><code>Blob</code> interface -- mapping for SQL <code>BLOB</code> 
	 <LI><code>Clob</code> interface -- mapping for SQL <code>CLOB</code>
	 <LI><code>Date</code> class -- mapping for SQL <code>DATE</code> 
	  <LI><code>NClob</code> interface -- mapping for SQL <code>NCLOB</code>
	 <LI><code>Ref</code> interface -- mapping for SQL <code>REF</code> 
	  <LI><code>RowId</code> interface -- mapping for SQL <code>ROWID</code>
	 <LI><code>Struct</code> interface -- mapping for SQL <code>STRUCT</code> 
	  <LI><code>SQLXML</code> interface -- mapping for SQL <code>XML</code>
	 <LI><code>Time</code> class -- mapping for SQL <code>TIME</code> 
	 <LI><code>Timestamp</code> class -- mapping for SQL <code>TIMESTAMP</code> 
	 <LI><code>Types</code> class -- provides constants for SQL types
  </UL>
  <LI>Custom mapping an SQL user-defined type (UDT) to a class in the
	  Java programming language
  <UL>
	 <LI><code>SQLData</code> interface -- specifies the mapping of
              a UDT to an instance of this class
	 <LI><code>SQLInput</code> interface -- provides methods for reading
              UDT attributes from a stream
	 <LI><code>SQLOutput</code> interface -- provides methods for writing
              UDT attributes back to a stream
  </UL>
  <LI>Metadata
  <UL>
	 <LI><code>DatabaseMetaData</code> interface -- provides information
              about the database
	 <LI><code>ResultSetMetaData</code> interface -- provides information
              about the columns of a <code>ResultSet</code> object
	 <LI><code>ParameterMetaData</code> interface -- provides information
              about the parameters to <code>PreparedStatement</code> commands
  </UL>
  <LI>Exceptions
	<UL>
	  <LI><code>SQLException</code> -- thrown by most methods when there
		 is a problem accessing data and by some methods for other reasons
	  <LI><code>SQLWarning</code> -- thrown to indicate a warning
	  <LI><code>DataTruncation</code> -- thrown to indicate that data may have
     	  been truncated
	  <LI><code>BatchUpdateException</code> -- thrown to indicate that not all
		 commands in a batch update executed successfully
	</UL>
</UL>
<P>
<h3><code>java.sql</code> and <code>javax.sql</code> Features Introduced in the JDBC 4.0 API</h3>
<UL>
  <LI>auto java.sql.Driver discovery -- no longer need to load a 
<code>java.sql.Driver</code> class via <code>Class.forName</code>
 <LI>National Character Set support added
 <li>Support added for the SQL:2003 XML data type
 <lI>SQLException enhancements -- Added support for cause chaining; New SQLExceptions
 added for common SQLState class value codes
 <li>Enhanced Blob/Clob functionality -- Support provided to create and free a Blob/Clob instance
 as well as additional methods added to improve accessiblity
 <li>Support added for accessing a SQL ROWID
 <li>Support added to allow a JDBC application to access an instance of a JDBC resource
 that has been wrapped by a vendor, usually in an application server or connection 
 pooling environment.
 <li>Availability to be notfied when a <code>PreparedStatement</code> that is associated
 with a <code>PooledConnection</code> has been closed or the driver determines is invalid
 
 
</UL>
<P>
<P>
<h3><code>java.sql</code> and <code>javax.sql</code> Features Introduced in the JDBC 3.0 API</h3>
<UL>
  <LI>Pooled statements -- reuse of statements associated with a pooled 
       connection
  <LI>Savepoints -- allow a transaction to be rolled back to a designated
      savepoint
  <LI>Properties defined for <code>ConnectionPoolDataSource</code> -- specify
      how connections are to be pooled
  <LI>Metadata for parameters of a <code>PreparedStatement</code> object
  <LI>Ability to retrieve values from automatically generated columns
  <LI>Ability to have multiple <code>ResultSet</code> objects 
       returned from <code>CallableStatement</code> objects open at the
      same time
  <LI>Ability to identify parameters to <code>CallableStatement</code>
      objects by name as well as by index
  <LI><code>ResultSet</code> holdability -- ability to specify whether cursors
      should be held open or closed at the end of a transaction
  <LI>Ability to retrieve and update the SQL structured type instance that a
      <code>Ref</code> object references
  <LI>Ability to programmatically update <code>BLOB</code>,
      <code>CLOB</code>, <code>ARRAY</code>, and <code>REF</code> values.
  <LI>Addition of the <code>java.sql.Types.DATALINK</code> data type -- 
      allows JDBC drivers access to objects stored outside a data source
  <LI>Addition of metadata for retrieving SQL type hierarchies
</UL>
<P>
<h3><code>java.sql</code> Features Introduced in the JDBC 2.1 Core API</h3>
<UL>
  <LI>Scrollable result sets--using new methods in the <code>ResultSet</code>
	  interface that allow the cursor to be moved to a particular row or to a
	  position relative to its current position
  <LI>Batch updates
  <LI>Programmatic updates--using <code>ResultSet</code> updater methods
  <LI>New data types--interfaces mapping the SQL3 data types
  <LI>Custom mapping of user-defined types (UDTs)
  <LI>Miscellaneous features, including performance hints, the use of character
	  streams, full precision for <code>java.math.BigDecimal</code> values,
	  additional security, and
	  support for time zones in date, time, and timestamp values. 
</UL>
<P>
<h3><code>javax.sql</code> Features Introduced in the JDBC 2.0 Optional
Package API</h3>
<UL>
  <LI>The <code>DataSource</code> interface as a means of making a connection.  The
      Java Naming and Directory Interface<sup><font size=-2>TM</font></sup>
      (JNDI) is used for registering a <code>DataSource</code> object with a 
      naming service and also for  retrieving it.
  <LI>Pooled connections -- allowing connections to be used and reused
  <LI>Distributed transactions -- allowing a transaction to span diverse
      DBMS servers
  <LI><code>RowSet</code> technology -- providing a convenient means of
       handling and passing data
</UL>
<P>
<P>
<h3>Custom Mapping of UDTs</h3>
A user-defined type (UDT) defined in SQL can be mapped to a class in the Java
programming language. An SQL structured type or an SQL <code>DISTINCT</code>
type are the UDTs that may be custom mapped.  The following three
steps set up a custom mapping:
<ol>
  <li>Defining the SQL structured type or <code>DISTINCT</code> type in SQL
  <li>Defining the class in the Java programming language to which the
	  SQL UDT will be mapped.  This class must implement the
	  <code>SQLData</code> interface.
  <li>Making an entry in a <code>Connection</code> object's type map
      that contains two things:
   <ul>
       <li>the fully-qualified SQL name of the UDT
       <li>the <code>Class</code> object for the class that implements the 
           <code>SQLData</code> interface
   </ul>
</ol>
<p>
When these are in place for a UDT, calling the methods
<code>ResultSet.getObject</code> or <code>CallableStatement.getObject</code> 
on that UDT will automatically retrieve the custom mapping for it. Also, the
<code>PreparedStatement.setObject</code> method will automatically map the
object back to its SQL type to store it in the data source.

<h2>Package Specification</h2>

<ul>
  <li><a href="http://java.sun.com/products/jdbc/download.html">Specification 
      of the JDBC 4.0 API</a>
</ul>

<h2>Related Documentation</h2>

<ul>
  <li><a href="../../../guide/jdbc/getstart/GettingStartedTOC.fm.html">Getting Started</a>--overviews of the major interfaces
<P>
  <li><a href="http://java.sun.com/docs/books/tutorial/jdbc">Chapters on the JDBC 
     API</a>--from the online version of <i>The Java Tutorial Continued</i>
<P>
  <li><a href="http://java.sun.com/docs/books/jdbc">
<i>JDBC<sup><font size=-2>TM</font></sup>API Tutorial and Reference, 
Third Edition</i></a>--
a complete reference and tutorial for the JDBC 3.0 API
</ul>
<P>
@since 1.1
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