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      <p>Provides the core classes for the Java Management Extensions.</p>

      <p>The Java Management Extensions
	(JMX<sup><font size="-1">TM</font></sup>) API is a standard
	API for management and monitoring.  Typical uses include:</p>

      <ul>
	<li>consulting and changing application configuration</li>

	<li>accumulating statistics about application behavior and
	  making them available</li>

	<li>notifying of state changes and erroneous conditions.</li>
      </ul>

      <p>The JMX API can also be used as part of a solution for
	managing systems, networks, and so on.</p>

      <p>The API includes remote access, so a remote management
	program can interact with a running application for these
	purposes.</p>

      <h2>MBeans</h2>

      <p>The fundamental notion of the JMX API is the <em>MBean</em>.
	An MBean is a named <em>managed object</em> representing a
	resource.  It has a <em>management interface</em> consisting
	of:</p>

      <ul>
	<li>named and typed attributes that can be read and/or
	  written</li>
	
	<li>named and typed operations that can be invoked</li>

	<li>typed notifications that can be emitted by the MBean.</li>
      </ul>

      <p>For example, an MBean representing an application's
	configuration could have attributes representing the different
	configuration items.  Reading the <code>CacheSize</code>
	attribute would return the current value of that item.
	Writing it would update the item, potentially changing the
	behavior of the running application.  An operation such as
	<code>save</code> could store the current configuration
	persistently.  A notification such as
	<code>ConfigurationChangedNotification</code> could be sent
	every time the configuration is changed.</p>

      <p>In the standard usage of the JMX API, MBeans are implemented
	as Java objects.  However, as explained below, these objects are
	not usually referenced directly.</p>


      <h3>Standard MBeans</h3>

      <p>To make MBean implementation simple, the JMX API includes the
	notion of <em>Standard MBeans</em>.  A Standard MBean is one
	whose attributes and operations are deduced from a Java
	interface using certain naming patterns, similar to those used
	by JavaBeans<sup><font size="-1">TM</font></sup>.  For
	example, consider an interface like this:</p>

      <pre>
    public interface ConfigurationMBean {
	public int getCacheSize();
	public void setCacheSize(int size);
	public long getLastChangedTime();
	public void save();
    }
      </pre>

      <p>The methods <code>getCacheSize</code> and
	<code>setCacheSize</code> define a read-write attribute of
	type <code>int</code> called <code>CacheSize</code> (with an
	initial capital, unlike the JavaBeans convention).</p>

      <p>The method <code>getLastChangedTime</code> defines an
	attribute of type <code>long</code> called
	<code>LastChangedTime</code>.  This is a read-only attribute,
	since there is no method <code>setLastChangedTime</code>.</p>

      <p>The method <code>save</code> defines an operation called
	<code>save</code>.  It is not an attribute, since its name
	does not begin with <code>get</code>, <code>set</code>, or
	<code>is</code>.</p>

      <p>The exact naming patterns for Standard MBeans are detailed in
	the <a href="#spec">JMX Specification</a>.</p>

      <p>There are two ways to make a Java object that is an MBean
	with this management interface.  One is for the object to be
	of a class that has exactly the same name as the Java
	interface but without the <code>MBean</code> suffix.  So in
	the example the object would be of the class
	<code>Configuration</code>, in the same Java package as
	<code>ConfigurationMBean</code>.  The second way is to use the
	{@link javax.management.StandardMBean StandardMBean}
	class.</p>


      <h3>MXBeans</h3>
      
      <p>An <em>MXBean</em> is a variant of Standard MBean where complex
        types are mapped to a standard set of types defined in the
        {@link javax.management.openmbean} package.  MXBeans are appropriate
        if you would otherwise need to reference application-specific
        classes in your MBean interface.  They are described in detail
        in the specification for {@link javax.management.MXBean MXBean}.


      <h3>Dynamic MBeans</h3>

      <p>A <em>Dynamic MBean</em> is an MBean that defines its
	management interface at run-time.  For example, a configuration
	MBean could determine the names and types of the attributes it
	exposes by parsing an XML file.</p>

      <p>Any Java object of a class that implements the {@link
	javax.management.DynamicMBean DynamicMBean} interface is a
	Dynamic MBean.</p>


      <h3>Open MBeans</h3>

      <p>An <em>Open MBean</em> is a kind of Dynamic MBean where the
	types of attributes and of operation parameters and return
	values are built using a small set of predefined Java classes.
	Open MBeans facilitate operation with remote management programs
	that do not necessarily have access to application-specific
	types, including non-Java programs.  Open MBeans are defined by
	the package <a href="openmbean/package-summary.html"><code>
	    javax.management.openmbean</code></a>.</p>


      <h3>Model MBeans</h3>

      <p>A <em>Model MBean</em> is a kind of Dynamic MBean that acts
	as a bridge between the management interface and the
	underlying managed resource.  Both the management interface and
	the managed resource are specified as Java objects.  The same
	Model MBean implementation can be reused many times with
	different management interfaces and managed resources, and it can
	provide common functionality such as persistence and caching.
	Model MBeans are defined by the package
	<a href="modelmbean/package-summary.html"><code>
	    javax.management.modelmbean</code></a>.</p>


      <h2>MBean Server</h2>
      
      <p>To be useful, an MBean must be registered in an <em>MBean
	  Server</em>.  An MBean Server is a repository of MBeans.
	Usually the only access to the MBeans is through the MBean
	Server.  In other words, code no longer accesses the Java
	object implementing the MBean directly, but instead accesses
	the MBean by name through the MBean Server.  Each MBean has a
	unique name within the MBean Server, defined by the {@link
	javax.management.ObjectName ObjectName} class.</p>
      
      <p>An MBean Server is an object implementing the interface
        {@link javax.management.MBeanServer MBeanServer}.  
        The most convenient MBean Server to use is the 
        <em>Platform MBean Server</em>.  This is a
	single MBean Server that can be shared by different managed
	components running within the same Java Virtual Machine.  The
	Platform MBean Server is accessed with the method {@link
	java.lang.management.ManagementFactory#getPlatformMBeanServer()}.</p>

      <p>Application code can also create a new MBean Server, or
	access already-created MBean Servers, using the {@link
	javax.management.MBeanServerFactory MBeanServerFactory} class.</p>


      <h3>Creating MBeans in the MBean Server</h3>

      <p>There are two ways to create an MBean.  One is to construct a
	Java object that will be the MBean, then use the {@link
	javax.management.MBeanServer#registerMBean registerMBean}
	method to register it in the MBean Server.  The other is to
	create and register the MBean in a single operation using one
	of the {@link javax.management.MBeanServer#createMBean(String,
	javax.management.ObjectName) createMBean} methods.</p>

      <p>The <code>registerMBean</code> method is simpler for local
	use, but cannot be used remotely.  The
	<code>createMBean</code> method can be used remotely, but
	sometimes requires attention to class loading issues.</p>

      <p>An MBean can perform actions when it is registered in or
	unregistered from an MBean Server if it implements the {@link
	javax.management.MBeanRegistration MBeanRegistration}
	interface.</p>


      <h3>Accessing MBeans in the MBean Server</h3>

      <p>Given an <code>ObjectName</code> <code>name</code> and an
	<code>MBeanServer</code> <code>mbs</code>, you can access
	attributes and operations as in this example:</p>

      <pre>
    int cacheSize = mbs.getAttribute(name, "CacheSize");
    {@link javax.management.Attribute Attribute} newCacheSize =
    	new Attribute("CacheSize", new Integer(2000));
    mbs.setAttribute(name, newCacheSize);
    mbs.invoke(name, "save", new Object[0], new Class[0]);
      </pre>

      <p>Alternatively, if you have a Java interface that corresponds
	to the management interface for the MBean, you can use an
	<em>MBean proxy</em> like this:</p>

      <pre>
    ConfigurationMBean conf =
        {@link javax.management.JMX#newMBeanProxy
            JMX.newMBeanProxy}(mbs, name, ConfigurationMBean.class);
    int cacheSize = conf.getCacheSize();
    conf.setCacheSize(2000);
    conf.save();
      </pre>

      <p>Using an MBean proxy is just a convenience.  The second
	example ends up calling the same <code>MBeanServer</code>
	operations as the first one.</p>

      <p>An MBean Server can be queried for MBeans whose names match
	certain patterns and/or whose attributes meet certain
	constraints.  Name patterns are constructed using the {@link
	javax.management.ObjectName ObjectName} class and constraints
	are constructed using the {@link javax.management.Query Query}
	class.  The methods {@link
	javax.management.MBeanServer#queryNames queryNames} and {@link
	javax.management.MBeanServer#queryMBeans queryMBeans} then
	perform the query.</p>


      <h2>Notifications</h2>

      <p>A <em>notification</em> is an instance of the {@link
	javax.management.Notification Notification} class or a
	subclass.  In addition to its Java class, it has a
	<em>type</em> string that can distinguish it from other
	notifications of the same class.</p>

      <p>An MBean that will emit notifications must implement the
	{@link javax.management.NotificationBroadcaster
	NotificationBroadcaster} or {@link
	javax.management.NotificationEmitter NotificationEmitter}
	interface.  Usually, it does this by subclassing {@link
	javax.management.NotificationBroadcasterSupport
	NotificationBroadcasterSupport} or by delegating to an instance
	of that class.</p>

      <p>Notifications can be received by a <em>listener</em>, which
	is an object that implements the {@link
	javax.management.NotificationListener NotificationListener}
	interface.  You can add a listener to an MBean with the method
	{@link
	javax.management.MBeanServer#addNotificationListener(ObjectName,
	NotificationListener, NotificationFilter, Object)}.
	You can optionally supply a <em>filter</em> to this method, to
	select only notifications of interest.  A filter is an object
	that implements the {@link javax.management.NotificationFilter
	NotificationFilter} interface.</p>

      <p>An MBean can be a listener for notifications emitted by other
	MBeans in the same MBean Server.  In this case, it implements
	{@link javax.management.NotificationListener
	NotificationListener} and the method {@link
	javax.management.MBeanServer#addNotificationListener(ObjectName,
	ObjectName, NotificationFilter, Object)} is used to listen.</p>


      <h2>Remote Access to MBeans</h2>

      <p>An MBean Server can be accessed remotely through a
	<em>connector</em>.  A connector allows a remote Java
	application to access an MBean Server in essentially the same
	way as a local one.  The package
	<a href="remote/package-summary.html"><code>
	    javax.management.remote</code></a> defines connectors.</p>

      <p>The JMX specification also defines the notion of an
	<em>adaptor</em>.  An adaptor translates between requests in a
	protocol such as SNMP or HTML and accesses to an MBean Server.
	So for example an SNMP GET operation might result in a
	<code>getAttribute</code> on the MBean Server.</p>

      <p id="spec">
    @see <a href="{@docRoot}/../technotes/guides/jmx/index.html">
      Java SE 6 Platform documentation on JMX technology</a>
      in particular the 
      <a href="{@docRoot}/../technotes/guides/jmx/JMX_1_4_specification.pdf">
      JMX Specification, version 1.4(pdf).</a> 

	@since 1.5

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