changeset 7462:405cd7338069

Merge
author chegar
date Mon, 10 Jun 2013 10:38:33 +0100
parents aa559d55fc4a c351a48c091d
children cd0140e5bee5
files src/macosx/classes/sun/lwawt/macosx/CPlatformWindow.java src/share/classes/java/lang/Class.java src/share/classes/java/nio/file/Files.java src/share/classes/java/security/AccessControlContext.java src/share/classes/java/security/AccessController.java src/share/classes/java/util/zip/ZipFile.java src/share/classes/sun/misc/FDBigInt.java src/share/classes/sun/tools/jconsole/VMPanel.java src/share/classes/sun/tools/jconsole/resources/messages.properties src/share/lib/security/java.security-linux src/share/lib/security/java.security-macosx src/share/lib/security/java.security-solaris src/share/lib/security/java.security-windows src/share/native/sun/java2d/cmm/lcms/cmslut.c src/solaris/classes/sun/awt/X11/XWM.java src/solaris/native/sun/awt/awt_GraphicsEnv.c src/solaris/native/sun/awt/awt_GraphicsEnv.h src/solaris/native/sun/java2d/x11/X11SurfaceData.c src/solaris/native/sun/xawt/XlibWrapper.c src/windows/native/java/net/DualStackPlainDatagramSocketImpl.c src/windows/native/java/net/TwoStacksPlainDatagramSocketImpl.c test/com/sun/jmx/remote/NotificationMarshalVersions/TestSerializationMismatch.sh test/java/util/stream/test/org/openjdk/tests/java/util/stream/SpliteratorLateBindingFailFastTest.java test/java/util/stream/test/org/openjdk/tests/java/util/stream/SpliteratorTraversingAndSplittingTest.java
diffstat 338 files changed, 28930 insertions(+), 11567 deletions(-) [+]
line wrap: on
line diff
--- a/make/java/management/Exportedfiles.gmk	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/make/java/management/Exportedfiles.gmk	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 #
-# Copyright (c) 2003, 2005, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+# Copyright (c) 2003, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 # DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
 #
 # This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -29,6 +29,7 @@
 
 FILES_export = \
 	sun/management/ClassLoadingImpl.java \
+	sun/management/DiagnosticCommandImpl.java \
 	sun/management/FileSystemImpl.java \
 	sun/management/Flag.java \
 	sun/management/GarbageCollectorImpl.java \
--- a/make/java/management/FILES_c.gmk	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/make/java/management/FILES_c.gmk	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 #
-# Copyright (c) 2003, 2005, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+# Copyright (c) 2003, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 # DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
 #
 # This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -25,6 +25,7 @@
 
 FILES_c = \
 	ClassLoadingImpl.c \
+	DiagnosticCommandImpl.c \
 	FileSystemImpl.c \
 	Flag.c \
 	GarbageCollectorImpl.c \
--- a/make/java/management/mapfile-vers	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/make/java/management/mapfile-vers	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 #
-# Copyright (c) 2005, 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+# Copyright (c) 2005, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 # DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
 #
 # This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -39,6 +39,10 @@
 	    Java_com_sun_management_UnixOperatingSystem_getTotalSwapSpaceSize;
 	    Java_com_sun_management_UnixOperatingSystem_initialize;
 	    Java_sun_management_ClassLoadingImpl_setVerboseClass;
+            Java_sun_management_DiagnosticCommandImpl_executeDiagnosticCommand;
+            Java_sun_management_DiagnosticCommandImpl_getDiagnosticCommands;
+            Java_sun_management_DiagnosticCommandImpl_getDiagnosticCommandInfo;
+	    Java_sun_management_DiagnosticCommandImpl_setNotificationEnabled;
 	    Java_sun_management_FileSystemImpl_isAccessUserOnly0;
 	    Java_sun_management_Flag_getAllFlagNames;
 	    Java_sun_management_Flag_getFlags;
--- a/make/sun/awt/FILES_c_unix.gmk	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/make/sun/awt/FILES_c_unix.gmk	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -171,3 +171,13 @@
         GLXSurfaceData.c \
         AccelGlyphCache.c \
 	CUPSfuncs.c
+
+ifeq ($(PLATFORM), macosx)
+FILES_NO_MOTIF_objc = \
+		AWTFont.m \
+		AWTStrike.m \
+		CCharToGlyphMapper.m \
+		CGGlyphImages.m \
+		CGGlyphOutlines.m \
+		CoreTextSupport.m
+endif # PLATFORM
--- a/make/sun/awt/FILES_export_unix.gmk	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/make/sun/awt/FILES_export_unix.gmk	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -187,3 +187,14 @@
 	java/awt/dnd/DnDConstants.java \
 	sun/awt/CausedFocusEvent.java
 
+ifeq ($(PLATFORM), macosx)
+ifeq ($(HEADLESS), true)
+FILES_export += \
+	sun/awt/SunHints.java \
+	sun/font/CCharToGlyphMapper.java \
+	sun/font/CFont.java \
+	sun/font/CFontManager.java \
+	sun/font/CStrike.java \
+	sun/font/CStrikeDisposer.java
+endif # HEADLESS
+endif # PLATFORM
--- a/make/sun/awt/mawt.gmk	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/make/sun/awt/mawt.gmk	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -43,6 +43,10 @@
 # compiled based on the motif version.
 FILES_c = $(FILES_NO_MOTIF_c)
 
+ifeq ($(PLATFORM), macosx)
+FILES_objc = $(FILES_NO_MOTIF_objc)
+endif # PLATFORM
+
 ifeq ($(PLATFORM), solaris)
   ifneq ($(ARCH), amd64)
     FILES_reorder += reorder-$(ARCH)
@@ -97,6 +101,10 @@
 vpath %.cpp $(SHARE_SRC)/native/$(PKGDIR)/image
 vpath %.c   $(PLATFORM_SRC)/native/$(PKGDIR)/robot_child
 
+ifeq ($(PLATFORM), macosx)
+vpath %.m   $(call NativeSrcDirList,,native/sun/font)
+endif # PLATFORM
+
 #
 # Libraries to link in.
 #
@@ -192,13 +200,21 @@
         $(EVENT_MODEL)
 
 ifeq ($(PLATFORM), macosx)
-CPPFLAGS += -I$(CUPS_HEADERS_PATH)
+CPPFLAGS += -I$(CUPS_HEADERS_PATH) \
+			$(call NativeSrcDirList,-I,native/sun/awt) \
+			$(call NativeSrcDirList,-I,native/sun/font)
 
 ifndef HEADLESS
 CPPFLAGS += -I$(MOTIF_DIR)/include \
             -I$(OPENWIN_HOME)/include 
 LDFLAGS  += -L$(MOTIF_LIB) -L$(OPENWIN_LIB)
-
+else
+LDFLAGS  += -framework Accelerate \
+			-framework ApplicationServices \
+			-framework Cocoa \
+			-F/System/Library/Frameworks/JavaVM.framework/Frameworks \
+			-framework JavaNativeFoundation \
+			-framework JavaRuntimeSupport
 endif # !HEADLESS
 endif # PLATFORM
 
--- a/make/tools/CharsetMapping/EUC_KR.map	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/make/tools/CharsetMapping/EUC_KR.map	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -5,6 +5,8 @@
 # (2)Added 2 new codepoints (KS X 1001:1998)
 #     0xA2E6	0x20AC	# EURO Sign
 #     0xA2E7	0x00AE	# Registered Sign
+# (3) KS X 1001:2002
+#     0xA2E8	0x327E  # CIRCLED KOREAN CHARACTER JUEUI (Postal Code Mark)
 #
 0x00	0x0000
 0x01	0x0001
@@ -295,6 +297,7 @@
 #
 0xA2E6	0x20AC	# EURO Sign
 0xA2E7	0x00AE	# Registered Sign
+0xA2E8	0x327E  # CIRCLED KOREAN CHARACTER JUEUI
 #
 0xA2E0	0x2116	# NUMERO SIGN
 0xA2E1	0x33C7	# SQUARE CO
--- a/make/tools/src/build/tools/generatebreakiteratordata/CharSet.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/make/tools/src/build/tools/generatebreakiteratordata/CharSet.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -39,6 +39,7 @@
 
 package build.tools.generatebreakiteratordata;
 
+import java.util.Arrays;
 import java.util.Hashtable;
 
 /**
@@ -701,7 +702,14 @@
      * the exact same characters as this one
      */
     public boolean equals(Object that) {
-        return (that instanceof CharSet) && chars.equals(((CharSet)that).chars);
+        return (that instanceof CharSet) && Arrays.equals(chars, ((CharSet)that).chars);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns the hash code for this set of characters
+     */
+    public int hashCode() {
+       return Arrays.hashCode(chars);
     }
 
     /**
--- a/makefiles/CompileJavaClasses.gmk	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/makefiles/CompileJavaClasses.gmk	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -342,7 +342,7 @@
 		DISABLE_SJAVAC:=true,\
 		SRC:=$(JDK_TOPDIR)/src/macosx/native/jobjc/src/core/java \
 		     $(JDK_TOPDIR)/src/macosx/native/jobjc/src/runtime-additions/java \
-		     $(JDK_OUTPUTDIR)/gensrc, \
+		     $(JDK_OUTPUTDIR)/gensrc_jobjc/src, \
 		INCLUDES := com/apple/jobjc,\
                 EXCLUDES := tests/java/com/apple/jobjc,\
 		BIN:=$(JDK_OUTPUTDIR)/jobjc_classes,\
@@ -355,7 +355,7 @@
 		SETUP:=GENERATE_JDKBYTECODE,\
 		SRC:=$(JDK_TOPDIR)/src/macosx/native/jobjc/src/core/java \
 		     $(JDK_TOPDIR)/src/macosx/native/jobjc/src/runtime-additions/java \
-		     $(JDK_OUTPUTDIR)/gensrc, \
+		     $(JDK_OUTPUTDIR)/gensrc_jobjc/src, \
 		INCLUDES := com/apple/jobjc,\
                 EXCLUDES := tests/java/com/apple/jobjc,\
 		BIN:=$(JDK_OUTPUTDIR)/jobjc_classes_headers,\
--- a/makefiles/CompileNativeLibraries.gmk	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/makefiles/CompileNativeLibraries.gmk	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -2314,6 +2314,10 @@
 			$(JDK_TOPDIR)/src/solaris/native/sun/java2d/opengl \
 			$(JDK_TOPDIR)/src/solaris/native/sun/java2d/x11
 
+ifeq ($(OPENJDK_TARGET_OS),macosx)
+	LIBAWT_HEADLESS_DIRS+=$(JDK_TOPDIR)/src/macosx/native/sun/font
+endif
+
 LIBAWT_HEADLESS_CFLAGS:=-DHEADLESS=true \
                           -DX11_PATH=\"$(X11_PATH)\" -DPACKAGE_PATH=\"$(PACKAGE_PATH)\" \
 			  $(CUPS_CFLAGS) \
@@ -2328,6 +2332,12 @@
 			  -I$(JDK_TOPDIR)/src/$(OPENJDK_TARGET_OS_API_DIR)/native/sun/jdga \
                           $(foreach dir,$(LIBAWT_HEADLESS_DIRS),-I$(dir))
 
+ifeq ($(OPENJDK_TARGET_OS),macosx)
+	LIBAWT_HEADLESS_CFLAGS+=\
+		-F/System/Library/Frameworks/JavaVM.framework/Frameworks \
+		-F/System/Library/Frameworks/ApplicationServices.framework/Frameworks
+endif
+
 LIBAWT_HEADLESS_FILES:=\
 	awt_Font.c \
 	HeadlessToolkit.c \
@@ -2356,6 +2366,16 @@
         AccelGlyphCache.c \
 	CUPSfuncs.c
 
+ifeq ($(OPENJDK_TARGET_OS),macosx)
+	LIBAWT_HEADLESS_FILES+=\
+		AWTFont.m \
+		AWTStrike.m \
+		CCharToGlyphMapper.m \
+		CGGlyphImages.m \
+		CGGlyphOutlines.m \
+		CoreTextSupport.m
+endif
+
 LIBAWT_HEADLESS_REORDER:=
 ifeq ($(OPENJDK_TARGET_OS), solaris)
 	ifneq ($(OPENJDK_TARGET_CPU), x86_64)
@@ -2382,7 +2402,13 @@
 		REORDER:=$(LIBAWT_HEADLESS_REORDER), \
 		LDFLAGS_SUFFIX_linux:=-ljvm -lawt -lm $(LIBDL) -ljava,\
 		LDFLAGS_SUFFIX_solaris:=$(LIBDL) -ljvm -lawt -lm -ljava $(LIBCXX) -lc,\
-		LDFLAGS_SUFFIX_macosx:=-ljvm $(LIBCXX) -lawt $(LIBDL) -ljava,\
+		LDFLAGS_SUFFIX_macosx:=-ljvm $(LIBCXX) -lawt $(LIBDL) -ljava \
+				 -framework Accelerate \
+				 -framework ApplicationServices \
+				 -framework Cocoa \
+				 -F/System/Library/Frameworks/JavaVM.framework/Frameworks \
+				 -framework JavaNativeFoundation \
+				 -framework JavaRuntimeSupport,\
 		OBJECT_DIR:=$(JDK_OUTPUTDIR)/objs/libawt_headless,\
 		DEBUG_SYMBOLS:=$(DEBUG_ALL_BINARIES)))
 
--- a/makefiles/GensrcBuffer.gmk	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/makefiles/GensrcBuffer.gmk	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -69,6 +69,9 @@
 		$1_fulltype := character
 		$1_Fulltype := Character
 		$1_category := integralType
+                $1_streams  := streamableType
+                $1_streamtype := int
+                $1_Streamtype := Int
 		$1_LBPV     := 1
 	endif
 
@@ -97,7 +100,7 @@
 		$1_Type     := Long
 		$1_fulltype := long
 		$1_Fulltype := Long
-		$1_category := integralType
+		$1_category := integralType	
 		$1_LBPV     := 3
 	endif
 
@@ -231,10 +234,13 @@
 	$(TOOL_SPP) < $$($1_SRC) > $$($1_OUT).tmp \
 		-K$$($1_type) \
 		-K$$($1_category) \
+		-K$$($1_streams) \
 		-Dtype=$$($1_type) \
 		-DType=$$($1_Type) \
 		-Dfulltype=$$($1_fulltype) \
 		-DFulltype=$$($1_Fulltype) \
+                -Dstreamtype=$$($1_streamtype) \
+                -DStreamtype=$$($1_Streamtype) \
 		-Dx=$$($1_x) \
 		-Dmemtype=$$($1_memtype) \
 		-DMemtype=$$($1_Memtype) \
--- a/makefiles/mapfiles/libmanagement/mapfile-vers	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/makefiles/mapfiles/libmanagement/mapfile-vers	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 #
-# Copyright (c) 2005, 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+# Copyright (c) 2005, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 # DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
 #
 # This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -39,6 +39,10 @@
 	    Java_com_sun_management_UnixOperatingSystem_getTotalSwapSpaceSize;
 	    Java_com_sun_management_UnixOperatingSystem_initialize;
 	    Java_sun_management_ClassLoadingImpl_setVerboseClass;
+            Java_sun_management_DiagnosticCommandImpl_executeDiagnosticCommand;
+            Java_sun_management_DiagnosticCommandImpl_getDiagnosticCommands;
+            Java_sun_management_DiagnosticCommandImpl_getDiagnosticCommandInfo;
+            Java_sun_management_DiagnosticCommandImpl_setNotificationEnabled;
 	    Java_sun_management_FileSystemImpl_isAccessUserOnly0;
 	    Java_sun_management_Flag_getAllFlagNames;
 	    Java_sun_management_Flag_getFlags;
--- a/src/macosx/bin/java_md_macosx.c	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/macosx/bin/java_md_macosx.c	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -44,7 +44,6 @@
 #include <Cocoa/Cocoa.h>
 #include <objc/objc-runtime.h>
 #include <objc/objc-auto.h>
-#include <dispatch/dispatch.h>
 
 #include <errno.h>
 #include <spawn.h>
@@ -1001,6 +1000,32 @@
     setenv(envVar, "1", 1);
 }
 
+/* This class is made for performSelectorOnMainThread when java main
+ * should be launched on main thread.
+ * We cannot use dispatch_sync here, because it blocks the main dispatch queue
+ * which is used inside Cocoa
+ */
+@interface JavaLaunchHelper : NSObject {
+    int _returnValue;
+}
+- (void) launchJava:(NSValue*)argsValue;
+- (int) getReturnValue;
+@end
+
+@implementation JavaLaunchHelper
+
+- (void) launchJava:(NSValue*)argsValue
+{
+    _returnValue = JavaMain([argsValue pointerValue]);
+}
+
+- (int) getReturnValue
+{
+    return _returnValue;
+}
+
+@end
+
 // MacOSX we may continue in the same thread
 int
 JVMInit(InvocationFunctions* ifn, jlong threadStackSize,
@@ -1010,16 +1035,22 @@
         JLI_TraceLauncher("In same thread\n");
         // need to block this thread against the main thread
         // so signals get caught correctly
-        __block int rslt;
-        dispatch_sync(dispatch_get_main_queue(), ^(void) {
-            JavaMainArgs args;
-            args.argc = argc;
-            args.argv = argv;
-            args.mode = mode;
-            args.what = what;
-            args.ifn  = *ifn;
-            rslt = JavaMain((void*)&args);
-        });
+        JavaMainArgs args;
+        args.argc = argc;
+        args.argv = argv;
+        args.mode = mode;
+        args.what = what;
+        args.ifn  = *ifn;
+        int rslt;
+        NSAutoreleasePool *pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init];
+        {
+            JavaLaunchHelper* launcher = [[[JavaLaunchHelper alloc] init] autorelease];
+            [launcher performSelectorOnMainThread:@selector(launchJava:)
+                                       withObject:[NSValue valueWithPointer:(void*)&args]
+                                    waitUntilDone:YES];
+            rslt = [launcher getReturnValue];
+        }
+        [pool drain];
         return rslt;
     } else {
         return ContinueInNewThread(ifn, threadStackSize, argc, argv, mode, what, ret);
--- a/src/macosx/classes/sun/lwawt/macosx/CDropTargetContextPeer.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/macosx/classes/sun/lwawt/macosx/CDropTargetContextPeer.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -38,7 +38,7 @@
     private long    fNativeDropTransfer = 0;
     private long    fNativeDataAvailable = 0;
     private Object  fNativeData    = null;
-    private boolean insideTarget = false;
+    private boolean insideTarget = true;
 
     Object awtLockAccess = new Object();
 
--- a/src/macosx/classes/sun/lwawt/macosx/CPlatformWindow.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/macosx/classes/sun/lwawt/macosx/CPlatformWindow.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -115,6 +115,8 @@
 
     static final int RESIZABLE = 1 << 9; // both a style bit and prop bit
     static final int NONACTIVATING = 1 << 24;
+    static final int IS_DIALOG = 1 << 25;
+    static final int IS_MODAL = 1 << 26;
 
     static final int _STYLE_PROP_BITMASK = DECORATED | TEXTURED | UNIFIED | UTILITY | HUD | SHEET | CLOSEABLE | MINIMIZABLE | RESIZABLE;
 
@@ -376,6 +378,13 @@
             }
         }
 
+        if (isDialog) {
+            styleBits = SET(styleBits, IS_DIALOG, true);
+            if (((Dialog) target).isModal()) {
+                styleBits = SET(styleBits, IS_MODAL, true);
+            }
+        }
+
         peer.setTextured(IS(TEXTURED, styleBits));
 
         return styleBits;
--- a/src/macosx/classes/sun/lwawt/macosx/CPrinterJob.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/macosx/classes/sun/lwawt/macosx/CPrinterJob.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -36,6 +36,7 @@
 import javax.print.*;
 import javax.print.attribute.PrintRequestAttributeSet;
 import javax.print.attribute.HashPrintRequestAttributeSet;
+import javax.print.attribute.standard.PageRanges;
 
 import sun.java2d.*;
 import sun.print.*;
@@ -173,6 +174,19 @@
         if (nsPrintInfo != null) {
             fNSPrintInfo = nsPrintInfo.getValue();
         }
+
+        PageRanges pageRangesAttr =  (PageRanges)attributes.get(PageRanges.class);
+        if (isSupportedValue(pageRangesAttr, attributes)) {
+            SunPageSelection rangeSelect = (SunPageSelection)attributes.get(SunPageSelection.class);
+            // If rangeSelect is not null, we are using AWT's print dialog that has
+            // All, Selection, and Range radio buttons
+            if (rangeSelect == null || rangeSelect == SunPageSelection.RANGE) {
+                int[][] range = pageRangesAttr.getMembers();
+                // setPageRange will set firstPage and lastPage as called in getFirstPage
+                // and getLastPage
+                setPageRange(range[0][0] - 1, range[0][1] - 1);
+            }
+        }
     }
 
     volatile boolean onEventThread;
@@ -225,7 +239,6 @@
          * the end of the document. Note that firstPage
          * and lastPage are 0 based page indices.
          */
-        int numPages = mDocument.getNumberOfPages();
 
         int firstPage = getFirstPage();
         int lastPage = getLastPage();
@@ -242,42 +255,53 @@
                 userCancelled = false;
             }
 
-            if (EventQueue.isDispatchThread()) {
-                // This is an AWT EventQueue, and this print rendering loop needs to block it.
+            //Add support for PageRange
+            PageRanges pr = (attributes == null) ?  null
+                                                 : (PageRanges)attributes.get(PageRanges.class);
+            int[][] prMembers = (pr == null) ? new int[0][0] : pr.getMembers();
+            int loopi = 0;
+            do {
+                if (EventQueue.isDispatchThread()) {
+                    // This is an AWT EventQueue, and this print rendering loop needs to block it.
 
-                onEventThread = true;
+                    onEventThread = true;
 
-                printingLoop = AccessController.doPrivileged(new PrivilegedAction<SecondaryLoop>() {
-                    @Override
-                    public SecondaryLoop run() {
-                        return Toolkit.getDefaultToolkit()
-                                .getSystemEventQueue()
-                                .createSecondaryLoop();
+                    printingLoop = AccessController.doPrivileged(new PrivilegedAction<SecondaryLoop>() {
+                        @Override
+                        public SecondaryLoop run() {
+                            return Toolkit.getDefaultToolkit()
+                                    .getSystemEventQueue()
+                                    .createSecondaryLoop();
+                        }
+                    });
+
+                    try {
+                        // Fire off the print rendering loop on the AppKit thread, and don't have
+                        //  it wait and block this thread.
+                        if (printLoop(false, firstPage, lastPage)) {
+                            // Start a secondary loop on EDT until printing operation is finished or cancelled
+                            printingLoop.enter();
+                        }
+                    } catch (Exception e) {
+                        e.printStackTrace();
                     }
-                });
+              } else {
+                    // Fire off the print rendering loop on the AppKit, and block this thread
+                    //  until it is done.
+                    // But don't actually block... we need to come back here!
+                    onEventThread = false;
 
-                try {
-                    // Fire off the print rendering loop on the AppKit thread, and don't have
-                    //  it wait and block this thread.
-                    if (printLoop(false, firstPage, lastPage)) {
-                        // Start a secondary loop on EDT until printing operation is finished or cancelled
-                        printingLoop.enter();
+                    try {
+                        printLoop(true, firstPage, lastPage);
+                    } catch (Exception e) {
+                        e.printStackTrace();
                     }
-                } catch (Exception e) {
-                    e.printStackTrace();
                 }
-            } else {
-                // Fire off the print rendering loop on the AppKit, and block this thread
-                //  until it is done.
-                // But don't actually block... we need to come back here!
-                onEventThread = false;
-
-                try {
-                    printLoop(true, firstPage, lastPage);
-                } catch (Exception e) {
-                    e.printStackTrace();
+                if (++loopi < prMembers.length) {
+                     firstPage = prMembers[loopi][0]-1;
+                     lastPage = prMembers[loopi][1] -1;
                 }
-            }
+            }  while (loopi < prMembers.length);
         } finally {
             synchronized (this) {
                 // NOTE: Native code shouldn't allow exceptions out while
--- a/src/macosx/native/sun/awt/AWTWindow.m	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/macosx/native/sun/awt/AWTWindow.m	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 2011, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -536,8 +536,12 @@
 - (void) windowDidBecomeKey: (NSNotification *) notification {
 AWT_ASSERT_APPKIT_THREAD;
     [AWTToolkit eventCountPlusPlus];
-    [CMenuBar activate:self.javaMenuBar modallyDisabled:NO];
     AWTWindow *opposite = [AWTWindow lastKeyWindow];
+    if (!IS(self.styleBits, IS_DIALOG)) {
+        [CMenuBar activate:self.javaMenuBar modallyDisabled:NO];
+    } else if (IS(self.styleBits, IS_MODAL)) {
+        [CMenuBar activate:opposite->javaMenuBar modallyDisabled:YES];        
+    }
     [AWTWindow setLastKeyWindow:nil];
 
     [self _deliverWindowFocusEvent:YES oppositeWindow: opposite];
--- a/src/macosx/native/sun/font/AWTFont.m	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/macosx/native/sun/font/AWTFont.m	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -395,6 +395,7 @@
 
 #pragma mark --- Miscellaneous JNI ---
 
+#ifndef HEADLESS
 /*
  * Class:     sun_awt_PlatformFont
  * Method:    initIDs
@@ -416,3 +417,4 @@
     (JNIEnv *env, jclass cls)
 {
 }
+#endif
--- a/src/share/classes/com/sun/beans/finder/AbstractFinder.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/com/sun/beans/finder/AbstractFinder.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 2008, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 2008, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -24,6 +24,9 @@
  */
 package com.sun.beans.finder;
 
+import java.lang.reflect.Executable;
+import java.lang.reflect.Modifier;
+
 import java.util.HashMap;
 import java.util.Map;
 
@@ -37,7 +40,7 @@
  *
  * @author Sergey A. Malenkov
  */
-abstract class AbstractFinder<T> {
+abstract class AbstractFinder<T extends Executable> {
     private final Class<?>[] args;
 
     /**
@@ -53,27 +56,6 @@
     }
 
     /**
-     * Returns an array of {@code Class} objects
-     * that represent the formal parameter types of the method.
-     * Returns an empty array if the method takes no parameters.
-     *
-     * @param method  the object that represents method
-     * @return the parameter types of the method
-     */
-    protected abstract Class<?>[] getParameters(T method);
-
-    /**
-     * Returns {@code true} if and only if the method
-     * was declared to take a variable number of arguments.
-     *
-     * @param method  the object that represents method
-     * @return {@code true} if the method was declared
-     *         to take a variable number of arguments;
-     *         {@code false} otherwise
-     */
-    protected abstract boolean isVarArgs(T method);
-
-    /**
      * Checks validness of the method.
      * At least the valid method should be public.
      *
@@ -81,7 +63,9 @@
      * @return {@code true} if the method is valid,
      *         {@code false} otherwise
      */
-    protected abstract boolean isValid(T method);
+    protected boolean isValid(T method) {
+        return Modifier.isPublic(method.getModifiers());
+    }
 
     /**
      * Performs a search in the {@code methods} array.
@@ -109,7 +93,7 @@
 
         for (T newMethod : methods) {
             if (isValid(newMethod)) {
-                Class<?>[] newParams = getParameters(newMethod);
+                Class<?>[] newParams = newMethod.getParameterTypes();
                 if (newParams.length == this.args.length) {
                     PrimitiveWrapperMap.replacePrimitivesWithWrappers(newParams);
                     if (isAssignable(newParams, this.args)) {
@@ -120,6 +104,11 @@
                             boolean useNew = isAssignable(oldParams, newParams);
                             boolean useOld = isAssignable(newParams, oldParams);
 
+                            if (useOld && useNew) {
+                                // only if parameters are equal
+                                useNew = !newMethod.isSynthetic();
+                                useOld = !oldMethod.isSynthetic();
+                            }
                             if (useOld == useNew) {
                                 ambiguous = true;
                             } else if (useNew) {
@@ -130,7 +119,7 @@
                         }
                     }
                 }
-                if (isVarArgs(newMethod)) {
+                if (newMethod.isVarArgs()) {
                     int length = newParams.length - 1;
                     if (length <= this.args.length) {
                         Class<?>[] array = new Class<?>[this.args.length];
@@ -160,6 +149,11 @@
                         boolean useNew = isAssignable(oldParams, newParams);
                         boolean useOld = isAssignable(newParams, oldParams);
 
+                        if (useOld && useNew) {
+                            // only if parameters are equal
+                            useNew = !newMethod.isSynthetic();
+                            useOld = !oldMethod.isSynthetic();
+                        }
                         if (useOld == useNew) {
                             if (oldParams == map.get(oldMethod)) {
                                 ambiguous = true;
--- a/src/share/classes/com/sun/beans/finder/ConstructorFinder.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/com/sun/beans/finder/ConstructorFinder.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 2008, 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 2008, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -86,44 +86,4 @@
     private ConstructorFinder(Class<?>[] args) {
         super(args);
     }
-
-    /**
-     * Returns an array of {@code Class} objects
-     * that represent the formal parameter types of the constructor.
-     * Returns an empty array if the constructor takes no parameters.
-     *
-     * @param constructor  the object that represents constructor
-     * @return the parameter types of the constructor
-     */
-    @Override
-    protected Class<?>[] getParameters(Constructor<?> constructor) {
-        return constructor.getParameterTypes();
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Returns {@code true} if and only if the constructor
-     * was declared to take a variable number of arguments.
-     *
-     * @param constructor  the object that represents constructor
-     * @return {@code true} if the constructor was declared
-     *         to take a variable number of arguments;
-     *         {@code false} otherwise
-     */
-    @Override
-    protected boolean isVarArgs(Constructor<?> constructor) {
-        return constructor.isVarArgs();
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Checks validness of the constructor.
-     * The valid constructor should be public.
-     *
-     * @param constructor  the object that represents constructor
-     * @return {@code true} if the constructor is valid,
-     *         {@code false} otherwise
-     */
-    @Override
-    protected boolean isValid(Constructor<?> constructor) {
-        return Modifier.isPublic(constructor.getModifiers());
-    }
 }
--- a/src/share/classes/com/sun/beans/finder/MethodFinder.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/com/sun/beans/finder/MethodFinder.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 2008, 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 2008, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -196,33 +196,6 @@
     }
 
     /**
-     * Returns an array of {@code Class} objects
-     * that represent the formal parameter types of the method.
-     * Returns an empty array if the method takes no parameters.
-     *
-     * @param method  the object that represents method
-     * @return the parameter types of the method
-     */
-    @Override
-    protected Class<?>[] getParameters(Method method) {
-        return method.getParameterTypes();
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Returns {@code true} if and only if the method
-     * was declared to take a variable number of arguments.
-     *
-     * @param method  the object that represents method
-     * @return {@code true} if the method was declared
-     *         to take a variable number of arguments;
-     *         {@code false} otherwise
-     */
-    @Override
-    protected boolean isVarArgs(Method method) {
-        return method.isVarArgs();
-    }
-
-    /**
      * Checks validness of the method.
      * The valid method should be public and
      * should have the specified name.
@@ -233,6 +206,6 @@
      */
     @Override
     protected boolean isValid(Method method) {
-        return !method.isBridge() && Modifier.isPublic(method.getModifiers()) && method.getName().equals(this.name);
+        return super.isValid(method) && method.getName().equals(this.name);
     }
 }
--- a/src/share/classes/com/sun/crypto/provider/DHKeyAgreement.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/com/sun/crypto/provider/DHKeyAgreement.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 1997, 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1997, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -403,8 +403,9 @@
             }
             return skey;
         } else if (algorithm.equals("TlsPremasterSecret")) {
-            // return entire secret
-            return new SecretKeySpec(secret, "TlsPremasterSecret");
+            // remove leading zero bytes per RFC 5246 Section 8.1.2
+            return new SecretKeySpec(
+                        KeyUtil.trimZeroes(secret), "TlsPremasterSecret");
         } else {
             throw new NoSuchAlgorithmException("Unsupported secret key "
                                                + "algorithm: "+ algorithm);
--- a/src/share/classes/com/sun/crypto/provider/HmacPKCS12PBESHA1.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/com/sun/crypto/provider/HmacPKCS12PBESHA1.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -86,12 +86,13 @@
             throw new InvalidKeyException("SecretKey of PBE type required");
         }
         if (params == null) {
-            // generate default for salt and iteration count if necessary
-            if (salt == null) {
-                salt = new byte[20];
-                SunJCE.getRandom().nextBytes(salt);
+            // should not auto-generate default values since current
+            // javax.crypto.Mac api does not have any method for caller to
+            // retrieve the generated defaults.
+            if ((salt == null) || (iCount == 0)) {
+                throw new InvalidAlgorithmParameterException
+                    ("PBEParameterSpec required for salt and iteration count");
             }
-            if (iCount == 0) iCount = 100;
         } else if (!(params instanceof PBEParameterSpec)) {
             throw new InvalidAlgorithmParameterException
                 ("PBEParameterSpec type required");
--- a/src/share/classes/com/sun/crypto/provider/PBMAC1Core.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/com/sun/crypto/provider/PBMAC1Core.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -42,12 +42,10 @@
  */
 abstract class PBMAC1Core extends HmacCore {
 
-    private static final int DEFAULT_SALT_LENGTH = 20;
-    private static final int DEFAULT_COUNT = 4096;
-
+    // NOTE: this class inherits the Cloneable interface from HmacCore
+    // Need to override clone() if mutable fields are added.
     private final String kdfAlgo;
     private final String hashAlgo;
-    private final PBKDF2Core kdf;
     private final int blockLength; // in octets
 
     /**
@@ -56,13 +54,15 @@
      */
     PBMAC1Core(String kdfAlgo, String hashAlgo, int blockLength)
         throws NoSuchAlgorithmException {
-
         super(hashAlgo, blockLength);
         this.kdfAlgo = kdfAlgo;
         this.hashAlgo = hashAlgo;
         this.blockLength = blockLength;
+    }
 
-        switch(kdfAlgo) {
+    private static PBKDF2Core getKDFImpl(String algo) {
+        PBKDF2Core kdf = null;
+        switch(algo) {
         case "HmacSHA1":
                 kdf = new PBKDF2Core.HmacSHA1();
                 break;
@@ -79,9 +79,10 @@
                 kdf = new PBKDF2Core.HmacSHA512();
                 break;
         default:
-                throw new NoSuchAlgorithmException(
-                    "No MAC implementation for " + kdfAlgo);
+                throw new ProviderException(
+                    "No MAC implementation for " + algo);
         }
+        return kdf;
     }
 
     /**
@@ -120,12 +121,13 @@
             throw new InvalidKeyException("SecretKey of PBE type required");
         }
         if (params == null) {
-            // generate default for salt and iteration count if necessary
-            if (salt == null) {
-                salt = new byte[DEFAULT_SALT_LENGTH];
-                SunJCE.getRandom().nextBytes(salt);
+            // should not auto-generate default values since current
+            // javax.crypto.Mac api does not have any method for caller to
+            // retrieve the generated defaults.
+            if ((salt == null) || (iCount == 0)) {
+                throw new InvalidAlgorithmParameterException
+                    ("PBEParameterSpec required for salt and iteration count");
             }
-            if (iCount == 0) iCount = DEFAULT_COUNT;
         } else if (!(params instanceof PBEParameterSpec)) {
             throw new InvalidAlgorithmParameterException
                 ("PBEParameterSpec type required");
@@ -168,7 +170,7 @@
         java.util.Arrays.fill(passwdChars, ' ');
 
         SecretKey s = null;
-
+        PBKDF2Core kdf = getKDFImpl(kdfAlgo);
         try {
             s = kdf.engineGenerateSecret(pbeSpec);
 
--- a/src/share/classes/com/sun/crypto/provider/SunJCE.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/com/sun/crypto/provider/SunJCE.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -731,10 +731,11 @@
                     put("Mac.HmacSHA384 SupportedKeyFormats", "RAW");
                     put("Mac.HmacSHA512 SupportedKeyFormats", "RAW");
                     put("Mac.HmacPBESHA1 SupportedKeyFormats", "RAW");
-                    put("Mac.HmacPBESHA224 SupportedKeyFormats", "RAW");
-                    put("Mac.HmacPBESHA256 SupportedKeyFormats", "RAW");
-                    put("Mac.HmacPBESHA384 SupportedKeyFormats", "RAW");
-                    put("Mac.HmacPBESHA512 SupportedKeyFormats", "RAW");
+                    put("Mac.PBEWithHmacSHA1 SupportedKeyFormatS", "RAW");
+                    put("Mac.PBEWithHmacSHA224 SupportedKeyFormats", "RAW");
+                    put("Mac.PBEWithHmacSHA256 SupportedKeyFormats", "RAW");
+                    put("Mac.PBEWithHmacSHA384 SupportedKeyFormats", "RAW");
+                    put("Mac.PBEWithHmacSHA512 SupportedKeyFormats", "RAW");
                     put("Mac.SslMacMD5 SupportedKeyFormats", "RAW");
                     put("Mac.SslMacSHA1 SupportedKeyFormats", "RAW");
 
--- a/src/share/classes/com/sun/jndi/toolkit/ctx/Continuation.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/com/sun/jndi/toolkit/ctx/Continuation.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 1999, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1999, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -90,14 +90,16 @@
      * Constructs a new instance of Continuation.
      * @param top The name of the object that is to be resolved/operated upon.
      *          This becomes the Continuation's 'starter' and is used to
-     *          calculate the "resolved name" when filling  in a NamingException.
+     *          calculate the "resolved name" when filling in a NamingException.
      * @param environment The environment used by the caller. It is used
-     * when setting the "environment" of a CannotProceedException.
+     *          when setting the "environment" of a CannotProceedException.
      */
+    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")  // For Hashtable clone: environment.clone()
     public Continuation(Name top, Hashtable<?,?> environment) {
         super();
         starter = top;
-        this.environment = environment;
+        this.environment = (Hashtable<?,?>)
+                ((environment == null) ? null : environment.clone());
     }
 
     /**
--- a/src/share/classes/com/sun/jndi/toolkit/dir/LazySearchEnumerationImpl.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/com/sun/jndi/toolkit/dir/LazySearchEnumerationImpl.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 1999, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1999, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -69,6 +69,7 @@
             }
     }
 
+    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")      // For Hashtable clone: env.clone()
     public LazySearchEnumerationImpl(NamingEnumeration<Binding> candidates,
         AttrFilter filter, SearchControls cons,
         Context ctx, Hashtable<String, Object> env, boolean useFactory)
@@ -76,7 +77,8 @@
 
             this.candidates = candidates;
             this.filter = filter;
-            this.env = env;
+            this.env = (Hashtable<String, Object>)
+                    ((env == null) ? null : env.clone());
             this.context = ctx;
             this.useFactory = useFactory;
 
--- a/src/share/classes/com/sun/jndi/toolkit/dir/SearchFilter.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/com/sun/jndi/toolkit/dir/SearchFilter.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -396,7 +396,7 @@
 
             // do we need to begin with the first token?
             if(proto.charAt(0) != WILDCARD_TOKEN &&
-                    !value.toString().toLowerCase(Locale.ENGLISH).startsWith(
+                    !value.toLowerCase(Locale.ENGLISH).startsWith(
                         subStrs.nextToken().toLowerCase(Locale.ENGLISH))) {
                 if(debug) {
                     System.out.println("faild initial test");
--- a/src/share/classes/com/sun/jndi/toolkit/url/GenericURLContext.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/com/sun/jndi/toolkit/url/GenericURLContext.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 1999, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1999, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -53,7 +53,8 @@
     @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") // Expect Hashtable<String, Object>
     public GenericURLContext(Hashtable<?,?> env) {
         // context that is not tied to any specific URL
-        myEnv = (Hashtable<String, Object>)env;  // copied on write
+        myEnv =
+            (Hashtable<String, Object>)(env == null ? null : env.clone());
     }
 
     public void close() throws NamingException {
@@ -488,22 +489,19 @@
         return result;
     }
 
-    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") // clone()
     public Object removeFromEnvironment(String propName)
         throws NamingException {
             if (myEnv == null) {
                 return null;
             }
-            myEnv = (Hashtable<String, Object>)myEnv.clone();
             return myEnv.remove(propName);
     }
 
-    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") // clone()
     public Object addToEnvironment(String propName, Object propVal)
         throws NamingException {
-            myEnv = (myEnv == null)
-                    ? new Hashtable<String, Object>(11, 0.75f)
-                    : (Hashtable<String, Object>)myEnv.clone();
+            if (myEnv == null) {
+                myEnv = new Hashtable<String, Object>(11, 0.75f);
+            }
             return myEnv.put(propName, propVal);
     }
 
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/src/share/classes/com/sun/management/DiagnosticCommandMBean.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -0,0 +1,220 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+ *
+ * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+ * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
+ * particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
+ * by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
+ *
+ * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+ * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+ * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
+ * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+ * accompanied this code).
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+ * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+ * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+ *
+ * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
+ * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
+ * questions.
+ */
+
+package com.sun.management;
+
+import java.lang.management.PlatformManagedObject;
+import javax.management.DynamicMBean;
+
+/**
+ * Management interface for the diagnostic commands for the HotSpot Virtual Machine.
+ *
+ * <p>The {code DiagnosticCommandMBean} is registered to the
+ * {@linkplain java.lang.management.ManagementFactory#getPlatformMBeanServer
+ * platform MBeanServer} as are other platform MBeans.
+ *
+ * <p>The {@link javax.management.ObjectName ObjectName} for uniquely identifying
+ * the diagnostic MBean within an MBeanServer is:
+ * <blockquote>
+ *    {@code com.sun.management:type=DiagnosticCommand}
+ * </blockquote>
+ *
+ * <p>This MBean is a {@link javax.management.DynamicMBean DynamicMBean}
+ * and also a {@link javax.management.NotificationEmitter}.
+ * The {@code DiagnosticCommandMBean} is generated at runtime and is subject to
+ * modifications during the lifetime of the Java virtual machine.
+ *
+ * A <em>diagnostic command</em> is represented as an operation of
+ * the {@code DiagnosticCommandMBean} interface. Each diagnostic command has:
+ * <ul>
+ * <li>the diagnostic command name which is the name being referenced in
+ *     the HotSpot Virtual Machine</li>
+ * <li>the MBean operation name which is the
+ *     {@linkplain javax.management.MBeanOperationInfo#getName() name}
+ *     generated for the diagnostic command operation invocation.
+ *     The MBean operation name is implementation dependent</li>
+ * </ul>
+ *
+ * The recommended way to transform a diagnostic command name into a MBean
+ * operation name is as follows:
+ * <ul>
+ * <li>All characters from the first one to the first dot are set to be
+ *      lower-case characters</li>
+ * <li>Every dot or underline character is removed and the following
+ *   character is set to be an upper-case character</li>
+ * <li>All other characters are copied without modification</li>
+ * </ul>
+ *
+ * <p>The diagnostic command name is always provided with the meta-data on the
+ * operation in a field named {@code dcmd.name} (see below).
+ *
+ * <p>A diagnostic command may or may not support options or arguments.
+ * All the operations return {@code String} and either take
+ * no parameter for operations that do not support any option or argument,
+ * or take a {@code String[]} parameter for operations that support at least
+ * one option or argument.
+ * Each option or argument must be stored in a single String.
+ * Options or arguments split across several String instances are not supported.
+ *
+ * <p>The distinction between options and arguments: options are identified by
+ * the option name while arguments are identified by their position in the
+ * command line. Options and arguments are processed in the order of the array
+ * passed to the invocation method.
+ *
+ * <p>Like any operation of a dynamic MBean, each of these operations is
+ * described by {@link javax.management.MBeanOperationInfo MBeanOperationInfo}
+ * instance. Here's the values returned by this object:
+ * <ul>
+ *  <li>{@link javax.management.MBeanOperationInfo#getName() getName()}
+ *      returns the operation name generated from the diagnostic command name</li>
+ *  <li>{@link javax.management.MBeanOperationInfo#getDescription() getDescription()}
+ *      returns the diagnostic command description
+ *      (the same as the one return in the 'help' command)</li>
+ *  <li>{@link javax.management.MBeanOperationInfo#getImpact() getImpact()}
+ *      returns <code>ACTION_INFO</code></li>
+ *  <li>{@link javax.management.MBeanOperationInfo#getReturnType() getReturnType()}
+ *      returns {@code java.lang.String}</li>
+ *  <li>{@link javax.management.MBeanOperationInfo#getDescriptor() getDescriptor()}
+ *      returns a Descriptor instance (see below)</li>
+ * </ul>
+ *
+ * <p>The {@link javax.management.Descriptor Descriptor}
+ * is a collection of fields containing additional
+ * meta-data for a JMX element. A field is a name and an associated value.
+ * The additional meta-data provided for an operation associated with a
+ * diagnostic command are described in the table below:
+ * <p>
+ *
+ * <table border="1" cellpadding="5">
+ *   <tr>
+ *     <th>Name</th><th>Type</th><th>Description</th>
+ *   </tr>
+ *   <tr>
+ *     <td>dcmd.name</td><td>String</td>
+ *     <td>The original diagnostic command name (not the operation name)</td>
+ *   </tr>
+ *   <tr>
+ *     <td>dcmd.description</td><td>String</td>
+ *     <td>The diagnostic command description</td>
+ *   </tr>
+ *   <tr>
+ *     <td>dcmd.help</td><td>String</td>
+ *     <td>The full help message for this diagnostic command (same output as
+ *          the one produced by the 'help' command)</td>
+ *   </tr>
+ *   <tr>
+ *     <td>dcmd.vmImpact</td><td>String</td>
+ *     <td>The impact of the diagnostic command,
+ *      this value is the same as the one printed in the 'impact'
+ *      section of the help message of the diagnostic command, and it
+ *      is different from the getImpact() of the MBeanOperationInfo</td>
+ *   </tr>
+ *   <tr>
+ *     <td>dcmd.enabled</td><td>boolean</td>
+ *     <td>True if the diagnostic command is enabled, false otherwise</td>
+ *   </tr>
+ *   <tr>
+ *     <td>dcmd.permissionClass</td><td>String</td>
+ *     <td>Some diagnostic command might require a specific permission to be
+ *          executed, in addition to the MBeanPermission to invoke their
+ *          associated MBean operation. This field returns the fully qualified
+ *          name of the permission class or null if no permission is required
+ *   </td>
+ *   </tr>
+ *   <tr>
+ *     <td>dcmd.permissionName</td><td>String</td>
+ *     <td>The fist argument of the permission required to execute this
+ *          diagnostic command or null if no permission is required</td>
+ *   </tr>
+ *   <tr>
+ *     <td>dcmd.permissionAction</td><td>String</td>
+ *     <td>The second argument of the permission required to execute this
+ *          diagnostic command or null if the permission constructor has only
+ *          one argument (like the ManagementPermission) or if no permission
+ *          is required</td>
+ *   </tr>
+ *   <tr>
+ *     <td>dcmd.arguments</td><td>Descriptor</td>
+ *     <td>A Descriptor instance containing the descriptions of options and
+ *          arguments supported by the diagnostic command (see below)</td>
+ *   </tr>
+ * </table>
+ * <p>
+ *
+ * <p>The description of parameters (options or arguments) of a diagnostic
+ * command is provided within a Descriptor instance. In this Descriptor,
+ * each field name is a parameter name, and each field value is itself
+ * a Descriptor instance. The fields provided in this second Descriptor
+ * instance are described in the table below:
+ *
+ * <table border="1" cellpadding="5">
+ *   <tr>
+ *     <th>Name</th><th>Type</th><th>Description</th>
+ *   </tr>
+ *   <tr>
+ *     <td>dcmd.arg.name</td><td>String</td>
+ *     <td>The name of the parameter</td>
+ *   </tr>
+ *   <tr>
+ *     <td>dcmd.arg.type</td><td>String</td>
+ *     <td>The type of the parameter. The returned String is the name of a type
+ *          recognized by the diagnostic command parser. These types are not
+ *          Java types and are implementation dependent.
+ *          </td>
+ *   </tr>
+ *   <tr>
+ *     <td>dcmd.arg.description</td><td>String</td>
+ *     <td>The parameter description</td>
+ *   </tr>
+ *   <tr>
+ *     <td>dcmd.arg.isMandatory</td><td>boolean</td>
+ *     <td>True if the parameter is mandatory, false otherwise</td>
+ *   </tr>
+ *   <tr>
+ *     <td>dcmd.arg.isOption</td><td>boolean</td>
+ *     <td>True if the parameter is an option, false if it is an argument</td>
+ *   </tr>
+ *   <tr>
+ *     <td>dcmd.arg.isMultiple</td><td>boolean</td>
+ *     <td>True if the parameter can be specified several times, false
+ *          otherwise</td>
+ *   </tr>
+ * </table>
+ *
+ * <p>When the set of diagnostic commands currently supported by the Java
+ * Virtual Machine is modified, the {@code DiagnosticCommandMBean} emits
+ * a {@link javax.management.Notification} with a
+ * {@linkplain javax.management.Notification#getType() type} of
+ * <a href="{@docRoot}/../../../../api/javax/management/MBeanInfo.html#info-changed">
+ * {@code "jmx.mbean.info.changed"}</a> and a
+ * {@linkplain javax.management.Notification#getUserData() userData} that
+ * is the new {@code MBeanInfo}.
+ *
+ * @since 8
+ */
+public interface DiagnosticCommandMBean extends DynamicMBean
+{
+
+}
--- a/src/share/classes/java/io/FileInputStream.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/io/FileInputStream.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -240,13 +240,15 @@
      *
      * <p>The <code>skip</code> method may, for a variety of
      * reasons, end up skipping over some smaller number of bytes,
-     * possibly <code>0</code>. If <code>n</code> is negative, an
-     * <code>IOException</code> is thrown, even though the <code>skip</code>
-     * method of the {@link InputStream} superclass does nothing in this case.
-     * The actual number of bytes skipped is returned.
+     * possibly <code>0</code>. If <code>n</code> is negative, the method
+     * will try to skip backwards. In case the backing file does not support
+     * backward skip at its current position, an <code>IOException</code> is
+     * thrown. The actual number of bytes skipped is returned. If it skips
+     * forwards, it returns a positive value. If it skips backwards, it
+     * returns a negative value.
      *
-     * <p>This method may skip more bytes than are remaining in the backing
-     * file. This produces no exception and the number of bytes skipped
+     * <p>This method may skip more bytes than what are remaining in the
+     * backing file. This produces no exception and the number of bytes skipped
      * may include some number of bytes that were beyond the EOF of the
      * backing file. Attempting to read from the stream after skipping past
      * the end will result in -1 indicating the end of the file.
@@ -261,9 +263,10 @@
     /**
      * Returns an estimate of the number of remaining bytes that can be read (or
      * skipped over) from this input stream without blocking by the next
-     * invocation of a method for this input stream. The next invocation might be
-     * the same thread or another thread.  A single read or skip of this
-     * many bytes will not block, but may read or skip fewer bytes.
+     * invocation of a method for this input stream. Returns 0 when the file
+     * position is beyond EOF. The next invocation might be the same thread
+     * or another thread. A single read or skip of this many bytes will not
+     * block, but may read or skip fewer bytes.
      *
      * <p> In some cases, a non-blocking read (or skip) may appear to be
      * blocked when it is merely slow, for example when reading large
--- a/src/share/classes/java/io/InputStream.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/io/InputStream.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 1994, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1994, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -193,8 +193,10 @@
      * up skipping over some smaller number of bytes, possibly <code>0</code>.
      * This may result from any of a number of conditions; reaching end of file
      * before <code>n</code> bytes have been skipped is only one possibility.
-     * The actual number of bytes skipped is returned.  If <code>n</code> is
-     * negative, no bytes are skipped.
+     * The actual number of bytes skipped is returned. If {@code n} is
+     * negative, the {@code skip} method for class {@code InputStream} always
+     * returns 0, and no bytes are skipped. Subclasses may handle the negative
+     * value differently.
      *
      * <p> The <code>skip</code> method of this class creates a
      * byte array and then repeatedly reads into it until <code>n</code> bytes
--- a/src/share/classes/java/lang/AbstractStringBuilder.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/lang/AbstractStringBuilder.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 2003, 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 2003, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -689,7 +689,7 @@
      * @return  a reference to this object.
      */
     public AbstractStringBuilder append(float f) {
-        new FloatingDecimal(f).appendTo(this);
+        FloatingDecimal.appendTo(f,this);
         return this;
     }
 
@@ -706,7 +706,7 @@
      * @return  a reference to this object.
      */
     public AbstractStringBuilder append(double d) {
-        new FloatingDecimal(d).appendTo(this);
+        FloatingDecimal.appendTo(d,this);
         return this;
     }
 
--- a/src/share/classes/java/lang/CharSequence.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/lang/CharSequence.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -179,10 +179,25 @@
 
             @Override
             public void forEachRemaining(IntConsumer block) {
-                while (cur < length()) {
-                    int cp = Character.codePointAt(CharSequence.this, cur);
-                    cur += Character.charCount(cp);
-                    block.accept(cp);
+                final int length = length();
+                int i = cur;
+                try {
+                    while (i < length) {
+                        char c1 = charAt(i++);
+                        if (!Character.isHighSurrogate(c1) || i >= length) {
+                            block.accept(c1);
+                        } else {
+                            char c2 = charAt(i);
+                            if (Character.isLowSurrogate(c2)) {
+                                i++;
+                                block.accept(Character.toCodePoint(c1, c2));
+                            } else {
+                                block.accept(c1);
+                            }
+                        }
+                    }
+                } finally {
+                    cur = i;
                 }
             }
 
@@ -191,12 +206,20 @@
             }
 
             public int nextInt() {
-                if (!hasNext()) {
+                final int length = length();
+
+                if (cur >= length) {
                     throw new NoSuchElementException();
                 }
-                int cp = Character.codePointAt(CharSequence.this, cur);
-                cur += Character.charCount(cp);
-                return cp;
+                char c1 = charAt(cur++);
+                if (Character.isHighSurrogate(c1) && cur < length) {
+                    char c2 = charAt(cur);
+                    if (Character.isLowSurrogate(c2)) {
+                        cur++;
+                        return Character.toCodePoint(c1, c2);
+                    }
+                }
+                return c1;
             }
         }
 
--- a/src/share/classes/java/lang/Class.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/lang/Class.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -28,6 +28,7 @@
 import java.lang.reflect.AnnotatedElement;
 import java.lang.reflect.Array;
 import java.lang.reflect.GenericArrayType;
+import java.lang.reflect.GenericDeclaration;
 import java.lang.reflect.Member;
 import java.lang.reflect.Field;
 import java.lang.reflect.Executable;
@@ -115,9 +116,9 @@
  * @since   JDK1.0
  */
 public final class Class<T> implements java.io.Serializable,
-                              java.lang.reflect.GenericDeclaration,
-                              java.lang.reflect.Type,
-                              java.lang.reflect.AnnotatedElement {
+                              GenericDeclaration,
+                              Type,
+                              AnnotatedElement {
     private static final int ANNOTATION= 0x00002000;
     private static final int ENUM      = 0x00004000;
     private static final int SYNTHETIC = 0x00001000;
@@ -2284,14 +2285,6 @@
      */
     private native java.security.ProtectionDomain getProtectionDomain0();
 
-
-    /**
-     * Set the ProtectionDomain for this class. Called by
-     * ClassLoader.defineClass.
-     */
-    native void setProtectionDomain0(java.security.ProtectionDomain pd);
-
-
     /*
      * Return the Virtual Machine's Class object for the named
      * primitive type.
@@ -3255,7 +3248,7 @@
      */
     @Override
     public boolean isAnnotationPresent(Class<? extends Annotation> annotationClass) {
-        return AnnotatedElement.super.isAnnotationPresent(annotationClass);
+        return GenericDeclaration.super.isAnnotationPresent(annotationClass);
     }
 
     /**
--- a/src/share/classes/java/lang/Double.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/lang/Double.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -201,7 +201,7 @@
      * @return a string representation of the argument.
      */
     public static String toString(double d) {
-        return new FloatingDecimal(d).toJavaFormatString();
+        return FloatingDecimal.toJavaFormatString(d);
     }
 
     /**
@@ -509,7 +509,7 @@
      *             parsable number.
      */
     public static Double valueOf(String s) throws NumberFormatException {
-        return new Double(FloatingDecimal.readJavaFormatString(s).doubleValue());
+        return new Double(parseDouble(s));
     }
 
     /**
@@ -545,7 +545,7 @@
      * @since 1.2
      */
     public static double parseDouble(String s) throws NumberFormatException {
-        return FloatingDecimal.readJavaFormatString(s).doubleValue();
+        return FloatingDecimal.parseDouble(s);
     }
 
     /**
--- a/src/share/classes/java/lang/Float.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/lang/Float.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 1994, 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1994, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -203,7 +203,7 @@
      * @return a string representation of the argument.
      */
     public static String toString(float f) {
-        return new FloatingDecimal(f).toJavaFormatString();
+        return FloatingDecimal.toJavaFormatString(f);
     }
 
     /**
@@ -421,7 +421,7 @@
      *          parsable number.
      */
     public static Float valueOf(String s) throws NumberFormatException {
-        return new Float(FloatingDecimal.readJavaFormatString(s).floatValue());
+        return new Float(parseFloat(s));
     }
 
     /**
@@ -456,7 +456,7 @@
      * @since 1.2
      */
     public static float parseFloat(String s) throws NumberFormatException {
-        return FloatingDecimal.readJavaFormatString(s).floatValue();
+        return FloatingDecimal.parseFloat(s);
     }
 
     /**
--- a/src/share/classes/java/lang/Integer.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/lang/Integer.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -26,7 +26,6 @@
 package java.lang;
 
 import java.lang.annotation.Native;
-import java.util.Properties;
 
 /**
  * The {@code Integer} class wraps a value of the primitive type
@@ -185,7 +184,7 @@
      * @since 1.8
      */
     public static String toUnsignedString(int i, int radix) {
-        return Long.toString(toUnsignedLong(i), radix);
+        return Long.toUnsignedString(toUnsignedLong(i), radix);
     }
 
     /**
@@ -307,20 +306,39 @@
     /**
      * Convert the integer to an unsigned number.
      */
-    private static String toUnsignedString0(int i, int shift) {
-        char[] buf = new char[32];
-        int charPos = 32;
+    private static String toUnsignedString0(int val, int shift) {
+        // assert shift > 0 && shift <=5 : "Illegal shift value";
+        int mag = Integer.SIZE - Integer.numberOfLeadingZeros(val);
+        int chars = Math.max(((mag + (shift - 1)) / shift), 1);
+        char[] buf = new char[chars];
+
+        formatUnsignedInt(val, shift, buf, 0, chars);
+
+        // Use special constructor which takes over "buf".
+        return new String(buf, true);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Format a long (treated as unsigned) into a character buffer.
+     * @param val the unsigned int to format
+     * @param shift the log2 of the base to format in (4 for hex, 3 for octal, 1 for binary)
+     * @param buf the character buffer to write to
+     * @param offset the offset in the destination buffer to start at
+     * @param len the number of characters to write
+     * @return the lowest character  location used
+     */
+     static int formatUnsignedInt(int val, int shift, char[] buf, int offset, int len) {
+        int charPos = len;
         int radix = 1 << shift;
         int mask = radix - 1;
         do {
-            buf[--charPos] = digits[i & mask];
-            i >>>= shift;
-        } while (i != 0);
+            buf[offset + --charPos] = Integer.digits[val & mask];
+            val >>>= shift;
+        } while (val != 0 && charPos > 0);
 
-        return new String(buf, charPos, (32 - charPos));
+        return charPos;
     }
 
-
     final static char [] DigitTens = {
         '0', '0', '0', '0', '0', '0', '0', '0', '0', '0',
         '1', '1', '1', '1', '1', '1', '1', '1', '1', '1',
@@ -875,6 +893,7 @@
      * Returns the value of this {@code Integer} as a {@code long}
      * after a widening primitive conversion.
      * @jls 5.1.2 Widening Primitive Conversions
+     * @see Integer#toUnsignedLong(int)
      */
     public long longValue() {
         return (long)value;
--- a/src/share/classes/java/lang/Long.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/lang/Long.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -28,6 +28,7 @@
 import java.lang.annotation.Native;
 import java.math.*;
 
+
 /**
  * The {@code Long} class wraps a value of the primitive type {@code
  * long} in an object. An object of type {@code Long} contains a
@@ -344,18 +345,39 @@
     }
 
     /**
-     * Convert the integer to an unsigned number.
+     * Format a long (treated as unsigned) into a String.
+     * @param val the value to format
+     * @param shift the log2 of the base to format in (4 for hex, 3 for octal, 1 for binary)
      */
-    private static String toUnsignedString0(long i, int shift) {
-        char[] buf = new char[64];
-        int charPos = 64;
+    static String toUnsignedString0(long val, int shift) {
+        // assert shift > 0 && shift <=5 : "Illegal shift value";
+        int mag = Long.SIZE - Long.numberOfLeadingZeros(val);
+        int chars = Math.max(((mag + (shift - 1)) / shift), 1);
+        char[] buf = new char[chars];
+
+        formatUnsignedLong(val, shift, buf, 0, chars);
+        return new String(buf, true);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Format a long (treated as unsigned) into a character buffer.
+     * @param val the unsigned long to format
+     * @param shift the log2 of the base to format in (4 for hex, 3 for octal, 1 for binary)
+     * @param buf the character buffer to write to
+     * @param offset the offset in the destination buffer to start at
+     * @param len the number of characters to write
+     * @return the lowest character location used
+     */
+     static int formatUnsignedLong(long val, int shift, char[] buf, int offset, int len) {
+        int charPos = len;
         int radix = 1 << shift;
-        long mask = radix - 1;
+        int mask = radix - 1;
         do {
-            buf[--charPos] = Integer.digits[(int)(i & mask)];
-            i >>>= shift;
-        } while (i != 0);
-        return new String(buf, charPos, (64 - charPos));
+            buf[offset + --charPos] = Integer.digits[((int) val) & mask];
+            val >>>= shift;
+        } while (val != 0 && charPos > 0);
+
+        return charPos;
     }
 
     /**
--- a/src/share/classes/java/lang/String.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/lang/String.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -1010,13 +1010,14 @@
     private boolean nonSyncContentEquals(AbstractStringBuilder sb) {
         char v1[] = value;
         char v2[] = sb.getValue();
-        int i = 0;
-        int n = value.length;
-        while (n-- != 0) {
+        int n = v1.length;
+        if (n != sb.length()) {
+            return false;
+        }
+        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
             if (v1[i] != v2[i]) {
                 return false;
             }
-            i++;
         }
         return true;
     }
@@ -1038,8 +1039,6 @@
      * @since  1.5
      */
     public boolean contentEquals(CharSequence cs) {
-        if (value.length != cs.length())
-            return false;
         // Argument is a StringBuffer, StringBuilder
         if (cs instanceof AbstractStringBuilder) {
             if (cs instanceof StringBuffer) {
@@ -1055,12 +1054,14 @@
             return true;
         // Argument is a generic CharSequence
         char v1[] = value;
-        int i = 0;
-        int n = value.length;
-        while (n-- != 0) {
-            if (v1[i] != cs.charAt(i))
+        int n = v1.length;
+        if (n != cs.length()) {
+            return false;
+        }
+        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
+            if (v1[i] != cs.charAt(i)) {
                 return false;
-            i++;
+            }
         }
         return true;
     }
--- a/src/share/classes/java/lang/StringBuffer.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/lang/StringBuffer.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -335,10 +335,8 @@
      * @since 1.5
      */
     @Override
-    public StringBuffer append(CharSequence s) {
-        // Note, synchronization achieved via invocations of other StringBuffer methods after
-        // narrowing of s to specific type
-        // Ditto for toStringCache clearing
+    public synchronized StringBuffer append(CharSequence s) {
+        toStringCache = null;
         super.append(s);
         return this;
     }
--- a/src/share/classes/java/lang/Thread.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/lang/Thread.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -145,10 +145,10 @@
         registerNatives();
     }
 
-    private char        name[];
-    private int         priority;
-    private Thread      threadQ;
-    private long        eetop;
+    private volatile char  name[];
+    private int            priority;
+    private Thread         threadQ;
+    private long           eetop;
 
     /* Whether or not to single_step this thread. */
     private boolean     single_step;
@@ -1135,7 +1135,7 @@
      * @see        #getName
      * @see        #checkAccess()
      */
-    public final void setName(String name) {
+    public final synchronized void setName(String name) {
         checkAccess();
         this.name = name.toCharArray();
         if (threadStatus != 0) {
@@ -1150,7 +1150,7 @@
      * @see     #setName(String)
      */
     public final String getName() {
-        return String.valueOf(name);
+        return new String(name, true);
     }
 
     /**
--- a/src/share/classes/java/lang/annotation/IncompleteAnnotationException.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/lang/annotation/IncompleteAnnotationException.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -55,8 +55,7 @@
     public IncompleteAnnotationException(
             Class<? extends Annotation> annotationType,
             String elementName) {
-        super(annotationType.getName().toString() +
-              " missing element " +
+        super(annotationType.getName() + " missing element " +
               elementName.toString());
 
         this.annotationType = annotationType;
--- a/src/share/classes/java/lang/management/ManagementFactory.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/lang/management/ManagementFactory.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 2003, 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 2003, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -42,7 +42,9 @@
 import java.util.Collections;
 import java.util.List;
 import java.util.Set;
+import java.util.HashMap;
 import java.util.HashSet;
+import java.util.Map;
 import java.security.AccessController;
 import java.security.Permission;
 import java.security.PrivilegedAction;
@@ -482,6 +484,11 @@
                     }
                 }
             }
+            HashMap<ObjectName, DynamicMBean> dynmbeans =
+                    ManagementFactoryHelper.getPlatformDynamicMBeans();
+            for (Map.Entry<ObjectName, DynamicMBean> e : dynmbeans.entrySet()) {
+                addDynamicMBean(platformMBeanServer, e.getValue(), e.getKey());
+            }
         }
         return platformMBeanServer;
     }
@@ -825,4 +832,24 @@
         }
     }
 
+    /**
+     * Registers a DynamicMBean.
+     */
+    private static void addDynamicMBean(final MBeanServer mbs,
+                                        final DynamicMBean dmbean,
+                                        final ObjectName on) {
+        try {
+            AccessController.doPrivileged(new PrivilegedExceptionAction<Void>() {
+                @Override
+                public Void run() throws InstanceAlreadyExistsException,
+                                         MBeanRegistrationException,
+                                         NotCompliantMBeanException {
+                    mbs.registerMBean(dmbean, on);
+                    return null;
+                }
+            });
+        } catch (PrivilegedActionException e) {
+            throw new RuntimeException(e.getException());
+        }
+    }
 }
--- a/src/share/classes/java/lang/ref/Reference.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/lang/ref/Reference.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 1997, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1997, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -138,8 +138,23 @@
                         pending = r.discovered;
                         r.discovered = null;
                     } else {
+                        // The waiting on the lock may cause an OOME because it may try to allocate
+                        // exception objects, so also catch OOME here to avoid silent exit of the
+                        // reference handler thread.
+                        //
+                        // Explicitly define the order of the two exceptions we catch here
+                        // when waiting for the lock.
+                        //
+                        // We do not want to try to potentially load the InterruptedException class
+                        // (which would be done if this was its first use, and InterruptedException
+                        // were checked first) in this situation.
+                        //
+                        // This may lead to the VM not ever trying to load the InterruptedException
+                        // class again.
                         try {
-                            lock.wait();
+                            try {
+                                lock.wait();
+                            } catch (OutOfMemoryError x) { }
                         } catch (InterruptedException x) { }
                         continue;
                     }
--- a/src/share/classes/java/lang/reflect/GenericDeclaration.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/lang/reflect/GenericDeclaration.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 2003, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 2003, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -30,7 +30,7 @@
  *
  * @since 1.5
  */
-public interface GenericDeclaration {
+public interface GenericDeclaration extends AnnotatedElement {
     /**
      * Returns an array of {@code TypeVariable} objects that
      * represent the type variables declared by the generic
--- a/src/share/classes/java/net/CookiePolicy.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/net/CookiePolicy.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -59,6 +59,8 @@
      */
     public static final CookiePolicy ACCEPT_ORIGINAL_SERVER  = new CookiePolicy(){
         public boolean shouldAccept(URI uri, HttpCookie cookie) {
+            if (uri == null || cookie == null)
+                return false;
             return HttpCookie.domainMatches(cookie.getDomain(), uri.getHost());
         }
     };
--- a/src/share/classes/java/net/HttpCookie.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/net/HttpCookie.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -128,8 +128,7 @@
      *         a {@code String} specifying the value of the cookie
      *
      * @throws  IllegalArgumentException
-     *          if the cookie name contains illegal characters or it is one of
-     *          the tokens reserved for use by the cookie protocol
+     *          if the cookie name contains illegal characters
      * @throws  NullPointerException
      *          if {@code name} is {@code null}
      *
@@ -142,7 +141,7 @@
 
     private HttpCookie(String name, String value, String header) {
         name = name.trim();
-        if (name.length() == 0 || !isToken(name)) {
+        if (name.length() == 0 || !isToken(name) || name.charAt(0) == '$') {
             throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal cookie name");
         }
 
@@ -170,9 +169,8 @@
      * @return  a List of cookie parsed from header line string
      *
      * @throws  IllegalArgumentException
-     *          if header string violates the cookie specification's syntax, or
-     *          the cookie name contains illegal characters, or the cookie name
-     *          is one of the tokens reserved for use by the cookie protocol
+     *          if header string violates the cookie specification's syntax or
+     *          the cookie name contains illegal characters.
      * @throws  NullPointerException
      *          if the header string is {@code null}
      */
--- a/src/share/classes/java/net/HttpURLPermission.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/net/HttpURLPermission.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -377,7 +377,7 @@
             throw new IllegalArgumentException ("unexpected URL scheme");
         }
         if (!u.getSchemeSpecificPart().equals("*")) {
-            u = URI.create(scheme + "://" + u.getAuthority() + u.getPath());
+            u = URI.create(scheme + "://" + u.getRawAuthority() + u.getRawPath());
         }
         return u;
     }
--- a/src/share/classes/java/nio/Buffer.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/nio/Buffer.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -25,6 +25,7 @@
 
 package java.nio;
 
+import java.util.Spliterator;
 
 /**
  * A container for data of a specific primitive type.
@@ -173,6 +174,13 @@
 
 public abstract class Buffer {
 
+    /**
+     * The characteristics of Spliterators that traverse and split elements
+     * maintained in Buffers.
+     */
+    static final int SPLITERATOR_CHARACTERISTICS =
+        Spliterator.SIZED | Spliterator.SUBSIZED | Spliterator.ORDERED;
+
     // Invariants: mark <= position <= limit <= capacity
     private int mark = -1;
     private int position = 0;
--- a/src/share/classes/java/nio/ByteBufferAs-X-Buffer.java.template	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/nio/ByteBufferAs-X-Buffer.java.template	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -115,6 +115,12 @@
         return Bits.get$Type$$BO$(bb, ix(checkIndex(i)));
     }
 
+#if[streamableType]
+   $type$ getUnchecked(int i) {
+        return Bits.get$Type$$BO$(bb, ix(i));
+    }
+#end[streamableType]
+
 #end[rw]
 
     public $Type$Buffer put($type$ x) {
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/nio/CharBufferSpliterator.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -0,0 +1,96 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+ *
+ * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+ * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
+* particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
+ * by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
+ *
+ * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+ * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+ * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
+ * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+ * accompanied this code).
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+ * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+ * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+ *
+ * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
+ * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
+ * questions.
+ */
+
+package java.nio;
+
+import java.util.Comparator;
+import java.util.Spliterator;
+import java.util.function.IntConsumer;
+
+/**
+ * A Spliterator.OfInt for sources that traverse and split elements
+ * maintained in a CharBuffer.
+ *
+ * @implNote
+ * The implementation is based on the code for the Array-based spliterators.
+ */
+class CharBufferSpliterator implements Spliterator.OfInt {
+    private final CharBuffer buffer;
+    private int index;   // current index, modified on advance/split
+    private final int limit;
+
+    CharBufferSpliterator(CharBuffer buffer) {
+        this(buffer, buffer.position(), buffer.limit());
+    }
+
+    CharBufferSpliterator(CharBuffer buffer, int origin, int limit) {
+        assert origin <= limit;
+        this.buffer = buffer;
+        this.index = (origin <= limit) ? origin : limit;
+        this.limit = limit;
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public OfInt trySplit() {
+        int lo = index, mid = (lo + limit) >>> 1;
+        return (lo >= mid)
+               ? null
+               : new CharBufferSpliterator(buffer, lo, index = mid);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void forEachRemaining(IntConsumer action) {
+        if (action == null)
+            throw new NullPointerException();
+        CharBuffer cb = buffer;
+        int i = index;
+        int hi = limit;
+        index = hi;
+        while (i < hi) {
+            action.accept(cb.getUnchecked(i++));
+        }
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public boolean tryAdvance(IntConsumer action) {
+        if (action == null)
+            throw new NullPointerException();
+        if (index >= 0 && index < limit) {
+            action.accept(buffer.getUnchecked(index++));
+            return true;
+        }
+        return false;
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public long estimateSize() {
+        return (long)(limit - index);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public int characteristics() {
+        return Buffer.SPLITERATOR_CHARACTERISTICS;
+    }
+}
--- a/src/share/classes/java/nio/Direct-X-Buffer.java.template	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/nio/Direct-X-Buffer.java.template	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -253,6 +253,12 @@
         return $fromBits$($swap$(unsafe.get$Swaptype$(ix(checkIndex(i)))));
     }
 
+#if[streamableType]
+    $type$ getUnchecked(int i) {
+        return $fromBits$($swap$(unsafe.get$Swaptype$(ix(i))));
+    }
+#end[streamableType]
+
     public $Type$Buffer get($type$[] dst, int offset, int length) {
 #if[rw]
         if ((length << $LG_BYTES_PER_VALUE$) > Bits.JNI_COPY_TO_ARRAY_THRESHOLD) {
--- a/src/share/classes/java/nio/Heap-X-Buffer.java.template	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/nio/Heap-X-Buffer.java.template	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -139,6 +139,12 @@
         return hb[ix(checkIndex(i))];
     }
 
+#if[streamableType]
+    $type$ getUnchecked(int i) {
+	return hb[ix(i)];
+    }
+#end[streamableType]
+
     public $Type$Buffer get($type$[] dst, int offset, int length) {
         checkBounds(offset, length, dst.length);
         if (length > remaining())
--- a/src/share/classes/java/nio/StringCharBuffer.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/nio/StringCharBuffer.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -77,6 +77,10 @@
         return str.charAt(checkIndex(index) + offset);
     }
 
+    char getUnchecked(int index) {
+        return str.charAt(index + offset);
+    }
+
     // ## Override bulk get methods for better performance
 
     public final CharBuffer put(char c) {
--- a/src/share/classes/java/nio/X-Buffer.java.template	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/nio/X-Buffer.java.template	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -30,6 +30,11 @@
 #if[char]
 import java.io.IOException;
 #end[char]
+#if[streamableType]
+import java.util.Spliterator;
+import java.util.stream.StreamSupport;
+import java.util.stream.$Streamtype$Stream;
+#end[streamableType]
 
 /**
  * $A$ $type$ buffer.
@@ -589,6 +594,19 @@
      */
     public abstract $type$ get(int index);
 
+#if[streamableType]
+    /**
+     * Absolute <i>get</i> method.  Reads the $type$ at the given
+     * index without any validation of the index.
+     *
+     * @param  index
+     *         The index from which the $type$ will be read
+     *
+     * @return  The $type$ at the given index
+     */
+    abstract $type$ getUnchecked(int index);   // package-private
+#end[streamableType]
+
     /**
      * Absolute <i>put</i> method&nbsp;&nbsp;<i>(optional operation)</i>.
      *
@@ -1458,4 +1476,16 @@
 
 #end[byte]
 
+#if[streamableType]
+
+#if[char]
+    @Override
+#end[char]
+    public $Streamtype$Stream $type$s() {
+        return StreamSupport.$streamtype$Stream(() -> new $Type$BufferSpliterator(this),
+            Buffer.SPLITERATOR_CHARACTERISTICS);
+    }
+
+#end[streamableType]
+
 }
--- a/src/share/classes/java/nio/charset/Charset-X-Coder.java.template	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/nio/charset/Charset-X-Coder.java.template	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -34,6 +34,7 @@
 import java.nio.BufferUnderflowException;
 import java.lang.ref.WeakReference;
 import java.nio.charset.CoderMalfunctionError;                  // javadoc
+import java.util.Arrays;
 
 
 /**
@@ -244,7 +245,12 @@
      *          which is never <tt>null</tt> and is never empty
      */
     public final $replType$ replacement() {
+#if[decoder]
         return replacement;
+#end[decoder]
+#if[encoder]
+        return Arrays.copyOf(replacement, replacement.$replLength$);
+#end[encoder]
     }
 
     /**
@@ -280,12 +286,15 @@
             throw new IllegalArgumentException("Empty replacement");
         if (len > max$ItypesPerOtype$)
             throw new IllegalArgumentException("Replacement too long");
+#if[decoder]
+        this.replacement = newReplacement;
+#end[decoder]
 #if[encoder]
         if (!isLegalReplacement(newReplacement))
             throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal replacement");
+        this.replacement = Arrays.copyOf(newReplacement, newReplacement.$replLength$);
 #end[encoder]
-        this.replacement = newReplacement;
-        implReplaceWith(newReplacement);
+        implReplaceWith(this.replacement);
         return this;
     }
 
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/nio/file/FileTreeIterator.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -0,0 +1,124 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+ *
+ * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+ * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
+ * particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
+ * by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
+ *
+ * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+ * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+ * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
+ * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+ * accompanied this code).
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+ * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+ * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+ *
+ * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
+ * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
+ * questions.
+ */
+
+package java.nio.file;
+
+import java.io.Closeable;
+import java.io.IOException;
+import java.io.UncheckedIOException;
+import java.util.Arrays;
+import java.util.Iterator;
+import java.util.NoSuchElementException;
+import java.util.Objects;
+import java.nio.file.FileTreeWalker.Event;
+
+/**
+ * An {@code Iterator to iterate over the nodes of a file tree.
+ *
+ * <pre>{@code
+ *     try (FileTreeIterator iterator = new FileTreeIterator(start, maxDepth, options)) {
+ *         while (iterator.hasNext()) {
+ *             Event ev = iterator.next();
+ *             Path path = ev.file();
+ *             BasicFileAttributes attrs = ev.attributes();
+ *         }
+ *     }
+ * }</pre>
+ */
+
+class FileTreeIterator implements Iterator<Event>, Closeable {
+    private final FileTreeWalker walker;
+    private Event next;
+
+    /**
+     * Creates a new iterator to walk the file tree starting at the given file.
+     *
+     * @throws  IllegalArgumentException
+     *          if {@code maxDepth} is negative
+     * @throws  IOException
+     *          if an I/O errors occurs opening the starting file
+     * @throws  SecurityException
+     *          if the security manager denies access to the starting file
+     * @throws  NullPointerException
+     *          if {@code start} or {@code options} is {@ocde null} or
+     *          the options array contains a {@code null} element
+     */
+    FileTreeIterator(Path start, int maxDepth, FileVisitOption... options)
+        throws IOException
+    {
+        this.walker = new FileTreeWalker(Arrays.asList(options), maxDepth);
+        this.next = walker.walk(start);
+        assert next.type() == FileTreeWalker.EventType.ENTRY ||
+               next.type() == FileTreeWalker.EventType.START_DIRECTORY;
+
+        // IOException if there a problem accessing the starting file
+        IOException ioe = next.ioeException();
+        if (ioe != null)
+            throw ioe;
+    }
+
+    private void fetchNextIfNeeded() {
+        if (next == null) {
+            FileTreeWalker.Event ev = walker.next();
+            while (ev != null) {
+                IOException ioe = ev.ioeException();
+                if (ioe != null)
+                    throw new UncheckedIOException(ioe);
+
+                // END_DIRECTORY events are ignored
+                if (ev.type() != FileTreeWalker.EventType.END_DIRECTORY) {
+                    next = ev;
+                    return;
+                }
+                ev = walker.next();
+            }
+        }
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public boolean hasNext() {
+        if (!walker.isOpen())
+            throw new IllegalStateException();
+        fetchNextIfNeeded();
+        return next != null;
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public Event next() {
+        if (!walker.isOpen())
+            throw new IllegalStateException();
+        fetchNextIfNeeded();
+        if (next == null)
+            throw new NoSuchElementException();
+        Event result = next;
+        next = null;
+        return result;
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void close() {
+        walker.close();
+    }
+}
--- a/src/share/classes/java/nio/file/FileTreeWalker.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/nio/file/FileTreeWalker.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -29,8 +29,8 @@
 import java.io.Closeable;
 import java.io.IOException;
 import java.util.ArrayDeque;
+import java.util.Collection;
 import java.util.Iterator;
-import java.util.Set;
 import sun.nio.fs.BasicFileAttributesHolder;
 
 /**
@@ -164,8 +164,17 @@
 
     /**
      * Creates a {@code FileTreeWalker}.
+     *
+     * @throws  IllegalArgumentException
+     *          if {@code maxDepth} is negative
+     * @throws  ClassCastException
+     *          if (@code options} contains an element that is not a
+     *          {@code FileVisitOption}
+     * @throws  NullPointerException
+     *          if {@code options} is {@ocde null} or the options
+     *          array contains a {@code null} element
      */
-    FileTreeWalker(Set<FileVisitOption> options, int maxDepth) {
+    FileTreeWalker(Collection<FileVisitOption> options, int maxDepth) {
         boolean fl = false;
         for (FileVisitOption option: options) {
             // will throw NPE if options contains null
@@ -175,6 +184,9 @@
                     throw new AssertionError("Should not get here");
             }
         }
+        if (maxDepth < 0)
+            throw new IllegalArgumentException("'maxDepth' is negative");
+
         this.followLinks = fl;
         this.linkOptions = (fl) ? new LinkOption[0] :
             new LinkOption[] { LinkOption.NOFOLLOW_LINKS };
--- a/src/share/classes/java/nio/file/Files.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/nio/file/Files.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -25,10 +25,13 @@
 
 package java.nio.file;
 
+import java.nio.ByteBuffer;
 import java.nio.file.attribute.*;
 import java.nio.file.spi.FileSystemProvider;
 import java.nio.file.spi.FileTypeDetector;
+import java.nio.channels.FileChannel;
 import java.nio.channels.SeekableByteChannel;
+import java.io.Closeable;
 import java.io.InputStream;
 import java.io.OutputStream;
 import java.io.Reader;
@@ -38,7 +41,13 @@
 import java.io.InputStreamReader;
 import java.io.OutputStreamWriter;
 import java.io.IOException;
+import java.io.UncheckedIOException;
 import java.util.*;
+import java.util.function.BiPredicate;
+import java.util.stream.CloseableStream;
+import java.util.stream.DelegatingStream;
+import java.util.stream.Stream;
+import java.util.stream.StreamSupport;
 import java.security.AccessController;
 import java.security.PrivilegedAction;
 import java.nio.charset.Charset;
@@ -2596,9 +2605,6 @@
                                     FileVisitor<? super Path> visitor)
         throws IOException
     {
-        if (maxDepth < 0)
-            throw new IllegalArgumentException("'maxDepth' is negative");
-
         /**
          * Create a FileTreeWalker to walk the file tree, invoking the visitor
          * for each event.
@@ -2950,40 +2956,6 @@
     }
 
     /**
-     * Read all the bytes from an input stream. The {@code initialSize}
-     * parameter indicates the initial size of the byte[] to allocate.
-     */
-    private static byte[] read(InputStream source, int initialSize)
-        throws IOException
-    {
-        int capacity = initialSize;
-        byte[] buf = new byte[capacity];
-        int nread = 0;
-        int rem = buf.length;
-        int n;
-        // read to EOF which may read more or less than initialSize (eg: file
-        // is truncated while we are reading)
-        while ((n = source.read(buf, nread, rem)) > 0) {
-            nread += n;
-            rem -= n;
-            assert rem >= 0;
-            if (rem == 0) {
-                // need larger buffer
-                int newCapacity = capacity << 1;
-                if (newCapacity < 0) {
-                    if (capacity == Integer.MAX_VALUE)
-                        throw new OutOfMemoryError("Required array size too large");
-                    newCapacity = Integer.MAX_VALUE;
-                }
-                rem = newCapacity - capacity;
-                buf = Arrays.copyOf(buf, newCapacity);
-                capacity = newCapacity;
-            }
-        }
-        return (capacity == nread) ? buf : Arrays.copyOf(buf, nread);
-    }
-
-    /**
      * Read all the bytes from a file. The method ensures that the file is
      * closed when all bytes have been read or an I/O error, or other runtime
      * exception, is thrown.
@@ -3008,12 +2980,22 @@
      *          method is invoked to check read access to the file.
      */
     public static byte[] readAllBytes(Path path) throws IOException {
-        long size = size(path);
-        if (size > (long)Integer.MAX_VALUE)
-            throw new OutOfMemoryError("Required array size too large");
+        try (FileChannel fc = FileChannel.open(path)) {
+            long size = fc.size();
+            if (size > (long)Integer.MAX_VALUE)
+                throw new OutOfMemoryError("Required array size too large");
 
-        try (InputStream in = newInputStream(path)) {
-             return read(in, (int)size);
+            byte[] arr = new byte[(int)size];
+            ByteBuffer bb = ByteBuffer.wrap(arr);
+            while (bb.hasRemaining()) {
+                if (fc.read(bb) < 0) {
+                    // truncated
+                    break;
+                }
+            }
+
+            int nread = bb.position();
+            return (nread == size) ? arr : Arrays.copyOf(arr, nread);
         }
     }
 
@@ -3186,4 +3168,336 @@
         }
         return path;
     }
+
+    // -- Stream APIs --
+
+    /**
+     * Implementation of CloseableStream
+     */
+    private static class DelegatingCloseableStream<T> extends DelegatingStream<T>
+        implements CloseableStream<T>
+    {
+        private final Closeable closeable;
+
+        DelegatingCloseableStream(Closeable c, Stream<T> delegate) {
+            super(delegate);
+            this.closeable = c;
+        }
+
+        public void close() {
+            try {
+                closeable.close();
+            } catch (IOException ex) {
+                throw new UncheckedIOException(ex);
+            }
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Return a lazily populated {@code CloseableStream}, the elements of
+     * which are the entries in the directory.  The listing is not recursive.
+     *
+     * <p> The elements of the stream are {@link Path} objects that are
+     * obtained as if by {@link Path#resolve(Path) resolving} the name of the
+     * directory entry against {@code dir}. Some file systems maintain special
+     * links to the directory itself and the directory's parent directory.
+     * Entries representing these links are not included.
+     *
+     * <p> The stream is <i>weakly consistent</i>. It is thread safe but does
+     * not freeze the directory while iterating, so it may (or may not)
+     * reflect updates to the directory that occur after returning from this
+     * method.
+     *
+     * <p> When not using the try-with-resources construct, then the stream's
+     * {@link CloseableStream#close close} method should be invoked after the
+     * operation is completed so as to free any resources held for the open
+     * directory. Operating on a closed stream behaves as if the end of stream
+     * has been reached. Due to read-ahead, one or more elements may be
+     * returned after the stream has been closed.
+     *
+     * <p> If an {@link IOException} is thrown when accessing the directory
+     * after this method has returned, it is wrapped in an {@link
+     * UncheckedIOException} which will be thrown from the method that caused
+     * the access to take place.
+     *
+     * @param   dir  The path to the directory
+     *
+     * @return  The {@code CloseableStream} describing the content of the
+     *          directory
+     *
+     * @throws  NotDirectoryException
+     *          if the file could not otherwise be opened because it is not
+     *          a directory <i>(optional specific exception)</i>
+     * @throws  IOException
+     *          if an I/O error occurs when opening the directory
+     * @throws  SecurityException
+     *          In the case of the default provider, and a security manager is
+     *          installed, the {@link SecurityManager#checkRead(String) checkRead}
+     *          method is invoked to check read access to the directory.
+     *
+     * @see     #newDirectoryStream(Path)
+     * @since   1.8
+     */
+    public static CloseableStream<Path> list(Path dir) throws IOException {
+        DirectoryStream<Path> ds = Files.newDirectoryStream(dir);
+        final Iterator<Path> delegate = ds.iterator();
+
+        // Re-wrap DirectoryIteratorException to UncheckedIOException
+        Iterator<Path> it = new Iterator<Path>() {
+            public boolean hasNext() {
+                try {
+                    return delegate.hasNext();
+                } catch (DirectoryIteratorException e) {
+                    throw new UncheckedIOException(e.getCause());
+                }
+            }
+            public Path next() {
+                try {
+                    return delegate.next();
+                } catch (DirectoryIteratorException e) {
+                    throw new UncheckedIOException(e.getCause());
+                }
+            }
+        };
+
+        return new DelegatingCloseableStream<>(ds,
+            StreamSupport.stream(Spliterators.spliteratorUnknownSize(it,
+                                                                     Spliterator.DISTINCT)));
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Return a {@code CloseableStream} that is lazily populated with {@code
+     * Path} by walking the file tree rooted at a given starting file.  The
+     * file tree is traversed <em>depth-first</em>, the elements in the stream
+     * are {@link Path} objects that are obtained as if by {@link
+     * Path#resolve(Path) resolving} the relative path against {@code start}.
+     *
+     * <p> The {@code stream} walks the file tree as elements are consumed.
+     * The {@code CloseableStream} returned is guaranteed to have at least one
+     * element, the starting file itself. For each file visited, the stream
+     * attempts to read its {@link BasicFileAttributes}. If the file is a
+     * directory and can be opened successfully, entries in the directory, and
+     * their <em>descendants</em> will follow the directory in the stream as
+     * they are encountered. When all entries have been visited, then the
+     * directory is closed. The file tree walk then continues at the next
+     * <em>sibling</em> of the directory.
+     *
+     * <p> The stream is <i>weakly consistent</i>. It does not freeze the
+     * file tree while iterating, so it may (or may not) reflect updates to
+     * the file tree that occur after returned from this method.
+     *
+     * <p> By default, symbolic links are not automatically followed by this
+     * method. If the {@code options} parameter contains the {@link
+     * FileVisitOption#FOLLOW_LINKS FOLLOW_LINKS} option then symbolic links are
+     * followed. When following links, and the attributes of the target cannot
+     * be read, then this method attempts to get the {@code BasicFileAttributes}
+     * of the link.
+     *
+     * <p> If the {@code options} parameter contains the {@link
+     * FileVisitOption#FOLLOW_LINKS FOLLOW_LINKS} option then the stream keeps
+     * track of directories visited so that cycles can be detected. A cycle
+     * arises when there is an entry in a directory that is an ancestor of the
+     * directory. Cycle detection is done by recording the {@link
+     * java.nio.file.attribute.BasicFileAttributes#fileKey file-key} of directories,
+     * or if file keys are not available, by invoking the {@link #isSameFile
+     * isSameFile} method to test if a directory is the same file as an
+     * ancestor. When a cycle is detected it is treated as an I/O error with
+     * an instance of {@link FileSystemLoopException}.
+     *
+     * <p> The {@code maxDepth} parameter is the maximum number of levels of
+     * directories to visit. A value of {@code 0} means that only the starting
+     * file is visited, unless denied by the security manager. A value of
+     * {@link Integer#MAX_VALUE MAX_VALUE} may be used to indicate that all
+     * levels should be visited.
+     *
+     * <p> When a security manager is installed and it denies access to a file
+     * (or directory), then it is ignored and not included in the stream.
+     *
+     * <p> When not using the try-with-resources construct, then the stream's
+     * {@link CloseableStream#close close} method should be invoked after the
+     * operation is completed so as to free any resources held for the open
+     * directory. Operate the stream after it is closed will throw an
+     * {@link java.lang.IllegalStateException}.
+     *
+     * <p> If an {@link IOException} is thrown when accessing the directory
+     * after this method has returned, it is wrapped in an {@link
+     * UncheckedIOException} which will be thrown from the method that caused
+     * the access to take place.
+     *
+     * @param   start
+     *          the starting file
+     * @param   maxDepth
+     *          the maximum number of directory levels to visit
+     * @param   options
+     *          options to configure the traversal
+     *
+     * @return  the {@link CloseableStream} of {@link Path}
+     *
+     * @throws  IllegalArgumentException
+     *          if the {@code maxDepth} parameter is negative
+     * @throws  SecurityException
+     *          If the security manager denies access to the starting file.
+     *          In the case of the default provider, the {@link
+     *          SecurityManager#checkRead(String) checkRead} method is invoked
+     *          to check read access to the directory.
+     * @throws  IOException
+     *          if an I/O error is thrown when accessing the starting file.
+     * @since   1.8
+     */
+    public static CloseableStream<Path> walk(Path start, int maxDepth,
+                                             FileVisitOption... options)
+        throws IOException
+    {
+        FileTreeIterator iterator = new FileTreeIterator(start, maxDepth, options);
+        return new DelegatingCloseableStream<>(iterator,
+            StreamSupport.stream(Spliterators.spliteratorUnknownSize(iterator, Spliterator.DISTINCT))
+                   .map(entry -> entry.file()));
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Return a {@code CloseableStream} that is lazily populated with {@code
+     * Path} by walking the file tree rooted at a given starting file.  The
+     * file tree is traversed <em>depth-first</em>, the elements in the stream
+     * are {@link Path} objects that are obtained as if by {@link
+     * Path#resolve(Path) resolving} the relative path against {@code start}.
+     *
+     * <p> This method works as if invoking it were equivalent to evaluating the
+     * expression:
+     * <blockquote><pre>
+     * walk(start, Integer.MAX_VALUE, options)
+     * </pre></blockquote>
+     * In other words, it visits all levels of the file tree.
+     *
+     * @param   start
+     *          the starting file
+     * @param   options
+     *          options to configure the traversal
+     *
+     * @return  the {@link CloseableStream} of {@link Path}
+     *
+     * @throws  SecurityException
+     *          If the security manager denies access to the starting file.
+     *          In the case of the default provider, the {@link
+     *          SecurityManager#checkRead(String) checkRead} method is invoked
+     *          to check read access to the directory.
+     * @throws  IOException
+     *          if an I/O error is thrown when accessing the starting file.
+     *
+     * @see     #walk(Path, int, FileVisitOption...)
+     * @since   1.8
+     */
+    public static CloseableStream<Path> walk(Path start,
+                                             FileVisitOption... options)
+        throws IOException
+    {
+        return walk(start, Integer.MAX_VALUE, options);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Return a {@code CloseableStream} that is lazily populated with {@code
+     * Path} by searching for files in a file tree rooted at a given starting
+     * file.
+     *
+     * <p> This method walks the file tree in exactly the manner specified by
+     * the {@link #walk walk} method. For each file encountered, the given
+     * {@link BiPredicate} is invoked with its {@link Path} and {@link
+     * BasicFileAttributes}. The {@code Path} object is obtained as if by
+     * {@link Path#resolve(Path) resolving} the relative path against {@code
+     * start} and is only included in the returned {@link CloseableStream} if
+     * the {@code BiPredicate} returns true. Compare to calling {@link
+     * java.util.stream.Stream#filter filter} on the {@code Stream}
+     * returned by {@code walk} method, this method may be more efficient by
+     * avoiding redundant retrieval of the {@code BasicFileAttributes}.
+     *
+     * <p> If an {@link IOException} is thrown when accessing the directory
+     * after returned from this method, it is wrapped in an {@link
+     * UncheckedIOException} which will be thrown from the method that caused
+     * the access to take place.
+     *
+     * @param   start
+     *          the starting file
+     * @param   maxDepth
+     *          the maximum number of directory levels to search
+     * @param   matcher
+     *          the function used to decide whether a file should be included
+     *          in the returned stream
+     * @param   options
+     *          options to configure the traversal
+     *
+     * @return  the {@link CloseableStream} of {@link Path}
+     *
+     * @throws  IllegalArgumentException
+     *          if the {@code maxDepth} parameter is negative
+     * @throws  SecurityException
+     *          If the security manager denies access to the starting file.
+     *          In the case of the default provider, the {@link
+     *          SecurityManager#checkRead(String) checkRead} method is invoked
+     *          to check read access to the directory.
+     * @throws  IOException
+     *          if an I/O error is thrown when accessing the starting file.
+     *
+     * @see     #walk(Path, int, FileVisitOption...)
+     * @since   1.8
+     */
+    public static CloseableStream<Path> find(Path start,
+                                             int maxDepth,
+                                             BiPredicate<Path, BasicFileAttributes> matcher,
+                                             FileVisitOption... options)
+        throws IOException
+    {
+        FileTreeIterator iterator = new FileTreeIterator(start, maxDepth, options);
+        return new DelegatingCloseableStream<>(iterator,
+            StreamSupport.stream(Spliterators.spliteratorUnknownSize(iterator, Spliterator.DISTINCT))
+                   .filter(entry -> matcher.test(entry.file(), entry.attributes()))
+                   .map(entry -> entry.file()));
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Read all lines from a file as a {@code CloseableStream}.  Unlike {@link
+     * #readAllLines(Path, Charset) readAllLines}, this method does not read
+     * all lines into a {@code List}, but instead populates lazily as the stream
+     * is consumed.
+     *
+     * <p> Bytes from the file are decoded into characters using the specified
+     * charset and the same line terminators as specified by {@code
+     * readAllLines} are supported.
+     *
+     * <p> After this method returns, then any subsequent I/O exception that
+     * occurs while reading from the file or when a malformed or unmappable byte
+     * sequence is read, is wrapped in an {@link UncheckedIOException} that will
+     * be thrown form the
+     * {@link java.util.stream.Stream} method that caused the read to take
+     * place. In case an {@code IOException} is thrown when closing the file,
+     * it is also wrapped as an {@code UncheckedIOException}.
+     *
+     * <p> When not using the try-with-resources construct, then stream's
+     * {@link CloseableStream#close close} method should be invoked after
+     * operation is completed so as to free any resources held for the open
+     * file.
+     *
+     * @param   path
+     *          the path to the file
+     * @param   cs
+     *          the charset to use for decoding
+     *
+     * @return  the lines from the file as a {@code CloseableStream}
+     *
+     * @throws  IOException
+     *          if an I/O error occurs opening the file
+     * @throws  SecurityException
+     *          In the case of the default provider, and a security manager is
+     *          installed, the {@link SecurityManager#checkRead(String) checkRead}
+     *          method is invoked to check read access to the file.
+     *
+     * @see     #readAllLines(Path, Charset)
+     * @see     #newBufferedReader(Path, Charset)
+     * @see     java.io.BufferedReader#lines()
+     * @since   1.8
+     */
+    public static CloseableStream<String> lines(Path path, Charset cs)
+        throws IOException
+    {
+        BufferedReader br = Files.newBufferedReader(path, cs);
+        return new DelegatingCloseableStream<>(br, br.lines());
+    }
 }
--- a/src/share/classes/java/security/AccessControlContext.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/security/AccessControlContext.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -88,6 +88,15 @@
 
     private DomainCombiner combiner = null;
 
+    // limited privilege scope
+    private Permission permissions[];
+    private AccessControlContext parent;
+    private boolean isWrapped;
+
+    // is constrained by limited privilege scope?
+    private boolean isLimited;
+    private ProtectionDomain limitedContext[];
+
     private static boolean debugInit = false;
     private static Debug debug = null;
 
@@ -182,15 +191,80 @@
 
     /**
      * package private for AccessController
+     *
+     * This "argument wrapper" context will be passed as the actual context
+     * parameter on an internal doPrivileged() call used in the implementation.
      */
-    AccessControlContext(ProtectionDomain context[], DomainCombiner combiner) {
+    AccessControlContext(ProtectionDomain caller, DomainCombiner combiner,
+        AccessControlContext parent, AccessControlContext context,
+        Permission[] perms)
+    {
+        /*
+         * Combine the domains from the doPrivileged() context into our
+         * wrapper context, if necessary.
+         */
+        ProtectionDomain[] callerPDs = null;
+        if (caller != null) {
+             callerPDs = new ProtectionDomain[] { caller };
+        }
         if (context != null) {
-            this.context = context.clone();
+            if (combiner != null) {
+                this.context = combiner.combine(callerPDs, context.context);
+            } else {
+                this.context = combine(callerPDs, context.context);
+            }
+        } else {
+            /*
+             * Call combiner even if there is seemingly nothing to combine.
+             */
+            if (combiner != null) {
+                this.context = combiner.combine(callerPDs, null);
+            } else {
+                this.context = combine(callerPDs, null);
+            }
         }
         this.combiner = combiner;
+
+        Permission[] tmp = null;
+        if (perms != null) {
+            tmp = new Permission[perms.length];
+            for (int i=0; i < perms.length; i++) {
+                if (perms[i] == null) {
+                    throw new NullPointerException("permission can't be null");
+                }
+
+                /*
+                 * An AllPermission argument is equivalent to calling
+                 * doPrivileged() without any limit permissions.
+                 */
+                if (perms[i].getClass() == AllPermission.class) {
+                    parent = null;
+                }
+                tmp[i] = perms[i];
+            }
+        }
+
+        /*
+         * For a doPrivileged() with limited privilege scope, initialize
+         * the relevant fields.
+         *
+         * The limitedContext field contains the union of all domains which
+         * are enclosed by this limited privilege scope. In other words,
+         * it contains all of the domains which could potentially be checked
+         * if none of the limiting permissions implied a requested permission.
+         */
+        if (parent != null) {
+            this.limitedContext = combine(parent.context, parent.limitedContext);
+            this.isLimited = true;
+            this.isWrapped = true;
+            this.permissions = tmp;
+            this.parent = parent;
+            this.privilegedContext = context; // used in checkPermission2()
+        }
         this.isAuthorized = true;
     }
 
+
     /**
      * package private constructor for AccessController.getContext()
      */
@@ -266,6 +340,13 @@
         if (sm != null) {
             sm.checkPermission(SecurityConstants.GET_COMBINER_PERMISSION);
         }
+        return getCombiner();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * package private for AccessController
+     */
+    DomainCombiner getCombiner() {
         return combiner;
     }
 
@@ -341,8 +422,10 @@
            or the first domain was a Privileged system domain. This
            is to make the common case for system code very fast */
 
-        if (context == null)
+        if (context == null) {
+            checkPermission2(perm);
             return;
+        }
 
         for (int i=0; i< context.length; i++) {
             if (context[i] != null &&  !context[i].implies(perm)) {
@@ -376,20 +459,108 @@
             debug.println("access allowed "+perm);
         }
 
-        return;
+        checkPermission2(perm);
+    }
+
+    /*
+     * Check the domains associated with the limited privilege scope.
+     */
+    private void checkPermission2(Permission perm) {
+        if (!isLimited) {
+            return;
+        }
+
+        /*
+         * Check the doPrivileged() context parameter, if present.
+         */
+        if (privilegedContext != null) {
+            privilegedContext.checkPermission2(perm);
+        }
+
+        /*
+         * Ignore the limited permissions and parent fields of a wrapper
+         * context since they were already carried down into the unwrapped
+         * context.
+         */
+        if (isWrapped) {
+            return;
+        }
+
+        /*
+         * Try to match any limited privilege scope.
+         */
+        if (permissions != null) {
+            Class<?> permClass = perm.getClass();
+            for (int i=0; i < permissions.length; i++) {
+                Permission limit = permissions[i];
+                if (limit.getClass().equals(permClass) && limit.implies(perm)) {
+                    return;
+                }
+            }
+        }
+
+        /*
+         * Check the limited privilege scope up the call stack or the inherited
+         * parent thread call stack of this ACC.
+         */
+        if (parent != null) {
+            /*
+             * As an optimization, if the parent context is the inherited call
+             * stack context from a parent thread then checking the protection
+             * domains of the parent context is redundant since they have
+             * already been merged into the child thread's context by
+             * optimize(). When parent is set to an inherited context this
+             * context was not directly created by a limited scope
+             * doPrivileged() and it does not have its own limited permissions.
+             */
+            if (permissions == null) {
+                parent.checkPermission2(perm);
+            } else {
+                parent.checkPermission(perm);
+            }
+        }
     }
 
     /**
      * Take the stack-based context (this) and combine it with the
-     * privileged or inherited context, if need be.
+     * privileged or inherited context, if need be. Any limited
+     * privilege scope is flagged regardless of whether the assigned
+     * context comes from an immediately enclosing limited doPrivileged().
+     * The limited privilege scope can indirectly flow from the inherited
+     * parent thread or an assigned context previously captured by getContext().
      */
     AccessControlContext optimize() {
         // the assigned (privileged or inherited) context
         AccessControlContext acc;
+        DomainCombiner combiner = null;
+        AccessControlContext parent = null;
+        Permission[] permissions = null;
+
         if (isPrivileged) {
             acc = privilegedContext;
+            if (acc != null) {
+                /*
+                 * If the context is from a limited scope doPrivileged() then
+                 * copy the permissions and parent fields out of the wrapper
+                 * context that was created to hold them.
+                 */
+                if (acc.isWrapped) {
+                    permissions = acc.permissions;
+                    parent = acc.parent;
+                }
+            }
         } else {
             acc = AccessController.getInheritedAccessControlContext();
+            if (acc != null) {
+                /*
+                 * If the inherited context is constrained by a limited scope
+                 * doPrivileged() then set it as our parent so we will process
+                 * the non-domain-related state.
+                 */
+                if (acc.isLimited) {
+                    parent = acc;
+                }
+            }
         }
 
         // this.context could be null if only system code is on the stack;
@@ -399,53 +570,98 @@
         // acc.context could be null if only system code was involved;
         // in that case, ignore the assigned context
         boolean skipAssigned = (acc == null || acc.context == null);
+        ProtectionDomain[] assigned = (skipAssigned) ? null : acc.context;
+        ProtectionDomain[] pd;
+
+        // if there is no enclosing limited privilege scope on the stack or
+        // inherited from a parent thread
+        boolean skipLimited = ((acc == null || !acc.isWrapped) && parent == null);
 
         if (acc != null && acc.combiner != null) {
             // let the assigned acc's combiner do its thing
-            return goCombiner(context, acc);
+            if (getDebug() != null) {
+                debug.println("AccessControlContext invoking the Combiner");
+            }
+
+            // No need to clone current and assigned.context
+            // combine() will not update them
+            combiner = acc.combiner;
+            pd = combiner.combine(context, assigned);
+        } else {
+            if (skipStack) {
+                if (skipAssigned) {
+                    calculateFields(acc, parent, permissions);
+                    return this;
+                } else if (skipLimited) {
+                    return acc;
+                }
+            } else if (assigned != null) {
+                if (skipLimited) {
+                    // optimization: if there is a single stack domain and
+                    // that domain is already in the assigned context; no
+                    // need to combine
+                    if (context.length == 1 && context[0] == assigned[0]) {
+                        return acc;
+                    }
+                }
+            }
+
+            pd = combine(context, assigned);
+            if (skipLimited && !skipAssigned && pd == assigned) {
+                return acc;
+            } else if (skipAssigned && pd == context) {
+                calculateFields(acc, parent, permissions);
+                return this;
+            }
         }
 
-        // optimization: if neither have contexts; return acc if possible
-        // rather than this, because acc might have a combiner
-        if (skipAssigned && skipStack) {
-            return this;
-        }
+        // Reuse existing ACC
+        this.context = pd;
+        this.combiner = combiner;
+        this.isPrivileged = false;
 
-        // optimization: if there is no stack context; there is no reason
-        // to compress the assigned context, it already is compressed
-        if (skipStack) {
-            return acc;
-        }
+        calculateFields(acc, parent, permissions);
+        return this;
+    }
 
-        int slen = context.length;
+
+    /*
+     * Combine the current (stack) and assigned domains.
+     */
+    private static ProtectionDomain[] combine(ProtectionDomain[]current,
+        ProtectionDomain[] assigned) {
+
+        // current could be null if only system code is on the stack;
+        // in that case, ignore the stack context
+        boolean skipStack = (current == null);
+
+        // assigned could be null if only system code was involved;
+        // in that case, ignore the assigned context
+        boolean skipAssigned = (assigned == null);
+
+        int slen = (skipStack) ? 0 : current.length;
 
         // optimization: if there is no assigned context and the stack length
         // is less then or equal to two; there is no reason to compress the
         // stack context, it already is
         if (skipAssigned && slen <= 2) {
-            return this;
+            return current;
         }
 
-        // optimization: if there is a single stack domain and that domain
-        // is already in the assigned context; no need to combine
-        if ((slen == 1) && (context[0] == acc.context[0])) {
-            return acc;
-        }
-
-        int n = (skipAssigned) ? 0 : acc.context.length;
+        int n = (skipAssigned) ? 0 : assigned.length;
 
         // now we combine both of them, and create a new context
         ProtectionDomain pd[] = new ProtectionDomain[slen + n];
 
         // first copy in the assigned context domains, no need to compress
         if (!skipAssigned) {
-            System.arraycopy(acc.context, 0, pd, 0, n);
+            System.arraycopy(assigned, 0, pd, 0, n);
         }
 
         // now add the stack context domains, discarding nulls and duplicates
     outer:
-        for (int i = 0; i < context.length; i++) {
-            ProtectionDomain sd = context[i];
+        for (int i = 0; i < slen; i++) {
+            ProtectionDomain sd = current[i];
             if (sd != null) {
                 for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {
                     if (sd == pd[j]) {
@@ -459,54 +675,47 @@
         // if length isn't equal, we need to shorten the array
         if (n != pd.length) {
             // optimization: if we didn't really combine anything
-            if (!skipAssigned && n == acc.context.length) {
-                return acc;
+            if (!skipAssigned && n == assigned.length) {
+                return assigned;
             } else if (skipAssigned && n == slen) {
-                return this;
+                return current;
             }
             ProtectionDomain tmp[] = new ProtectionDomain[n];
             System.arraycopy(pd, 0, tmp, 0, n);
             pd = tmp;
         }
 
-        //      return new AccessControlContext(pd, false);
-
-        // Reuse existing ACC
-
-        this.context = pd;
-        this.combiner = null;
-        this.isPrivileged = false;
-
-        return this;
+        return pd;
     }
 
-    private AccessControlContext goCombiner(ProtectionDomain[] current,
-                                            AccessControlContext assigned) {
 
-        // the assigned ACC's combiner is not null --
-        // let the combiner do its thing
+    /*
+     * Calculate the additional domains that could potentially be reached via
+     * limited privilege scope. Mark the context as being subject to limited
+     * privilege scope unless the reachable domains (if any) are already
+     * contained in this domain context (in which case any limited
+     * privilege scope checking would be redundant).
+     */
+    private void calculateFields(AccessControlContext assigned,
+        AccessControlContext parent, Permission[] permissions)
+    {
+        ProtectionDomain[] parentLimit = null;
+        ProtectionDomain[] assignedLimit = null;
+        ProtectionDomain[] newLimit;
 
-        // XXX we could add optimizations to 'current' here ...
+        parentLimit = (parent != null)? parent.limitedContext: null;
+        assignedLimit = (assigned != null)? assigned.limitedContext: null;
+        newLimit = combine(parentLimit, assignedLimit);
+        if (newLimit != null) {
+            if (context == null || !containsAllPDs(newLimit, context)) {
+                this.limitedContext = newLimit;
+                this.permissions = permissions;
+                this.parent = parent;
+                this.isLimited = true;
+            }
+        }
+    }
 
-        if (getDebug() != null) {
-            debug.println("AccessControlContext invoking the Combiner");
-        }
-
-        // No need to clone current and assigned.context
-        // combine() will not update them
-        ProtectionDomain[] combinedPds = assigned.combiner.combine(
-            current, assigned.context);
-
-        // return new AccessControlContext(combinedPds, assigned.combiner);
-
-        // Reuse existing ACC
-        this.context = combinedPds;
-        this.combiner = assigned.combiner;
-        this.isPrivileged = false;
-        this.isAuthorized = assigned.isAuthorized;
-
-        return this;
-    }
 
     /**
      * Checks two AccessControlContext objects for equality.
@@ -527,31 +736,131 @@
 
         AccessControlContext that = (AccessControlContext) obj;
 
-
-        if (context == null) {
-            return (that.context == null);
-        }
-
-        if (that.context == null)
+        if (!equalContext(that))
             return false;
 
-        if (!(this.containsAllPDs(that) && that.containsAllPDs(this)))
-            return false;
-
-        if (this.combiner == null)
-            return (that.combiner == null);
-
-        if (that.combiner == null)
-            return false;
-
-        if (!this.combiner.equals(that.combiner))
+        if (!equalLimitedContext(that))
             return false;
 
         return true;
     }
 
-    private boolean containsAllPDs(AccessControlContext that) {
+    /*
+     * Compare for equality based on state that is free of limited
+     * privilege complications.
+     */
+    private boolean equalContext(AccessControlContext that) {
+        if (!equalPDs(this.context, that.context))
+            return false;
+
+        if (this.combiner == null && that.combiner != null)
+            return false;
+
+        if (this.combiner != null && !this.combiner.equals(that.combiner))
+            return false;
+
+        return true;
+    }
+
+    private boolean equalPDs(ProtectionDomain[] a, ProtectionDomain[] b) {
+        if (a == null) {
+            return (b == null);
+        }
+
+        if (b == null)
+            return false;
+
+        if (!(containsAllPDs(a, b) && containsAllPDs(b, a)))
+            return false;
+
+        return true;
+    }
+
+    /*
+     * Compare for equality based on state that is captured during a
+     * call to AccessController.getContext() when a limited privilege
+     * scope is in effect.
+     */
+    private boolean equalLimitedContext(AccessControlContext that) {
+        if (that == null)
+            return false;
+
+        /*
+         * If neither instance has limited privilege scope then we're done.
+         */
+        if (!this.isLimited && !that.isLimited)
+            return true;
+
+        /*
+         * If only one instance has limited privilege scope then we're done.
+         */
+         if (!(this.isLimited && that.isLimited))
+             return false;
+
+        /*
+         * Wrapped instances should never escape outside the implementation
+         * this class and AccessController so this will probably never happen
+         * but it only makes any sense to compare if they both have the same
+         * isWrapped state.
+         */
+        if ((this.isWrapped && !that.isWrapped) ||
+            (!this.isWrapped && that.isWrapped)) {
+            return false;
+        }
+
+        if (this.permissions == null && that.permissions != null)
+            return false;
+
+        if (this.permissions != null && that.permissions == null)
+            return false;
+
+        if (!(this.containsAllLimits(that) && that.containsAllLimits(this)))
+            return false;
+
+        /*
+         * Skip through any wrapped contexts.
+         */
+        AccessControlContext thisNextPC = getNextPC(this);
+        AccessControlContext thatNextPC = getNextPC(that);
+
+        /*
+         * The protection domains and combiner of a privilegedContext are
+         * not relevant because they have already been included in the context
+         * of this instance by optimize() so we only care about any limited
+         * privilege state they may have.
+         */
+        if (thisNextPC == null && thatNextPC != null && thatNextPC.isLimited)
+            return false;
+
+        if (thisNextPC != null && !thisNextPC.equalLimitedContext(thatNextPC))
+            return false;
+
+        if (this.parent == null && that.parent != null)
+            return false;
+
+        if (this.parent != null && !this.parent.equals(that.parent))
+            return false;
+
+        return true;
+    }
+
+    /*
+     * Follow the privilegedContext link making our best effort to skip
+     * through any wrapper contexts.
+     */
+    private static AccessControlContext getNextPC(AccessControlContext acc) {
+        while (acc != null && acc.privilegedContext != null) {
+            acc = acc.privilegedContext;
+            if (!acc.isWrapped)
+                return acc;
+        }
+        return null;
+    }
+
+    private static boolean containsAllPDs(ProtectionDomain[] thisContext,
+        ProtectionDomain[] thatContext) {
         boolean match = false;
+
         //
         // ProtectionDomains within an ACC currently cannot be null
         // and this is enforced by the constructor and the various
@@ -559,17 +868,17 @@
         // to support the notion of a null PD and therefore this logic continues
         // to support that notion.
         ProtectionDomain thisPd;
-        for (int i = 0; i < context.length; i++) {
+        for (int i = 0; i < thisContext.length; i++) {
             match = false;
-            if ((thisPd = context[i]) == null) {
-                for (int j = 0; (j < that.context.length) && !match; j++) {
-                    match = (that.context[j] == null);
+            if ((thisPd = thisContext[i]) == null) {
+                for (int j = 0; (j < thatContext.length) && !match; j++) {
+                    match = (thatContext[j] == null);
                 }
             } else {
                 Class<?> thisPdClass = thisPd.getClass();
                 ProtectionDomain thatPd;
-                for (int j = 0; (j < that.context.length) && !match; j++) {
-                    thatPd = that.context[j];
+                for (int j = 0; (j < thatContext.length) && !match; j++) {
+                    thatPd = thatContext[j];
 
                     // Class check required to avoid PD exposure (4285406)
                     match = (thatPd != null &&
@@ -580,6 +889,29 @@
         }
         return match;
     }
+
+    private boolean containsAllLimits(AccessControlContext that) {
+        boolean match = false;
+        Permission thisPerm;
+
+        if (this.permissions == null && that.permissions == null)
+            return true;
+
+        for (int i = 0; i < this.permissions.length; i++) {
+            Permission limit = this.permissions[i];
+            Class <?> limitClass = limit.getClass();
+            match = false;
+            for (int j = 0; (j < that.permissions.length) && !match; j++) {
+                Permission perm = that.permissions[j];
+                match = (limitClass.equals(perm.getClass()) &&
+                    limit.equals(perm));
+            }
+            if (!match) return false;
+        }
+        return match;
+    }
+
+
     /**
      * Returns the hash code value for this context. The hash code
      * is computed by exclusive or-ing the hash code of all the protection
@@ -598,6 +930,7 @@
             if (context[i] != null)
                 hashCode ^= context[i].hashCode();
         }
+
         return hashCode;
     }
 }
--- a/src/share/classes/java/security/AccessController.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/security/AccessController.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -82,9 +82,15 @@
  *     else if (caller i is marked as privileged) {
  *         if (a context was specified in the call to doPrivileged)
  *             context.checkPermission(permission)
- *         return;
+ *         if (limited permissions were specified in the call to doPrivileged) {
+ *             for (each limited permission) {
+ *                 if (the limited permission implies the requested permission)
+ *                     return;
+ *             }
+ *         } else
+ *             return;
  *     }
- * };
+ * }
  *
  * // Next, check the context inherited when the thread was created.
  * // Whenever a new thread is created, the AccessControlContext at
@@ -101,11 +107,16 @@
  * was marked as "privileged" via a <code>doPrivileged</code>
  * call without a context argument (see below for information about a
  * context argument). If that caller's domain has the
- * specified permission, no further checking is done and
+ * specified permission and at least one limiting permission argument (if any)
+ * implies the requested permission, no further checking is done and
  * <code>checkPermission</code>
  * returns quietly, indicating that the requested access is allowed.
  * If that domain does not have the specified permission, an exception
- * is thrown, as usual.
+ * is thrown, as usual. If the caller's domain had the specified permission
+ * but it was not implied by any limiting permission arguments given in the call
+ * to <code>doPrivileged</code> then the permission checking continues
+ * until there are no more callers or another <code>doPrivileged</code>
+ * call matches the requested permission and returns normally.
  *
  * <p> The normal use of the "privileged" feature is as follows. If you
  * don't need to return a value from within the "privileged" block, do
@@ -180,6 +191,9 @@
  *
  * <p> Be *very* careful in your use of the "privileged" construct, and
  * always remember to make the privileged code section as small as possible.
+ * You can pass <code>Permission</code> arguments to further limit the
+ * scope of the "privilege" (see below).
+ *
  *
  * <p> Note that <code>checkPermission</code> always performs security checks
  * within the context of the currently executing thread.
@@ -215,7 +229,9 @@
  *
  * <p> There are also times where you don't know a priori which permissions
  * to check the context against. In these cases you can use the
- * doPrivileged method that takes a context:
+ * doPrivileged method that takes a context. You can also limit the scope
+ * of the privileged code by passing additional <code>Permission</code>
+ * parameters.
  *
  *  <pre> {@code
  * somemethod() {
@@ -223,12 +239,21 @@
  *         public Object run() {
  *             // Code goes here. Any permission checks within this
  *             // run method will require that the intersection of the
- *             // callers protection domain and the snapshot's
- *             // context have the desired permission.
+ *             // caller's protection domain and the snapshot's
+ *             // context have the desired permission. If a requested
+ *             // permission is not implied by the limiting FilePermission
+ *             // argument then checking of the thread continues beyond the
+ *             // caller of doPrivileged.
  *         }
- *     }, acc);
+ *     }, acc, new FilePermission("/temp/*", read));
  *     ...normal code here...
  * }}</pre>
+ * <p> Passing a limiting <code>Permission</code> argument of an instance of
+ * <code>AllPermission</code> is equivalent to calling the equivalent
+ * <code>doPrivileged</code> method without limiting <code>Permission</code>
+ * arguments. Passing a zero length array of <code>Permission</code> disables
+ * the code privileges so that checking always continues beyond the caller of
+ * that <code>doPrivileged</code> method.
  *
  * @see AccessControlContext
  *
@@ -337,6 +362,112 @@
     public static native <T> T doPrivileged(PrivilegedAction<T> action,
                                             AccessControlContext context);
 
+
+    /**
+     * Performs the specified <code>PrivilegedAction</code> with privileges
+     * enabled and restricted by the specified
+     * <code>AccessControlContext</code> and with a privilege scope limited
+     * by specified <code>Permission</code> arguments.
+     *
+     * The action is performed with the intersection of the permissions
+     * possessed by the caller's protection domain, and those possessed
+     * by the domains represented by the specified
+     * <code>AccessControlContext</code>.
+     * <p>
+     * If the action's <code>run</code> method throws an (unchecked) exception,
+     * it will propagate through this method.
+     *
+     * @param action the action to be performed.
+     * @param context an <i>access control context</i>
+     *                representing the restriction to be applied to the
+     *                caller's domain's privileges before performing
+     *                the specified action.  If the context is
+     *                <code>null</code>,
+     *                then no additional restriction is applied.
+     * @param perms the <code>Permission</code> arguments which limit the
+     *              scope of the caller's privileges. The number of arguments
+     *              is variable.
+     *
+     * @return the value returned by the action's <code>run</code> method.
+     *
+     * @throws NullPointerException if action or perms or any element of
+     *         perms is <code>null</code>
+     *
+     * @see #doPrivileged(PrivilegedAction)
+     * @see #doPrivileged(PrivilegedExceptionAction,AccessControlContext)
+     *
+     * @since 1.8
+     */
+    @CallerSensitive
+    public static <T> T doPrivileged(PrivilegedAction<T> action,
+        AccessControlContext context, Permission... perms) {
+
+        AccessControlContext parent = getContext();
+        if (perms == null) {
+            throw new NullPointerException("null permissions parameter");
+        }
+        Class <?> caller = Reflection.getCallerClass();
+        return AccessController.doPrivileged(action, createWrapper(null,
+            caller, parent, context, perms));
+    }
+
+
+    /**
+     * Performs the specified <code>PrivilegedAction</code> with privileges
+     * enabled and restricted by the specified
+     * <code>AccessControlContext</code> and with a privilege scope limited
+     * by specified <code>Permission</code> arguments.
+     *
+     * The action is performed with the intersection of the permissions
+     * possessed by the caller's protection domain, and those possessed
+     * by the domains represented by the specified
+     * <code>AccessControlContext</code>.
+     * <p>
+     * If the action's <code>run</code> method throws an (unchecked) exception,
+     * it will propagate through this method.
+     *
+     * <p> This method preserves the current AccessControlContext's
+     * DomainCombiner (which may be null) while the action is performed.
+     *
+     * @param action the action to be performed.
+     * @param context an <i>access control context</i>
+     *                representing the restriction to be applied to the
+     *                caller's domain's privileges before performing
+     *                the specified action.  If the context is
+     *                <code>null</code>,
+     *                then no additional restriction is applied.
+     * @param perms the <code>Permission</code> arguments which limit the
+     *              scope of the caller's privileges. The number of arguments
+     *              is variable.
+     *
+     * @return the value returned by the action's <code>run</code> method.
+     *
+     * @throws NullPointerException if action or perms or any element of
+     *         perms is <code>null</code>
+     *
+     * @see #doPrivileged(PrivilegedAction)
+     * @see #doPrivileged(PrivilegedExceptionAction,AccessControlContext)
+     * @see java.security.DomainCombiner
+     *
+     * @since 1.8
+     */
+    @CallerSensitive
+    public static <T> T doPrivilegedWithCombiner(PrivilegedAction<T> action,
+        AccessControlContext context, Permission... perms) {
+
+        AccessControlContext parent = getContext();
+        DomainCombiner dc = parent.getCombiner();
+        if (dc == null && context != null) {
+            dc = context.getCombiner();
+        }
+        if (perms == null) {
+            throw new NullPointerException("null permissions parameter");
+        }
+        Class <?> caller = Reflection.getCallerClass();
+        return AccessController.doPrivileged(action, createWrapper(dc, caller,
+            parent, context, perms));
+    }
+
     /**
      * Performs the specified <code>PrivilegedExceptionAction</code> with
      * privileges enabled.  The action is performed with <i>all</i> of the
@@ -411,6 +542,22 @@
     private static AccessControlContext preserveCombiner(DomainCombiner combiner,
                                                          Class<?> caller)
     {
+        return createWrapper(combiner, caller, null, null, null);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Create a wrapper to contain the limited privilege scope data.
+     */
+    private static AccessControlContext
+        createWrapper(DomainCombiner combiner, Class<?> caller,
+                      AccessControlContext parent, AccessControlContext context,
+                      Permission[] perms)
+    {
+        return new AccessControlContext(getCallerPD(caller), combiner, parent,
+                                        context, perms);
+    }
+
+    private static ProtectionDomain getCallerPD(final Class <?> caller) {
         ProtectionDomain callerPd = doPrivileged
             (new PrivilegedAction<ProtectionDomain>() {
             public ProtectionDomain run() {
@@ -418,18 +565,9 @@
             }
         });
 
-        // perform 'combine' on the caller of doPrivileged,
-        // even if the caller is from the bootclasspath
-        ProtectionDomain[] pds = new ProtectionDomain[] {callerPd};
-        if (combiner == null) {
-            return new AccessControlContext(pds);
-        } else {
-            return new AccessControlContext(combiner.combine(pds, null),
-                                            combiner);
-        }
+        return callerPd;
     }
 
-
     /**
      * Performs the specified {@code PrivilegedExceptionAction} with
      * privileges enabled and restricted by the specified
@@ -461,7 +599,7 @@
      * @exception NullPointerException if the action is {@code null}
      *
      * @see #doPrivileged(PrivilegedAction)
-     * @see #doPrivileged(PrivilegedExceptionAction,AccessControlContext)
+     * @see #doPrivileged(PrivilegedAction,AccessControlContext)
      */
     @CallerSensitive
     public static native <T> T
@@ -469,6 +607,118 @@
                      AccessControlContext context)
         throws PrivilegedActionException;
 
+
+    /**
+     * Performs the specified <code>PrivilegedExceptionAction</code> with
+     * privileges enabled and restricted by the specified
+     * <code>AccessControlContext</code> and with a privilege scope limited by
+     * specified <code>Permission</code> arguments.
+     *
+     * The action is performed with the intersection of the permissions
+     * possessed by the caller's protection domain, and those possessed
+     * by the domains represented by the specified
+     * <code>AccessControlContext</code>.
+     * <p>
+     * If the action's <code>run</code> method throws an (unchecked) exception,
+     * it will propagate through this method.
+     *
+     * @param action the action to be performed.
+     * @param context an <i>access control context</i>
+     *                representing the restriction to be applied to the
+     *                caller's domain's privileges before performing
+     *                the specified action.  If the context is
+     *                <code>null</code>,
+     *                then no additional restriction is applied.
+     * @param perms the <code>Permission</code> arguments which limit the
+     *              scope of the caller's privileges. The number of arguments
+     *              is variable.
+     *
+     * @return the value returned by the action's <code>run</code> method.
+     *
+     * @throws PrivilegedActionException if the specified action's
+     *         <code>run</code> method threw a <i>checked</i> exception
+     * @throws NullPointerException if action or perms or any element of
+     *         perms is <code>null</code>
+     *
+     * @see #doPrivileged(PrivilegedAction)
+     * @see #doPrivileged(PrivilegedAction,AccessControlContext)
+     *
+     * @since 1.8
+     */
+    @CallerSensitive
+    public static <T> T doPrivileged(PrivilegedExceptionAction<T> action,
+                                     AccessControlContext context, Permission... perms)
+        throws PrivilegedActionException
+    {
+        AccessControlContext parent = getContext();
+        if (perms == null) {
+            throw new NullPointerException("null permissions parameter");
+        }
+        Class <?> caller = Reflection.getCallerClass();
+        return AccessController.doPrivileged(action, createWrapper(null, caller, parent, context, perms));
+    }
+
+
+    /**
+     * Performs the specified <code>PrivilegedExceptionAction</code> with
+     * privileges enabled and restricted by the specified
+     * <code>AccessControlContext</code> and with a privilege scope limited by
+     * specified <code>Permission</code> arguments.
+     *
+     * The action is performed with the intersection of the permissions
+     * possessed by the caller's protection domain, and those possessed
+     * by the domains represented by the specified
+     * <code>AccessControlContext</code>.
+     * <p>
+     * If the action's <code>run</code> method throws an (unchecked) exception,
+     * it will propagate through this method.
+     *
+     * <p> This method preserves the current AccessControlContext's
+     * DomainCombiner (which may be null) while the action is performed.
+     *
+     * @param action the action to be performed.
+     * @param context an <i>access control context</i>
+     *                representing the restriction to be applied to the
+     *                caller's domain's privileges before performing
+     *                the specified action.  If the context is
+     *                <code>null</code>,
+     *                then no additional restriction is applied.
+     * @param perms the <code>Permission</code> arguments which limit the
+     *              scope of the caller's privileges. The number of arguments
+     *              is variable.
+     *
+     * @return the value returned by the action's <code>run</code> method.
+     *
+     * @throws PrivilegedActionException if the specified action's
+     *         <code>run</code> method threw a <i>checked</i> exception
+     * @throws NullPointerException if action or perms or any element of
+     *         perms is <code>null</code>
+     *
+     * @see #doPrivileged(PrivilegedAction)
+     * @see #doPrivileged(PrivilegedAction,AccessControlContext)
+     * @see java.security.DomainCombiner
+     *
+     * @since 1.8
+     */
+    @CallerSensitive
+    public static <T> T doPrivilegedWithCombiner(PrivilegedExceptionAction<T> action,
+                                                 AccessControlContext context,
+                                                 Permission... perms)
+        throws PrivilegedActionException
+    {
+        AccessControlContext parent = getContext();
+        DomainCombiner dc = parent.getCombiner();
+        if (dc == null && context != null) {
+            dc = context.getCombiner();
+        }
+        if (perms == null) {
+            throw new NullPointerException("null permissions parameter");
+        }
+        Class <?> caller = Reflection.getCallerClass();
+        return AccessController.doPrivileged(action, createWrapper(dc, caller,
+            parent, context, perms));
+    }
+
     /**
      * Returns the AccessControl context. i.e., it gets
      * the protection domains of all the callers on the stack,
@@ -481,6 +731,7 @@
 
     private static native AccessControlContext getStackAccessControlContext();
 
+
     /**
      * Returns the "inherited" AccessControl context. This is the context
      * that existed when the thread was created. Package private so
@@ -491,9 +742,9 @@
 
     /**
      * This method takes a "snapshot" of the current calling context, which
-     * includes the current Thread's inherited AccessControlContext,
-     * and places it in an AccessControlContext object. This context may then
-     * be checked at a later point, possibly in another thread.
+     * includes the current Thread's inherited AccessControlContext and any
+     * limited privilege scope, and places it in an AccessControlContext object.
+     * This context may then be checked at a later point, possibly in another thread.
      *
      * @see AccessControlContext
      *
@@ -531,7 +782,7 @@
      */
 
     public static void checkPermission(Permission perm)
-                 throws AccessControlException
+        throws AccessControlException
     {
         //System.err.println("checkPermission "+perm);
         //Thread.currentThread().dumpStack();
--- a/src/share/classes/java/security/DigestOutputStream.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/security/DigestOutputStream.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 1996, 1999, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 1996, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -112,10 +112,10 @@
      * @see MessageDigest#update(byte)
      */
     public void write(int b) throws IOException {
+        out.write(b);
         if (on) {
             digest.update((byte)b);
         }
-        out.write(b);
     }
 
     /**
@@ -142,10 +142,10 @@
      * @see MessageDigest#update(byte[], int, int)
      */
     public void write(byte[] b, int off, int len) throws IOException {
+        out.write(b, off, len);
         if (on) {
             digest.update(b, off, len);
         }
-        out.write(b, off, len);
     }
 
     /**
--- a/src/share/classes/java/text/DateFormatSymbols.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/text/DateFormatSymbols.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -59,7 +59,7 @@
  * <code>DateFormatSymbols</code> is a public class for encapsulating
  * localizable date-time formatting data, such as the names of the
  * months, the names of the days of the week, and the time zone data.
- * <code>DateFormat</code> and <code>SimpleDateFormat</code> both use
+ * <code>SimpleDateFormat</code> uses
  * <code>DateFormatSymbols</code> to encapsulate this information.
  *
  * <p>
--- a/src/share/classes/java/text/DigitList.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/text/DigitList.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -271,7 +271,7 @@
      * @param maximumFractionDigits The most fractional digits which should
      * be converted.
      */
-    public final void set(boolean isNegative, double source, int maximumFractionDigits) {
+    final void set(boolean isNegative, double source, int maximumFractionDigits) {
         set(isNegative, source, maximumFractionDigits, true);
     }
 
@@ -288,10 +288,11 @@
      */
     final void set(boolean isNegative, double source, int maximumDigits, boolean fixedPoint) {
 
-        FloatingDecimal fd = new FloatingDecimal(source);
-        boolean hasBeenRoundedUp = fd.digitsRoundedUp();
-        boolean allDecimalDigits = fd.decimalDigitsExact();
-        String digitsString = fd.toJavaFormatString();
+        FloatingDecimal.BinaryToASCIIConverter fdConverter  = FloatingDecimal.getBinaryToASCIIConverter(source);
+        boolean hasBeenRoundedUp = fdConverter.digitsRoundedUp();
+        boolean allDecimalDigits = fdConverter.decimalDigitsExact();
+        assert !fdConverter.isExceptional();
+        String digitsString = fdConverter.toJavaFormatString();
 
         set(isNegative, digitsString,
             hasBeenRoundedUp, allDecimalDigits,
@@ -305,9 +306,9 @@
      * @param allDecimalDigits Boolean value indicating if the digits in s are
      * an exact decimal representation of the double that was passed.
      */
-    final void set(boolean isNegative, String s,
-                   boolean roundedUp, boolean allDecimalDigits,
-                   int maximumDigits, boolean fixedPoint) {
+    private void set(boolean isNegative, String s,
+                     boolean roundedUp, boolean allDecimalDigits,
+                     int maximumDigits, boolean fixedPoint) {
         this.isNegative = isNegative;
         int len = s.length();
         char[] source = getDataChars(len);
@@ -607,7 +608,7 @@
     /**
      * Utility routine to set the value of the digit list from a long
      */
-    public final void set(boolean isNegative, long source) {
+    final void set(boolean isNegative, long source) {
         set(isNegative, source, 0);
     }
 
@@ -620,7 +621,7 @@
      * If maximumDigits is lower than the number of significant digits
      * in source, the representation will be rounded.  Ignored if <= 0.
      */
-    public final void set(boolean isNegative, long source, int maximumDigits) {
+    final void set(boolean isNegative, long source, int maximumDigits) {
         this.isNegative = isNegative;
 
         // This method does not expect a negative number. However,
--- a/src/share/classes/java/text/SimpleDateFormat.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/text/SimpleDateFormat.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -1845,6 +1845,8 @@
             }
             ++pos.index;
         }
+        // Remember the actual start index
+        int actualStart = pos.index;
 
       parsing:
         {
@@ -1924,9 +1926,9 @@
                 // we made adjustments to place the 2-digit year in the proper
                 // century, for parsed strings from "00" to "99".  Any other string
                 // is treated literally:  "2250", "-1", "1", "002".
-                if (count <= 2 && (pos.index - start) == 2
-                    && Character.isDigit(text.charAt(start))
-                    && Character.isDigit(text.charAt(start+1))) {
+                if (count <= 2 && (pos.index - actualStart) == 2
+                    && Character.isDigit(text.charAt(actualStart))
+                    && Character.isDigit(text.charAt(actualStart + 1))) {
                     // Assume for example that the defaultCenturyStart is 6/18/1903.
                     // This means that two-digit years will be forced into the range
                     // 6/18/1903 to 6/17/2003.  As a result, years 00, 01, and 02
--- a/src/share/classes/java/util/Arrays.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/util/Arrays.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -40,7 +40,6 @@
 import java.util.stream.LongStream;
 import java.util.stream.Stream;
 import java.util.stream.StreamSupport;
-import static java.util.ArraysParallelSortHelpers.*;
 
 /**
  * This class contains various methods for manipulating arrays (such as
@@ -70,17 +69,62 @@
 public class Arrays {
 
     /**
-     * The minimum array length below which the sorting algorithm will not
-     * further partition the sorting task.
+     * The minimum array length below which a parallel sorting
+     * algorithm will not further partition the sorting task. Using
+     * smaller sizes typically results in memory contention across
+     * tasks that makes parallel speedups unlikely.
      */
-    // reasonable default so that we don't overcreate tasks
-    private static final int MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN = 256;
+    private static final int MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN = 1 << 13;
 
     // Suppresses default constructor, ensuring non-instantiability.
     private Arrays() {}
 
+    /**
+     * A comparator that implements the natural ordering of a group of
+     * mutually comparable elements. May be used when a supplied
+     * comparator is null. To simplify code-sharing within underlying
+     * implementations, the compare method only declares type Object
+     * for its second argument.
+     *
+     * Arrays class implementor's note: It is an empirical matter
+     * whether ComparableTimSort offers any performance benefit over
+     * TimSort used with this comparator.  If not, you are better off
+     * deleting or bypassing ComparableTimSort.  There is currently no
+     * empirical case for separating them for parallel sorting, so all
+     * public Object parallelSort methods use the same comparator
+     * based implementation.
+     */
+    static final class NaturalOrder implements Comparator<Object> {
+        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
+        public int compare(Object first, Object second) {
+            return ((Comparable<Object>)first).compareTo(second);
+        }
+        static final NaturalOrder INSTANCE = new NaturalOrder();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Checks that {@code fromIndex} and {@code toIndex} are in
+     * the range and throws an exception if they aren't.
+     */
+    private static void rangeCheck(int arrayLength, int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
+        if (fromIndex > toIndex) {
+            throw new IllegalArgumentException(
+                    "fromIndex(" + fromIndex + ") > toIndex(" + toIndex + ")");
+        }
+        if (fromIndex < 0) {
+            throw new ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException(fromIndex);
+        }
+        if (toIndex > arrayLength) {
+            throw new ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException(toIndex);
+        }
+    }
+
     /*
-     * Sorting of primitive type arrays.
+     * Sorting methods. Note that all public "sort" methods take the
+     * same form: Performing argument checks if necessary, and then
+     * expanding arguments into those required for the internal
+     * implementation methods residing in other package-private
+     * classes (except for legacyMergeSort, included in this class).
      */
 
     /**
@@ -95,7 +139,7 @@
      * @param a the array to be sorted
      */
     public static void sort(int[] a) {
-        DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a);
+        DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, 0, a.length - 1, null, 0, 0);
     }
 
     /**
@@ -120,7 +164,7 @@
      */
     public static void sort(int[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
         rangeCheck(a.length, fromIndex, toIndex);
-        DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, fromIndex, toIndex - 1);
+        DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, fromIndex, toIndex - 1, null, 0, 0);
     }
 
     /**
@@ -135,7 +179,7 @@
      * @param a the array to be sorted
      */
     public static void sort(long[] a) {
-        DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a);
+        DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, 0, a.length - 1, null, 0, 0);
     }
 
     /**
@@ -160,7 +204,7 @@
      */
     public static void sort(long[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
         rangeCheck(a.length, fromIndex, toIndex);
-        DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, fromIndex, toIndex - 1);
+        DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, fromIndex, toIndex - 1, null, 0, 0);
     }
 
     /**
@@ -175,7 +219,7 @@
      * @param a the array to be sorted
      */
     public static void sort(short[] a) {
-        DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a);
+        DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, 0, a.length - 1, null, 0, 0);
     }
 
     /**
@@ -200,7 +244,7 @@
      */
     public static void sort(short[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
         rangeCheck(a.length, fromIndex, toIndex);
-        DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, fromIndex, toIndex - 1);
+        DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, fromIndex, toIndex - 1, null, 0, 0);
     }
 
     /**
@@ -215,7 +259,7 @@
      * @param a the array to be sorted
      */
     public static void sort(char[] a) {
-        DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a);
+        DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, 0, a.length - 1, null, 0, 0);
     }
 
     /**
@@ -240,7 +284,7 @@
      */
     public static void sort(char[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
         rangeCheck(a.length, fromIndex, toIndex);
-        DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, fromIndex, toIndex - 1);
+        DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, fromIndex, toIndex - 1, null, 0, 0);
     }
 
     /**
@@ -255,7 +299,7 @@
      * @param a the array to be sorted
      */
     public static void sort(byte[] a) {
-        DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a);
+        DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, 0, a.length - 1);
     }
 
     /**
@@ -303,7 +347,7 @@
      * @param a the array to be sorted
      */
     public static void sort(float[] a) {
-        DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a);
+        DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, 0, a.length - 1, null, 0, 0);
     }
 
     /**
@@ -336,7 +380,7 @@
      */
     public static void sort(float[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
         rangeCheck(a.length, fromIndex, toIndex);
-        DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, fromIndex, toIndex - 1);
+        DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, fromIndex, toIndex - 1, null, 0, 0);
     }
 
     /**
@@ -359,7 +403,7 @@
      * @param a the array to be sorted
      */
     public static void sort(double[] a) {
-        DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a);
+        DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, 0, a.length - 1, null, 0, 0);
     }
 
     /**
@@ -392,7 +436,742 @@
      */
     public static void sort(double[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
         rangeCheck(a.length, fromIndex, toIndex);
-        DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, fromIndex, toIndex - 1);
+        DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, fromIndex, toIndex - 1, null, 0, 0);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.
+     *
+     * @implNote The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge that breaks the
+     * array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then merged. When
+     * the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the sub-array is
+     * sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(byte[]) Arrays.sort}
+     * method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
+     * granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate {@link
+     * Arrays#sort(byte[]) Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a
+     * working space no greater than the size of the original array. The
+     * {@link ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is used to
+     * execute any parallel tasks.
+     *
+     * @param a the array to be sorted
+     *
+     * @since 1.8
+     */
+    public static void parallelSort(byte[] a) {
+        int n = a.length, p, g;
+        if (n <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN ||
+            (p = ForkJoinPool.getCommonPoolParallelism()) == 1)
+            DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, 0, n - 1);
+        else
+            new ArraysParallelSortHelpers.FJByte.Sorter
+                (null, a, new byte[n], 0, n, 0,
+                 ((g = n / (p << 2)) <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN) ?
+                 MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN : g).invoke();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending numerical order.
+     * The range to be sorted extends from the index {@code fromIndex},
+     * inclusive, to the index {@code toIndex}, exclusive. If
+     * {@code fromIndex == toIndex}, the range to be sorted is empty.
+     *
+     * @implNote The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge that breaks the
+     * array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then merged. When
+     * the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the sub-array is
+     * sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(byte[]) Arrays.sort}
+     * method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
+     * granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate {@link
+     * Arrays#sort(byte[]) Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a working
+     * space no greater than the size of the specified range of the original
+     * array. The {@link ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is
+     * used to execute any parallel tasks.
+     *
+     * @param a the array to be sorted
+     * @param fromIndex the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted
+     * @param toIndex the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sorted
+     *
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code fromIndex > toIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *     if {@code fromIndex < 0} or {@code toIndex > a.length}
+     *
+     * @since 1.8
+     */
+    public static void parallelSort(byte[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, fromIndex, toIndex);
+        int n = toIndex - fromIndex, p, g;
+        if (n <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN ||
+            (p = ForkJoinPool.getCommonPoolParallelism()) == 1)
+            DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, fromIndex, toIndex - 1);
+        else
+            new ArraysParallelSortHelpers.FJByte.Sorter
+                (null, a, new byte[n], fromIndex, n, 0,
+                 ((g = n / (p << 2)) <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN) ?
+                 MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN : g).invoke();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.
+     *
+     * @implNote The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge that breaks the
+     * array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then merged. When
+     * the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the sub-array is
+     * sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(char[]) Arrays.sort}
+     * method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
+     * granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate {@link
+     * Arrays#sort(char[]) Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a
+     * working space no greater than the size of the original array. The
+     * {@link ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is used to
+     * execute any parallel tasks.
+     *
+     * @param a the array to be sorted
+     *
+     * @since 1.8
+     */
+    public static void parallelSort(char[] a) {
+        int n = a.length, p, g;
+        if (n <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN ||
+            (p = ForkJoinPool.getCommonPoolParallelism()) == 1)
+            DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, 0, n - 1, null, 0, 0);
+        else
+            new ArraysParallelSortHelpers.FJChar.Sorter
+                (null, a, new char[n], 0, n, 0,
+                 ((g = n / (p << 2)) <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN) ?
+                 MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN : g).invoke();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending numerical order.
+     * The range to be sorted extends from the index {@code fromIndex},
+     * inclusive, to the index {@code toIndex}, exclusive. If
+     * {@code fromIndex == toIndex}, the range to be sorted is empty.
+     *
+      @implNote The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge that breaks the
+     * array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then merged. When
+     * the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the sub-array is
+     * sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(char[]) Arrays.sort}
+     * method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
+     * granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate {@link
+     * Arrays#sort(char[]) Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a working
+     * space no greater than the size of the specified range of the original
+     * array. The {@link ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is
+     * used to execute any parallel tasks.
+     *
+     * @param a the array to be sorted
+     * @param fromIndex the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted
+     * @param toIndex the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sorted
+     *
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code fromIndex > toIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *     if {@code fromIndex < 0} or {@code toIndex > a.length}
+     *
+     * @since 1.8
+     */
+    public static void parallelSort(char[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, fromIndex, toIndex);
+        int n = toIndex - fromIndex, p, g;
+        if (n <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN ||
+            (p = ForkJoinPool.getCommonPoolParallelism()) == 1)
+            DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, fromIndex, toIndex - 1, null, 0, 0);
+        else
+            new ArraysParallelSortHelpers.FJChar.Sorter
+                (null, a, new char[n], fromIndex, n, 0,
+                 ((g = n / (p << 2)) <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN) ?
+                 MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN : g).invoke();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.
+     *
+     * @implNote The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge that breaks the
+     * array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then merged. When
+     * the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the sub-array is
+     * sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(short[]) Arrays.sort}
+     * method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
+     * granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate {@link
+     * Arrays#sort(short[]) Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a
+     * working space no greater than the size of the original array. The
+     * {@link ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is used to
+     * execute any parallel tasks.
+     *
+     * @param a the array to be sorted
+     *
+     * @since 1.8
+     */
+    public static void parallelSort(short[] a) {
+        int n = a.length, p, g;
+        if (n <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN ||
+            (p = ForkJoinPool.getCommonPoolParallelism()) == 1)
+            DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, 0, n - 1, null, 0, 0);
+        else
+            new ArraysParallelSortHelpers.FJShort.Sorter
+                (null, a, new short[n], 0, n, 0,
+                 ((g = n / (p << 2)) <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN) ?
+                 MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN : g).invoke();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending numerical order.
+     * The range to be sorted extends from the index {@code fromIndex},
+     * inclusive, to the index {@code toIndex}, exclusive. If
+     * {@code fromIndex == toIndex}, the range to be sorted is empty.
+     *
+     * @implNote The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge that breaks the
+     * array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then merged. When
+     * the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the sub-array is
+     * sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(short[]) Arrays.sort}
+     * method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
+     * granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate {@link
+     * Arrays#sort(short[]) Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a working
+     * space no greater than the size of the specified range of the original
+     * array. The {@link ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is
+     * used to execute any parallel tasks.
+     *
+     * @param a the array to be sorted
+     * @param fromIndex the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted
+     * @param toIndex the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sorted
+     *
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code fromIndex > toIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *     if {@code fromIndex < 0} or {@code toIndex > a.length}
+     *
+     * @since 1.8
+     */
+    public static void parallelSort(short[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, fromIndex, toIndex);
+        int n = toIndex - fromIndex, p, g;
+        if (n <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN ||
+            (p = ForkJoinPool.getCommonPoolParallelism()) == 1)
+            DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, fromIndex, toIndex - 1, null, 0, 0);
+        else
+            new ArraysParallelSortHelpers.FJShort.Sorter
+                (null, a, new short[n], fromIndex, n, 0,
+                 ((g = n / (p << 2)) <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN) ?
+                 MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN : g).invoke();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.
+     *
+     * @implNote The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge that breaks the
+     * array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then merged. When
+     * the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the sub-array is
+     * sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(int[]) Arrays.sort}
+     * method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
+     * granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate {@link
+     * Arrays#sort(int[]) Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a
+     * working space no greater than the size of the original array. The
+     * {@link ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is used to
+     * execute any parallel tasks.
+     *
+     * @param a the array to be sorted
+     *
+     * @since 1.8
+     */
+    public static void parallelSort(int[] a) {
+        int n = a.length, p, g;
+        if (n <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN ||
+            (p = ForkJoinPool.getCommonPoolParallelism()) == 1)
+            DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, 0, n - 1, null, 0, 0);
+        else
+            new ArraysParallelSortHelpers.FJInt.Sorter
+                (null, a, new int[n], 0, n, 0,
+                 ((g = n / (p << 2)) <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN) ?
+                 MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN : g).invoke();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending numerical order.
+     * The range to be sorted extends from the index {@code fromIndex},
+     * inclusive, to the index {@code toIndex}, exclusive. If
+     * {@code fromIndex == toIndex}, the range to be sorted is empty.
+     *
+     * @implNote The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge that breaks the
+     * array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then merged. When
+     * the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the sub-array is
+     * sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(int[]) Arrays.sort}
+     * method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
+     * granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate {@link
+     * Arrays#sort(int[]) Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a working
+     * space no greater than the size of the specified range of the original
+     * array. The {@link ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is
+     * used to execute any parallel tasks.
+     *
+     * @param a the array to be sorted
+     * @param fromIndex the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted
+     * @param toIndex the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sorted
+     *
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code fromIndex > toIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *     if {@code fromIndex < 0} or {@code toIndex > a.length}
+     *
+     * @since 1.8
+     */
+    public static void parallelSort(int[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, fromIndex, toIndex);
+        int n = toIndex - fromIndex, p, g;
+        if (n <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN ||
+            (p = ForkJoinPool.getCommonPoolParallelism()) == 1)
+            DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, fromIndex, toIndex - 1, null, 0, 0);
+        else
+            new ArraysParallelSortHelpers.FJInt.Sorter
+                (null, a, new int[n], fromIndex, n, 0,
+                 ((g = n / (p << 2)) <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN) ?
+                 MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN : g).invoke();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.
+     *
+     * @implNote The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge that breaks the
+     * array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then merged. When
+     * the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the sub-array is
+     * sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(long[]) Arrays.sort}
+     * method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
+     * granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate {@link
+     * Arrays#sort(long[]) Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a
+     * working space no greater than the size of the original array. The
+     * {@link ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is used to
+     * execute any parallel tasks.
+     *
+     * @param a the array to be sorted
+     *
+     * @since 1.8
+     */
+    public static void parallelSort(long[] a) {
+        int n = a.length, p, g;
+        if (n <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN ||
+            (p = ForkJoinPool.getCommonPoolParallelism()) == 1)
+            DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, 0, n - 1, null, 0, 0);
+        else
+            new ArraysParallelSortHelpers.FJLong.Sorter
+                (null, a, new long[n], 0, n, 0,
+                 ((g = n / (p << 2)) <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN) ?
+                 MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN : g).invoke();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending numerical order.
+     * The range to be sorted extends from the index {@code fromIndex},
+     * inclusive, to the index {@code toIndex}, exclusive. If
+     * {@code fromIndex == toIndex}, the range to be sorted is empty.
+     *
+     * @implNote The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge that breaks the
+     * array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then merged. When
+     * the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the sub-array is
+     * sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(long[]) Arrays.sort}
+     * method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
+     * granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate {@link
+     * Arrays#sort(long[]) Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a working
+     * space no greater than the size of the specified range of the original
+     * array. The {@link ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is
+     * used to execute any parallel tasks.
+     *
+     * @param a the array to be sorted
+     * @param fromIndex the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted
+     * @param toIndex the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sorted
+     *
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code fromIndex > toIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *     if {@code fromIndex < 0} or {@code toIndex > a.length}
+     *
+     * @since 1.8
+     */
+    public static void parallelSort(long[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, fromIndex, toIndex);
+        int n = toIndex - fromIndex, p, g;
+        if (n <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN ||
+            (p = ForkJoinPool.getCommonPoolParallelism()) == 1)
+            DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, fromIndex, toIndex - 1, null, 0, 0);
+        else
+            new ArraysParallelSortHelpers.FJLong.Sorter
+                (null, a, new long[n], fromIndex, n, 0,
+                 ((g = n / (p << 2)) <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN) ?
+                 MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN : g).invoke();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.
+     *
+     * <p>The {@code <} relation does not provide a total order on all float
+     * values: {@code -0.0f == 0.0f} is {@code true} and a {@code Float.NaN}
+     * value compares neither less than, greater than, nor equal to any value,
+     * even itself. This method uses the total order imposed by the method
+     * {@link Float#compareTo}: {@code -0.0f} is treated as less than value
+     * {@code 0.0f} and {@code Float.NaN} is considered greater than any
+     * other value and all {@code Float.NaN} values are considered equal.
+     *
+     * @implNote The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge that breaks the
+     * array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then merged. When
+     * the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the sub-array is
+     * sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(float[]) Arrays.sort}
+     * method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
+     * granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate {@link
+     * Arrays#sort(float[]) Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a
+     * working space no greater than the size of the original array. The
+     * {@link ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is used to
+     * execute any parallel tasks.
+     *
+     * @param a the array to be sorted
+     *
+     * @since 1.8
+     */
+    public static void parallelSort(float[] a) {
+        int n = a.length, p, g;
+        if (n <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN ||
+            (p = ForkJoinPool.getCommonPoolParallelism()) == 1)
+            DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, 0, n - 1, null, 0, 0);
+        else
+            new ArraysParallelSortHelpers.FJFloat.Sorter
+                (null, a, new float[n], 0, n, 0,
+                 ((g = n / (p << 2)) <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN) ?
+                 MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN : g).invoke();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending numerical order.
+     * The range to be sorted extends from the index {@code fromIndex},
+     * inclusive, to the index {@code toIndex}, exclusive. If
+     * {@code fromIndex == toIndex}, the range to be sorted is empty.
+     *
+     * <p>The {@code <} relation does not provide a total order on all float
+     * values: {@code -0.0f == 0.0f} is {@code true} and a {@code Float.NaN}
+     * value compares neither less than, greater than, nor equal to any value,
+     * even itself. This method uses the total order imposed by the method
+     * {@link Float#compareTo}: {@code -0.0f} is treated as less than value
+     * {@code 0.0f} and {@code Float.NaN} is considered greater than any
+     * other value and all {@code Float.NaN} values are considered equal.
+     *
+     * @implNote The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge that breaks the
+     * array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then merged. When
+     * the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the sub-array is
+     * sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(float[]) Arrays.sort}
+     * method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
+     * granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate {@link
+     * Arrays#sort(float[]) Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a working
+     * space no greater than the size of the specified range of the original
+     * array. The {@link ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is
+     * used to execute any parallel tasks.
+     *
+     * @param a the array to be sorted
+     * @param fromIndex the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted
+     * @param toIndex the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sorted
+     *
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code fromIndex > toIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *     if {@code fromIndex < 0} or {@code toIndex > a.length}
+     *
+     * @since 1.8
+     */
+    public static void parallelSort(float[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, fromIndex, toIndex);
+        int n = toIndex - fromIndex, p, g;
+        if (n <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN ||
+            (p = ForkJoinPool.getCommonPoolParallelism()) == 1)
+            DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, fromIndex, toIndex - 1, null, 0, 0);
+        else
+            new ArraysParallelSortHelpers.FJFloat.Sorter
+                (null, a, new float[n], fromIndex, n, 0,
+                 ((g = n / (p << 2)) <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN) ?
+                 MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN : g).invoke();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.
+     *
+     * <p>The {@code <} relation does not provide a total order on all double
+     * values: {@code -0.0d == 0.0d} is {@code true} and a {@code Double.NaN}
+     * value compares neither less than, greater than, nor equal to any value,
+     * even itself. This method uses the total order imposed by the method
+     * {@link Double#compareTo}: {@code -0.0d} is treated as less than value
+     * {@code 0.0d} and {@code Double.NaN} is considered greater than any
+     * other value and all {@code Double.NaN} values are considered equal.
+     *
+     * @implNote The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge that breaks the
+     * array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then merged. When
+     * the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the sub-array is
+     * sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(double[]) Arrays.sort}
+     * method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
+     * granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate {@link
+     * Arrays#sort(double[]) Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a
+     * working space no greater than the size of the original array. The
+     * {@link ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is used to
+     * execute any parallel tasks.
+     *
+     * @param a the array to be sorted
+     *
+     * @since 1.8
+     */
+    public static void parallelSort(double[] a) {
+        int n = a.length, p, g;
+        if (n <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN ||
+            (p = ForkJoinPool.getCommonPoolParallelism()) == 1)
+            DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, 0, n - 1, null, 0, 0);
+        else
+            new ArraysParallelSortHelpers.FJDouble.Sorter
+                (null, a, new double[n], 0, n, 0,
+                 ((g = n / (p << 2)) <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN) ?
+                 MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN : g).invoke();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending numerical order.
+     * The range to be sorted extends from the index {@code fromIndex},
+     * inclusive, to the index {@code toIndex}, exclusive. If
+     * {@code fromIndex == toIndex}, the range to be sorted is empty.
+     *
+     * <p>The {@code <} relation does not provide a total order on all double
+     * values: {@code -0.0d == 0.0d} is {@code true} and a {@code Double.NaN}
+     * value compares neither less than, greater than, nor equal to any value,
+     * even itself. This method uses the total order imposed by the method
+     * {@link Double#compareTo}: {@code -0.0d} is treated as less than value
+     * {@code 0.0d} and {@code Double.NaN} is considered greater than any
+     * other value and all {@code Double.NaN} values are considered equal.
+     *
+     * @implNote The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge that breaks the
+     * array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then merged. When
+     * the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the sub-array is
+     * sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(double[]) Arrays.sort}
+     * method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
+     * granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate {@link
+     * Arrays#sort(double[]) Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a working
+     * space no greater than the size of the specified range of the original
+     * array. The {@link ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is
+     * used to execute any parallel tasks.
+     *
+     * @param a the array to be sorted
+     * @param fromIndex the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted
+     * @param toIndex the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sorted
+     *
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code fromIndex > toIndex}
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+     *     if {@code fromIndex < 0} or {@code toIndex > a.length}
+     *
+     * @since 1.8
+     */
+    public static void parallelSort(double[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, fromIndex, toIndex);
+        int n = toIndex - fromIndex, p, g;
+        if (n <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN ||
+            (p = ForkJoinPool.getCommonPoolParallelism()) == 1)
+            DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, fromIndex, toIndex - 1, null, 0, 0);
+        else
+            new ArraysParallelSortHelpers.FJDouble.Sorter
+                (null, a, new double[n], fromIndex, n, 0,
+                 ((g = n / (p << 2)) <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN) ?
+                 MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN : g).invoke();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Sorts the specified array of objects into ascending order, according
+     * to the {@linkplain Comparable natural ordering} of its elements.
+     * All elements in the array must implement the {@link Comparable}
+     * interface.  Furthermore, all elements in the array must be
+     * <i>mutually comparable</i> (that is, {@code e1.compareTo(e2)} must
+     * not throw a {@code ClassCastException} for any elements {@code e1}
+     * and {@code e2} in the array).
+     *
+     * <p>This sort is guaranteed to be <i>stable</i>:  equal elements will
+     * not be reordered as a result of the sort.
+     *
+     * @implNote The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge that breaks the
+     * array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then merged. When
+     * the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the sub-array is
+     * sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(Object[]) Arrays.sort}
+     * method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
+     * granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate {@link
+     * Arrays#sort(Object[]) Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a
+     * working space no greater than the size of the original array. The
+     * {@link ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is used to
+     * execute any parallel tasks.
+     *
+     * @param a the array to be sorted
+     *
+     * @throws ClassCastException if the array contains elements that are not
+     *         <i>mutually comparable</i> (for example, strings and integers)
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException (optional) if the natural
+     *         ordering of the array elements is found to violate the
+     *         {@link Comparable} contract
+     *
+     * @since 1.8
+     */
+    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
+    public static <T extends Comparable<? super T>> void parallelSort(T[] a) {
+        int n = a.length, p, g;
+        if (n <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN ||
+            (p = ForkJoinPool.getCommonPoolParallelism()) == 1)
+            TimSort.sort(a, 0, n, NaturalOrder.INSTANCE, null, 0, 0);
+        else
+            new ArraysParallelSortHelpers.FJObject.Sorter<T>
+                (null, a,
+                 (T[])Array.newInstance(a.getClass().getComponentType(), n),
+                 0, n, 0, ((g = n / (p << 2)) <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN) ?
+                 MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN : g, NaturalOrder.INSTANCE).invoke();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Sorts the specified range of the specified array of objects into
+     * ascending order, according to the
+     * {@linkplain Comparable natural ordering} of its
+     * elements.  The range to be sorted extends from index
+     * {@code fromIndex}, inclusive, to index {@code toIndex}, exclusive.
+     * (If {@code fromIndex==toIndex}, the range to be sorted is empty.)  All
+     * elements in this range must implement the {@link Comparable}
+     * interface.  Furthermore, all elements in this range must be <i>mutually
+     * comparable</i> (that is, {@code e1.compareTo(e2)} must not throw a
+     * {@code ClassCastException} for any elements {@code e1} and
+     * {@code e2} in the array).
+     *
+     * <p>This sort is guaranteed to be <i>stable</i>:  equal elements will
+     * not be reordered as a result of the sort.
+     *
+     * @implNote The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge that breaks the
+     * array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then merged. When
+     * the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the sub-array is
+     * sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(Object[]) Arrays.sort}
+     * method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
+     * granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate {@link
+     * Arrays#sort(Object[]) Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a working
+     * space no greater than the size of the specified range of the original
+     * array. The {@link ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is
+     * used to execute any parallel tasks.
+     *
+     * @param a the array to be sorted
+     * @param fromIndex the index of the first element (inclusive) to be
+     *        sorted
+     * @param toIndex the index of the last element (exclusive) to be sorted
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code fromIndex > toIndex} or
+     *         (optional) if the natural ordering of the array elements is
+     *         found to violate the {@link Comparable} contract
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException if {@code fromIndex < 0} or
+     *         {@code toIndex > a.length}
+     * @throws ClassCastException if the array contains elements that are
+     *         not <i>mutually comparable</i> (for example, strings and
+     *         integers).
+     *
+     * @since 1.8
+     */
+    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
+    public static <T extends Comparable<? super T>>
+    void parallelSort(T[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, fromIndex, toIndex);
+        int n = toIndex - fromIndex, p, g;
+        if (n <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN ||
+            (p = ForkJoinPool.getCommonPoolParallelism()) == 1)
+            TimSort.sort(a, fromIndex, toIndex, NaturalOrder.INSTANCE, null, 0, 0);
+        else
+            new ArraysParallelSortHelpers.FJObject.Sorter<T>
+                (null, a,
+                 (T[])Array.newInstance(a.getClass().getComponentType(), n),
+                 fromIndex, n, 0, ((g = n / (p << 2)) <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN) ?
+                 MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN : g, NaturalOrder.INSTANCE).invoke();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Sorts the specified array of objects according to the order induced by
+     * the specified comparator.  All elements in the array must be
+     * <i>mutually comparable</i> by the specified comparator (that is,
+     * {@code c.compare(e1, e2)} must not throw a {@code ClassCastException}
+     * for any elements {@code e1} and {@code e2} in the array).
+     *
+     * <p>This sort is guaranteed to be <i>stable</i>:  equal elements will
+     * not be reordered as a result of the sort.
+     *
+     * @implNote The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge that breaks the
+     * array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then merged. When
+     * the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the sub-array is
+     * sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(Object[]) Arrays.sort}
+     * method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
+     * granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate {@link
+     * Arrays#sort(Object[]) Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a
+     * working space no greater than the size of the original array. The
+     * {@link ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is used to
+     * execute any parallel tasks.
+     *
+     * @param a the array to be sorted
+     * @param cmp the comparator to determine the order of the array.  A
+     *        {@code null} value indicates that the elements'
+     *        {@linkplain Comparable natural ordering} should be used.
+     * @throws ClassCastException if the array contains elements that are
+     *         not <i>mutually comparable</i> using the specified comparator
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException (optional) if the comparator is
+     *         found to violate the {@link java.util.Comparator} contract
+     *
+     * @since 1.8
+     */
+    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
+    public static <T> void parallelSort(T[] a, Comparator<? super T> cmp) {
+        if (cmp == null)
+            cmp = NaturalOrder.INSTANCE;
+        int n = a.length, p, g;
+        if (n <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN ||
+            (p = ForkJoinPool.getCommonPoolParallelism()) == 1)
+            TimSort.sort(a, 0, n, cmp, null, 0, 0);
+        else
+            new ArraysParallelSortHelpers.FJObject.Sorter<T>
+                (null, a,
+                 (T[])Array.newInstance(a.getClass().getComponentType(), n),
+                 0, n, 0, ((g = n / (p << 2)) <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN) ?
+                 MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN : g, cmp).invoke();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Sorts the specified range of the specified array of objects according
+     * to the order induced by the specified comparator.  The range to be
+     * sorted extends from index {@code fromIndex}, inclusive, to index
+     * {@code toIndex}, exclusive.  (If {@code fromIndex==toIndex}, the
+     * range to be sorted is empty.)  All elements in the range must be
+     * <i>mutually comparable</i> by the specified comparator (that is,
+     * {@code c.compare(e1, e2)} must not throw a {@code ClassCastException}
+     * for any elements {@code e1} and {@code e2} in the range).
+     *
+     * <p>This sort is guaranteed to be <i>stable</i>:  equal elements will
+     * not be reordered as a result of the sort.
+     *
+     * @implNote The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge that breaks the
+     * array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then merged. When
+     * the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the sub-array is
+     * sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(Object[]) Arrays.sort}
+     * method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
+     * granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate {@link
+     * Arrays#sort(Object[]) Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a working
+     * space no greater than the size of the specified range of the original
+     * array. The {@link ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is
+     * used to execute any parallel tasks.
+     *
+     * @param a the array to be sorted
+     * @param fromIndex the index of the first element (inclusive) to be
+     *        sorted
+     * @param toIndex the index of the last element (exclusive) to be sorted
+     * @param cmp the comparator to determine the order of the array.  A
+     *        {@code null} value indicates that the elements'
+     *        {@linkplain Comparable natural ordering} should be used.
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code fromIndex > toIndex} or
+     *         (optional) if the natural ordering of the array elements is
+     *         found to violate the {@link Comparable} contract
+     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException if {@code fromIndex < 0} or
+     *         {@code toIndex > a.length}
+     * @throws ClassCastException if the array contains elements that are
+     *         not <i>mutually comparable</i> (for example, strings and
+     *         integers).
+     *
+     * @since 1.8
+     */
+    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
+    public static <T> void parallelSort(T[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex,
+                                        Comparator<? super T> cmp) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, fromIndex, toIndex);
+        if (cmp == null)
+            cmp = NaturalOrder.INSTANCE;
+        int n = toIndex - fromIndex, p, g;
+        if (n <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN ||
+            (p = ForkJoinPool.getCommonPoolParallelism()) == 1)
+            TimSort.sort(a, fromIndex, toIndex, cmp, null, 0, 0);
+        else
+            new ArraysParallelSortHelpers.FJObject.Sorter<T>
+                (null, a,
+                 (T[])Array.newInstance(a.getClass().getComponentType(), n),
+                 fromIndex, n, 0, ((g = n / (p << 2)) <= MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN) ?
+                 MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN : g, cmp).invoke();
     }
 
     /*
@@ -412,39 +1191,6 @@
                     "java.util.Arrays.useLegacyMergeSort")).booleanValue();
     }
 
-    /*
-     * If this platform has an optimizing VM, check whether ComparableTimSort
-     * offers any performance benefit over TimSort in conjunction with a
-     * comparator that returns:
-     *    {@code ((Comparable)first).compareTo(Second)}.
-     * If not, you are better off deleting ComparableTimSort to
-     * eliminate the code duplication.  In other words, the commented
-     * out code below is the preferable implementation for sorting
-     * arrays of Comparables if it offers sufficient performance.
-     */
-
-//    /**
-//     * A comparator that implements the natural ordering of a group of
-//     * mutually comparable elements.  Using this comparator saves us
-//     * from duplicating most of the code in this file (one version for
-//     * Comparables, one for explicit Comparators).
-//     */
-//    private static final Comparator<Object> NATURAL_ORDER =
-//            new Comparator<Object>() {
-//        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
-//        public int compare(Object first, Object second) {
-//            return ((Comparable<Object>)first).compareTo(second);
-//        }
-//    };
-//
-//    public static void sort(Object[] a) {
-//        sort(a, 0, a.length, NATURAL_ORDER);
-//    }
-//
-//    public static void sort(Object[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
-//        sort(a, fromIndex, toIndex, NATURAL_ORDER);
-//    }
-
     /**
      * Sorts the specified array of objects into ascending order, according
      * to the {@linkplain Comparable natural ordering} of its elements.
@@ -491,7 +1237,7 @@
         if (LegacyMergeSort.userRequested)
             legacyMergeSort(a);
         else
-            ComparableTimSort.sort(a);
+            ComparableTimSort.sort(a, 0, a.length, null, 0, 0);
     }
 
     /** To be removed in a future release. */
@@ -553,16 +1299,16 @@
      *         integers).
      */
     public static void sort(Object[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
+        rangeCheck(a.length, fromIndex, toIndex);
         if (LegacyMergeSort.userRequested)
             legacyMergeSort(a, fromIndex, toIndex);
         else
-            ComparableTimSort.sort(a, fromIndex, toIndex);
+            ComparableTimSort.sort(a, fromIndex, toIndex, null, 0, 0);
     }
 
     /** To be removed in a future release. */
     private static void legacyMergeSort(Object[] a,
                                         int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
-        rangeCheck(a.length, fromIndex, toIndex);
         Object[] aux = copyOfRange(a, fromIndex, toIndex);
         mergeSort(aux, a, fromIndex, toIndex, -fromIndex);
     }
@@ -676,10 +1422,12 @@
      *         found to violate the {@link Comparator} contract
      */
     public static <T> void sort(T[] a, Comparator<? super T> c) {
+        if (c == null)
+            c = NaturalOrder.INSTANCE;
         if (LegacyMergeSort.userRequested)
             legacyMergeSort(a, c);
         else
-            TimSort.sort(a, c);
+            TimSort.sort(a, 0, a.length, c, null, 0, 0);
     }
 
     /** To be removed in a future release. */
@@ -744,16 +1492,18 @@
      */
     public static <T> void sort(T[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex,
                                 Comparator<? super T> c) {
+        if (c == null)
+            c = NaturalOrder.INSTANCE;
+        rangeCheck(a.length, fromIndex, toIndex);
         if (LegacyMergeSort.userRequested)
             legacyMergeSort(a, fromIndex, toIndex, c);
         else
-            TimSort.sort(a, fromIndex, toIndex, c);
+            TimSort.sort(a, fromIndex, toIndex, c, null, 0, 0);
     }
 
     /** To be removed in a future release. */
     private static <T> void legacyMergeSort(T[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex,
                                             Comparator<? super T> c) {
-        rangeCheck(a.length, fromIndex, toIndex);
         T[] aux = copyOfRange(a, fromIndex, toIndex);
         if (c==null)
             mergeSort(aux, a, fromIndex, toIndex, -fromIndex);
@@ -809,630 +1559,6 @@
         }
     }
 
-    /*
-     * Parallel sorting of primitive type arrays.
-     */
-
-    /**
-     * Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.
-     *
-     * <p>Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge
-     * that breaks the array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then
-     * merged. When the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the
-     * sub-array is sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(byte[])
-     * Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a working space equal to the
-     * size of the original array. The {@link
-     * java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is
-     * used to execute any parallel tasks.
-     *
-     * @param a the array to be sorted
-     *
-     * @since 1.8
-     */
-    public static void parallelSort(byte[] a) {
-        parallelSort(a, 0, a.length);
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending order. The range
-     * to be sorted extends from the index {@code fromIndex}, inclusive, to
-     * the index {@code toIndex}, exclusive. If {@code fromIndex == toIndex},
-     * the range to be sorted is empty.
-     *
-     * <p>Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge
-     * that breaks the array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then
-     * merged. When the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the
-     * sub-array is sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(byte[])
-     * Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a working space equal to the
-     * size of the original array. The {@link
-     * java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is
-     * used to execute any parallel tasks.
-     *
-     * @param a the array to be sorted
-     * @param fromIndex the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted
-     * @param toIndex the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sorted
-     *
-     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code fromIndex > toIndex}
-     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
-     *     if {@code fromIndex < 0} or {@code toIndex > a.length}
-     *
-     * @since 1.8
-     */
-    public static void parallelSort(byte[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
-        rangeCheck(a.length, fromIndex, toIndex);
-        int nelements = toIndex - fromIndex;
-        int gran = getSplitThreshold(nelements);
-        FJByte.Sorter task = new FJByte.Sorter(a, new byte[a.length], fromIndex,
-                                               nelements, gran);
-        task.invoke();
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.
-     *
-     * <p>Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge
-     * that breaks the array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then
-     * merged. When the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the
-     * sub-array is sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(char[])
-     * Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a working space equal to the
-     * size of the original array. The {@link
-     * java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is
-     * used to execute any parallel tasks.
-     *
-     * @param a the array to be sorted
-     *
-     * @since 1.8
-     */
-    public static void parallelSort(char[] a) {
-        parallelSort(a, 0, a.length);
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending order. The range
-     * to be sorted extends from the index {@code fromIndex}, inclusive, to
-     * the index {@code toIndex}, exclusive. If {@code fromIndex == toIndex},
-     * the range to be sorted is empty.
-     *
-     * <p>Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge
-     * that breaks the array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then
-     * merged. When the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the
-     * sub-array is sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(char[])
-     * Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a working space equal to the
-     * size of the original array. The {@link
-     * java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is
-     * used to execute any parallel tasks.
-     *
-     * @param a the array to be sorted
-     * @param fromIndex the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted
-     * @param toIndex the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sorted
-     *
-     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code fromIndex > toIndex}
-     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
-     *     if {@code fromIndex < 0} or {@code toIndex > a.length}
-     *
-     * @since 1.8
-     */
-    public static void parallelSort(char[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
-        rangeCheck(a.length, fromIndex, toIndex);
-        int nelements = toIndex - fromIndex;
-        int gran = getSplitThreshold(nelements);
-        FJChar.Sorter task = new FJChar.Sorter(a, new char[a.length], fromIndex,
-                                               nelements, gran);
-        task.invoke();
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.
-     *
-     * <p>Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge
-     * that breaks the array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then
-     * merged. When the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the
-     * sub-array is sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(short[])
-     * Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a working space equal to the
-     * size of the original array. The {@link
-     * java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is
-     * used to execute any parallel tasks.
-     *
-     * @param a the array to be sorted
-     *
-     * @since 1.8
-     */
-    public static void parallelSort(short[] a) {
-        parallelSort(a, 0, a.length);
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending order. The range
-     * to be sorted extends from the index {@code fromIndex}, inclusive, to
-     * the index {@code toIndex}, exclusive. If {@code fromIndex == toIndex},
-     * the range to be sorted is empty.
-     *
-     * <p>Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge
-     * that breaks the array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then
-     * merged. When the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the
-     * sub-array is sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(short[])
-     * Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a working space equal to the
-     * size of the original array. The {@link
-     * java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is
-     * used to execute any parallel tasks.
-     *
-     * @param a the array to be sorted
-     * @param fromIndex the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted
-     * @param toIndex the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sorted
-     *
-     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code fromIndex > toIndex}
-     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
-     *     if {@code fromIndex < 0} or {@code toIndex > a.length}
-     *
-     * @since 1.8
-     */
-    public static void parallelSort(short[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
-        rangeCheck(a.length, fromIndex, toIndex);
-        int nelements = toIndex - fromIndex;
-        int gran = getSplitThreshold(nelements);
-        FJShort.Sorter task = new FJShort.Sorter(a, new short[a.length], fromIndex,
-                                                 nelements, gran);
-        task.invoke();
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.
-     *
-     * <p>Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge
-     * that breaks the array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then
-     * merged. When the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the
-     * sub-array is sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(int[])
-     * Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a working space equal to the
-     * size of the original array. The {@link
-     * java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is
-     * used to execute any parallel tasks.
-     *
-     * @param a the array to be sorted
-     *
-     * @since 1.8
-     */
-    public static void parallelSort(int[] a) {
-        parallelSort(a, 0, a.length);
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending order. The range
-     * to be sorted extends from the index {@code fromIndex}, inclusive, to
-     * the index {@code toIndex}, exclusive. If {@code fromIndex == toIndex},
-     * the range to be sorted is empty.
-     *
-     * <p>Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge
-     * that breaks the array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then
-     * merged. When the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the
-     * sub-array is sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(int[])
-     * Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a working space equal to the
-     * size of the original array. The {@link
-     * java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is
-     * used to execute any parallel tasks.
-     *
-     * @param a the array to be sorted
-     * @param fromIndex the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted
-     * @param toIndex the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sorted
-     *
-     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code fromIndex > toIndex}
-     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
-     *     if {@code fromIndex < 0} or {@code toIndex > a.length}
-     *
-     * @since 1.8
-     */
-    public static void parallelSort(int[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
-        rangeCheck(a.length, fromIndex, toIndex);
-        int nelements = toIndex - fromIndex;
-        int gran = getSplitThreshold(nelements);
-        FJInt.Sorter task = new FJInt.Sorter(a, new int[a.length], fromIndex,
-                                             nelements, gran);
-        task.invoke();
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.
-     *
-     * <p>Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge
-     * that breaks the array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then
-     * merged. When the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the
-     * sub-array is sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(long[])
-     * Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a working space equal to the
-     * size of the original array. The {@link
-     * java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is
-     * used to execute any parallel tasks.
-     *
-     * @param a the array to be sorted
-     *
-     * @since 1.8
-     */
-    public static void parallelSort(long[] a) {
-        parallelSort(a, 0, a.length);
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending order. The range
-     * to be sorted extends from the index {@code fromIndex}, inclusive, to
-     * the index {@code toIndex}, exclusive. If {@code fromIndex == toIndex},
-     * the range to be sorted is empty.
-     *
-     * <p>Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge
-     * that breaks the array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then
-     * merged. When the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the
-     * sub-array is sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(long[])
-     * Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a working space equal to the
-     * size of the original array. The {@link
-     * java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is
-     * used to execute any parallel tasks.
-     *
-     * @param a the array to be sorted
-     * @param fromIndex the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted
-     * @param toIndex the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sorted
-     *
-     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code fromIndex > toIndex}
-     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
-     *     if {@code fromIndex < 0} or {@code toIndex > a.length}
-     *
-     * @since 1.8
-     */
-    public static void parallelSort(long[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
-        rangeCheck(a.length, fromIndex, toIndex);
-        int nelements = toIndex - fromIndex;
-        int gran = getSplitThreshold(nelements);
-        FJLong.Sorter task = new FJLong.Sorter(a, new long[a.length], fromIndex,
-                                               nelements, gran);
-        task.invoke();
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.
-     *
-     * <p>The {@code <} relation does not provide a total order on all float
-     * values: {@code -0.0f == 0.0f} is {@code true} and a {@code Float.NaN}
-     * value compares neither less than, greater than, nor equal to any value,
-     * even itself. This method uses the total order imposed by the method
-     * {@link Float#compareTo}: {@code -0.0f} is treated as less than value
-     * {@code 0.0f} and {@code Float.NaN} is considered greater than any
-     * other value and all {@code Float.NaN} values are considered equal.
-     *
-     * <p>Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge
-     * that breaks the array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then
-     * merged. When the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the
-     * sub-array is sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(float[])
-     * Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a working space equal to the
-     * size of the original array. The {@link
-     * java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is
-     * used to execute any parallel tasks.
-     *
-     * @param a the array to be sorted
-     *
-     * @since 1.8
-     */
-    public static void parallelSort(float[] a) {
-        parallelSort(a, 0, a.length);
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending order. The range
-     * to be sorted extends from the index {@code fromIndex}, inclusive, to
-     * the index {@code toIndex}, exclusive. If {@code fromIndex == toIndex},
-     * the range to be sorted is empty.
-     *
-     * <p>The {@code <} relation does not provide a total order on all float
-     * values: {@code -0.0f == 0.0f} is {@code true} and a {@code Float.NaN}
-     * value compares neither less than, greater than, nor equal to any value,
-     * even itself. This method uses the total order imposed by the method
-     * {@link Float#compareTo}: {@code -0.0f} is treated as less than value
-     * {@code 0.0f} and {@code Float.NaN} is considered greater than any
-     * other value and all {@code Float.NaN} values are considered equal.
-     *
-     * <p>Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge
-     * that breaks the array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then
-     * merged. When the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the
-     * sub-array is sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(float[])
-     * Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a working space equal to the
-     * size of the original array. The {@link
-     * java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is
-     * used to execute any parallel tasks.
-     *
-     * @param a the array to be sorted
-     * @param fromIndex the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted
-     * @param toIndex the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sorted
-     *
-     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code fromIndex > toIndex}
-     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
-     *     if {@code fromIndex < 0} or {@code toIndex > a.length}
-     *
-     * @since 1.8
-     */
-    public static void parallelSort(float[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
-        rangeCheck(a.length, fromIndex, toIndex);
-        int nelements = toIndex - fromIndex;
-        int gran = getSplitThreshold(nelements);
-        FJFloat.Sorter task = new FJFloat.Sorter(a, new float[a.length], fromIndex,
-                                                 nelements, gran);
-        task.invoke();
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.
-     *
-     * <p>The {@code <} relation does not provide a total order on all double
-     * values: {@code -0.0d == 0.0d} is {@code true} and a {@code Double.NaN}
-     * value compares neither less than, greater than, nor equal to any value,
-     * even itself. This method uses the total order imposed by the method
-     * {@link Double#compareTo}: {@code -0.0d} is treated as less than value
-     * {@code 0.0d} and {@code Double.NaN} is considered greater than any
-     * other value and all {@code Double.NaN} values are considered equal.
-     *
-     * <p>Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge
-     * that breaks the array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then
-     * merged. When the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the
-     * sub-array is sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(double[])
-     * Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a working space equal to the
-     * size of the original array. The {@link
-     * java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is
-     * used to execute any parallel tasks.
-     *
-     * @param a the array to be sorted
-     *
-     * @since 1.8
-     */
-    public static void parallelSort(double[] a) {
-        parallelSort(a, 0, a.length);
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending order. The range
-     * to be sorted extends from the index {@code fromIndex}, inclusive, to
-     * the index {@code toIndex}, exclusive. If {@code fromIndex == toIndex},
-     * the range to be sorted is empty.
-     *
-     * <p>The {@code <} relation does not provide a total order on all double
-     * values: {@code -0.0d == 0.0d} is {@code true} and a {@code Double.NaN}
-     * value compares neither less than, greater than, nor equal to any value,
-     * even itself. This method uses the total order imposed by the method
-     * {@link Double#compareTo}: {@code -0.0d} is treated as less than value
-     * {@code 0.0d} and {@code Double.NaN} is considered greater than any
-     * other value and all {@code Double.NaN} values are considered equal.
-     *
-     * <p>Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge
-     * that breaks the array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then
-     * merged. When the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the
-     * sub-array is sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(double[])
-     * Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a working space equal to the
-     * size of the original array. The {@link
-     * java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is
-     * used to execute any parallel tasks.
-     *
-     * @param a the array to be sorted
-     * @param fromIndex the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted
-     * @param toIndex the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sorted
-     *
-     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code fromIndex > toIndex}
-     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
-     *     if {@code fromIndex < 0} or {@code toIndex > a.length}
-     *
-     * @since 1.8
-     */
-    public static void parallelSort(double[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
-        rangeCheck(a.length, fromIndex, toIndex);
-        int nelements = toIndex - fromIndex;
-        int gran = getSplitThreshold(nelements);
-        FJDouble.Sorter task = new FJDouble.Sorter(a, new double[a.length],
-                                                   fromIndex, nelements, gran);
-        task.invoke();
-    }
-
-    /*
-     * Parallel sorting of complex type arrays.
-     */
-
-    /**
-     * Sorts the specified array of objects into ascending order, according
-     * to the {@linkplain Comparable natural ordering} of its elements.
-     * All elements in the array must implement the {@link Comparable}
-     * interface.  Furthermore, all elements in the array must be
-     * <i>mutually comparable</i> (that is, {@code e1.compareTo(e2)} must
-     * not throw a {@code ClassCastException} for any elements {@code e1}
-     * and {@code e2} in the array).
-     *
-     * <p>This sort is not guaranteed to be <i>stable</i>:  equal elements
-     * may be reordered as a result of the sort.
-     *
-     * <p>Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge
-     * that breaks the array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then
-     * merged. When the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the
-     * sub-array is sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(Object[])
-     * Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a working space equal to the
-     * size of the original array. The {@link
-     * java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is
-     * used to execute any parallel tasks.
-     *
-     * @param a the array to be sorted
-     *
-     * @throws ClassCastException if the array contains elements that are not
-     *         <i>mutually comparable</i> (for example, strings and integers)
-     * @throws IllegalArgumentException (optional) if the natural
-     *         ordering of the array elements is found to violate the
-     *         {@link Comparable} contract
-     *
-     * @since 1.8
-     */
-    public static <T extends Comparable<? super T>> void parallelSort(T[] a) {
-        parallelSort(a, 0, a.length);
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Sorts the specified range of the specified array of objects into
-     * ascending order, according to the
-     * {@linkplain Comparable natural ordering} of its
-     * elements.  The range to be sorted extends from index
-     * {@code fromIndex}, inclusive, to index {@code toIndex}, exclusive.
-     * (If {@code fromIndex==toIndex}, the range to be sorted is empty.)  All
-     * elements in this range must implement the {@link Comparable}
-     * interface.  Furthermore, all elements in this range must be <i>mutually
-     * comparable</i> (that is, {@code e1.compareTo(e2)} must not throw a
-     * {@code ClassCastException} for any elements {@code e1} and
-     * {@code e2} in the array).
-     *
-     * <p>This sort is not guaranteed to be <i>stable</i>:  equal elements
-     * may be reordered as a result of the sort.
-     *
-     * <p>Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge
-     * that breaks the array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then
-     * merged. When the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the
-     * sub-array is sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(Object[])
-     * Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a working space equal to the
-     * size of the original array. The {@link
-     * java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is
-     * used to execute any parallel tasks.
-     *
-     * @param a the array to be sorted
-     * @param fromIndex the index of the first element (inclusive) to be
-     *        sorted
-     * @param toIndex the index of the last element (exclusive) to be sorted
-     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code fromIndex > toIndex} or
-     *         (optional) if the natural ordering of the array elements is
-     *         found to violate the {@link Comparable} contract
-     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException if {@code fromIndex < 0} or
-     *         {@code toIndex > a.length}
-     * @throws ClassCastException if the array contains elements that are
-     *         not <i>mutually comparable</i> (for example, strings and
-     *         integers).
-     *
-     * @since 1.8
-     */
-    public static <T extends Comparable<? super T>>
-            void parallelSort(T[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
-        rangeCheck(a.length, fromIndex, toIndex);
-        int nelements = toIndex - fromIndex;
-        Class<?> tc = a.getClass().getComponentType();
-        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
-        T[] workspace = (T[])Array.newInstance(tc, a.length);
-        int gran = getSplitThreshold(nelements);
-        FJComparable.Sorter<T> task = new FJComparable.Sorter<>(a, workspace,
-                                                                fromIndex,
-                                                                nelements, gran);
-        task.invoke();
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Sorts the specified array of objects according to the order induced by
-     * the specified comparator.  All elements in the array must be
-     * <i>mutually comparable</i> by the specified comparator (that is,
-     * {@code c.compare(e1, e2)} must not throw a {@code ClassCastException}
-     * for any elements {@code e1} and {@code e2} in the array).
-     *
-     * <p>This sort is not guaranteed to be <i>stable</i>:  equal elements
-     * may be reordered as a result of the sort.
-     *
-     * <p>Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge
-     * that breaks the array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then
-     * merged. When the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the
-     * sub-array is sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(Object[])
-     * Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a working space equal to the
-     * size of the original array. The {@link
-     * java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is
-     * used to execute any parallel tasks.
-     *
-     * @param a the array to be sorted
-     * @param c the comparator to determine the order of the array.  A
-     *        {@code null} value indicates that the elements'
-     *        {@linkplain Comparable natural ordering} should be used.
-     * @throws ClassCastException if the array contains elements that are
-     *         not <i>mutually comparable</i> using the specified comparator
-     * @throws IllegalArgumentException (optional) if the comparator is
-     *         found to violate the {@link java.util.Comparator} contract
-     *
-     * @since 1.8
-     */
-    public static <T> void parallelSort(T[] a, Comparator<? super T> c) {
-        parallelSort(a, 0, a.length, c);
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Sorts the specified range of the specified array of objects according
-     * to the order induced by the specified comparator.  The range to be
-     * sorted extends from index {@code fromIndex}, inclusive, to index
-     * {@code toIndex}, exclusive.  (If {@code fromIndex==toIndex}, the
-     * range to be sorted is empty.)  All elements in the range must be
-     * <i>mutually comparable</i> by the specified comparator (that is,
-     * {@code c.compare(e1, e2)} must not throw a {@code ClassCastException}
-     * for any elements {@code e1} and {@code e2} in the range).
-     *
-     * <p>This sort is not guaranteed to be <i>stable</i>:  equal elements
-     * may be reordered as a result of the sort.
-     *
-     * <p>Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a parallel sort-merge
-     * that breaks the array into sub-arrays that are themselves sorted and then
-     * merged. When the sub-array length reaches a minimum granularity, the
-     * sub-array is sorted using the appropriate {@link Arrays#sort(Object[])
-     * Arrays.sort} method. The algorithm requires a working space equal to the
-     * size of the original array. The {@link
-     * java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool#commonPool() ForkJoin common pool} is
-     * used to execute any parallel tasks.
-     *
-     * @param a the array to be sorted
-     * @param fromIndex the index of the first element (inclusive) to be
-     *        sorted
-     * @param toIndex the index of the last element (exclusive) to be sorted
-     * @param c the comparator to determine the order of the array.  A
-     *        {@code null} value indicates that the elements'
-     *        {@linkplain Comparable natural ordering} should be used.
-     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code fromIndex > toIndex} or
-     *         (optional) if the natural ordering of the array elements is
-     *         found to violate the {@link Comparable} contract
-     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException if {@code fromIndex < 0} or
-     *         {@code toIndex > a.length}
-     * @throws ClassCastException if the array contains elements that are
-     *         not <i>mutually comparable</i> (for example, strings and
-     *         integers).
-     *
-     * @since 1.8
-     */
-    public static <T> void parallelSort(T[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex,
-                                        Comparator<? super T> c) {
-        rangeCheck(a.length, fromIndex, toIndex);
-        int nelements = toIndex - fromIndex;
-        Class<?> tc = a.getClass().getComponentType();
-        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
-        T[] workspace = (T[])Array.newInstance(tc, a.length);
-        int gran = getSplitThreshold(nelements);
-        FJComparator.Sorter<T> task = new FJComparator.Sorter<>(a, workspace,
-                                                                fromIndex,
-                                                                nelements, gran, c);
-        task.invoke();
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Returns the size threshold for splitting into subtasks.
-     * By default, uses about 8 times as many tasks as threads
-     *
-     * @param n number of elements in the array to be processed
-     */
-    private static int getSplitThreshold(int n) {
-        int p = java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool.getCommonPoolParallelism();
-        int t = (p > 1) ? (1 + n / (p << 3)) : n;
-        return t < MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN ? MIN_ARRAY_SORT_GRAN : t;
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Checks that {@code fromIndex} and {@code toIndex} are in
-     * the range and throws an appropriate exception, if they aren't.
-     */
-    private static void rangeCheck(int length, int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
-        if (fromIndex > toIndex) {
-            throw new IllegalArgumentException(
-                "fromIndex(" + fromIndex + ") > toIndex(" + toIndex + ")");
-        }
-        if (fromIndex < 0) {
-            throw new ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException(fromIndex);
-        }
-        if (toIndex > length) {
-            throw new ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException(toIndex);
-        }
-    }
-
     // Searching
 
     /**
--- a/src/share/classes/java/util/ArraysParallelSortHelpers.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/util/ArraysParallelSortHelpers.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -25,6 +25,7 @@
 package java.util;
 
 import java.util.concurrent.RecursiveAction;
+import java.util.concurrent.CountedCompleter;
 
 /**
  * Helper utilities for the parallel sort methods in Arrays.parallelSort.
@@ -44,1180 +45,966 @@
  *             c. merge them together
  *         3. merge together the two halves.
  *
- * One reason for splitting in quarters is that this guarantees
- * that the final sort is in the main array, not the workspace
- * array.  (workspace and main swap roles on each subsort step.)
- * Leaf-level sorts use a Sequential quicksort, that in turn uses
- * insertion sort if under threshold.  Otherwise it uses median of
- * three to pick pivot, and loops rather than recurses along left
- * path.
+ * One reason for splitting in quarters is that this guarantees that
+ * the final sort is in the main array, not the workspace array.
+ * (workspace and main swap roles on each subsort step.)  Leaf-level
+ * sorts use the associated sequential sort.
  *
+ * Merger classes perform merging for Sorter.  They are structured
+ * such that if the underlying sort is stable (as is true for
+ * TimSort), then so is the full sort.  If big enough, they split the
+ * largest of the two partitions in half, find the greatest point in
+ * smaller partition less than the beginning of the second half of
+ * larger via binary search; and then merge in parallel the two
+ * partitions.  In part to ensure tasks are triggered in
+ * stability-preserving order, the current CountedCompleter design
+ * requires some little tasks to serve as place holders for triggering
+ * completion tasks.  These classes (EmptyCompleter and Relay) don't
+ * need to keep track of the arrays, and are never themselves forked,
+ * so don't hold any task state.
  *
- * Merger classes perform merging for Sorter. If big enough, splits Left
- * partition in half; finds the greatest point in Right partition
- * less than the beginning of the second half of Left via binary
- * search; and then, in parallel, merges left half of Left with
- * elements of Right up to split point, and merges right half of
- * Left with elements of R past split point. At leaf, it just
- * sequentially merges. This is all messy to code; sadly we need
- * distinct versions for each type.
+ * The primitive class versions (FJByte... FJDouble) are
+ * identical to each other except for type declarations.
  *
+ * The base sequential sorts rely on non-public versions of TimSort,
+ * ComparableTimSort, and DualPivotQuicksort sort methods that accept
+ * temp workspace array slices that we will have already allocated, so
+ * avoids redundant allocation. (Except for DualPivotQuicksort byte[]
+ * sort, that does not ever use a workspace array.)
  */
 /*package*/ class ArraysParallelSortHelpers {
 
-    // RFE: we should only need a working array as large as the subarray
-    //      to be sorted, but the logic assumes that indices in the two
-    //      arrays always line-up
+    /*
+     * Style note: The task classes have a lot of parameters, that are
+     * stored as task fields and copied to local variables and used in
+     * compute() methods, We pack these into as few lines as possible,
+     * and hoist consistency checks among them before main loops, to
+     * reduce distraction.
+     */
+
+    /**
+     * A placeholder task for Sorters, used for the lowest
+     * quartile task, that does not need to maintain array state.
+     */
+    static final class EmptyCompleter extends CountedCompleter<Void> {
+        static final long serialVersionUID = 2446542900576103244L;
+        EmptyCompleter(CountedCompleter<?> p) { super(p); }
+        public final void compute() { }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * A trigger for secondary merge of two merges
+     */
+    static final class Relay extends CountedCompleter<Void> {
+        static final long serialVersionUID = 2446542900576103244L;
+        final CountedCompleter<?> task;
+        Relay(CountedCompleter<?> task) {
+            super(null, 1);
+            this.task = task;
+        }
+        public final void compute() { }
+        public final void onCompletion(CountedCompleter<?> t) {
+            task.compute();
+        }
+    }
+
+    /** Object + Comparator support class */
+    static final class FJObject {
+        static final class Sorter<T> extends CountedCompleter<Void> {
+            static final long serialVersionUID = 2446542900576103244L;
+            final T[] a, w;
+            final int base, size, wbase, gran;
+            Comparator<? super T> comparator;
+            Sorter(CountedCompleter<?> par, T[] a, T[] w, int base, int size,
+                   int wbase, int gran,
+                   Comparator<? super T> comparator) {
+                super(par);
+                this.a = a; this.w = w; this.base = base; this.size = size;
+                this.wbase = wbase; this.gran = gran;
+                this.comparator = comparator;
+            }
+            public final void compute() {
+                CountedCompleter<?> s = this;
+                Comparator<? super T> c = this.comparator;
+                T[] a = this.a, w = this.w; // localize all params
+                int b = this.base, n = this.size, wb = this.wbase, g = this.gran;
+                while (n > g) {
+                    int h = n >>> 1, q = h >>> 1, u = h + q; // quartiles
+                    Relay fc = new Relay(new Merger<T>(s, w, a, wb, h,
+                                                       wb+h, n-h, b, g, c));
+                    Relay rc = new Relay(new Merger<T>(fc, a, w, b+h, q,
+                                                       b+u, n-u, wb+h, g, c));
+                    new Sorter<T>(rc, a, w, b+u, n-u, wb+u, g, c).fork();
+                    new Sorter<T>(rc, a, w, b+h, q, wb+h, g, c).fork();;
+                    Relay bc = new Relay(new Merger<T>(fc, a, w, b, q,
+                                                       b+q, h-q, wb, g, c));
+                    new Sorter<T>(bc, a, w, b+q, h-q, wb+q, g, c).fork();
+                    s = new EmptyCompleter(bc);
+                    n = q;
+                }
+                TimSort.sort(a, b, b + n, c, w, wb, n);
+                s.tryComplete();
+            }
+        }
+
+        static final class Merger<T> extends CountedCompleter<Void> {
+            static final long serialVersionUID = 2446542900576103244L;
+            final T[] a, w; // main and workspace arrays
+            final int lbase, lsize, rbase, rsize, wbase, gran;
+            Comparator<? super T> comparator;
+            Merger(CountedCompleter<?> par, T[] a, T[] w,
+                   int lbase, int lsize, int rbase,
+                   int rsize, int wbase, int gran,
+                   Comparator<? super T> comparator) {
+                super(par);
+                this.a = a; this.w = w;
+                this.lbase = lbase; this.lsize = lsize;
+                this.rbase = rbase; this.rsize = rsize;
+                this.wbase = wbase; this.gran = gran;
+                this.comparator = comparator;
+            }
+
+            public final void compute() {
+                Comparator<? super T> c = this.comparator;
+                T[] a = this.a, w = this.w; // localize all params
+                int lb = this.lbase, ln = this.lsize, rb = this.rbase,
+                    rn = this.rsize, k = this.wbase, g = this.gran;
+                if (a == null || w == null || lb < 0 || rb < 0 || k < 0 ||
+                    c == null)
+                    throw new IllegalStateException(); // hoist checks
+                for (int lh, rh;;) {  // split larger, find point in smaller
+                    if (ln >= rn) {
+                        if (ln <= g)
+                            break;
+                        rh = rn;
+                        T split = a[(lh = ln >>> 1) + lb];
+                        for (int lo = 0; lo < rh; ) {
+                            int rm = (lo + rh) >>> 1;
+                            if (c.compare(split, a[rm + rb]) <= 0)
+                                rh = rm;
+                            else
+                                lo = rm + 1;
+                        }
+                    }
+                    else {
+                        if (rn <= g)
+                            break;
+                        lh = ln;
+                        T split = a[(rh = rn >>> 1) + rb];
+                        for (int lo = 0; lo < lh; ) {
+                            int lm = (lo + lh) >>> 1;
+                            if (c.compare(split, a[lm + lb]) <= 0)
+                                lh = lm;
+                            else
+                                lo = lm + 1;
+                        }
+                    }
+                    Merger<T> m = new Merger<T>(this, a, w, lb + lh, ln - lh,
+                                                rb + rh, rn - rh,
+                                                k + lh + rh, g, c);
+                    rn = rh;
+                    ln = lh;
+                    addToPendingCount(1);
+                    m.fork();
+                }
+
+                int lf = lb + ln, rf = rb + rn; // index bounds
+                while (lb < lf && rb < rf) {
+                    T t, al, ar;
+                    if (c.compare((al = a[lb]), (ar = a[rb])) <= 0) {
+                        lb++; t = al;
+                    }
+                    else {
+                        rb++; t = ar;
+                    }
+                    w[k++] = t;
+                }
+                if (rb < rf)
+                    System.arraycopy(a, rb, w, k, rf - rb);
+                else if (lb < lf)
+                    System.arraycopy(a, lb, w, k, lf - lb);
+
+                tryComplete();
+            }
+
+        }
+    } // FJObject
 
     /** byte support class */
     static final class FJByte {
-        static final class Sorter extends RecursiveAction {
-            static final long serialVersionUID = 749471161188027634L;
-            final byte[] a;     // array to be sorted.
-            final byte[] w;     // workspace for merge
-            final int origin;   // origin of the part of array we deal with
-            final int n;        // Number of elements in (sub)arrays.
-            final int gran;     // split control
-
-            Sorter(byte[] a, byte[] w, int origin, int n, int gran) {
-                this.a = a;
-                this.w = w;
-                this.origin = origin;
-                this.n = n;
-                this.gran = gran;
+        static final class Sorter extends CountedCompleter<Void> {
+            static final long serialVersionUID = 2446542900576103244L;
+            final byte[] a, w;
+            final int base, size, wbase, gran;
+            Sorter(CountedCompleter<?> par, byte[] a, byte[] w, int base,
+                   int size, int wbase, int gran) {
+                super(par);
+                this.a = a; this.w = w; this.base = base; this.size = size;
+                this.wbase = wbase; this.gran = gran;
             }
-
-            public void compute() {
-                final int l = origin;
-                final int g = gran;
-                final int n = this.n;
-                final byte[] a = this.a;
-                final byte[] w = this.w;
-                if (n > g) {
-                    int h = n >>> 1; // half
-                    int q = n >>> 2; // lower quarter index
-                    int u = h + q;   // upper quarter
-                    FJSubSorter ls = new FJSubSorter(new Sorter(a, w, l, q,  g),
-                                                     new Sorter(a, w, l+q, h-q, g),
-                                                     new Merger(a, w, l,   q,
-                                                                l+q, h-q, l, g, null));
-                    FJSubSorter rs = new FJSubSorter(new Sorter(a, w, l+h, q,   g),
-                                                     new Sorter(a, w, l+u, n-u, g),
-                                                     new Merger(a, w, l+h, q,
-                                                                l+u, n-u, l+h, g, null));
-                    rs.fork();
-                    ls.compute();
-                    if (rs.tryUnfork()) rs.compute(); else rs.join();
-                    new Merger(w, a, l, h,
-                               l+h, n-h, l, g, null).compute();
-                } else {
-                    DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, l, l+n-1);   //skip rangeCheck
+            public final void compute() {
+                CountedCompleter<?> s = this;
+                byte[] a = this.a, w = this.w; // localize all params
+                int b = this.base, n = this.size, wb = this.wbase, g = this.gran;
+                while (n > g) {
+                    int h = n >>> 1, q = h >>> 1, u = h + q; // quartiles
+                    Relay fc = new Relay(new Merger(s, w, a, wb, h,
+                                                    wb+h, n-h, b, g));
+                    Relay rc = new Relay(new Merger(fc, a, w, b+h, q,
+                                                    b+u, n-u, wb+h, g));
+                    new Sorter(rc, a, w, b+u, n-u, wb+u, g).fork();
+                    new Sorter(rc, a, w, b+h, q, wb+h, g).fork();;
+                    Relay bc = new Relay(new Merger(fc, a, w, b, q,
+                                                    b+q, h-q, wb, g));
+                    new Sorter(bc, a, w, b+q, h-q, wb+q, g).fork();
+                    s = new EmptyCompleter(bc);
+                    n = q;
                 }
+                DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, b, b + n - 1);
+                s.tryComplete();
             }
         }
 
-        static final class Merger extends RecursiveAction {
-            static final long serialVersionUID = -9090258248781844470L;
-            final byte[] a;
-            final byte[] w;
-            final int lo;
-            final int ln;
-            final int ro;
-            final int rn;
-            final int wo;
-            final int gran;
-            final Merger next;
-
-            Merger(byte[] a, byte[] w, int lo, int ln, int ro, int rn, int wo,
-                   int gran, Merger next) {
-                this.a = a;
-                this.w = w;
-                this.lo = lo;
-                this.ln = ln;
-                this.ro = ro;
-                this.rn = rn;
-                this.wo = wo;
-                this.gran = gran;
-                this.next = next;
+        static final class Merger extends CountedCompleter<Void> {
+            static final long serialVersionUID = 2446542900576103244L;
+            final byte[] a, w; // main and workspace arrays
+            final int lbase, lsize, rbase, rsize, wbase, gran;
+            Merger(CountedCompleter<?> par, byte[] a, byte[] w,
+                   int lbase, int lsize, int rbase,
+                   int rsize, int wbase, int gran) {
+                super(par);
+                this.a = a; this.w = w;
+                this.lbase = lbase; this.lsize = lsize;
+                this.rbase = rbase; this.rsize = rsize;
+                this.wbase = wbase; this.gran = gran;
             }
 
-            public void compute() {
-                final byte[] a = this.a;
-                final byte[] w = this.w;
-                Merger rights = null;
-                int nleft = ln;
-                int nright = rn;
-                while (nleft > gran) {
-                    int lh = nleft >>> 1;
-                    int splitIndex = lo + lh;
-                    byte split = a[splitIndex];
-                    int rl = 0;
-                    int rh = nright;
-                    while (rl < rh) {
-                        int mid = (rl + rh) >>> 1;
-                        if (split <= a[ro + mid])
-                            rh = mid;
-                        else
-                            rl = mid + 1;
+            public final void compute() {
+                byte[] a = this.a, w = this.w; // localize all params
+                int lb = this.lbase, ln = this.lsize, rb = this.rbase,
+                    rn = this.rsize, k = this.wbase, g = this.gran;
+                if (a == null || w == null || lb < 0 || rb < 0 || k < 0)
+                    throw new IllegalStateException(); // hoist checks
+                for (int lh, rh;;) {  // split larger, find point in smaller
+                    if (ln >= rn) {
+                        if (ln <= g)
+                            break;
+                        rh = rn;
+                        byte split = a[(lh = ln >>> 1) + lb];
+                        for (int lo = 0; lo < rh; ) {
+                            int rm = (lo + rh) >>> 1;
+                            if (split <= a[rm + rb])
+                                rh = rm;
+                            else
+                                lo = rm + 1;
+                        }
                     }
-                    (rights = new Merger(a, w, splitIndex, nleft-lh, ro+rh,
-                                         nright-rh, wo+lh+rh, gran, rights)).fork();
-                    nleft = lh;
-                    nright = rh;
+                    else {
+                        if (rn <= g)
+                            break;
+                        lh = ln;
+                        byte split = a[(rh = rn >>> 1) + rb];
+                        for (int lo = 0; lo < lh; ) {
+                            int lm = (lo + lh) >>> 1;
+                            if (split <= a[lm + lb])
+                                lh = lm;
+                            else
+                                lo = lm + 1;
+                        }
+                    }
+                    Merger m = new Merger(this, a, w, lb + lh, ln - lh,
+                                          rb + rh, rn - rh,
+                                          k + lh + rh, g);
+                    rn = rh;
+                    ln = lh;
+                    addToPendingCount(1);
+                    m.fork();
                 }
 
-                int l = lo;
-                int lFence = l + nleft;
-                int r = ro;
-                int rFence = r + nright;
-                int k = wo;
-                while (l < lFence && r < rFence) {
-                    byte al = a[l];
-                    byte ar = a[r];
-                    byte t;
-                    if (al <= ar) {++l; t=al;} else {++r; t = ar;}
+                int lf = lb + ln, rf = rb + rn; // index bounds
+                while (lb < lf && rb < rf) {
+                    byte t, al, ar;
+                    if ((al = a[lb]) <= (ar = a[rb])) {
+                        lb++; t = al;
+                    }
+                    else {
+                        rb++; t = ar;
+                    }
                     w[k++] = t;
                 }
-                while (l < lFence)
-                    w[k++] = a[l++];
-                while (r < rFence)
-                    w[k++] = a[r++];
-                while (rights != null) {
-                    if (rights.tryUnfork())
-                        rights.compute();
-                    else
-                        rights.join();
-                    rights = rights.next;
-                }
+                if (rb < rf)
+                    System.arraycopy(a, rb, w, k, rf - rb);
+                else if (lb < lf)
+                    System.arraycopy(a, lb, w, k, lf - lb);
+                tryComplete();
             }
         }
     } // FJByte
 
     /** char support class */
     static final class FJChar {
-        static final class Sorter extends RecursiveAction {
-            static final long serialVersionUID = 8723376019074596641L;
-            final char[] a;     // array to be sorted.
-            final char[] w;     // workspace for merge
-            final int origin;   // origin of the part of array we deal with
-            final int n;        // Number of elements in (sub)arrays.
-            final int gran;     // split control
-
-            Sorter(char[] a, char[] w, int origin, int n, int gran) {
-                this.a = a;
-                this.w = w;
-                this.origin = origin;
-                this.n = n;
-                this.gran = gran;
+        static final class Sorter extends CountedCompleter<Void> {
+            static final long serialVersionUID = 2446542900576103244L;
+            final char[] a, w;
+            final int base, size, wbase, gran;
+            Sorter(CountedCompleter<?> par, char[] a, char[] w, int base,
+                   int size, int wbase, int gran) {
+                super(par);
+                this.a = a; this.w = w; this.base = base; this.size = size;
+                this.wbase = wbase; this.gran = gran;
             }
-
-            public void compute() {
-                final int l = origin;
-                final int g = gran;
-                final int n = this.n;
-                final char[] a = this.a;
-                final char[] w = this.w;
-                if (n > g) {
-                    int h = n >>> 1; // half
-                    int q = n >>> 2; // lower quarter index
-                    int u = h + q;   // upper quarter
-                    FJSubSorter ls = new FJSubSorter(new Sorter(a, w, l, q,   g),
-                                                     new Sorter(a, w, l+q, h-q, g),
-                                                     new Merger(a, w, l,   q,
-                                                                l+q, h-q, l, g, null));
-                    FJSubSorter rs = new FJSubSorter(new Sorter(a, w, l + h, q,   g),
-                                                     new Sorter(a, w, l+u, n-u, g),
-                                                     new Merger(a, w, l+h, q,
-                                                                l+u, n-u, l+h, g, null));
-                    rs.fork();
-                    ls.compute();
-                    if (rs.tryUnfork()) rs.compute(); else rs.join();
-                    new Merger(w, a, l, h, l + h, n - h, l, g, null).compute();
-                } else {
-                    DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, l, l+n-1);   // skip rangeCheck
+            public final void compute() {
+                CountedCompleter<?> s = this;
+                char[] a = this.a, w = this.w; // localize all params
+                int b = this.base, n = this.size, wb = this.wbase, g = this.gran;
+                while (n > g) {
+                    int h = n >>> 1, q = h >>> 1, u = h + q; // quartiles
+                    Relay fc = new Relay(new Merger(s, w, a, wb, h,
+                                                    wb+h, n-h, b, g));
+                    Relay rc = new Relay(new Merger(fc, a, w, b+h, q,
+                                                    b+u, n-u, wb+h, g));
+                    new Sorter(rc, a, w, b+u, n-u, wb+u, g).fork();
+                    new Sorter(rc, a, w, b+h, q, wb+h, g).fork();;
+                    Relay bc = new Relay(new Merger(fc, a, w, b, q,
+                                                    b+q, h-q, wb, g));
+                    new Sorter(bc, a, w, b+q, h-q, wb+q, g).fork();
+                    s = new EmptyCompleter(bc);
+                    n = q;
                 }
+                DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, b, b + n - 1, w, wb, n);
+                s.tryComplete();
             }
         }
 
-        static final class Merger extends RecursiveAction {
-            static final long serialVersionUID = -1383975444621698926L;
-            final char[] a;
-            final char[] w;
-            final int lo;
-            final int ln;
-            final int ro;
-            final int rn;
-            final int wo;
-            final int gran;
-            final Merger next;
-
-            Merger(char[] a, char[] w, int lo, int ln, int ro, int rn, int wo,
-                   int gran, Merger next) {
-                this.a = a;
-                this.w = w;
-                this.lo = lo;
-                this.ln = ln;
-                this.ro = ro;
-                this.rn = rn;
-                this.wo = wo;
-                this.gran = gran;
-                this.next = next;
+        static final class Merger extends CountedCompleter<Void> {
+            static final long serialVersionUID = 2446542900576103244L;
+            final char[] a, w; // main and workspace arrays
+            final int lbase, lsize, rbase, rsize, wbase, gran;
+            Merger(CountedCompleter<?> par, char[] a, char[] w,
+                   int lbase, int lsize, int rbase,
+                   int rsize, int wbase, int gran) {
+                super(par);
+                this.a = a; this.w = w;
+                this.lbase = lbase; this.lsize = lsize;
+                this.rbase = rbase; this.rsize = rsize;
+                this.wbase = wbase; this.gran = gran;
             }
 
-            public void compute() {
-                final char[] a = this.a;
-                final char[] w = this.w;
-                Merger rights = null;
-                int nleft = ln;
-                int nright = rn;
-                while (nleft > gran) {
-                    int lh = nleft >>> 1;
-                    int splitIndex = lo + lh;
-                    char split = a[splitIndex];
-                    int rl = 0;
-                    int rh = nright;
-                    while (rl < rh) {
-                        int mid = (rl + rh) >>> 1;
-                        if (split <= a[ro + mid])
-                            rh = mid;
-                        else
-                            rl = mid + 1;
+            public final void compute() {
+                char[] a = this.a, w = this.w; // localize all params
+                int lb = this.lbase, ln = this.lsize, rb = this.rbase,
+                    rn = this.rsize, k = this.wbase, g = this.gran;
+                if (a == null || w == null || lb < 0 || rb < 0 || k < 0)
+                    throw new IllegalStateException(); // hoist checks
+                for (int lh, rh;;) {  // split larger, find point in smaller
+                    if (ln >= rn) {
+                        if (ln <= g)
+                            break;
+                        rh = rn;
+                        char split = a[(lh = ln >>> 1) + lb];
+                        for (int lo = 0; lo < rh; ) {
+                            int rm = (lo + rh) >>> 1;
+                            if (split <= a[rm + rb])
+                                rh = rm;
+                            else
+                                lo = rm + 1;
+                        }
                     }
-                    (rights = new Merger(a, w, splitIndex, nleft-lh, ro+rh,
-                                         nright-rh, wo+lh+rh, gran, rights)).fork();
-                    nleft = lh;
-                    nright = rh;
+                    else {
+                        if (rn <= g)
+                            break;
+                        lh = ln;
+                        char split = a[(rh = rn >>> 1) + rb];
+                        for (int lo = 0; lo < lh; ) {
+                            int lm = (lo + lh) >>> 1;
+                            if (split <= a[lm + lb])
+                                lh = lm;
+                            else
+                                lo = lm + 1;
+                        }
+                    }
+                    Merger m = new Merger(this, a, w, lb + lh, ln - lh,
+                                          rb + rh, rn - rh,
+                                          k + lh + rh, g);
+                    rn = rh;
+                    ln = lh;
+                    addToPendingCount(1);
+                    m.fork();
                 }
 
-                int l = lo;
-                int lFence = l + nleft;
-                int r = ro;
-                int rFence = r + nright;
-                int k = wo;
-                while (l < lFence && r < rFence) {
-                    char al = a[l];
-                    char ar = a[r];
-                    char t;
-                    if (al <= ar) {++l; t=al;} else {++r; t = ar;}
+                int lf = lb + ln, rf = rb + rn; // index bounds
+                while (lb < lf && rb < rf) {
+                    char t, al, ar;
+                    if ((al = a[lb]) <= (ar = a[rb])) {
+                        lb++; t = al;
+                    }
+                    else {
+                        rb++; t = ar;
+                    }
                     w[k++] = t;
                 }
-                while (l < lFence)
-                    w[k++] = a[l++];
-                while (r < rFence)
-                    w[k++] = a[r++];
-                while (rights != null) {
-                    if (rights.tryUnfork())
-                        rights.compute();
-                    else
-                        rights.join();
-                    rights = rights.next;
-                }
+                if (rb < rf)
+                    System.arraycopy(a, rb, w, k, rf - rb);
+                else if (lb < lf)
+                    System.arraycopy(a, lb, w, k, lf - lb);
+                tryComplete();
             }
         }
     } // FJChar
 
     /** short support class */
     static final class FJShort {
-        static final class Sorter extends RecursiveAction {
-            static final long serialVersionUID = -7886754793730583084L;
-            final short[] a;    // array to be sorted.
-            final short[] w;    // workspace for merge
-            final int origin;   // origin of the part of array we deal with
-            final int n;        // Number of elements in (sub)arrays.
-            final int gran;     // split control
-
-            Sorter(short[] a, short[] w, int origin, int n, int gran) {
-                this.a = a;
-                this.w = w;
-                this.origin = origin;
-                this.n = n;
-                this.gran = gran;
+        static final class Sorter extends CountedCompleter<Void> {
+            static final long serialVersionUID = 2446542900576103244L;
+            final short[] a, w;
+            final int base, size, wbase, gran;
+            Sorter(CountedCompleter<?> par, short[] a, short[] w, int base,
+                   int size, int wbase, int gran) {
+                super(par);
+                this.a = a; this.w = w; this.base = base; this.size = size;
+                this.wbase = wbase; this.gran = gran;
             }
-
-            public void compute() {
-                final int l = origin;
-                final int g = gran;
-                final int n = this.n;
-                final short[] a = this.a;
-                final short[] w = this.w;
-                if (n > g) {
-                    int h = n >>> 1; // half
-                    int q = n >>> 2; // lower quarter index
-                    int u = h + q;   // upper quarter
-                    FJSubSorter ls = new FJSubSorter(new Sorter(a, w, l, q,   g),
-                                                     new Sorter(a, w, l+q, h-q, g),
-                                                     new Merger(a, w, l,   q,
-                                                                l+q, h-q, l, g, null));
-                    FJSubSorter rs = new FJSubSorter(new Sorter(a, w, l + h, q,   g),
-                                                     new Sorter(a, w, l+u, n-u, g),
-                                                     new Merger(a, w, l+h, q,
-                                                                l+u, n-u, l+h, g, null));
-                    rs.fork();
-                    ls.compute();
-                    if (rs.tryUnfork()) rs.compute(); else rs.join();
-                    new Merger(w, a, l, h, l + h, n - h, l, g, null).compute();
-                } else {
-                    DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, l, l+n-1);   // skip rangeCheck
+            public final void compute() {
+                CountedCompleter<?> s = this;
+                short[] a = this.a, w = this.w; // localize all params
+                int b = this.base, n = this.size, wb = this.wbase, g = this.gran;
+                while (n > g) {
+                    int h = n >>> 1, q = h >>> 1, u = h + q; // quartiles
+                    Relay fc = new Relay(new Merger(s, w, a, wb, h,
+                                                    wb+h, n-h, b, g));
+                    Relay rc = new Relay(new Merger(fc, a, w, b+h, q,
+                                                    b+u, n-u, wb+h, g));
+                    new Sorter(rc, a, w, b+u, n-u, wb+u, g).fork();
+                    new Sorter(rc, a, w, b+h, q, wb+h, g).fork();;
+                    Relay bc = new Relay(new Merger(fc, a, w, b, q,
+                                                    b+q, h-q, wb, g));
+                    new Sorter(bc, a, w, b+q, h-q, wb+q, g).fork();
+                    s = new EmptyCompleter(bc);
+                    n = q;
                 }
+                DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, b, b + n - 1, w, wb, n);
+                s.tryComplete();
             }
         }
 
-        static final class Merger extends RecursiveAction {
-            static final long serialVersionUID = 3895749408536700048L;
-            final short[] a;
-            final short[] w;
-            final int lo;
-            final int ln;
-            final int ro;
-            final int rn;
-            final int wo;
-            final int gran;
-            final Merger next;
-
-            Merger(short[] a, short[] w, int lo, int ln, int ro, int rn, int wo,
-                   int gran, Merger next) {
-                this.a = a;
-                this.w = w;
-                this.lo = lo;
-                this.ln = ln;
-                this.ro = ro;
-                this.rn = rn;
-                this.wo = wo;
-                this.gran = gran;
-                this.next = next;
+        static final class Merger extends CountedCompleter<Void> {
+            static final long serialVersionUID = 2446542900576103244L;
+            final short[] a, w; // main and workspace arrays
+            final int lbase, lsize, rbase, rsize, wbase, gran;
+            Merger(CountedCompleter<?> par, short[] a, short[] w,
+                   int lbase, int lsize, int rbase,
+                   int rsize, int wbase, int gran) {
+                super(par);
+                this.a = a; this.w = w;
+                this.lbase = lbase; this.lsize = lsize;
+                this.rbase = rbase; this.rsize = rsize;
+                this.wbase = wbase; this.gran = gran;
             }
 
-            public void compute() {
-                final short[] a = this.a;
-                final short[] w = this.w;
-                Merger rights = null;
-                int nleft = ln;
-                int nright = rn;
-                while (nleft > gran) {
-                    int lh = nleft >>> 1;
-                    int splitIndex = lo + lh;
-                    short split = a[splitIndex];
-                    int rl = 0;
-                    int rh = nright;
-                    while (rl < rh) {
-                        int mid = (rl + rh) >>> 1;
-                        if (split <= a[ro + mid])
-                            rh = mid;
-                        else
-                            rl = mid + 1;
+            public final void compute() {
+                short[] a = this.a, w = this.w; // localize all params
+                int lb = this.lbase, ln = this.lsize, rb = this.rbase,
+                    rn = this.rsize, k = this.wbase, g = this.gran;
+                if (a == null || w == null || lb < 0 || rb < 0 || k < 0)
+                    throw new IllegalStateException(); // hoist checks
+                for (int lh, rh;;) {  // split larger, find point in smaller
+                    if (ln >= rn) {
+                        if (ln <= g)
+                            break;
+                        rh = rn;
+                        short split = a[(lh = ln >>> 1) + lb];
+                        for (int lo = 0; lo < rh; ) {
+                            int rm = (lo + rh) >>> 1;
+                            if (split <= a[rm + rb])
+                                rh = rm;
+                            else
+                                lo = rm + 1;
+                        }
                     }
-                    (rights = new Merger(a, w, splitIndex, nleft-lh, ro+rh,
-                                         nright-rh, wo+lh+rh, gran, rights)).fork();
-                    nleft = lh;
-                    nright = rh;
+                    else {
+                        if (rn <= g)
+                            break;
+                        lh = ln;
+                        short split = a[(rh = rn >>> 1) + rb];
+                        for (int lo = 0; lo < lh; ) {
+                            int lm = (lo + lh) >>> 1;
+                            if (split <= a[lm + lb])
+                                lh = lm;
+                            else
+                                lo = lm + 1;
+                        }
+                    }
+                    Merger m = new Merger(this, a, w, lb + lh, ln - lh,
+                                          rb + rh, rn - rh,
+                                          k + lh + rh, g);
+                    rn = rh;
+                    ln = lh;
+                    addToPendingCount(1);
+                    m.fork();
                 }
 
-                int l = lo;
-                int lFence = l + nleft;
-                int r = ro;
-                int rFence = r + nright;
-                int k = wo;
-                while (l < lFence && r < rFence) {
-                    short al = a[l];
-                    short ar = a[r];
-                    short t;
-                    if (al <= ar) {++l; t=al;} else {++r; t = ar;}
+                int lf = lb + ln, rf = rb + rn; // index bounds
+                while (lb < lf && rb < rf) {
+                    short t, al, ar;
+                    if ((al = a[lb]) <= (ar = a[rb])) {
+                        lb++; t = al;
+                    }
+                    else {
+                        rb++; t = ar;
+                    }
                     w[k++] = t;
                 }
-                while (l < lFence)
-                    w[k++] = a[l++];
-                while (r < rFence)
-                    w[k++] = a[r++];
-                while (rights != null) {
-                    if (rights.tryUnfork())
-                        rights.compute();
-                    else
-                        rights.join();
-                    rights = rights.next;
-                }
+                if (rb < rf)
+                    System.arraycopy(a, rb, w, k, rf - rb);
+                else if (lb < lf)
+                    System.arraycopy(a, lb, w, k, lf - lb);
+                tryComplete();
             }
         }
     } // FJShort
 
     /** int support class */
     static final class FJInt {
-        static final class Sorter extends RecursiveAction {
-            static final long serialVersionUID = 4263311808957292729L;
-            final int[] a;     // array to be sorted.
-            final int[] w;     // workspace for merge
-            final int origin;  // origin of the part of array we deal with
-            final int n;       // Number of elements in (sub)arrays.
-            final int gran;    // split control
-
-            Sorter(int[] a, int[] w, int origin, int n, int gran) {
-                this.a = a;
-                this.w = w;
-                this.origin = origin;
-                this.n = n;
-                this.gran = gran;
+        static final class Sorter extends CountedCompleter<Void> {
+            static final long serialVersionUID = 2446542900576103244L;
+            final int[] a, w;
+            final int base, size, wbase, gran;
+            Sorter(CountedCompleter<?> par, int[] a, int[] w, int base,
+                   int size, int wbase, int gran) {
+                super(par);
+                this.a = a; this.w = w; this.base = base; this.size = size;
+                this.wbase = wbase; this.gran = gran;
             }
-
-            public void compute() {
-                final int l = origin;
-                final int g = gran;
-                final int n = this.n;
-                final int[] a = this.a;
-                final int[] w = this.w;
-                if (n > g) {
-                    int h = n >>> 1; // half
-                    int q = n >>> 2; // lower quarter index
-                    int u = h + q;   // upper quarter
-                    FJSubSorter ls = new FJSubSorter(new Sorter(a, w, l, q,   g),
-                                                     new Sorter(a, w, l+q, h-q, g),
-                                                     new Merger(a, w, l,   q,
-                                                                l+q, h-q, l, g, null));
-                    FJSubSorter rs = new FJSubSorter(new Sorter(a, w, l + h, q,   g),
-                                                     new Sorter(a, w, l+u, n-u, g),
-                                                     new Merger(a, w, l+h, q,
-                                                                l+u, n-u, l+h, g, null));
-                    rs.fork();
-                    ls.compute();
-                    if (rs.tryUnfork()) rs.compute(); else rs.join();
-                    new Merger(w, a, l, h, l + h, n - h, l, g, null).compute();
-                } else {
-                    DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, l, l+n-1);   // skip rangeCheck
+            public final void compute() {
+                CountedCompleter<?> s = this;
+                int[] a = this.a, w = this.w; // localize all params
+                int b = this.base, n = this.size, wb = this.wbase, g = this.gran;
+                while (n > g) {
+                    int h = n >>> 1, q = h >>> 1, u = h + q; // quartiles
+                    Relay fc = new Relay(new Merger(s, w, a, wb, h,
+                                                    wb+h, n-h, b, g));
+                    Relay rc = new Relay(new Merger(fc, a, w, b+h, q,
+                                                    b+u, n-u, wb+h, g));
+                    new Sorter(rc, a, w, b+u, n-u, wb+u, g).fork();
+                    new Sorter(rc, a, w, b+h, q, wb+h, g).fork();;
+                    Relay bc = new Relay(new Merger(fc, a, w, b, q,
+                                                    b+q, h-q, wb, g));
+                    new Sorter(bc, a, w, b+q, h-q, wb+q, g).fork();
+                    s = new EmptyCompleter(bc);
+                    n = q;
                 }
+                DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, b, b + n - 1, w, wb, n);
+                s.tryComplete();
             }
         }
 
-        static final class Merger extends RecursiveAction {
-            static final long serialVersionUID = -8727507284219982792L;
-            final int[] a;
-            final int[] w;
-            final int lo;
-            final int ln;
-            final int ro;
-            final int rn;
-            final int wo;
-            final int gran;
-            final Merger next;
-
-            Merger(int[] a, int[] w, int lo, int ln, int ro, int rn, int wo,
-                   int gran, Merger next) {
-                this.a = a;
-                this.w = w;
-                this.lo = lo;
-                this.ln = ln;
-                this.ro = ro;
-                this.rn = rn;
-                this.wo = wo;
-                this.gran = gran;
-                this.next = next;
+        static final class Merger extends CountedCompleter<Void> {
+            static final long serialVersionUID = 2446542900576103244L;
+            final int[] a, w; // main and workspace arrays
+            final int lbase, lsize, rbase, rsize, wbase, gran;
+            Merger(CountedCompleter<?> par, int[] a, int[] w,
+                   int lbase, int lsize, int rbase,
+                   int rsize, int wbase, int gran) {
+                super(par);
+                this.a = a; this.w = w;
+                this.lbase = lbase; this.lsize = lsize;
+                this.rbase = rbase; this.rsize = rsize;
+                this.wbase = wbase; this.gran = gran;
             }
 
-            public void compute() {
-                final int[] a = this.a;
-                final int[] w = this.w;
-                Merger rights = null;
-                int nleft = ln;
-                int nright = rn;
-                while (nleft > gran) {
-                    int lh = nleft >>> 1;
-                    int splitIndex = lo + lh;
-                    int split = a[splitIndex];
-                    int rl = 0;
-                    int rh = nright;
-                    while (rl < rh) {
-                        int mid = (rl + rh) >>> 1;
-                        if (split <= a[ro + mid])
-                            rh = mid;
-                        else
-                            rl = mid + 1;
+            public final void compute() {
+                int[] a = this.a, w = this.w; // localize all params
+                int lb = this.lbase, ln = this.lsize, rb = this.rbase,
+                    rn = this.rsize, k = this.wbase, g = this.gran;
+                if (a == null || w == null || lb < 0 || rb < 0 || k < 0)
+                    throw new IllegalStateException(); // hoist checks
+                for (int lh, rh;;) {  // split larger, find point in smaller
+                    if (ln >= rn) {
+                        if (ln <= g)
+                            break;
+                        rh = rn;
+                        int split = a[(lh = ln >>> 1) + lb];
+                        for (int lo = 0; lo < rh; ) {
+                            int rm = (lo + rh) >>> 1;
+                            if (split <= a[rm + rb])
+                                rh = rm;
+                            else
+                                lo = rm + 1;
+                        }
                     }
-                    (rights = new Merger(a, w, splitIndex, nleft-lh, ro+rh,
-                                         nright-rh, wo+lh+rh, gran, rights)).fork();
-                    nleft = lh;
-                    nright = rh;
+                    else {
+                        if (rn <= g)
+                            break;
+                        lh = ln;
+                        int split = a[(rh = rn >>> 1) + rb];
+                        for (int lo = 0; lo < lh; ) {
+                            int lm = (lo + lh) >>> 1;
+                            if (split <= a[lm + lb])
+                                lh = lm;
+                            else
+                                lo = lm + 1;
+                        }
+                    }
+                    Merger m = new Merger(this, a, w, lb + lh, ln - lh,
+                                          rb + rh, rn - rh,
+                                          k + lh + rh, g);
+                    rn = rh;
+                    ln = lh;
+                    addToPendingCount(1);
+                    m.fork();
                 }
 
-                int l = lo;
-                int lFence = l + nleft;
-                int r = ro;
-                int rFence = r + nright;
-                int k = wo;
-                while (l < lFence && r < rFence) {
-                    int al = a[l];
-                    int ar = a[r];
-                    int t;
-                    if (al <= ar) {++l; t=al;} else {++r; t = ar;}
+                int lf = lb + ln, rf = rb + rn; // index bounds
+                while (lb < lf && rb < rf) {
+                    int t, al, ar;
+                    if ((al = a[lb]) <= (ar = a[rb])) {
+                        lb++; t = al;
+                    }
+                    else {
+                        rb++; t = ar;
+                    }
                     w[k++] = t;
                 }
-                while (l < lFence)
-                    w[k++] = a[l++];
-                while (r < rFence)
-                    w[k++] = a[r++];
-                while (rights != null) {
-                    if (rights.tryUnfork())
-                        rights.compute();
-                    else
-                        rights.join();
-                    rights = rights.next;
-                }
+                if (rb < rf)
+                    System.arraycopy(a, rb, w, k, rf - rb);
+                else if (lb < lf)
+                    System.arraycopy(a, lb, w, k, lf - lb);
+                tryComplete();
             }
         }
     } // FJInt
 
     /** long support class */
     static final class FJLong {
-        static final class Sorter extends RecursiveAction {
-            static final long serialVersionUID = 6553695007444392455L;
-            final long[] a;     // array to be sorted.
-            final long[] w;     // workspace for merge
-            final int origin;   // origin of the part of array we deal with
-            final int n;        // Number of elements in (sub)arrays.
-            final int gran;     // split control
-
-            Sorter(long[] a, long[] w, int origin, int n, int gran) {
-                this.a = a;
-                this.w = w;
-                this.origin = origin;
-                this.n = n;
-                this.gran = gran;
+        static final class Sorter extends CountedCompleter<Void> {
+            static final long serialVersionUID = 2446542900576103244L;
+            final long[] a, w;
+            final int base, size, wbase, gran;
+            Sorter(CountedCompleter<?> par, long[] a, long[] w, int base,
+                   int size, int wbase, int gran) {
+                super(par);
+                this.a = a; this.w = w; this.base = base; this.size = size;
+                this.wbase = wbase; this.gran = gran;
             }
-
-            public void compute() {
-                final int l = origin;
-                final int g = gran;
-                final int n = this.n;
-                final long[] a = this.a;
-                final long[] w = this.w;
-                if (n > g) {
-                    int h = n >>> 1; // half
-                    int q = n >>> 2; // lower quarter index
-                    int u = h + q;   // upper quarter
-                    FJSubSorter ls = new FJSubSorter(new Sorter(a, w, l, q,   g),
-                                                     new Sorter(a, w, l+q, h-q, g),
-                                                     new Merger(a, w, l,   q,
-                                                                l+q, h-q, l, g, null));
-                    FJSubSorter rs = new FJSubSorter(new Sorter(a, w, l + h, q,   g),
-                                                     new Sorter(a, w, l+u, n-u, g),
-                                                     new Merger(a, w, l+h, q,
-                                                                l+u, n-u, l+h, g, null));
-                    rs.fork();
-                    ls.compute();
-                    if (rs.tryUnfork()) rs.compute(); else rs.join();
-                    new Merger(w, a, l, h, l + h, n - h, l, g, null).compute();
-                } else {
-                    DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, l, l+n-1);   // skip rangeCheck
+            public final void compute() {
+                CountedCompleter<?> s = this;
+                long[] a = this.a, w = this.w; // localize all params
+                int b = this.base, n = this.size, wb = this.wbase, g = this.gran;
+                while (n > g) {
+                    int h = n >>> 1, q = h >>> 1, u = h + q; // quartiles
+                    Relay fc = new Relay(new Merger(s, w, a, wb, h,
+                                                    wb+h, n-h, b, g));
+                    Relay rc = new Relay(new Merger(fc, a, w, b+h, q,
+                                                    b+u, n-u, wb+h, g));
+                    new Sorter(rc, a, w, b+u, n-u, wb+u, g).fork();
+                    new Sorter(rc, a, w, b+h, q, wb+h, g).fork();;
+                    Relay bc = new Relay(new Merger(fc, a, w, b, q,
+                                                    b+q, h-q, wb, g));
+                    new Sorter(bc, a, w, b+q, h-q, wb+q, g).fork();
+                    s = new EmptyCompleter(bc);
+                    n = q;
                 }
+                DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, b, b + n - 1, w, wb, n);
+                s.tryComplete();
             }
         }
 
-        static final class Merger extends RecursiveAction {
-            static final long serialVersionUID = 8843567516333283861L;
-            final long[] a;
-            final long[] w;
-            final int lo;
-            final int ln;
-            final int ro;
-            final int rn;
-            final int wo;
-            final int gran;
-            final Merger next;
-
-            Merger(long[] a, long[] w, int lo, int ln, int ro, int rn, int wo,
-                   int gran, Merger next) {
-                this.a = a;
-                this.w = w;
-                this.lo = lo;
-                this.ln = ln;
-                this.ro = ro;
-                this.rn = rn;
-                this.wo = wo;
-                this.gran = gran;
-                this.next = next;
+        static final class Merger extends CountedCompleter<Void> {
+            static final long serialVersionUID = 2446542900576103244L;
+            final long[] a, w; // main and workspace arrays
+            final int lbase, lsize, rbase, rsize, wbase, gran;
+            Merger(CountedCompleter<?> par, long[] a, long[] w,
+                   int lbase, int lsize, int rbase,
+                   int rsize, int wbase, int gran) {
+                super(par);
+                this.a = a; this.w = w;
+                this.lbase = lbase; this.lsize = lsize;
+                this.rbase = rbase; this.rsize = rsize;
+                this.wbase = wbase; this.gran = gran;
             }
 
-            public void compute() {
-                final long[] a = this.a;
-                final long[] w = this.w;
-                Merger rights = null;
-                int nleft = ln;
-                int nright = rn;
-                while (nleft > gran) {
-                    int lh = nleft >>> 1;
-                    int splitIndex = lo + lh;
-                    long split = a[splitIndex];
-                    int rl = 0;
-                    int rh = nright;
-                    while (rl < rh) {
-                        int mid = (rl + rh) >>> 1;
-                        if (split <= a[ro + mid])
-                            rh = mid;
-                        else
-                            rl = mid + 1;
+            public final void compute() {
+                long[] a = this.a, w = this.w; // localize all params
+                int lb = this.lbase, ln = this.lsize, rb = this.rbase,
+                    rn = this.rsize, k = this.wbase, g = this.gran;
+                if (a == null || w == null || lb < 0 || rb < 0 || k < 0)
+                    throw new IllegalStateException(); // hoist checks
+                for (int lh, rh;;) {  // split larger, find point in smaller
+                    if (ln >= rn) {
+                        if (ln <= g)
+                            break;
+                        rh = rn;
+                        long split = a[(lh = ln >>> 1) + lb];
+                        for (int lo = 0; lo < rh; ) {
+                            int rm = (lo + rh) >>> 1;
+                            if (split <= a[rm + rb])
+                                rh = rm;
+                            else
+                                lo = rm + 1;
+                        }
                     }
-                    (rights = new Merger(a, w, splitIndex, nleft-lh, ro+rh,
-                      nright-rh, wo+lh+rh, gran, rights)).fork();
-                    nleft = lh;
-                    nright = rh;
+                    else {
+                        if (rn <= g)
+                            break;
+                        lh = ln;
+                        long split = a[(rh = rn >>> 1) + rb];
+                        for (int lo = 0; lo < lh; ) {
+                            int lm = (lo + lh) >>> 1;
+                            if (split <= a[lm + lb])
+                                lh = lm;
+                            else
+                                lo = lm + 1;
+                        }
+                    }
+                    Merger m = new Merger(this, a, w, lb + lh, ln - lh,
+                                          rb + rh, rn - rh,
+                                          k + lh + rh, g);
+                    rn = rh;
+                    ln = lh;
+                    addToPendingCount(1);
+                    m.fork();
                 }
 
-                int l = lo;
-                int lFence = l + nleft;
-                int r = ro;
-                int rFence = r + nright;
-                int k = wo;
-                while (l < lFence && r < rFence) {
-                    long al = a[l];
-                    long ar = a[r];
-                    long t;
-                    if (al <= ar) {++l; t=al;} else {++r; t = ar;}
+                int lf = lb + ln, rf = rb + rn; // index bounds
+                while (lb < lf && rb < rf) {
+                    long t, al, ar;
+                    if ((al = a[lb]) <= (ar = a[rb])) {
+                        lb++; t = al;
+                    }
+                    else {
+                        rb++; t = ar;
+                    }
                     w[k++] = t;
                 }
-                while (l < lFence)
-                    w[k++] = a[l++];
-                while (r < rFence)
-                    w[k++] = a[r++];
-                while (rights != null) {
-                    if (rights.tryUnfork())
-                        rights.compute();
-                    else
-                        rights.join();
-                    rights = rights.next;
-                }
+                if (rb < rf)
+                    System.arraycopy(a, rb, w, k, rf - rb);
+                else if (lb < lf)
+                    System.arraycopy(a, lb, w, k, lf - lb);
+                tryComplete();
             }
         }
     } // FJLong
 
     /** float support class */
     static final class FJFloat {
-        static final class Sorter extends RecursiveAction {
-            static final long serialVersionUID = 1602600178202763377L;
-            final float[] a;    // array to be sorted.
-            final float[] w;    // workspace for merge
-            final int origin;   // origin of the part of array we deal with
-            final int n;        // Number of elements in (sub)arrays.
-            final int gran;     // split control
-
-            Sorter(float[] a, float[] w, int origin, int n, int gran) {
-                this.a = a;
-                this.w = w;
-                this.origin = origin;
-                this.n = n;
-                this.gran = gran;
+        static final class Sorter extends CountedCompleter<Void> {
+            static final long serialVersionUID = 2446542900576103244L;
+            final float[] a, w;
+            final int base, size, wbase, gran;
+            Sorter(CountedCompleter<?> par, float[] a, float[] w, int base,
+                   int size, int wbase, int gran) {
+                super(par);
+                this.a = a; this.w = w; this.base = base; this.size = size;
+                this.wbase = wbase; this.gran = gran;
             }
-
-            public void compute() {
-                final int l = origin;
-                final int g = gran;
-                final int n = this.n;
-                final float[] a = this.a;
-                final float[] w = this.w;
-                if (n > g) {
-                    int h = n >>> 1; // half
-                    int q = n >>> 2; // lower quarter index
-                    int u = h + q;   // upper quarter
-                    FJSubSorter ls = new FJSubSorter(new Sorter(a, w, l, q,   g),
-                                                     new Sorter(a, w, l+q, h-q, g),
-                                                     new Merger(a, w, l,   q,
-                                                                l+q, h-q, l, g, null));
-                    FJSubSorter rs = new FJSubSorter(new Sorter(a, w, l + h, q,   g),
-                                                     new Sorter(a, w, l+u, n-u, g),
-                                                     new Merger(a, w, l+h, q,
-                                                                l+u, n-u, l+h, g, null));
-                    rs.fork();
-                    ls.compute();
-                    if (rs.tryUnfork()) rs.compute(); else rs.join();
-                    new Merger(w, a, l, h, l + h, n - h, l, g, null).compute();
-                } else {
-                    DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, l, l+n-1);   // skip rangeCheck
+            public final void compute() {
+                CountedCompleter<?> s = this;
+                float[] a = this.a, w = this.w; // localize all params
+                int b = this.base, n = this.size, wb = this.wbase, g = this.gran;
+                while (n > g) {
+                    int h = n >>> 1, q = h >>> 1, u = h + q; // quartiles
+                    Relay fc = new Relay(new Merger(s, w, a, wb, h,
+                                                    wb+h, n-h, b, g));
+                    Relay rc = new Relay(new Merger(fc, a, w, b+h, q,
+                                                    b+u, n-u, wb+h, g));
+                    new Sorter(rc, a, w, b+u, n-u, wb+u, g).fork();
+                    new Sorter(rc, a, w, b+h, q, wb+h, g).fork();;
+                    Relay bc = new Relay(new Merger(fc, a, w, b, q,
+                                                    b+q, h-q, wb, g));
+                    new Sorter(bc, a, w, b+q, h-q, wb+q, g).fork();
+                    s = new EmptyCompleter(bc);
+                    n = q;
                 }
+                DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, b, b + n - 1, w, wb, n);
+                s.tryComplete();
             }
         }
 
-        static final class Merger extends RecursiveAction {
-            static final long serialVersionUID = 1518176433845397426L;
-            final float[] a;
-            final float[] w;
-            final int lo;
-            final int ln;
-            final int ro;
-            final int rn;
-            final int wo;
-            final int gran;
-            final Merger next;
-
-            Merger(float[] a, float[] w, int lo, int ln, int ro, int rn, int wo,
-                   int gran, Merger next) {
-                this.a = a;
-                this.w = w;
-                this.lo = lo;
-                this.ln = ln;
-                this.ro = ro;
-                this.rn = rn;
-                this.wo = wo;
-                this.gran = gran;
-                this.next = next;
+        static final class Merger extends CountedCompleter<Void> {
+            static final long serialVersionUID = 2446542900576103244L;
+            final float[] a, w; // main and workspace arrays
+            final int lbase, lsize, rbase, rsize, wbase, gran;
+            Merger(CountedCompleter<?> par, float[] a, float[] w,
+                   int lbase, int lsize, int rbase,
+                   int rsize, int wbase, int gran) {
+                super(par);
+                this.a = a; this.w = w;
+                this.lbase = lbase; this.lsize = lsize;
+                this.rbase = rbase; this.rsize = rsize;
+                this.wbase = wbase; this.gran = gran;
             }
 
-            public void compute() {
-                final float[] a = this.a;
-                final float[] w = this.w;
-                Merger rights = null;
-                int nleft = ln;
-                int nright = rn;
-                while (nleft > gran) {
-                    int lh = nleft >>> 1;
-                    int splitIndex = lo + lh;
-                    float split = a[splitIndex];
-                    int rl = 0;
-                    int rh = nright;
-                    while (rl < rh) {
-                        int mid = (rl + rh) >>> 1;
-                        if (Float.compare(split, a[ro+mid]) <= 0)
-                            rh = mid;
-                        else
-                            rl = mid + 1;
+            public final void compute() {
+                float[] a = this.a, w = this.w; // localize all params
+                int lb = this.lbase, ln = this.lsize, rb = this.rbase,
+                    rn = this.rsize, k = this.wbase, g = this.gran;
+                if (a == null || w == null || lb < 0 || rb < 0 || k < 0)
+                    throw new IllegalStateException(); // hoist checks
+                for (int lh, rh;;) {  // split larger, find point in smaller
+                    if (ln >= rn) {
+                        if (ln <= g)
+                            break;
+                        rh = rn;
+                        float split = a[(lh = ln >>> 1) + lb];
+                        for (int lo = 0; lo < rh; ) {
+                            int rm = (lo + rh) >>> 1;
+                            if (split <= a[rm + rb])
+                                rh = rm;
+                            else
+                                lo = rm + 1;
+                        }
                     }
-                    (rights = new Merger(a, w, splitIndex, nleft-lh, ro+rh,
-                                         nright-rh, wo+lh+rh, gran, rights)).fork();
-                    nleft = lh;
-                    nright = rh;
+                    else {
+                        if (rn <= g)
+                            break;
+                        lh = ln;
+                        float split = a[(rh = rn >>> 1) + rb];
+                        for (int lo = 0; lo < lh; ) {
+                            int lm = (lo + lh) >>> 1;
+                            if (split <= a[lm + lb])
+                                lh = lm;
+                            else
+                                lo = lm + 1;
+                        }
+                    }
+                    Merger m = new Merger(this, a, w, lb + lh, ln - lh,
+                                          rb + rh, rn - rh,
+                                          k + lh + rh, g);
+                    rn = rh;
+                    ln = lh;
+                    addToPendingCount(1);
+                    m.fork();
                 }
 
-                int l = lo;
-                int lFence = l + nleft;
-                int r = ro;
-                int rFence = r + nright;
-                int k = wo;
-                while (l < lFence && r < rFence) {
-                    float al = a[l];
-                    float ar = a[r];
-                    float t;
-                    if (Float.compare(al, ar) <= 0) {
-                        ++l;
-                        t = al;
-                    } else {
-                        ++r;
-                        t = ar;
+                int lf = lb + ln, rf = rb + rn; // index bounds
+                while (lb < lf && rb < rf) {
+                    float t, al, ar;
+                    if ((al = a[lb]) <= (ar = a[rb])) {
+                        lb++; t = al;
+                    }
+                    else {
+                        rb++; t = ar;
                     }
                     w[k++] = t;
                 }
-                while (l < lFence)
-                    w[k++] = a[l++];
-                while (r < rFence)
-                    w[k++] = a[r++];
-                while (rights != null) {
-                    if (rights.tryUnfork())
-                        rights.compute();
-                    else
-                        rights.join();
-                    rights = rights.next;
-                }
+                if (rb < rf)
+                    System.arraycopy(a, rb, w, k, rf - rb);
+                else if (lb < lf)
+                    System.arraycopy(a, lb, w, k, lf - lb);
+                tryComplete();
             }
         }
     } // FJFloat
 
     /** double support class */
     static final class FJDouble {
-        static final class Sorter extends RecursiveAction {
+        static final class Sorter extends CountedCompleter<Void> {
             static final long serialVersionUID = 2446542900576103244L;
-            final double[] a;    // array to be sorted.
-            final double[] w;    // workspace for merge
-            final int origin;    // origin of the part of array we deal with
-            final int n;         // Number of elements in (sub)arrays.
-            final int gran;      // split control
-
-            Sorter(double[] a, double[] w, int origin, int n, int gran) {
-                this.a = a;
-                this.w = w;
-                this.origin = origin;
-                this.n = n;
-                this.gran = gran;
+            final double[] a, w;
+            final int base, size, wbase, gran;
+            Sorter(CountedCompleter<?> par, double[] a, double[] w, int base,
+                   int size, int wbase, int gran) {
+                super(par);
+                this.a = a; this.w = w; this.base = base; this.size = size;
+                this.wbase = wbase; this.gran = gran;
             }
-
-            public void compute() {
-                final int l = origin;
-                final int g = gran;
-                final int n = this.n;
-                final double[] a = this.a;
-                final double[] w = this.w;
-                if (n > g) {
-                    int h = n >>> 1; // half
-                    int q = n >>> 2; // lower quarter index
-                    int u = h + q;   // upper quarter
-                    FJSubSorter ls = new FJSubSorter(new Sorter(a, w, l, q,   g),
-                                                     new Sorter(a, w, l+q, h-q, g),
-                                                     new Merger(a, w, l,   q,
-                                                                l+q, h-q, l, g, null));
-                    FJSubSorter rs = new FJSubSorter(new Sorter(a, w, l + h, q,   g),
-                                                     new Sorter(a, w, l+u, n-u, g),
-                                                     new Merger(a, w, l+h, q,
-                                                                l+u, n-u, l+h, g, null));
-                    rs.fork();
-                    ls.compute();
-                    if (rs.tryUnfork()) rs.compute(); else rs.join();
-                    new Merger(w, a, l, h, l + h, n - h, l, g, null).compute();
-                } else {
-                    DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, l, l+n-1);   // skip rangeCheck
+            public final void compute() {
+                CountedCompleter<?> s = this;
+                double[] a = this.a, w = this.w; // localize all params
+                int b = this.base, n = this.size, wb = this.wbase, g = this.gran;
+                while (n > g) {
+                    int h = n >>> 1, q = h >>> 1, u = h + q; // quartiles
+                    Relay fc = new Relay(new Merger(s, w, a, wb, h,
+                                                    wb+h, n-h, b, g));
+                    Relay rc = new Relay(new Merger(fc, a, w, b+h, q,
+                                                    b+u, n-u, wb+h, g));
+                    new Sorter(rc, a, w, b+u, n-u, wb+u, g).fork();
+                    new Sorter(rc, a, w, b+h, q, wb+h, g).fork();;
+                    Relay bc = new Relay(new Merger(fc, a, w, b, q,
+                                                    b+q, h-q, wb, g));
+                    new Sorter(bc, a, w, b+q, h-q, wb+q, g).fork();
+                    s = new EmptyCompleter(bc);
+                    n = q;
                 }
+                DualPivotQuicksort.sort(a, b, b + n - 1, w, wb, n);
+                s.tryComplete();
             }
         }
 
-        static final class Merger extends RecursiveAction {
-            static final long serialVersionUID = 8076242187166127592L;
-            final double[] a;
-            final double[] w;
-            final int lo;
-            final int ln;
-            final int ro;
-            final int rn;
-            final int wo;
-            final int gran;
-            final Merger next;
-
-            Merger(double[] a, double[] w, int lo, int ln, int ro, int rn, int wo,
-                   int gran, Merger next) {
-                this.a = a;
-                this.w = w;
-                this.lo = lo;
-                this.ln = ln;
-                this.ro = ro;
-                this.rn = rn;
-                this.wo = wo;
-                this.gran = gran;
-                this.next = next;
+        static final class Merger extends CountedCompleter<Void> {
+            static final long serialVersionUID = 2446542900576103244L;
+            final double[] a, w; // main and workspace arrays
+            final int lbase, lsize, rbase, rsize, wbase, gran;
+            Merger(CountedCompleter<?> par, double[] a, double[] w,
+                   int lbase, int lsize, int rbase,
+                   int rsize, int wbase, int gran) {
+                super(par);
+                this.a = a; this.w = w;
+                this.lbase = lbase; this.lsize = lsize;
+                this.rbase = rbase; this.rsize = rsize;
+                this.wbase = wbase; this.gran = gran;
             }
 
-            public void compute() {
-                final double[] a = this.a;
-                final double[] w = this.w;
-                Merger rights = null;
-                int nleft = ln;
-                int nright = rn;
-                while (nleft > gran) {
-                    int lh = nleft >>> 1;
-                    int splitIndex = lo + lh;
-                    double split = a[splitIndex];
-                    int rl = 0;
-                    int rh = nright;
-                    while (rl < rh) {
-                        int mid = (rl + rh) >>> 1;
-                        if (Double.compare(split, a[ro+mid]) <= 0)
-                            rh = mid;
-                        else
-                            rl = mid + 1;
+            public final void compute() {
+                double[] a = this.a, w = this.w; // localize all params
+                int lb = this.lbase, ln = this.lsize, rb = this.rbase,
+                    rn = this.rsize, k = this.wbase, g = this.gran;
+                if (a == null || w == null || lb < 0 || rb < 0 || k < 0)
+                    throw new IllegalStateException(); // hoist checks
+                for (int lh, rh;;) {  // split larger, find point in smaller
+                    if (ln >= rn) {
+                        if (ln <= g)
+                            break;
+                        rh = rn;
+                        double split = a[(lh = ln >>> 1) + lb];
+                        for (int lo = 0; lo < rh; ) {
+                            int rm = (lo + rh) >>> 1;
+                            if (split <= a[rm + rb])
+                                rh = rm;
+                            else
+                                lo = rm + 1;
+                        }
                     }
-                    (rights = new Merger(a, w, splitIndex, nleft-lh, ro+rh,
-                                         nright-rh, wo+lh+rh, gran, rights)).fork();
-                    nleft = lh;
-                    nright = rh;
+                    else {
+                        if (rn <= g)
+                            break;
+                        lh = ln;
+                        double split = a[(rh = rn >>> 1) + rb];
+                        for (int lo = 0; lo < lh; ) {
+                            int lm = (lo + lh) >>> 1;
+                            if (split <= a[lm + lb])
+                                lh = lm;
+                            else
+                                lo = lm + 1;
+                        }
+                    }
+                    Merger m = new Merger(this, a, w, lb + lh, ln - lh,
+                                          rb + rh, rn - rh,
+                                          k + lh + rh, g);
+                    rn = rh;
+                    ln = lh;
+                    addToPendingCount(1);
+                    m.fork();
                 }
 
-                int l = lo;
-                int lFence = l + nleft;
-                int r = ro;
-                int rFence = r + nright;
-                int k = wo;
-                while (l < lFence && r < rFence) {
-                    double al = a[l];
-                    double ar = a[r];
-                    double t;
-                    if (Double.compare(al, ar) <= 0) {
-                        ++l;
-                        t = al;
-                    } else {
-                        ++r;
-                        t = ar;
+                int lf = lb + ln, rf = rb + rn; // index bounds
+                while (lb < lf && rb < rf) {
+                    double t, al, ar;
+                    if ((al = a[lb]) <= (ar = a[rb])) {
+                        lb++; t = al;
+                    }
+                    else {
+                        rb++; t = ar;
                     }
                     w[k++] = t;
                 }
-                while (l < lFence)
-                    w[k++] = a[l++];
-                while (r < rFence)
-                    w[k++] = a[r++];
-                while (rights != null) {
-                    if (rights.tryUnfork())
-                        rights.compute();
-                    else
-                        rights.join();
-                    rights = rights.next;
-                }
+                if (rb < rf)
+                    System.arraycopy(a, rb, w, k, rf - rb);
+                else if (lb < lf)
+                    System.arraycopy(a, lb, w, k, lf - lb);
+                tryComplete();
             }
         }
     } // FJDouble
 
-    /** Comparable support class */
-    static final class FJComparable {
-        static final class Sorter<T extends Comparable<? super T>> extends RecursiveAction {
-            static final long serialVersionUID = -1024003289463302522L;
-            final T[] a;
-            final T[] w;
-            final int origin;
-            final int n;
-            final int gran;
-
-            Sorter(T[] a, T[] w, int origin, int n, int gran) {
-                this.a = a;
-                this.w = w;
-                this.origin = origin;
-                this.n = n;
-                this.gran = gran;
-            }
-
-            public void compute() {
-                final int l = origin;
-                final int g = gran;
-                final int n = this.n;
-                final T[] a = this.a;
-                final T[] w = this.w;
-                if (n > g) {
-                    int h = n >>> 1;
-                    int q = n >>> 2;
-                    int u = h + q;
-                    FJSubSorter ls = new FJSubSorter(new Sorter<>(a, w, l, q,   g),
-                                                     new Sorter<>(a, w, l+q, h-q, g),
-                                                     new Merger<>(a, w, l,   q,
-                                                                  l+q, h-q, l, g, null));
-                    FJSubSorter rs = new FJSubSorter(new Sorter<>(a, w, l+h, q,   g),
-                                                     new Sorter<>(a, w, l+u, n-u, g),
-                                                     new Merger<>(a, w, l+h, q,
-                                                                  l+u, n-u, l+h, g, null));
-                    rs.fork();
-                    ls.compute();
-                    if (rs.tryUnfork()) rs.compute(); else rs.join();
-                    new Merger<>(w, a, l, h, l + h, n - h, l, g, null).compute();
-                } else {
-                    Arrays.sort(a, l, l+n);
-                }
-            }
-        }
-
-        static final class Merger<T extends Comparable<? super T>> extends RecursiveAction {
-            static final long serialVersionUID = -3989771675258379302L;
-            final T[] a;
-            final T[] w;
-            final int lo;
-            final int ln;
-            final int ro;
-            final int rn;
-            final int wo;
-            final int gran;
-            final Merger<T> next;
-
-            Merger(T[] a, T[] w, int lo, int ln, int ro, int rn, int wo,
-                   int gran, Merger<T> next) {
-                this.a = a;
-                this.w = w;
-                this.lo = lo;
-                this.ln = ln;
-                this.ro = ro;
-                this.rn = rn;
-                this.wo = wo;
-                this.gran = gran;
-                this.next = next;
-            }
-
-            public void compute() {
-                final T[] a = this.a;
-                final T[] w = this.w;
-                Merger<T> rights = null;
-                int nleft = ln;
-                int nright = rn;
-                while (nleft > gran) {
-                    int lh = nleft >>> 1;
-                    int splitIndex = lo + lh;
-                    T split = a[splitIndex];
-                    int rl = 0;
-                    int rh = nright;
-                    while (rl < rh) {
-                        int mid = (rl + rh) >>> 1;
-                        if (split.compareTo(a[ro + mid]) <= 0)
-                            rh = mid;
-                        else
-                            rl = mid + 1;
-                    }
-                    (rights = new Merger<>(a, w, splitIndex, nleft-lh, ro+rh,
-                                           nright-rh, wo+lh+rh, gran, rights)).fork();
-                    nleft = lh;
-                    nright = rh;
-                }
-
-                int l = lo;
-                int lFence = l + nleft;
-                int r = ro;
-                int rFence = r + nright;
-                int k = wo;
-                while (l < lFence && r < rFence) {
-                    T al = a[l];
-                    T ar = a[r];
-                    T t;
-                    if (al.compareTo(ar) <= 0) {++l; t=al;} else {++r; t=ar; }
-                    w[k++] = t;
-                }
-                while (l < lFence)
-                    w[k++] = a[l++];
-                while (r < rFence)
-                    w[k++] = a[r++];
-                while (rights != null) {
-                    if (rights.tryUnfork())
-                        rights.compute();
-                    else
-                        rights.join();
-                    rights = rights.next;
-                }
-            }
-        }
-    } // FJComparable
-
-    /** Object + Comparator support class */
-    static final class FJComparator {
-        static final class Sorter<T> extends RecursiveAction {
-            static final long serialVersionUID = 9191600840025808581L;
-            final T[] a;       // array to be sorted.
-            final T[] w;       // workspace for merge
-            final int origin;  // origin of the part of array we deal with
-            final int n;       // Number of elements in (sub)arrays.
-            final int gran;    // split control
-            final Comparator<? super T> cmp; // Comparator to use
-
-            Sorter(T[] a, T[] w, int origin, int n, int gran, Comparator<? super T> cmp) {
-                this.a = a;
-                this.w = w;
-                this.origin = origin;
-                this.n = n;
-                this.cmp = cmp;
-                this.gran = gran;
-            }
-
-            public void compute() {
-                final int l = origin;
-                final int g = gran;
-                final int n = this.n;
-                final T[] a = this.a;
-                final T[] w = this.w;
-                if (n > g) {
-                    int h = n >>> 1; // half
-                    int q = n >>> 2; // lower quarter index
-                    int u = h + q;   // upper quarter
-                    FJSubSorter ls = new FJSubSorter(new Sorter<>(a, w, l, q,   g, cmp),
-                                                     new Sorter<>(a, w, l+q, h-q, g, cmp),
-                                                     new Merger<>(a, w, l,   q,
-                                                                  l+q, h-q, l, g, null, cmp));
-                    FJSubSorter rs = new FJSubSorter(new Sorter<>(a, w, l + h, q,   g, cmp),
-                                                     new Sorter<>(a, w, l+u, n-u, g, cmp),
-                                                     new Merger<>(a, w, l+h, q,
-                                                                  l+u, n-u, l+h, g, null, cmp));
-                    rs.fork();
-                    ls.compute();
-                    if (rs.tryUnfork()) rs.compute(); else rs.join();
-                    new Merger<>(w, a, l, h, l + h, n - h, l, g, null, cmp).compute();
-                } else {
-                    Arrays.sort(a, l, l+n, cmp);
-                }
-            }
-        }
-
-        static final class Merger<T> extends RecursiveAction {
-            static final long serialVersionUID = -2679539040379156203L;
-            final T[] a;
-            final T[] w;
-            final int lo;
-            final int ln;
-            final int ro;
-            final int rn;
-            final int wo;
-            final int gran;
-            final Merger<T> next;
-            final Comparator<? super T> cmp;
-
-            Merger(T[] a, T[] w, int lo, int ln, int ro, int rn, int wo,
-                   int gran, Merger<T> next, Comparator<? super T> cmp) {
-                this.a = a;
-                this.w = w;
-                this.lo = lo;
-                this.ln = ln;
-                this.ro = ro;
-                this.rn = rn;
-                this.wo = wo;
-                this.gran = gran;
-                this.next = next;
-                this.cmp = cmp;
-            }
-
-            public void compute() {
-                final T[] a = this.a;
-                final T[] w = this.w;
-                Merger<T> rights = null;
-                int nleft = ln;
-                int nright = rn;
-                while (nleft > gran) {
-                    int lh = nleft >>> 1;
-                    int splitIndex = lo + lh;
-                    T split = a[splitIndex];
-                    int rl = 0;
-                    int rh = nright;
-                    while (rl < rh) {
-                        int mid = (rl + rh) >>> 1;
-                        if (cmp.compare(split, a[ro+mid]) <= 0)
-                            rh = mid;
-                        else
-                            rl = mid + 1;
-                    }
-                    (rights = new Merger<>(a, w, splitIndex, nleft-lh, ro+rh,
-                                           nright-rh, wo+lh+rh, gran, rights, cmp)).fork();
-                    nleft = lh;
-                    nright = rh;
-                }
-
-                int l = lo;
-                int lFence = l + nleft;
-                int r = ro;
-                int rFence = r + nright;
-                int k = wo;
-                while (l < lFence && r < rFence) {
-                    T al = a[l];
-                    T ar = a[r];
-                    T t;
-                    if (cmp.compare(al, ar) <= 0) {
-                        ++l;
-                        t = al;
-                    } else {
-                        ++r;
-                        t = ar;
-                    }
-                    w[k++] = t;
-                }
-                while (l < lFence)
-                    w[k++] = a[l++];
-                while (r < rFence)
-                    w[k++] = a[r++];
-                while (rights != null) {
-                    if (rights.tryUnfork())
-                        rights.compute();
-                    else
-                        rights.join();
-                    rights = rights.next;
-                }
-            }
-        }
-    } // FJComparator
-
-    /** Utility class to sort half a partitioned array */
-    private static final class FJSubSorter extends RecursiveAction {
-        static final long serialVersionUID = 9159249695527935512L;
-        final RecursiveAction left;
-        final RecursiveAction right;
-        final RecursiveAction merger;
-
-        FJSubSorter(RecursiveAction left, RecursiveAction right,
-                    RecursiveAction merger) {
-            this.left = left;
-            this.right = right;
-            this.merger = merger;
-        }
-
-        public void compute() {
-            right.fork();
-            left.invoke();
-            right.join();
-            merger.invoke();
-        }
-    }
 }
--- a/src/share/classes/java/util/ComparableTimSort.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/util/ComparableTimSort.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -86,9 +86,13 @@
     private static final int INITIAL_TMP_STORAGE_LENGTH = 256;
 
     /**
-     * Temp storage for merges.
+     * Temp storage for merges. A workspace array may optionally be
+     * provided in constructor, and if so will be used as long as it
+     * is big enough.
      */
     private Object[] tmp;
+    private int tmpBase; // base of tmp array slice
+    private int tmpLen;  // length of tmp array slice
 
     /**
      * A stack of pending runs yet to be merged.  Run i starts at
@@ -108,15 +112,27 @@
      * Creates a TimSort instance to maintain the state of an ongoing sort.
      *
      * @param a the array to be sorted
+     * @param work a workspace array (slice)
+     * @param workBase origin of usable space in work array
+     * @param workLen usable size of work array
      */
-    private ComparableTimSort(Object[] a) {
+    private ComparableTimSort(Object[] a, Object[] work, int workBase, int workLen) {
         this.a = a;
 
         // Allocate temp storage (which may be increased later if necessary)
         int len = a.length;
-        Object[] newArray = new Object[len < 2 * INITIAL_TMP_STORAGE_LENGTH ?
-                                       len >>> 1 : INITIAL_TMP_STORAGE_LENGTH];
-        tmp = newArray;
+        int tlen = (len < 2 * INITIAL_TMP_STORAGE_LENGTH) ?
+            len >>> 1 : INITIAL_TMP_STORAGE_LENGTH;
+        if (work == null || workLen < tlen || workBase + tlen > work.length) {
+            tmp = new Object[tlen];
+            tmpBase = 0;
+            tmpLen = tlen;
+        }
+        else {
+            tmp = work;
+            tmpBase = workBase;
+            tmpLen = workLen;
+        }
 
         /*
          * Allocate runs-to-be-merged stack (which cannot be expanded).  The
@@ -136,17 +152,28 @@
     }
 
     /*
-     * The next two methods (which are package private and static) constitute
-     * the entire API of this class.  Each of these methods obeys the contract
-     * of the public method with the same signature in java.util.Arrays.
+     * The next method (package private and static) constitutes the
+     * entire API of this class.
      */
 
-    static void sort(Object[] a) {
-          sort(a, 0, a.length);
-    }
+    /**
+     * Sorts the given range, using the given workspace array slice
+     * for temp storage when possible. This method is designed to be
+     * invoked from public methods (in class Arrays) after performing
+     * any necessary array bounds checks and expanding parameters into
+     * the required forms.
+     *
+     * @param a the array to be sorted
+     * @param lo the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted
+     * @param hi the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sorted
+     * @param work a workspace array (slice)
+     * @param workBase origin of usable space in work array
+     * @param workLen usable size of work array
+     * @since 1.8
+     */
+    static void sort(Object[] a, int lo, int hi, Object[] work, int workBase, int workLen) {
+        assert a != null && lo >= 0 && lo <= hi && hi <= a.length;
 
-    static void sort(Object[] a, int lo, int hi) {
-        rangeCheck(a.length, lo, hi);
         int nRemaining  = hi - lo;
         if (nRemaining < 2)
             return;  // Arrays of size 0 and 1 are always sorted
@@ -163,7 +190,7 @@
          * extending short natural runs to minRun elements, and merging runs
          * to maintain stack invariant.
          */
-        ComparableTimSort ts = new ComparableTimSort(a);
+        ComparableTimSort ts = new ComparableTimSort(a, work, workBase, workLen);
         int minRun = minRunLength(nRemaining);
         do {
             // Identify next run
@@ -619,11 +646,11 @@
         // Copy first run into temp array
         Object[] a = this.a; // For performance
         Object[] tmp = ensureCapacity(len1);
-        System.arraycopy(a, base1, tmp, 0, len1);
 
-        int cursor1 = 0;       // Indexes into tmp array
+        int cursor1 = tmpBase; // Indexes into tmp array
         int cursor2 = base2;   // Indexes int a
         int dest = base1;      // Indexes int a
+        System.arraycopy(a, base1, tmp, cursor1, len1);
 
         // Move first element of second run and deal with degenerate cases
         a[dest++] = a[cursor2++];
@@ -736,16 +763,17 @@
         // Copy second run into temp array
         Object[] a = this.a; // For performance
         Object[] tmp = ensureCapacity(len2);
-        System.arraycopy(a, base2, tmp, 0, len2);
+        int tmpBase = this.tmpBase;
+        System.arraycopy(a, base2, tmp, tmpBase, len2);
 
         int cursor1 = base1 + len1 - 1;  // Indexes into a
-        int cursor2 = len2 - 1;          // Indexes into tmp array
+        int cursor2 = tmpBase + len2 - 1; // Indexes into tmp array
         int dest = base2 + len2 - 1;     // Indexes into a
 
         // Move last element of first run and deal with degenerate cases
         a[dest--] = a[cursor1--];
         if (--len1 == 0) {
-            System.arraycopy(tmp, 0, a, dest - (len2 - 1), len2);
+            System.arraycopy(tmp, tmpBase, a, dest - (len2 - 1), len2);
             return;
         }
         if (len2 == 1) {
@@ -803,7 +831,7 @@
                 if (--len2 == 1)
                     break outer;
 
-                count2 = len2 - gallopLeft((Comparable) a[cursor1], tmp, 0, len2, len2 - 1);
+                count2 = len2 - gallopLeft((Comparable) a[cursor1], tmp, tmpBase, len2, len2 - 1);
                 if (count2 != 0) {
                     dest -= count2;
                     cursor2 -= count2;
@@ -835,7 +863,7 @@
         } else {
             assert len1 == 0;
             assert len2 > 0;
-            System.arraycopy(tmp, 0, a, dest - (len2 - 1), len2);
+            System.arraycopy(tmp, tmpBase, a, dest - (len2 - 1), len2);
         }
     }
 
@@ -848,7 +876,7 @@
      * @return tmp, whether or not it grew
      */
     private Object[]  ensureCapacity(int minCapacity) {
-        if (tmp.length < minCapacity) {
+        if (tmpLen < minCapacity) {
             // Compute smallest power of 2 > minCapacity
             int newSize = minCapacity;
             newSize |= newSize >> 1;
@@ -863,30 +891,13 @@
             else
                 newSize = Math.min(newSize, a.length >>> 1);
 
+            @SuppressWarnings({"unchecked", "UnnecessaryLocalVariable"})
             Object[] newArray = new Object[newSize];
             tmp = newArray;
+            tmpLen = newSize;
+            tmpBase = 0;
         }
         return tmp;
     }
 
-    /**
-     * Checks that fromIndex and toIndex are in range, and throws an
-     * appropriate exception if they aren't.
-     *
-     * @param arrayLen the length of the array
-     * @param fromIndex the index of the first element of the range
-     * @param toIndex the index after the last element of the range
-     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if fromIndex > toIndex
-     * @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException if fromIndex < 0
-     *         or toIndex > arrayLen
-     */
-    private static void rangeCheck(int arrayLen, int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
-        if (fromIndex > toIndex)
-            throw new IllegalArgumentException("fromIndex(" + fromIndex +
-                       ") > toIndex(" + toIndex+")");
-        if (fromIndex < 0)
-            throw new ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException(fromIndex);
-        if (toIndex > arrayLen)
-            throw new ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException(toIndex);
-    }
 }
--- a/src/share/classes/java/util/DualPivotQuicksort.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/util/DualPivotQuicksort.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -32,6 +32,11 @@
  * quicksorts to degrade to quadratic performance, and is typically
  * faster than traditional (one-pivot) Quicksort implementations.
  *
+ * All exposed methods are package-private, designed to be invoked
+ * from public methods (in class Arrays) after performing any
+ * necessary array bounds checks and expanding parameters into the
+ * required forms.
+ *
  * @author Vladimir Yaroslavskiy
  * @author Jon Bentley
  * @author Josh Bloch
@@ -89,22 +94,18 @@
      */
 
     /**
-     * Sorts the specified array.
-     *
-     * @param a the array to be sorted
-     */
-    public static void sort(int[] a) {
-        sort(a, 0, a.length - 1);
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Sorts the specified range of the array.
+     * Sorts the specified range of the array using the given
+     * workspace array slice if possible for merging
      *
      * @param a the array to be sorted
      * @param left the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted
      * @param right the index of the last element, inclusive, to be sorted
+     * @param work a workspace array (slice)
+     * @param workBase origin of usable space in work array
+     * @param workLen usable size of work array
      */
-    public static void sort(int[] a, int left, int right) {
+    static void sort(int[] a, int left, int right,
+                     int[] work, int workBase, int workLen) {
         // Use Quicksort on small arrays
         if (right - left < QUICKSORT_THRESHOLD) {
             sort(a, left, right, true);
@@ -147,24 +148,35 @@
         }
 
         // Check special cases
+        // Implementation note: variable "right" is increased by 1.
         if (run[count] == right++) { // The last run contains one element
             run[++count] = right;
         } else if (count == 1) { // The array is already sorted
             return;
         }
 
-        /*
-         * Create temporary array, which is used for merging.
-         * Implementation note: variable "right" is increased by 1.
-         */
-        int[] b; byte odd = 0;
+        // Determine alternation base for merge
+        byte odd = 0;
         for (int n = 1; (n <<= 1) < count; odd ^= 1);
 
+        // Use or create temporary array b for merging
+        int[] b;                 // temp array; alternates with a
+        int ao, bo;              // array offsets from 'left'
+        int blen = right - left; // space needed for b
+        if (work == null || workLen < blen || workBase + blen > work.length) {
+            work = new int[blen];
+            workBase = 0;
+        }
         if (odd == 0) {
-            b = a; a = new int[b.length];
-            for (int i = left - 1; ++i < right; a[i] = b[i]);
+            System.arraycopy(a, left, work, workBase, blen);
+            b = a;
+            bo = 0;
+            a = work;
+            ao = workBase - left;
         } else {
-            b = new int[a.length];
+            b = work;
+            ao = 0;
+            bo = workBase - left;
         }
 
         // Merging
@@ -172,21 +184,22 @@
             for (int k = (last = 0) + 2; k <= count; k += 2) {
                 int hi = run[k], mi = run[k - 1];
                 for (int i = run[k - 2], p = i, q = mi; i < hi; ++i) {
-                    if (q >= hi || p < mi && a[p] <= a[q]) {
-                        b[i] = a[p++];
+                    if (q >= hi || p < mi && a[p + ao] <= a[q + ao]) {
+                        b[i + bo] = a[p++ + ao];
                     } else {
-                        b[i] = a[q++];
+                        b[i + bo] = a[q++ + ao];
                     }
                 }
                 run[++last] = hi;
             }
             if ((count & 1) != 0) {
                 for (int i = right, lo = run[count - 1]; --i >= lo;
-                    b[i] = a[i]
+                    b[i + bo] = a[i + ao]
                 );
                 run[++last] = right;
             }
             int[] t = a; a = b; b = t;
+            int o = ao; ao = bo; bo = o;
         }
     }
 
@@ -529,22 +542,18 @@
     }
 
     /**
-     * Sorts the specified array.
-     *
-     * @param a the array to be sorted
-     */
-    public static void sort(long[] a) {
-        sort(a, 0, a.length - 1);
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Sorts the specified range of the array.
+     * Sorts the specified range of the array using the given
+     * workspace array slice if possible for merging
      *
      * @param a the array to be sorted
      * @param left the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted
      * @param right the index of the last element, inclusive, to be sorted
+     * @param work a workspace array (slice)
+     * @param workBase origin of usable space in work array
+     * @param workLen usable size of work array
      */
-    public static void sort(long[] a, int left, int right) {
+    static void sort(long[] a, int left, int right,
+                     long[] work, int workBase, int workLen) {
         // Use Quicksort on small arrays
         if (right - left < QUICKSORT_THRESHOLD) {
             sort(a, left, right, true);
@@ -587,24 +596,35 @@
         }
 
         // Check special cases
+        // Implementation note: variable "right" is increased by 1.
         if (run[count] == right++) { // The last run contains one element
             run[++count] = right;
         } else if (count == 1) { // The array is already sorted
             return;
         }
 
-        /*
-         * Create temporary array, which is used for merging.
-         * Implementation note: variable "right" is increased by 1.
-         */
-        long[] b; byte odd = 0;
+        // Determine alternation base for merge
+        byte odd = 0;
         for (int n = 1; (n <<= 1) < count; odd ^= 1);
 
+        // Use or create temporary array b for merging
+        long[] b;                 // temp array; alternates with a
+        int ao, bo;              // array offsets from 'left'
+        int blen = right - left; // space needed for b
+        if (work == null || workLen < blen || workBase + blen > work.length) {
+            work = new long[blen];
+            workBase = 0;
+        }
         if (odd == 0) {
-            b = a; a = new long[b.length];
-            for (int i = left - 1; ++i < right; a[i] = b[i]);
+            System.arraycopy(a, left, work, workBase, blen);
+            b = a;
+            bo = 0;
+            a = work;
+            ao = workBase - left;
         } else {
-            b = new long[a.length];
+            b = work;
+            ao = 0;
+            bo = workBase - left;
         }
 
         // Merging
@@ -612,21 +632,22 @@
             for (int k = (last = 0) + 2; k <= count; k += 2) {
                 int hi = run[k], mi = run[k - 1];
                 for (int i = run[k - 2], p = i, q = mi; i < hi; ++i) {
-                    if (q >= hi || p < mi && a[p] <= a[q]) {
-                        b[i] = a[p++];
+                    if (q >= hi || p < mi && a[p + ao] <= a[q + ao]) {
+                        b[i + bo] = a[p++ + ao];
                     } else {
-                        b[i] = a[q++];
+                        b[i + bo] = a[q++ + ao];
                     }
                 }
                 run[++last] = hi;
             }
             if ((count & 1) != 0) {
                 for (int i = right, lo = run[count - 1]; --i >= lo;
-                    b[i] = a[i]
+                    b[i + bo] = a[i + ao]
                 );
                 run[++last] = right;
             }
             long[] t = a; a = b; b = t;
+            int o = ao; ao = bo; bo = o;
         }
     }
 
@@ -969,22 +990,18 @@
     }
 
     /**
-     * Sorts the specified array.
-     *
-     * @param a the array to be sorted
-     */
-    public static void sort(short[] a) {
-        sort(a, 0, a.length - 1);
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Sorts the specified range of the array.
+     * Sorts the specified range of the array using the given
+     * workspace array slice if possible for merging
      *
      * @param a the array to be sorted
      * @param left the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted
      * @param right the index of the last element, inclusive, to be sorted
+     * @param work a workspace array (slice)
+     * @param workBase origin of usable space in work array
+     * @param workLen usable size of work array
      */
-    public static void sort(short[] a, int left, int right) {
+    static void sort(short[] a, int left, int right,
+                     short[] work, int workBase, int workLen) {
         // Use counting sort on large arrays
         if (right - left > COUNTING_SORT_THRESHOLD_FOR_SHORT_OR_CHAR) {
             int[] count = new int[NUM_SHORT_VALUES];
@@ -1002,7 +1019,7 @@
                 } while (--s > 0);
             }
         } else { // Use Dual-Pivot Quicksort on small arrays
-            doSort(a, left, right);
+            doSort(a, left, right, work, workBase, workLen);
         }
     }
 
@@ -1015,8 +1032,12 @@
      * @param a the array to be sorted
      * @param left the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted
      * @param right the index of the last element, inclusive, to be sorted
+     * @param work a workspace array (slice)
+     * @param workBase origin of usable space in work array
+     * @param workLen usable size of work array
      */
-    private static void doSort(short[] a, int left, int right) {
+    private static void doSort(short[] a, int left, int right,
+                               short[] work, int workBase, int workLen) {
         // Use Quicksort on small arrays
         if (right - left < QUICKSORT_THRESHOLD) {
             sort(a, left, right, true);
@@ -1059,24 +1080,35 @@
         }
 
         // Check special cases
+        // Implementation note: variable "right" is increased by 1.
         if (run[count] == right++) { // The last run contains one element
             run[++count] = right;
         } else if (count == 1) { // The array is already sorted
             return;
         }
 
-        /*
-         * Create temporary array, which is used for merging.
-         * Implementation note: variable "right" is increased by 1.
-         */
-        short[] b; byte odd = 0;
+        // Determine alternation base for merge
+        byte odd = 0;
         for (int n = 1; (n <<= 1) < count; odd ^= 1);
 
+        // Use or create temporary array b for merging
+        short[] b;                 // temp array; alternates with a
+        int ao, bo;              // array offsets from 'left'
+        int blen = right - left; // space needed for b
+        if (work == null || workLen < blen || workBase + blen > work.length) {
+            work = new short[blen];
+            workBase = 0;
+        }
         if (odd == 0) {
-            b = a; a = new short[b.length];
-            for (int i = left - 1; ++i < right; a[i] = b[i]);
+            System.arraycopy(a, left, work, workBase, blen);
+            b = a;
+            bo = 0;
+            a = work;
+            ao = workBase - left;
         } else {
-            b = new short[a.length];
+            b = work;
+            ao = 0;
+            bo = workBase - left;
         }
 
         // Merging
@@ -1084,21 +1116,22 @@
             for (int k = (last = 0) + 2; k <= count; k += 2) {
                 int hi = run[k], mi = run[k - 1];
                 for (int i = run[k - 2], p = i, q = mi; i < hi; ++i) {
-                    if (q >= hi || p < mi && a[p] <= a[q]) {
-                        b[i] = a[p++];
+                    if (q >= hi || p < mi && a[p + ao] <= a[q + ao]) {
+                        b[i + bo] = a[p++ + ao];
                     } else {
-                        b[i] = a[q++];
+                        b[i + bo] = a[q++ + ao];
                     }
                 }
                 run[++last] = hi;
             }
             if ((count & 1) != 0) {
                 for (int i = right, lo = run[count - 1]; --i >= lo;
-                    b[i] = a[i]
+                    b[i + bo] = a[i + ao]
                 );
                 run[++last] = right;
             }
             short[] t = a; a = b; b = t;
+            int o = ao; ao = bo; bo = o;
         }
     }
 
@@ -1441,22 +1474,18 @@
     }
 
     /**
-     * Sorts the specified array.
-     *
-     * @param a the array to be sorted
-     */
-    public static void sort(char[] a) {
-        sort(a, 0, a.length - 1);
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Sorts the specified range of the array.
+     * Sorts the specified range of the array using the given
+     * workspace array slice if possible for merging
      *
      * @param a the array to be sorted
      * @param left the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted
      * @param right the index of the last element, inclusive, to be sorted
+     * @param work a workspace array (slice)
+     * @param workBase origin of usable space in work array
+     * @param workLen usable size of work array
      */
-    public static void sort(char[] a, int left, int right) {
+    static void sort(char[] a, int left, int right,
+                     char[] work, int workBase, int workLen) {
         // Use counting sort on large arrays
         if (right - left > COUNTING_SORT_THRESHOLD_FOR_SHORT_OR_CHAR) {
             int[] count = new int[NUM_CHAR_VALUES];
@@ -1474,7 +1503,7 @@
                 } while (--s > 0);
             }
         } else { // Use Dual-Pivot Quicksort on small arrays
-            doSort(a, left, right);
+            doSort(a, left, right, work, workBase, workLen);
         }
     }
 
@@ -1487,8 +1516,12 @@
      * @param a the array to be sorted
      * @param left the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted
      * @param right the index of the last element, inclusive, to be sorted
+     * @param work a workspace array (slice)
+     * @param workBase origin of usable space in work array
+     * @param workLen usable size of work array
      */
-    private static void doSort(char[] a, int left, int right) {
+    private static void doSort(char[] a, int left, int right,
+                               char[] work, int workBase, int workLen) {
         // Use Quicksort on small arrays
         if (right - left < QUICKSORT_THRESHOLD) {
             sort(a, left, right, true);
@@ -1531,24 +1564,35 @@
         }
 
         // Check special cases
+        // Implementation note: variable "right" is increased by 1.
         if (run[count] == right++) { // The last run contains one element
             run[++count] = right;
         } else if (count == 1) { // The array is already sorted
             return;
         }
 
-        /*
-         * Create temporary array, which is used for merging.
-         * Implementation note: variable "right" is increased by 1.
-         */
-        char[] b; byte odd = 0;
+        // Determine alternation base for merge
+        byte odd = 0;
         for (int n = 1; (n <<= 1) < count; odd ^= 1);
 
+        // Use or create temporary array b for merging
+        char[] b;                 // temp array; alternates with a
+        int ao, bo;              // array offsets from 'left'
+        int blen = right - left; // space needed for b
+        if (work == null || workLen < blen || workBase + blen > work.length) {
+            work = new char[blen];
+            workBase = 0;
+        }
         if (odd == 0) {
-            b = a; a = new char[b.length];
-            for (int i = left - 1; ++i < right; a[i] = b[i]);
+            System.arraycopy(a, left, work, workBase, blen);
+            b = a;
+            bo = 0;
+            a = work;
+            ao = workBase - left;
         } else {
-            b = new char[a.length];
+            b = work;
+            ao = 0;
+            bo = workBase - left;
         }
 
         // Merging
@@ -1556,21 +1600,22 @@
             for (int k = (last = 0) + 2; k <= count; k += 2) {
                 int hi = run[k], mi = run[k - 1];
                 for (int i = run[k - 2], p = i, q = mi; i < hi; ++i) {
-                    if (q >= hi || p < mi && a[p] <= a[q]) {
-                        b[i] = a[p++];
+                    if (q >= hi || p < mi && a[p + ao] <= a[q + ao]) {
+                        b[i + bo] = a[p++ + ao];
                     } else {
-                        b[i] = a[q++];
+                        b[i + bo] = a[q++ + ao];
                     }
                 }
                 run[++last] = hi;
             }
             if ((count & 1) != 0) {
                 for (int i = right, lo = run[count - 1]; --i >= lo;
-                    b[i] = a[i]
+                    b[i + bo] = a[i + ao]
                 );
                 run[++last] = right;
             }
             char[] t = a; a = b; b = t;
+            int o = ao; ao = bo; bo = o;
         }
     }
 
@@ -1916,22 +1961,13 @@
     private static final int NUM_BYTE_VALUES = 1 << 8;
 
     /**
-     * Sorts the specified array.
-     *
-     * @param a the array to be sorted
-     */
-    public static void sort(byte[] a) {
-        sort(a, 0, a.length - 1);
-    }
-
-    /**
      * Sorts the specified range of the array.
      *
      * @param a the array to be sorted
      * @param left the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted
      * @param right the index of the last element, inclusive, to be sorted
      */
-    public static void sort(byte[] a, int left, int right) {
+    static void sort(byte[] a, int left, int right) {
         // Use counting sort on large arrays
         if (right - left > COUNTING_SORT_THRESHOLD_FOR_BYTE) {
             int[] count = new int[NUM_BYTE_VALUES];
@@ -1963,22 +1999,18 @@
     }
 
     /**
-     * Sorts the specified array.
-     *
-     * @param a the array to be sorted
-     */
-    public static void sort(float[] a) {
-        sort(a, 0, a.length - 1);
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Sorts the specified range of the array.
+     * Sorts the specified range of the array using the given
+     * workspace array slice if possible for merging
      *
      * @param a the array to be sorted
      * @param left the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted
      * @param right the index of the last element, inclusive, to be sorted
+     * @param work a workspace array (slice)
+     * @param workBase origin of usable space in work array
+     * @param workLen usable size of work array
      */
-    public static void sort(float[] a, int left, int right) {
+    static void sort(float[] a, int left, int right,
+                     float[] work, int workBase, int workLen) {
         /*
          * Phase 1: Move NaNs to the end of the array.
          */
@@ -1997,7 +2029,7 @@
         /*
          * Phase 2: Sort everything except NaNs (which are already in place).
          */
-        doSort(a, left, right);
+        doSort(a, left, right, work, workBase, workLen);
 
         /*
          * Phase 3: Place negative zeros before positive zeros.
@@ -2064,8 +2096,12 @@
      * @param a the array to be sorted
      * @param left the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted
      * @param right the index of the last element, inclusive, to be sorted
+     * @param work a workspace array (slice)
+     * @param workBase origin of usable space in work array
+     * @param workLen usable size of work array
      */
-    private static void doSort(float[] a, int left, int right) {
+    private static void doSort(float[] a, int left, int right,
+                               float[] work, int workBase, int workLen) {
         // Use Quicksort on small arrays
         if (right - left < QUICKSORT_THRESHOLD) {
             sort(a, left, right, true);
@@ -2108,24 +2144,35 @@
         }
 
         // Check special cases
+        // Implementation note: variable "right" is increased by 1.
         if (run[count] == right++) { // The last run contains one element
             run[++count] = right;
         } else if (count == 1) { // The array is already sorted
             return;
         }
 
-        /*
-         * Create temporary array, which is used for merging.
-         * Implementation note: variable "right" is increased by 1.
-         */
-        float[] b; byte odd = 0;
+        // Determine alternation base for merge
+        byte odd = 0;
         for (int n = 1; (n <<= 1) < count; odd ^= 1);
 
+        // Use or create temporary array b for merging
+        float[] b;                 // temp array; alternates with a
+        int ao, bo;              // array offsets from 'left'
+        int blen = right - left; // space needed for b
+        if (work == null || workLen < blen || workBase + blen > work.length) {
+            work = new float[blen];
+            workBase = 0;
+        }
         if (odd == 0) {
-            b = a; a = new float[b.length];
-            for (int i = left - 1; ++i < right; a[i] = b[i]);
+            System.arraycopy(a, left, work, workBase, blen);
+            b = a;
+            bo = 0;
+            a = work;
+            ao = workBase - left;
         } else {
-            b = new float[a.length];
+            b = work;
+            ao = 0;
+            bo = workBase - left;
         }
 
         // Merging
@@ -2133,21 +2180,22 @@
             for (int k = (last = 0) + 2; k <= count; k += 2) {
                 int hi = run[k], mi = run[k - 1];
                 for (int i = run[k - 2], p = i, q = mi; i < hi; ++i) {
-                    if (q >= hi || p < mi && a[p] <= a[q]) {
-                        b[i] = a[p++];
+                    if (q >= hi || p < mi && a[p + ao] <= a[q + ao]) {
+                        b[i + bo] = a[p++ + ao];
                     } else {
-                        b[i] = a[q++];
+                        b[i + bo] = a[q++ + ao];
                     }
                 }
                 run[++last] = hi;
             }
             if ((count & 1) != 0) {
                 for (int i = right, lo = run[count - 1]; --i >= lo;
-                    b[i] = a[i]
+                    b[i + bo] = a[i + ao]
                 );
                 run[++last] = right;
             }
             float[] t = a; a = b; b = t;
+            int o = ao; ao = bo; bo = o;
         }
     }
 
@@ -2490,22 +2538,18 @@
     }
 
     /**
-     * Sorts the specified array.
-     *
-     * @param a the array to be sorted
-     */
-    public static void sort(double[] a) {
-        sort(a, 0, a.length - 1);
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Sorts the specified range of the array.
+     * Sorts the specified range of the array using the given
+     * workspace array slice if possible for merging
      *
      * @param a the array to be sorted
      * @param left the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted
      * @param right the index of the last element, inclusive, to be sorted
+     * @param work a workspace array (slice)
+     * @param workBase origin of usable space in work array
+     * @param workLen usable size of work array
      */
-    public static void sort(double[] a, int left, int right) {
+    static void sort(double[] a, int left, int right,
+                     double[] work, int workBase, int workLen) {
         /*
          * Phase 1: Move NaNs to the end of the array.
          */
@@ -2524,7 +2568,7 @@
         /*
          * Phase 2: Sort everything except NaNs (which are already in place).
          */
-        doSort(a, left, right);
+        doSort(a, left, right, work, workBase, workLen);
 
         /*
          * Phase 3: Place negative zeros before positive zeros.
@@ -2591,8 +2635,12 @@
      * @param a the array to be sorted
      * @param left the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted
      * @param right the index of the last element, inclusive, to be sorted
+     * @param work a workspace array (slice)
+     * @param workBase origin of usable space in work array
+     * @param workLen usable size of work array
      */
-    private static void doSort(double[] a, int left, int right) {
+    private static void doSort(double[] a, int left, int right,
+                               double[] work, int workBase, int workLen) {
         // Use Quicksort on small arrays
         if (right - left < QUICKSORT_THRESHOLD) {
             sort(a, left, right, true);
@@ -2635,24 +2683,35 @@
         }
 
         // Check special cases
+        // Implementation note: variable "right" is increased by 1.
         if (run[count] == right++) { // The last run contains one element
             run[++count] = right;
         } else if (count == 1) { // The array is already sorted
             return;
         }
 
-        /*
-         * Create temporary array, which is used for merging.
-         * Implementation note: variable "right" is increased by 1.
-         */
-        double[] b; byte odd = 0;
+        // Determine alternation base for merge
+        byte odd = 0;
         for (int n = 1; (n <<= 1) < count; odd ^= 1);
 
+        // Use or create temporary array b for merging
+        double[] b;                 // temp array; alternates with a
+        int ao, bo;              // array offsets from 'left'
+        int blen = right - left; // space needed for b
+        if (work == null || workLen < blen || workBase + blen > work.length) {
+            work = new double[blen];
+            workBase = 0;
+        }
         if (odd == 0) {
-            b = a; a = new double[b.length];
-            for (int i = left - 1; ++i < right; a[i] = b[i]);
+            System.arraycopy(a, left, work, workBase, blen);
+            b = a;
+            bo = 0;
+            a = work;
+            ao = workBase - left;
         } else {
-            b = new double[a.length];
+            b = work;
+            ao = 0;
+            bo = workBase - left;
         }
 
         // Merging
@@ -2660,21 +2719,22 @@
             for (int k = (last = 0) + 2; k <= count; k += 2) {
                 int hi = run[k], mi = run[k - 1];
                 for (int i = run[k - 2], p = i, q = mi; i < hi; ++i) {
-                    if (q >= hi || p < mi && a[p] <= a[q]) {
-                        b[i] = a[p++];
+                    if (q >= hi || p < mi && a[p + ao] <= a[q + ao]) {
+                        b[i + bo] = a[p++ + ao];
                     } else {
-                        b[i] = a[q++];
+                        b[i + bo] = a[q++ + ao];
                     }
                 }
                 run[++last] = hi;
             }
             if ((count & 1) != 0) {
                 for (int i = right, lo = run[count - 1]; --i >= lo;
-                    b[i] = a[i]
+                    b[i + bo] = a[i + ao]
                 );
                 run[++last] = right;
             }
             double[] t = a; a = b; b = t;
+            int o = ao; ao = bo; bo = o;
         }
     }
 
--- a/src/share/classes/java/util/Formatter.java	Fri May 31 10:34:25 2013 +0100
+++ b/src/share/classes/java/util/Formatter.java	Mon Jun 10 10:38:33 2013 +0100
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 2003, 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 2003, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -2807,10 +2807,10 @@
                 cal = Calendar.getInstance(l == null ? Locale.US : l);
                 cal.setTime((Date)arg);
             } else if (arg instanceof Calendar) {
-                cal = (Calendar) ((Calendar)arg).clone();
+                cal = (Calendar) ((Calendar) arg).clone();
                 cal.setLenient(true);
             } else if (arg instanceof TemporalAccessor) {
-                print((TemporalAccessor)arg, c, l);
+                print((TemporalAccessor) arg, c, l);
                 return;
             } else {
                 failConversion(c, arg);
@@ -3242,13 +3242,10 @@
                 int prec = (precision == -1 ? 6 : precision);
 
                 FormattedFloatingDecimal fd
-                    = new FormattedFloatingDecimal(value, prec,
-                        FormattedFloatingDecimal.Form.SCIENTIFIC);
-
-                char[] v = new char[MAX_FD_CHARS];