changeset 57445:99d2dd7b84a8

8212970: TZ database in "vanguard" format support Reviewed-by: rriggs, joehw, erikj, scolebourne
author naoto
date Fri, 26 Jul 2019 08:56:28 -0700
parents db740ced41c4
children 550a1a6ca596
files make/CompileToolsJdk.gmk make/CopyInterimTZDB.gmk make/Main.gmk make/data/tzdata/africa make/data/tzdata/asia make/data/tzdata/europe make/jdk/src/classes/build/tools/tzdb/TzdbZoneRulesCompiler.java make/jdk/src/classes/build/tools/tzdb/TzdbZoneRulesProvider.java make/jdk/src/classes/build/tools/tzdb/ZoneRules.java src/java.base/share/classes/java/time/zone/Ser.java src/java.base/share/classes/java/time/zone/ZoneOffsetTransitionRule.java src/java.base/share/classes/sun/util/calendar/ZoneInfo.java test/jdk/java/time/test/java/time/zone/TestZoneRules.java test/jdk/java/util/TimeZone/NegativeDSTTest.java test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/TestZoneInfo310.java test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata/VERSION test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata/africa test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata/antarctica test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata/asia test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata/australasia test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata/backward test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata/etcetera test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata/europe test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata/factory test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata/gmt test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata/iso3166.tab test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata/jdk11_backward test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata/leapseconds test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata/northamerica test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata/pacificnew test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata/solar87 test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata/solar88 test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata/solar89 test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata/southamerica test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata/systemv test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata/zone.tab test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata_jdk/gmt test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata_jdk/jdk11_full_backward
diffstat 38 files changed, 478 insertions(+), 20110 deletions(-) [+]
line wrap: on
line diff
--- a/make/CompileToolsJdk.gmk	Tue Jul 23 15:33:52 2019 -0400
+++ b/make/CompileToolsJdk.gmk	Fri Jul 26 08:56:28 2019 -0700
@@ -41,6 +41,7 @@
 BUILD_TOOLS_SRC_DIRS += \
     $(TOPDIR)/make/jdk/src/classes \
     $(BUILDTOOLS_OUTPUTDIR)/interim_cldrconverter_classes \
+    $(BUILDTOOLS_OUTPUTDIR)/interim_tzdb_classes \
     #
 
 $(eval $(call SetupJavaCompilation,BUILD_TOOLS_JDK, \
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/make/CopyInterimTZDB.gmk	Fri Jul 26 08:56:28 2019 -0700
@@ -0,0 +1,50 @@
+#
+# Copyright (c) 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+# DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+#
+# This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+# under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+# published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
+# particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
+# by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
+#
+# This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+# ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+# FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
+# version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+# accompanied this code).
+#
+# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+# 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+# Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+#
+# Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
+# or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
+# questions.
+#
+
+default: all
+
+include $(SPEC)
+include MakeBase.gmk
+
+##########################################################################################
+
+### TZDB tool needs files from java.time.zone package
+
+define tzdb_copyfiles
+	$(call MakeTargetDir)
+	$(RM) '$@'
+	$(SED) -e "s/package java.time.zone/package build.tools.tzdb/" \
+        < $(<) > $@
+endef
+
+$(eval $(call SetupCopyFiles,COPY_INTERIM_TZDB, \
+    SRC := $(TOPDIR)/src/java.base/share/classes/java/time/zone, \
+    DEST := $(BUILDTOOLS_OUTPUTDIR)/interim_tzdb_classes/build/tools/tzdb, \
+    FILES := ZoneRules.java ZoneOffsetTransition.java ZoneOffsetTransitionRule.java Ser.java, \
+    MACRO := tzdb_copyfiles))
+
+##########################################################################################
+
+all: $(COPY_INTERIM_TZDB)
--- a/make/Main.gmk	Tue Jul 23 15:33:52 2019 -0400
+++ b/make/Main.gmk	Fri Jul 26 08:56:28 2019 -0700
@@ -77,6 +77,10 @@
 
 interim-cldrconverter:
 	+($(CD) $(TOPDIR)/make && $(MAKE) $(MAKE_ARGS) -f CopyInterimCLDRConverter.gmk)
+ 
+interim-tzdb:
+	+($(CD) $(TOPDIR)/make && $(MAKE) $(MAKE_ARGS) -f CopyInterimTZDB.gmk)
+
 
 buildtools-jdk:
 	+($(CD) $(TOPDIR)/make && $(MAKE) $(MAKE_ARGS) -f CompileToolsJdk.gmk)
@@ -88,7 +92,7 @@
 	+($(CD) $(TOPDIR)/make && $(MAKE) $(MAKE_ARGS) -f CompileToolsHotspot.gmk)
 
 ALL_TARGETS += buildtools-langtools interim-langtools \
-    interim-rmic interim-cldrconverter buildtools-jdk buildtools-modules \
+    interim-rmic interim-cldrconverter interim-tzdb buildtools-jdk buildtools-modules \
     buildtools-hotspot
 
 ################################################################################
@@ -648,7 +652,7 @@
 
   interim-langtools: $(INTERIM_LANGTOOLS_GENSRC_TARGETS)
 
-  buildtools-jdk: interim-langtools interim-cldrconverter
+  buildtools-jdk: interim-langtools interim-cldrconverter interim-tzdb
 
   buildtools-hotspot: interim-langtools
 
--- a/make/data/tzdata/africa	Tue Jul 23 15:33:52 2019 -0400
+++ b/make/data/tzdata/africa	Fri Jul 26 08:56:28 2019 -0700
@@ -941,7 +941,7 @@
 Rule	Morocco	2012	only	-	Sep	30	 3:00	0	-
 Rule	Morocco	2013	only	-	Jul	 7	 3:00	0	-
 Rule	Morocco	2013	only	-	Aug	10	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2013	2017	-	Oct	lastSun	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2013	2018	-	Oct	lastSun	 3:00	0	-
 Rule	Morocco	2014	2018	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00	1:00	-
 Rule	Morocco	2014	only	-	Jun	28	 3:00	0	-
 Rule	Morocco	2014	only	-	Aug	 2	 2:00	1:00	-
@@ -953,53 +953,53 @@
 Rule	Morocco	2017	only	-	Jul	 2	 2:00	1:00	-
 Rule	Morocco	2018	only	-	May	13	 3:00	0	-
 Rule	Morocco	2018	only	-	Jun	17	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2019	only	-	May	 5	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2019	only	-	Jun	 9	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2020	only	-	Apr	19	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2020	only	-	May	24	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2021	only	-	Apr	11	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2021	only	-	May	16	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2022	only	-	Mar	27	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2022	only	-	May	 8	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2023	only	-	Mar	19	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2023	only	-	Apr	23	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2024	only	-	Mar	10	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2024	only	-	Apr	14	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2025	only	-	Feb	23	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2025	only	-	Apr	 6	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2026	only	-	Feb	15	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2026	only	-	Mar	22	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2027	only	-	Feb	 7	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2027	only	-	Mar	14	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2028	only	-	Jan	23	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2028	only	-	Feb	27	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2029	only	-	Jan	14	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2029	only	-	Feb	18	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2029	only	-	Dec	30	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2030	only	-	Feb	10	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2030	only	-	Dec	22	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2031	only	-	Jan	26	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2031	only	-	Dec	14	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2032	only	-	Jan	18	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2032	only	-	Nov	28	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2033	only	-	Jan	 9	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2033	only	-	Nov	20	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2033	only	-	Dec	25	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2034	only	-	Nov	 5	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2034	only	-	Dec	17	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2035	only	-	Oct	28	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2035	only	-	Dec	 2	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2036	only	-	Oct	19	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2036	only	-	Nov	23	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2037	only	-	Oct	 4	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2037	only	-	Nov	15	 2:00	1:00	-
+Rule	Morocco	2019	only	-	May	 5	 3:00	-1:00	-
+Rule	Morocco	2019	only	-	Jun	 9	 2:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2020	only	-	Apr	19	 3:00	-1:00	-
+Rule	Morocco	2020	only	-	May	24	 2:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2021	only	-	Apr	11	 3:00	-1:00	-
+Rule	Morocco	2021	only	-	May	16	 2:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2022	only	-	Mar	27	 3:00	-1:00	-
+Rule	Morocco	2022	only	-	May	 8	 2:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2023	only	-	Mar	19	 3:00	-1:00	-
+Rule	Morocco	2023	only	-	Apr	23	 2:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2024	only	-	Mar	10	 3:00	-1:00	-
+Rule	Morocco	2024	only	-	Apr	14	 2:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2025	only	-	Feb	23	 3:00	-1:00	-
+Rule	Morocco	2025	only	-	Apr	 6	 2:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2026	only	-	Feb	15	 3:00	-1:00	-
+Rule	Morocco	2026	only	-	Mar	22	 2:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2027	only	-	Feb	 7	 3:00	-1:00	-
+Rule	Morocco	2027	only	-	Mar	14	 2:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2028	only	-	Jan	23	 3:00	-1:00	-
+Rule	Morocco	2028	only	-	Feb	27	 2:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2029	only	-	Jan	14	 3:00	-1:00	-
+Rule	Morocco	2029	only	-	Feb	18	 2:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2029	only	-	Dec	30	 3:00	-1:00	-
+Rule	Morocco	2030	only	-	Feb	10	 2:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2030	only	-	Dec	22	 3:00	-1:00	-
+Rule	Morocco	2031	only	-	Jan	26	 2:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2031	only	-	Dec	14	 3:00	-1:00	-
+Rule	Morocco	2032	only	-	Jan	18	 2:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2032	only	-	Nov	28	 3:00	-1:00	-
+Rule	Morocco	2033	only	-	Jan	 9	 2:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2033	only	-	Nov	20	 3:00	-1:00	-
+Rule	Morocco	2033	only	-	Dec	25	 2:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2034	only	-	Nov	 5	 3:00	-1:00	-
+Rule	Morocco	2034	only	-	Dec	17	 2:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2035	only	-	Oct	28	 3:00	-1:00	-
+Rule	Morocco	2035	only	-	Dec	 2	 2:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2036	only	-	Oct	19	 3:00	-1:00	-
+Rule	Morocco	2036	only	-	Nov	23	 2:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2037	only	-	Oct	 4	 3:00	-1:00	-
+Rule	Morocco	2037	only	-	Nov	15	 2:00	0	-
 
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone Africa/Casablanca	-0:30:20 -	LMT	1913 Oct 26
 			 0:00	Morocco	+00/+01	1984 Mar 16
 			 1:00	-	+01	1986
 			 0:00	Morocco	+00/+01	2018 Oct 28  3:00
-			 0:00	Morocco	+00/+01
+			 1:00	Morocco	+01/+00
 
 # Western Sahara
 #
@@ -1015,7 +1015,7 @@
 Zone Africa/El_Aaiun	-0:52:48 -	LMT	1934 Jan # El Aaiún
 			-1:00	-	-01	1976 Apr 14
 			 0:00	Morocco	+00/+01	2018 Oct 28  3:00
-			 0:00	Morocco	+00/+01
+			 1:00	Morocco	+01/+00
 
 # Mozambique
 #
@@ -1087,13 +1087,13 @@
 
 # RULE	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
 # Vanguard section, for zic and other parsers that support negative DST.
-#Rule	Namibia	1994	only	-	Mar	21	0:00	-1:00	WAT
-#Rule	Namibia	1994	2017	-	Sep	Sun>=1	2:00	0	CAT
-#Rule	Namibia	1995	2017	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	-1:00	WAT
+Rule	Namibia	1994	only	-	Mar	21	0:00	-1:00	WAT
+Rule	Namibia	1994	2017	-	Sep	Sun>=1	2:00	0	CAT
+Rule	Namibia	1995	2017	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	-1:00	WAT
 # Rearguard section, for parsers that do not support negative DST.
-Rule	Namibia	1994	only	-	Mar	21	0:00	0	WAT
-Rule	Namibia	1994	2017	-	Sep	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	CAT
-Rule	Namibia	1995	2017	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	0	WAT
+#Rule	Namibia	1994	only	-	Mar	21	0:00	0	WAT
+#Rule	Namibia	1994	2017	-	Sep	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	CAT
+#Rule	Namibia	1995	2017	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	0	WAT
 # End of rearguard section.
 
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
@@ -1103,14 +1103,14 @@
 			2:00	1:00	SAST	1943 Mar 21  2:00
 			2:00	-	SAST	1990 Mar 21 # independence
 # Vanguard section, for zic and other parsers that support negative DST.
-#			2:00	Namibia	%s
+			2:00	Namibia	%s
 # Rearguard section, for parsers that do not support negative DST.
-			2:00	-	CAT	1994 Mar 21  0:00
+#			2:00	-	CAT	1994 Mar 21  0:00
 # From Paul Eggert (2017-04-07):
 # The official date of the 2017 rule change was 2017-10-24.  See:
 # http://www.lac.org.na/laws/annoSTAT/Namibian%20Time%20Act%209%20of%202017.pdf
-			1:00	Namibia	%s	2017 Oct 24
-			2:00	-	CAT
+#			1:00	Namibia	%s	2017 Oct 24
+#			2:00	-	CAT
 # End of rearguard section.
 
 # Niger
--- a/make/data/tzdata/asia	Tue Jul 23 15:33:52 2019 -0400
+++ b/make/data/tzdata/asia	Fri Jul 26 08:56:28 2019 -0700
@@ -1881,7 +1881,7 @@
 
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
 Rule	Japan	1948	only	-	May	Sat>=1	24:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Japan	1948	1951	-	Sep	Sun>=9	 1:00	0	S
+Rule	Japan	1948	1951	-	Sep	Sat>=8	25:00	0	S
 Rule	Japan	1949	only	-	Apr	Sat>=1	24:00	1:00	D
 Rule	Japan	1950	1951	-	May	Sat>=1	24:00	1:00	D
 
--- a/make/data/tzdata/europe	Tue Jul 23 15:33:52 2019 -0400
+++ b/make/data/tzdata/europe	Fri Jul 26 08:56:28 2019 -0700
@@ -553,13 +553,13 @@
 # summer and negative daylight saving time in winter.  It is for when
 # negative SAVE values are used.
 # Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-#Rule	Eire	1971	only	-	Oct	31	 2:00u	-1:00	-
-#Rule	Eire	1972	1980	-	Mar	Sun>=16	 2:00u	0	-
-#Rule	Eire	1972	1980	-	Oct	Sun>=23	 2:00u	-1:00	-
-#Rule	Eire	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 1:00u	0	-
-#Rule	Eire	1981	1989	-	Oct	Sun>=23	 1:00u	-1:00	-
-#Rule	Eire	1990	1995	-	Oct	Sun>=22	 1:00u	-1:00	-
-#Rule	Eire	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 1:00u	-1:00	-
+Rule	Eire	1971	only	-	Oct	31	 2:00u	-1:00	-
+Rule	Eire	1972	1980	-	Mar	Sun>=16	 2:00u	0	-
+Rule	Eire	1972	1980	-	Oct	Sun>=23	 2:00u	-1:00	-
+Rule	Eire	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 1:00u	0	-
+Rule	Eire	1981	1989	-	Oct	Sun>=23	 1:00u	-1:00	-
+Rule	Eire	1990	1995	-	Oct	Sun>=22	 1:00u	-1:00	-
+Rule	Eire	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 1:00u	-1:00	-
 
 # Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
 Zone	Europe/Dublin	-0:25:00 -	LMT	1880 Aug  2
@@ -573,11 +573,11 @@
 			 0:00	-	GMT	1948 Apr 18  2:00s
 			 0:00	GB-Eire	GMT/IST	1968 Oct 27
 # The next line is for when negative SAVE values are used.
-#			 1:00	Eire	IST/GMT
+			 1:00	Eire	IST/GMT
 # These three lines are for when SAVE values are always nonnegative.
-			 1:00	-	IST	1971 Oct 31  2:00u
-			 0:00	GB-Eire	GMT/IST	1996
-			 0:00	EU	GMT/IST
+#			 1:00	-	IST	1971 Oct 31  2:00u
+#			 0:00	GB-Eire	GMT/IST	1996
+#			 0:00	EU	GMT/IST
 
 
 ###############################################################################
@@ -1015,9 +1015,9 @@
 			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 May  9
 			1:00	Czech	CE%sT	1946 Dec  1  3:00
 # Vanguard section, for zic and other parsers that support negative DST.
-#			1:00	-1:00	GMT	1947 Feb 23  2:00
+			1:00	-1:00	GMT	1947 Feb 23  2:00
 # Rearguard section, for parsers that do not support negative DST.
-			0:00	-	GMT	1947 Feb 23  2:00
+#			0:00	-	GMT	1947 Feb 23  2:00
 # End of rearguard section.
 			1:00	Czech	CE%sT	1979
 			1:00	EU	CE%sT
--- a/make/jdk/src/classes/build/tools/tzdb/TzdbZoneRulesCompiler.java	Tue Jul 23 15:33:52 2019 -0400
+++ b/make/jdk/src/classes/build/tools/tzdb/TzdbZoneRulesCompiler.java	Fri Jul 26 08:56:28 2019 -0700
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 2012, 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 2012, 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -264,7 +264,7 @@
             for (ZoneRules rules : rulesList) {
                 baos.reset();
                 DataOutputStream dataos = new DataOutputStream(baos);
-                rules.writeExternal(dataos);
+                Ser.write(rules, dataos);
                 dataos.close();
                 byte[] bytes = baos.toByteArray();
                 out.writeShort(bytes.length);
--- a/make/jdk/src/classes/build/tools/tzdb/TzdbZoneRulesProvider.java	Tue Jul 23 15:33:52 2019 -0400
+++ b/make/jdk/src/classes/build/tools/tzdb/TzdbZoneRulesProvider.java	Fri Jul 26 08:56:28 2019 -0700
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 2014, 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 2014, 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -31,24 +31,14 @@
 import java.nio.file.Files;
 import java.nio.file.Path;
 import java.nio.file.Paths;
-import java.util.ArrayList;
-import java.util.Collections;
-import java.util.List;
-import java.util.Map;
+import java.util.*;
 import java.util.Map.Entry;
-import java.util.NavigableMap;
-import java.util.Objects;
-import java.util.Set;
-import java.util.TreeMap;
-import java.util.TreeSet;
 import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentSkipListMap;
 import java.time.*;
 import java.time.Year;
 import java.time.chrono.IsoChronology;
 import java.time.temporal.TemporalAdjusters;
-import java.time.zone.ZoneOffsetTransition;
-import java.time.zone.ZoneOffsetTransitionRule;
-import java.time.zone.ZoneOffsetTransitionRule.TimeDefinition;
+import build.tools.tzdb.ZoneOffsetTransitionRule.TimeDefinition;
 import java.time.zone.ZoneRulesException;
 
 /**
@@ -272,8 +262,8 @@
 
         /** Whether this is midnight end of day. */
         boolean endOfDay;
-        /** The time of the cutover. */
 
+        /** The time definition of the cutover. */
         TimeDefinition timeDefinition = TimeDefinition.WALL;
 
         void adjustToForwards(int year) {
@@ -343,6 +333,20 @@
                         // time must be midnight when end of day flag is true
                         endOfDay = true;
                         secsOfDay = 0;
+                    } else if (secsOfDay < 0 || secsOfDay > 86400) {
+                        // beyond 0:00-24:00 range. Adjust the cutover date.
+                        int beyondDays = secsOfDay / 86400;
+                        secsOfDay %= 86400;
+                        if (secsOfDay < 0) {
+                            secsOfDay = 86400 + secsOfDay;
+                            beyondDays -= 1;
+                        }
+                        LocalDate date = LocalDate.of(2004, month, dayOfMonth).plusDays(beyondDays);  // leap-year
+                        month = date.getMonth();
+                        dayOfMonth = date.getDayOfMonth();
+                        if (dayOfWeek != null) {
+                            dayOfWeek = dayOfWeek.plus(beyondDays);
+                        }
                     }
                     timeDefinition = parseTimeDefinition(timeStr.charAt(timeStr.length() - 1));
                 }
@@ -497,9 +501,11 @@
          *
          * @param standardOffset  the active standard offset, not null
          * @param savingsBeforeSecs  the active savings before the transition in seconds
+         * @param negativeSavings minimum savings in the rule, usually zero, but negative if negative DST is
+         *                   in effect.
          * @return the transition, not null
         */
-        ZoneOffsetTransitionRule toTransitionRule(ZoneOffset stdOffset, int savingsBefore) {
+        ZoneOffsetTransitionRule toTransitionRule(ZoneOffset stdOffset, int savingsBefore, int negativeSavings) {
             // rule shared by different zones, so don't change it
             Month month = this.month;
             int dayOfMonth = this.dayOfMonth;
@@ -522,6 +528,7 @@
                 }
                 endOfDay = false;
             }
+
             // build rule
             return ZoneOffsetTransitionRule.of(
                     //month, dayOfMonth, dayOfWeek, time, endOfDay, timeDefinition,
@@ -529,7 +536,7 @@
                     LocalTime.ofSecondOfDay(secsOfDay), endOfDay, timeDefinition,
                     stdOffset,
                     ZoneOffset.ofTotalSeconds(stdOffset.getTotalSeconds() + savingsBefore),
-                    ZoneOffset.ofTotalSeconds(stdOffset.getTotalSeconds() + savingsAmount));
+                    ZoneOffset.ofTotalSeconds(stdOffset.getTotalSeconds() + savingsAmount - negativeSavings));
         }
 
         RuleLine parse(String[] tokens) {
@@ -643,12 +650,12 @@
             this.ldtSecs = ldt.toEpochSecond(ZoneOffset.UTC);
         }
 
-        ZoneOffsetTransition toTransition(ZoneOffset standardOffset, int savingsBeforeSecs) {
+        ZoneOffsetTransition toTransition(ZoneOffset standardOffset, int savingsBeforeSecs, int negativeSavings) {
             // copy of code in ZoneOffsetTransitionRule to avoid infinite loop
             ZoneOffset wallOffset = ZoneOffset.ofTotalSeconds(
                 standardOffset.getTotalSeconds() + savingsBeforeSecs);
             ZoneOffset offsetAfter = ZoneOffset.ofTotalSeconds(
-                standardOffset.getTotalSeconds() + rule.savingsAmount);
+                standardOffset.getTotalSeconds() + rule.savingsAmount - negativeSavings);
             LocalDateTime dt = rule.timeDefinition
                                    .createDateTime(ldt, standardOffset, wallOffset);
             return ZoneOffsetTransition.of(dt, wallOffset, offsetAfter);
@@ -666,10 +673,12 @@
          * Tests if this a real transition with the active savings in seconds
          *
          * @param savingsBefore the active savings in seconds
+         * @param negativeSavings minimum savings in the rule, usually zero, but negative if negative DST is
+         *                   in effect.
          * @return true, if savings changes
          */
-        boolean isTransition(int savingsBefore) {
-            return rule.savingsAmount != savingsBefore;
+        boolean isTransition(int savingsBefore, int negativeSavings) {
+            return rule.savingsAmount - negativeSavings != savingsBefore;
         }
 
         public int compareTo(TransRule other) {
@@ -697,12 +706,22 @@
         // start ldt of each zone window
         LocalDateTime zoneStart = LocalDateTime.MIN;
 
-        // first stanard offset
+        // first standard offset
         ZoneOffset firstStdOffset = stdOffset;
         // first wall offset
         ZoneOffset firstWallOffset = wallOffset;
 
         for (ZoneLine zone : zones) {
+            // Adjust stdOffset, if negative DST is observed. It should be either
+            // fixed amount, or expressed in the named Rules.
+            int negativeSavings = Math.min(zone.fixedSavingsSecs, findNegativeSavings(zoneStart, zone));
+            if (negativeSavings < 0) {
+                zone.stdOffsetSecs += negativeSavings;
+                if (zone.fixedSavingsSecs < 0) {
+                    zone.fixedSavingsSecs = 0;
+                }
+            }
+
             // check if standard offset changed, update it if yes
             ZoneOffset stdOffsetPrev = stdOffset;  // for effectiveSavings check
             if (zone.stdOffsetSecs != stdOffset.getTotalSeconds()) {
@@ -791,7 +810,7 @@
                 // sort the merged rules
                 Collections.sort(trules);
 
-                effectiveSavings = 0;
+                effectiveSavings = -negativeSavings;
                 for (TransRule rule : trules) {
                     if (rule.toEpochSecond(stdOffsetPrev, savings) >
                         zoneStart.toEpochSecond(wallOffset)) {
@@ -800,7 +819,7 @@
                         // (hence isAfter)
                         break;
                     }
-                    effectiveSavings = rule.rule.savingsAmount;
+                    effectiveSavings = rule.rule.savingsAmount - negativeSavings;
                 }
             }
             // check if the start of the window represents a transition
@@ -817,21 +836,21 @@
             if (trules != null) {
                 long zoneStartEpochSecs = zoneStart.toEpochSecond(wallOffset);
                 for (TransRule trule : trules) {
-                    if (trule.isTransition(savings)) {
+                    if (trule.isTransition(savings, negativeSavings)) {
                         long epochSecs = trule.toEpochSecond(stdOffset, savings);
                         if (epochSecs < zoneStartEpochSecs ||
                             epochSecs >= zone.toDateTimeEpochSecond(savings)) {
                             continue;
                         }
-                        transitionList.add(trule.toTransition(stdOffset, savings));
-                        savings = trule.rule.savingsAmount;
+                        transitionList.add(trule.toTransition(stdOffset, savings, negativeSavings));
+                        savings = trule.rule.savingsAmount - negativeSavings;
                     }
                 }
             }
             if (lastRules != null) {
                 for (TransRule trule : lastRules) {
-                    lastTransitionRuleList.add(trule.rule.toTransitionRule(stdOffset, savings));
-                    savings = trule.rule.savingsAmount;
+                    lastTransitionRuleList.add(trule.rule.toTransitionRule(stdOffset, savings, negativeSavings));
+                    savings = trule.rule.savingsAmount - negativeSavings;
                 }
             }
 
@@ -848,4 +867,38 @@
                              lastTransitionRuleList);
     }
 
+    /**
+     * Find the minimum negative savings in named Rules for a Zone. Savings are only
+     * looked at for the period of the subject Zone.
+     *
+     * @param zoneStart start LDT of the zone
+     * @param zl ZoneLine to look at
+     */
+    private int findNegativeSavings(LocalDateTime zoneStart, ZoneLine zl) {
+        int negativeSavings = 0;
+        LocalDateTime zoneEnd = zl.toDateTime();
+
+        if (zl.savingsRule != null) {
+            List<RuleLine> rlines = rules.get(zl.savingsRule);
+            if (rlines == null) {
+                throw new IllegalArgumentException("<Rule> not found: " +
+                        zl.savingsRule);
+            }
+
+            negativeSavings = Math.min(0, rlines.stream()
+                    .filter(l -> windowOverlap(l, zoneStart.getYear(), zoneEnd.getYear()))
+                    .map(l -> l.savingsAmount)
+                    .min(Comparator.naturalOrder())
+                    .orElse(0));
+        }
+
+        return negativeSavings;
+    }
+
+    private boolean windowOverlap(RuleLine ruleLine, int zoneStartYear, int zoneEndYear) {
+        boolean overlap = zoneStartYear <= ruleLine.startYear && zoneEndYear >= ruleLine.startYear ||
+                          zoneStartYear <= ruleLine.endYear && zoneEndYear >= ruleLine.endYear;
+
+        return overlap;
+    }
 }
--- a/make/jdk/src/classes/build/tools/tzdb/ZoneRules.java	Tue Jul 23 15:33:52 2019 -0400
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,317 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Copyright (c) 2012, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
- * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
- *
- * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
- * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
- * published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
- * particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
- * by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
- *
- * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
- * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
- * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
- * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
- * accompanied this code).
- *
- * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
- * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
- * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
- *
- * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
- * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
- * questions.
- */
-
-/*
- * This file is available under and governed by the GNU General Public
- * License version 2 only, as published by the Free Software Foundation.
- * However, the following notice accompanied the original version of this
- * file:
- *
- * Copyright (c) 2011-2012, Stephen Colebourne & Michael Nascimento Santos
- *
- * All rights reserved.
- *
- * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
- * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
- *
- *  * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice,
- *    this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
- *
- *  * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice,
- *    this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation
- *    and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
- *
- *  * Neither the name of JSR-310 nor the names of its contributors
- *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
- *    without specific prior written permission.
- *
- * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
- * "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
- * LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR
- * A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR
- * CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,
- * EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
- * PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR
- * PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF
- * LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING
- * NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS
- * SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
- */
-package build.tools.tzdb;
-
-import java.io.DataOutput;
-import java.io.IOException;
-import java.io.ObjectOutput;
-import java.time.LocalDateTime;
-import java.time.LocalTime;
-import java.time.ZoneOffset;
-import java.time.zone.ZoneOffsetTransition;
-import java.time.zone.ZoneOffsetTransitionRule;
-import java.time.zone.ZoneOffsetTransitionRule.TimeDefinition;
-import java.util.Arrays;
-import java.util.ArrayList;
-import java.util.List;
-
-/**
- * Duplicated code of javax.time.zone.ZoneRules, ZoneOffsetTransitionRule
- * and Ser to generate the serialization form output of ZoneRules for
- * tzdb.jar.
- *
- * Implementation here is the copy/paste of ZoneRules, ZoneOffsetTransitionRule
- * and Ser in javax.time.zone package. Make sure the code here is synchrionozed
- * with the serialization implementation there.
- *
- * @since 1.8
- */
-
-final class ZoneRules {
-
-    /**
-     * The transitions between standard offsets (epoch seconds), sorted.
-     */
-    private final long[] standardTransitions;
-    /**
-     * The standard offsets.
-     */
-    private final ZoneOffset[] standardOffsets;
-    /**
-     * The transitions between instants (epoch seconds), sorted.
-     */
-    private final long[] savingsInstantTransitions;
-
-    /**
-     * The wall offsets.
-     */
-    private final ZoneOffset[] wallOffsets;
-    /**
-     * The last rule.
-     */
-    private final ZoneOffsetTransitionRule[] lastRules;
-
-    /**
-     * Creates an instance.
-     *
-     * @param baseStandardOffset  the standard offset to use before legal rules were set, not null
-     * @param baseWallOffset  the wall offset to use before legal rules were set, not null
-     * @param standardOffsetTransitionList  the list of changes to the standard offset, not null
-     * @param transitionList  the list of transitions, not null
-     * @param lastRules  the recurring last rules, size 16 or less, not null
-     */
-    ZoneRules(ZoneOffset baseStandardOffset,
-              ZoneOffset baseWallOffset,
-              List<ZoneOffsetTransition> standardOffsetTransitionList,
-              List<ZoneOffsetTransition> transitionList,
-              List<ZoneOffsetTransitionRule> lastRules) {
-
-        this.standardTransitions = new long[standardOffsetTransitionList.size()];
-
-        this.standardOffsets = new ZoneOffset[standardOffsetTransitionList.size() + 1];
-        this.standardOffsets[0] = baseStandardOffset;
-        for (int i = 0; i < standardOffsetTransitionList.size(); i++) {
-            this.standardTransitions[i] = standardOffsetTransitionList.get(i).toEpochSecond();
-            this.standardOffsets[i + 1] = standardOffsetTransitionList.get(i).getOffsetAfter();
-        }
-
-        // convert savings transitions to locals
-        List<ZoneOffset> localTransitionOffsetList = new ArrayList<>();
-        localTransitionOffsetList.add(baseWallOffset);
-        for (ZoneOffsetTransition trans : transitionList) {
-            localTransitionOffsetList.add(trans.getOffsetAfter());
-        }
-
-        this.wallOffsets = localTransitionOffsetList.toArray(new ZoneOffset[localTransitionOffsetList.size()]);
-
-        // convert savings transitions to instants
-        this.savingsInstantTransitions = new long[transitionList.size()];
-        for (int i = 0; i < transitionList.size(); i++) {
-            this.savingsInstantTransitions[i] = transitionList.get(i).toEpochSecond();
-        }
-
-        // last rules
-        if (lastRules.size() > 16) {
-            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many transition rules");
-        }
-        this.lastRules = lastRules.toArray(new ZoneOffsetTransitionRule[lastRules.size()]);
-    }
-
-    /** Type for ZoneRules. */
-    static final byte ZRULES = 1;
-
-    /**
-     * Writes the state to the stream.
-     *
-     * @param out  the output stream, not null
-     * @throws IOException if an error occurs
-     */
-    void writeExternal(DataOutput out) throws IOException {
-        out.writeByte(ZRULES);
-        out.writeInt(standardTransitions.length);
-        for (long trans : standardTransitions) {
-            writeEpochSec(trans, out);
-        }
-        for (ZoneOffset offset : standardOffsets) {
-            writeOffset(offset, out);
-        }
-        out.writeInt(savingsInstantTransitions.length);
-        for (long trans : savingsInstantTransitions) {
-            writeEpochSec(trans, out);
-        }
-        for (ZoneOffset offset : wallOffsets) {
-            writeOffset(offset, out);
-        }
-        out.writeByte(lastRules.length);
-        for (ZoneOffsetTransitionRule rule : lastRules) {
-            writeRule(rule, out);
-        }
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Writes the state the ZoneOffset to the stream.
-     *
-     * @param offset  the offset, not null
-     * @param out  the output stream, not null
-     * @throws IOException if an error occurs
-     */
-    static void writeOffset(ZoneOffset offset, DataOutput out) throws IOException {
-        final int offsetSecs = offset.getTotalSeconds();
-        int offsetByte = offsetSecs % 900 == 0 ? offsetSecs / 900 : 127;  // compress to -72 to +72
-        out.writeByte(offsetByte);
-        if (offsetByte == 127) {
-            out.writeInt(offsetSecs);
-        }
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Writes the epoch seconds to the stream.
-     *
-     * @param epochSec  the epoch seconds, not null
-     * @param out  the output stream, not null
-     * @throws IOException if an error occurs
-     */
-    static void writeEpochSec(long epochSec, DataOutput out) throws IOException {
-        if (epochSec >= -4575744000L && epochSec < 10413792000L && epochSec % 900 == 0) {  // quarter hours between 1825 and 2300
-            int store = (int) ((epochSec + 4575744000L) / 900);
-            out.writeByte((store >>> 16) & 255);
-            out.writeByte((store >>> 8) & 255);
-            out.writeByte(store & 255);
-        } else {
-            out.writeByte(255);
-            out.writeLong(epochSec);
-        }
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Writes the state of the transition rule to the stream.
-     *
-     * @param rule  the transition rule, not null
-     * @param out  the output stream, not null
-     * @throws IOException if an error occurs
-     */
-    static void writeRule(ZoneOffsetTransitionRule rule, DataOutput out) throws IOException {
-        int month = rule.getMonth().getValue();
-        byte dom = (byte)rule.getDayOfMonthIndicator();
-        int dow = (rule.getDayOfWeek() == null ? -1 : rule.getDayOfWeek().getValue());
-        LocalTime time = rule.getLocalTime();
-        boolean timeEndOfDay = rule.isMidnightEndOfDay();
-        TimeDefinition timeDefinition = rule.getTimeDefinition();
-        ZoneOffset standardOffset = rule.getStandardOffset();
-        ZoneOffset offsetBefore = rule.getOffsetBefore();
-        ZoneOffset offsetAfter = rule.getOffsetAfter();
-
-        int timeSecs = (timeEndOfDay ? 86400 : time.toSecondOfDay());
-        int stdOffset = standardOffset.getTotalSeconds();
-        int beforeDiff = offsetBefore.getTotalSeconds() - stdOffset;
-        int afterDiff = offsetAfter.getTotalSeconds() - stdOffset;
-        int timeByte = (timeSecs % 3600 == 0 ? (timeEndOfDay ? 24 : time.getHour()) : 31);
-        int stdOffsetByte = (stdOffset % 900 == 0 ? stdOffset / 900 + 128 : 255);
-        int beforeByte = (beforeDiff == 0 || beforeDiff == 1800 || beforeDiff == 3600 ? beforeDiff / 1800 : 3);
-        int afterByte = (afterDiff == 0 || afterDiff == 1800 || afterDiff == 3600 ? afterDiff / 1800 : 3);
-        int dowByte = (dow == -1 ? 0 : dow);
-        int b = (month << 28) +                     // 4 bytes
-                ((dom + 32) << 22) +                // 6 bytes
-                (dowByte << 19) +                   // 3 bytes
-                (timeByte << 14) +                  // 5 bytes
-                (timeDefinition.ordinal() << 12) +  // 2 bytes
-                (stdOffsetByte << 4) +              // 8 bytes
-                (beforeByte << 2) +                 // 2 bytes
-                afterByte;                          // 2 bytes
-        out.writeInt(b);
-        if (timeByte == 31) {
-            out.writeInt(timeSecs);
-        }
-        if (stdOffsetByte == 255) {
-            out.writeInt(stdOffset);
-        }
-        if (beforeByte == 3) {
-            out.writeInt(offsetBefore.getTotalSeconds());
-        }
-        if (afterByte == 3) {
-            out.writeInt(offsetAfter.getTotalSeconds());
-        }
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Checks if this set of rules equals another.
-     * <p>
-     * Two rule sets are equal if they will always result in the same output
-     * for any given input instant or local date-time.
-     * Rules from two different groups may return false even if they are in fact the same.
-     * <p>
-     * This definition should result in implementations comparing their entire state.
-     *
-     * @param otherRules  the other rules, null returns false
-     * @return true if this rules is the same as that specified
-     */
-    @Override
-    public boolean equals(Object otherRules) {
-        if (this == otherRules) {
-           return true;
-        }
-        if (otherRules instanceof ZoneRules) {
-            ZoneRules other = (ZoneRules) otherRules;
-            return Arrays.equals(standardTransitions, other.standardTransitions) &&
-                    Arrays.equals(standardOffsets, other.standardOffsets) &&
-                    Arrays.equals(savingsInstantTransitions, other.savingsInstantTransitions) &&
-                    Arrays.equals(wallOffsets, other.wallOffsets) &&
-                    Arrays.equals(lastRules, other.lastRules);
-        }
-        return false;
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Returns a suitable hash code given the definition of {@code #equals}.
-     *
-     * @return the hash code
-     */
-    @Override
-    public int hashCode() {
-        return Arrays.hashCode(standardTransitions) ^
-                Arrays.hashCode(standardOffsets) ^
-                Arrays.hashCode(savingsInstantTransitions) ^
-                Arrays.hashCode(wallOffsets) ^
-                Arrays.hashCode(lastRules);
-    }
-
-}
--- a/src/java.base/share/classes/java/time/zone/Ser.java	Tue Jul 23 15:33:52 2019 -0400
+++ b/src/java.base/share/classes/java/time/zone/Ser.java	Fri Jul 26 08:56:28 2019 -0700
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 2012, 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 2012, 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -91,7 +91,7 @@
     static final byte ZRULES = 1;
     /** Type for ZoneOffsetTransition. */
     static final byte ZOT = 2;
-    /** Type for ZoneOffsetTransition. */
+    /** Type for ZoneOffsetTransitionRule. */
     static final byte ZOTRULE = 3;
 
     /** The type being serialized. */
--- a/src/java.base/share/classes/java/time/zone/ZoneOffsetTransitionRule.java	Tue Jul 23 15:33:52 2019 -0400
+++ b/src/java.base/share/classes/java/time/zone/ZoneOffsetTransitionRule.java	Fri Jul 26 08:56:28 2019 -0700
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Copyright (c) 2012, 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * Copyright (c) 2012, 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
  *
  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
@@ -256,7 +256,7 @@
      * for the encoding of epoch seconds and offsets.
      * <pre style="font-size:1.0em">{@code
      *
-     *      out.writeByte(3);                // identifies a ZoneOffsetTransition
+     *      out.writeByte(3);                // identifies a ZoneOffsetTransitionRule
      *      final int timeSecs = (timeEndOfDay ? 86400 : time.toSecondOfDay());
      *      final int stdOffset = standardOffset.getTotalSeconds();
      *      final int beforeDiff = offsetBefore.getTotalSeconds() - stdOffset;
--- a/src/java.base/share/classes/sun/util/calendar/ZoneInfo.java	Tue Jul 23 15:33:52 2019 -0400
+++ b/src/java.base/share/classes/sun/util/calendar/ZoneInfo.java	Fri Jul 26 08:56:28 2019 -0700
@@ -273,7 +273,7 @@
         }
 
         // beyond the transitions, delegate to SimpleTimeZone if there
-        // is a rule; otherwise, return rawOffset.
+        // is a rule; otherwise, return the offset of the last transition.
         SimpleTimeZone tz = getLastRule();
         if (tz != null) {
             int rawoffset = tz.getRawOffset();
@@ -293,13 +293,18 @@
                 offsets[1] = dstoffset;
             }
             return rawoffset + dstoffset;
+        } else {
+            // use the last transition
+            long val = transitions[transitions.length - 1];
+            int offset = this.offsets[(int)(val & OFFSET_MASK)] + rawOffsetDiff;
+            if (offsets != null) {
+                int dst = (int)((val >>> DST_NSHIFT) & 0xfL);
+                int save = (dst == 0) ? 0 : this.offsets[dst];
+                offsets[0] = offset - save;
+                offsets[1] = save;
+            }
+            return offset;
         }
-        int offset = getLastRawOffset();
-        if (offsets != null) {
-            offsets[0] = offset;
-            offsets[1] = 0;
-        }
-        return offset;
     }
 
     private int getTransitionIndex(long date, int type) {
@@ -502,8 +507,10 @@
         SimpleTimeZone tz = getLastRule();
         if (tz != null) {
             return tz.inDaylightTime(date);
-       }
-        return false;
+        } else {
+            // use the last transition
+            return (transitions[transitions.length - 1] & DST_MASK) != 0;
+        }
     }
 
     /**
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/test/jdk/java/time/test/java/time/zone/TestZoneRules.java	Fri Jul 26 08:56:28 2019 -0700
@@ -0,0 +1,125 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+ *
+ * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+ * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ *
+ * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+ * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+ * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
+ * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+ * accompanied this code).
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+ * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+ * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+ *
+ * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
+ * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
+ * questions.
+ */
+
+package test.java.time.zone;
+
+import static org.testng.Assert.assertEquals;
+
+import java.time.Instant;
+import java.time.LocalDate;
+import java.time.LocalDateTime;
+import java.time.LocalTime;
+import java.time.ZonedDateTime;
+import java.time.ZoneId;
+import java.time.ZoneOffset;
+import java.time.zone.ZoneOffsetTransition;
+import java.time.zone.ZoneRules;
+
+import org.testng.annotations.Test;
+import org.testng.annotations.DataProvider;
+import static org.testng.Assert.assertEquals;
+import static org.testng.Assert.assertTrue;
+
+/**
+ * @summary Test ZoneRules whether the savings are positive in time zones that have
+ *      negative savings in the source TZ files. Also, check the transition cutover
+ *      time beyond 24:00, which should translate into the next day.
+ *
+ * @bug 8212970
+ */
+@Test
+public class TestZoneRules {
+
+    private static final ZoneId DUBLIN = ZoneId.of("Europe/Dublin");
+    private static final ZoneId PRAGUE = ZoneId.of("Europe/Prague");
+    private static final ZoneId WINDHOEK = ZoneId.of("Africa/Windhoek");
+    private static final ZoneId CASABLANCA = ZoneId.of("Africa/Casablanca");
+
+    private static final ZoneId TOKYO = ZoneId.of("Asia/Tokyo");
+    private static final LocalTime ONE_AM = LocalTime.of(1, 0);
+
+    @DataProvider
+    private Object[][] negativeDST () {
+        return new Object[][] {
+            // ZoneId, localDate, offset, standard offset, isDaylightSavings
+            // Europe/Dublin for the Rule "Eire"
+            {DUBLIN, LocalDate.of(1970, 6, 23), ZoneOffset.ofHours(1), ZoneOffset.ofHours(0), true},
+            {DUBLIN, LocalDate.of(1971, 6, 23), ZoneOffset.ofHours(1), ZoneOffset.ofHours(0), true},
+            {DUBLIN, LocalDate.of(1971, 11, 1), ZoneOffset.ofHours(0), ZoneOffset.ofHours(0), false},
+            {DUBLIN, LocalDate.of(2019, 6, 23), ZoneOffset.ofHours(1), ZoneOffset.ofHours(0), true},
+            {DUBLIN, LocalDate.of(2019, 12, 23), ZoneOffset.ofHours(0), ZoneOffset.ofHours(0), false},
+
+            // Europe/Prague which contains fixed negative savings (not a named Rule)
+            {PRAGUE, LocalDate.of(1946, 9, 30), ZoneOffset.ofHours(2), ZoneOffset.ofHours(1), true},
+            {PRAGUE, LocalDate.of(1946, 10, 10), ZoneOffset.ofHours(1), ZoneOffset.ofHours(1), false},
+            {PRAGUE, LocalDate.of(1946, 12, 3), ZoneOffset.ofHours(0), ZoneOffset.ofHours(0), false},
+            {PRAGUE, LocalDate.of(1947, 2, 25), ZoneOffset.ofHours(1), ZoneOffset.ofHours(1), false},
+            {PRAGUE, LocalDate.of(1947, 4, 30), ZoneOffset.ofHours(2), ZoneOffset.ofHours(1), true},
+
+            // Africa/Windhoek for the Rule "Namibia"
+            {WINDHOEK, LocalDate.of(1994, 3, 23), ZoneOffset.ofHours(1), ZoneOffset.ofHours(1), false},
+            {WINDHOEK, LocalDate.of(2016, 9, 23), ZoneOffset.ofHours(2), ZoneOffset.ofHours(1), true},
+
+            // Africa/Casablanca for the Rule "Morocco" Defines negative DST till 2037 as of 2019a.
+            {CASABLANCA, LocalDate.of(1939, 9, 13), ZoneOffset.ofHours(1), ZoneOffset.ofHours(0), true},
+            {CASABLANCA, LocalDate.of(1939, 11, 20), ZoneOffset.ofHours(0), ZoneOffset.ofHours(0), false},
+            {CASABLANCA, LocalDate.of(2018, 6, 18), ZoneOffset.ofHours(1), ZoneOffset.ofHours(0), true},
+            {CASABLANCA, LocalDate.of(2019, 1, 1), ZoneOffset.ofHours(1), ZoneOffset.ofHours(0), true},
+            {CASABLANCA, LocalDate.of(2019, 5, 6), ZoneOffset.ofHours(0), ZoneOffset.ofHours(0), false},
+            {CASABLANCA, LocalDate.of(2037, 10, 5), ZoneOffset.ofHours(0), ZoneOffset.ofHours(0), false},
+            {CASABLANCA, LocalDate.of(2037, 11, 16), ZoneOffset.ofHours(1), ZoneOffset.ofHours(0), true},
+            {CASABLANCA, LocalDate.of(2038, 11, 1), ZoneOffset.ofHours(1), ZoneOffset.ofHours(0), true},
+        };
+    }
+
+    @DataProvider
+    private Object[][] transitionBeyondDay() {
+        return new Object[][] {
+            // ZoneId, LocalDateTime, beforeOffset, afterOffset
+
+            // Asserts that the rule:
+            // Rule Japan   1948    1951    -   Sep Sat>=8  25:00   0   S
+            // translates to the next day.
+            {TOKYO, LocalDateTime.of(LocalDate.of(1948, 9, 12), ONE_AM), ZoneOffset.ofHours(10), ZoneOffset.ofHours(9)},
+            {TOKYO, LocalDateTime.of(LocalDate.of(1949, 9, 11), ONE_AM), ZoneOffset.ofHours(10), ZoneOffset.ofHours(9)},
+            {TOKYO, LocalDateTime.of(LocalDate.of(1950, 9, 10), ONE_AM), ZoneOffset.ofHours(10), ZoneOffset.ofHours(9)},
+            {TOKYO, LocalDateTime.of(LocalDate.of(1951, 9, 9), ONE_AM), ZoneOffset.ofHours(10), ZoneOffset.ofHours(9)},
+        };
+    }
+
+    @Test(dataProvider="negativeDST")
+    public void test_NegativeDST(ZoneId zid, LocalDate ld, ZoneOffset offset, ZoneOffset stdOffset, boolean isDST) {
+        Instant i = Instant.from(ZonedDateTime.of(ld, LocalTime.MIN, zid));
+        ZoneRules zr = zid.getRules();
+        assertEquals(zr.getOffset(i), offset);
+        assertEquals(zr.getStandardOffset(i), stdOffset);
+        assertEquals(zr.isDaylightSavings(i), isDST);
+    }
+
+    @Test(dataProvider="transitionBeyondDay")
+    public void test_TransitionBeyondDay(ZoneId zid, LocalDateTime ldt, ZoneOffset before, ZoneOffset after) {
+        ZoneOffsetTransition zot = ZoneOffsetTransition.of(ldt, before, after);
+        ZoneRules zr = zid.getRules();
+        assertTrue(zr.getTransitions().contains(zot));
+    }
+}
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/test/jdk/java/util/TimeZone/NegativeDSTTest.java	Fri Jul 26 08:56:28 2019 -0700
@@ -0,0 +1,94 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+ * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
+ *
+ * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+ * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ *
+ * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+ * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+ * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
+ * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
+ * accompanied this code).
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
+ * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
+ * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
+ *
+ * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
+ * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
+ * questions.
+ */
+
+import static org.testng.Assert.assertEquals;
+
+import java.time.Instant;
+import java.time.LocalDate;
+import java.time.LocalTime;
+import java.time.ZonedDateTime;
+import java.time.ZoneId;
+import java.util.Date;
+import java.util.TimeZone;
+
+import org.testng.annotations.Test;
+import org.testng.annotations.DataProvider;
+import static org.testng.Assert.assertEquals;
+
+/**
+ * @test
+ * @bug 8212970
+ * @summary Test whether the savings are positive in time zones that have
+ *      negative savings in the source TZ files.
+ * @run testng NegativeDSTTest
+ */
+@Test
+public class NegativeDSTTest {
+
+    private static final TimeZone DUBLIN = TimeZone.getTimeZone("Europe/Dublin");
+    private static final TimeZone PRAGUE = TimeZone.getTimeZone("Europe/Prague");
+    private static final TimeZone WINDHOEK = TimeZone.getTimeZone("Africa/Windhoek");
+    private static final TimeZone CASABLANCA = TimeZone.getTimeZone("Africa/Casablanca");
+    private static final int ONE_HOUR = 3600_000;
+
+    @DataProvider
+    private Object[][] negativeDST () {
+        return new Object[][] {
+            // TimeZone, localDate, offset, isDaylightSavings
+            // Europe/Dublin for the Rule "Eire"
+            {DUBLIN, LocalDate.of(1970, 6, 23), ONE_HOUR, true},
+            {DUBLIN, LocalDate.of(1971, 6, 23), ONE_HOUR, true},
+            {DUBLIN, LocalDate.of(1971, 11, 1), 0, false},
+            {DUBLIN, LocalDate.of(2019, 6, 23), ONE_HOUR, true},
+            {DUBLIN, LocalDate.of(2019, 12, 23), 0, false},
+
+            // Europe/Prague which contains fixed negative savings (not a named Rule)
+            {PRAGUE, LocalDate.of(1946, 9, 30), 2 * ONE_HOUR, true},
+            {PRAGUE, LocalDate.of(1946, 10, 10), ONE_HOUR, false},
+            {PRAGUE, LocalDate.of(1946, 12, 3), 0, false},
+            {PRAGUE, LocalDate.of(1947, 2, 25), ONE_HOUR, false},
+            {PRAGUE, LocalDate.of(1947, 4, 30), 2 * ONE_HOUR, true},
+
+            // Africa/Windhoek for the Rule "Namibia"
+            {WINDHOEK, LocalDate.of(1994, 3, 23), ONE_HOUR, false},
+            {WINDHOEK, LocalDate.of(2016, 9, 23), 2 * ONE_HOUR, true},
+
+            // Africa/Casablanca for the Rule "Morocco" Defines negative DST till 2037 as of 2019a.
+            {CASABLANCA, LocalDate.of(1939, 9, 13), ONE_HOUR, true},
+            {CASABLANCA, LocalDate.of(1939, 11, 20), 0, false},
+            {CASABLANCA, LocalDate.of(2018, 6, 18), ONE_HOUR, true},
+            {CASABLANCA, LocalDate.of(2019, 1, 1), ONE_HOUR, true},
+            {CASABLANCA, LocalDate.of(2019, 5, 6), 0, false},
+            {CASABLANCA, LocalDate.of(2037, 10, 5), 0, false},
+            {CASABLANCA, LocalDate.of(2037, 11, 16), ONE_HOUR, true},
+            {CASABLANCA, LocalDate.of(2038, 11, 1), ONE_HOUR, true},
+        };
+    }
+
+    @Test(dataProvider="negativeDST")
+    public void test_NegativeDST(TimeZone tz, LocalDate ld, int offset, boolean isDST) {
+        Date d = Date.from(Instant.from(ZonedDateTime.of(ld, LocalTime.MIN, tz.toZoneId())));
+        assertEquals(tz.getOffset(d.getTime()), offset);
+        assertEquals(tz.inDaylightTime(d), isDST);
+    }
+}
--- a/test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/TestZoneInfo310.java	Tue Jul 23 15:33:52 2019 -0400
+++ b/test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/TestZoneInfo310.java	Fri Jul 26 08:56:28 2019 -0700
@@ -23,7 +23,7 @@
 
 /*
  * @test
- * @bug 8007572 8008161 8157792 8224560
+ * @bug 8007572 8008161 8157792 8212970 8224560
  * @summary Test whether the TimeZone generated from JSR310 tzdb is the same
  * as the one from the tz data from javazic
  * @modules java.base/sun.util.calendar:+open
@@ -46,18 +46,18 @@
     public static void main(String[] args) throws Throwable {
 
         String TESTDIR = System.getProperty("test.dir", ".");
-        String SRCDIR = System.getProperty("test.src", ".");
-        String tzdir = SRCDIR + File.separator + "tzdata";
-        String tzfiles = "africa antarctica asia australasia europe northamerica pacificnew southamerica backward etcetera systemv";
-        String jdk_tzdir = SRCDIR + File.separator + "tzdata_jdk";
-        String jdk_tzfiles = "gmt jdk11_backward";
+        Path tzdir = Paths.get(System.getProperty("test.root"),
+            "..", "..", "make", "data", "tzdata");
+        String tzfiles = "africa antarctica asia australasia europe northamerica pacificnew southamerica backward etcetera systemv gmt";
+        Path jdk_tzdir = Paths.get(System.getProperty("test.src"), "tzdata_jdk");
+        String jdk_tzfiles = "jdk11_backward";
         String zidir = TESTDIR + File.separator + "zi";
         File fZidir = new File(zidir);
         if (!fZidir.exists()) {
             fZidir.mkdirs();
         }
         Matcher m = Pattern.compile("tzdata(?<ver>[0-9]{4}[A-z])")
-                           .matcher(new String(Files.readAllBytes(Paths.get(tzdir, "VERSION")), "ascii"));
+                           .matcher(new String(Files.readAllBytes(tzdir.resolve("VERSION")), "ascii"));
         String ver = m.find() ? m.group("ver") : "NULL";
 
         ArrayList<String> alist = new ArrayList<>();
@@ -66,10 +66,10 @@
         alist.add("-d");
         alist.add(zidir);
         for (String f : tzfiles.split(" ")) {
-            alist.add(tzdir + File.separator + f);
+            alist.add(tzdir.resolve(f).toString());
         }
         for (String f : jdk_tzfiles.split(" ")) {
-            alist.add(jdk_tzdir + File.separator + f);
+            alist.add(jdk_tzdir.resolve(f).toString());
         }
         System.out.println("Compiling tz files!");
         Main.main(alist.toArray(new String[alist.size()]));
@@ -174,10 +174,30 @@
              * Temporary ignoring the failing TimeZones which are having zone
              * rules defined till year 2037 and/or above and have negative DST
              * save time in IANA tzdata. This bug is tracked via JDK-8223388.
+             *
+             * These are the zones/rules that employ negative DST in vanguard
+             * format (as of 2019a):
+             *
+             *  - Rule "Eire"
+             *  - Rule "Morocco"
+             *  - Rule "Namibia"
+             *  - Zone "Europe/Prague"
+             *
+             * Tehran/Iran rule has rules beyond 2037, in which javazic assumes
+             * to be the last year. Thus javazic's rule is based on year 2037
+             * (Mar 20th/Sep 20th are the cutover dates), while the real rule
+             * has year 2087 where Mar 21st/Sep 21st are the cutover dates.
              */
-            if (zid.equals("Africa/Casablanca") || zid.equals("Africa/El_Aaiun")
-                || zid.equals("Asia/Tehran") || zid.equals("Iran")) {
-                continue;
+            if (zid.equals("Africa/Casablanca") || // uses "Morocco" rule
+                zid.equals("Africa/El_Aaiun") || // uses "Morocco" rule
+                zid.equals("Africa/Windhoek") || // uses "Namibia" rule
+                zid.equals("Eire") ||
+                zid.equals("Europe/Bratislava") || // link to "Europe/Prague"
+                zid.equals("Europe/Dublin") || // uses "Eire" rule
+                zid.equals("Europe/Prague") ||
+                zid.equals("Asia/Tehran") || // last rule mismatch
+                zid.equals("Iran")) { // last rule mismatch
+                    continue;
             }
             if (! zi.equalsTo(ziOLD)) {
                 System.out.println(zi.diffsTo(ziOLD));
--- a/test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata/VERSION	Tue Jul 23 15:33:52 2019 -0400
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,22 +0,0 @@
-#
-# DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
-#
-# This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
-# under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
-# published by the Free Software Foundation.
-#
-# This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
-# ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
-# FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
-# version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
-# accompanied this code).
-#
-# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
-# 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
-# Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
-#
-# Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
-# or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
-# questions.
-#
-tzdata2019a
--- a/test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata/africa	Tue Jul 23 15:33:52 2019 -0400
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,1370 +0,0 @@
-#
-# DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
-#
-# This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
-# under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
-# published by the Free Software Foundation.
-#
-# This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
-# ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
-# FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
-# version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
-# accompanied this code).
-#
-# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
-# 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
-# Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
-#
-# Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
-# or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
-# questions.
-#
-# tzdb data for Africa and environs
-
-# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
-# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
-
-# This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
-# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
-# tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
-# the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-05-27):
-#
-# Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
-# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
-# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
-# Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
-#
-# Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source
-# for time zone data was the International Air Transport
-# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
-# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
-# of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted,
-# IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
-#
-# Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
-# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
-# I found in the UCLA library.
-#
-# For data circa 1899, a common source is:
-# Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94.
-# https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359
-#
-# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
-# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
-#
-# European-style abbreviations are commonly used along the Mediterranean.
-# For sub-Saharan Africa abbreviations were less standardized.
-# Previous editions of this database used WAT, CAT, SAT, and EAT
-# for UT +00 through +03, respectively,
-# but in 1997 Mark R V Murray reported that
-# 'SAST' is the official abbreviation for +02 in the country of South Africa,
-# 'CAT' is commonly used for +02 in countries north of South Africa, and
-# 'WAT' is probably the best name for +01, as the common phrase for
-# the area that includes Nigeria is "West Africa".
-#
-# To summarize, the following abbreviations seemed to have some currency:
-#	 +00	GMT	Greenwich Mean Time
-#	 +02	CAT	Central Africa Time
-#	 +02	SAST	South Africa Standard Time
-# and Murray suggested the following abbreviation:
-#	 +01	WAT	West Africa Time
-# Murray's suggestion seems to have caught on in news reports and the like.
-# I vaguely recall 'WAT' also being used for -01 in the past but
-# cannot now come up with solid citations.
-#
-# I invented the following abbreviations in the 1990s:
-#	 +02	WAST	West Africa Summer Time
-#	 +03	CAST	Central Africa Summer Time
-#	 +03	SAST	South Africa Summer Time
-#	 +03	EAT	East Africa Time
-# 'EAT' seems to have caught on and is in current timestamps, and though
-# the other abbreviations are rarer and are only in past timestamps,
-# they are paired with better-attested non-DST abbreviations.
-# Corrections are welcome.
-
-# Algeria
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Algeria	1916	only	-	Jun	14	23:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Algeria	1916	1919	-	Oct	Sun>=1	23:00s	0	-
-Rule	Algeria	1917	only	-	Mar	24	23:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Algeria	1918	only	-	Mar	 9	23:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Algeria	1919	only	-	Mar	 1	23:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Algeria	1920	only	-	Feb	14	23:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Algeria	1920	only	-	Oct	23	23:00s	0	-
-Rule	Algeria	1921	only	-	Mar	14	23:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Algeria	1921	only	-	Jun	21	23:00s	0	-
-Rule	Algeria	1939	only	-	Sep	11	23:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Algeria	1939	only	-	Nov	19	 1:00	0	-
-Rule	Algeria	1944	1945	-	Apr	Mon>=1	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Algeria	1944	only	-	Oct	 8	 2:00	0	-
-Rule	Algeria	1945	only	-	Sep	16	 1:00	0	-
-Rule	Algeria	1971	only	-	Apr	25	23:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Algeria	1971	only	-	Sep	26	23:00s	0	-
-Rule	Algeria	1977	only	-	May	 6	 0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Algeria	1977	only	-	Oct	21	 0:00	0	-
-Rule	Algeria	1978	only	-	Mar	24	 1:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Algeria	1978	only	-	Sep	22	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Algeria	1980	only	-	Apr	25	 0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Algeria	1980	only	-	Oct	31	 2:00	0	-
-# Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
-# more precise 0:09:21.
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Algiers	0:12:12 -	LMT	1891 Mar 15  0:01
-			0:09:21	-	PMT	1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
-			0:00	Algeria	WE%sT	1940 Feb 25  2:00
-			1:00	Algeria	CE%sT	1946 Oct  7
-			0:00	-	WET	1956 Jan 29
-			1:00	-	CET	1963 Apr 14
-			0:00	Algeria	WE%sT	1977 Oct 21
-			1:00	Algeria	CE%sT	1979 Oct 26
-			0:00	Algeria	WE%sT	1981 May
-			1:00	-	CET
-
-# Angola
-# Benin
-# See Africa/Lagos.
-
-# Botswana
-# See Africa/Maputo.
-
-# Burkina Faso
-# See Africa/Abidjan.
-
-# Burundi
-# See Africa/Maputo.
-
-# Cameroon
-# See Africa/Lagos.
-
-# Cape Verde / Cabo Verde
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-02-16):
-# Shanks gives 1907 for the transition to +02.
-# For now, ignore that and follow the 1911-05-26 Portuguese decree
-# (see Europe/Lisbon).
-#
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Atlantic/Cape_Verde -1:34:04 -	LMT	1912 Jan 01  2:00u # Praia
-			-2:00	-	-02	1942 Sep
-			-2:00	1:00	-01	1945 Oct 15
-			-2:00	-	-02	1975 Nov 25  2:00
-			-1:00	-	-01
-
-# Central African Republic
-# See Africa/Lagos.
-
-# Chad
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Ndjamena	1:00:12 -	LMT	1912        # N'Djamena
-			1:00	-	WAT	1979 Oct 14
-			1:00	1:00	WAST	1980 Mar  8
-			1:00	-	WAT
-
-# Comoros
-# See Africa/Nairobi.
-
-# Democratic Republic of the Congo
-# See Africa/Lagos for the western part and Africa/Maputo for the eastern.
-
-# Republic of the Congo
-# See Africa/Lagos.
-
-# Côte d'Ivoire / Ivory Coast
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Abidjan	-0:16:08 -	LMT	1912
-			 0:00	-	GMT
-Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Bamako	# Mali
-Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Banjul	# Gambia
-Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Conakry	# Guinea
-Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Dakar	# Senegal
-Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Freetown	# Sierra Leone
-Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Lome		# Togo
-Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Nouakchott	# Mauritania
-Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Ouagadougou	# Burkina Faso
-Link Africa/Abidjan Atlantic/St_Helena	# St Helena
-
-# Djibouti
-# See Africa/Nairobi.
-
-###############################################################################
-
-# Egypt
-
-# Milne says Cairo used 2:05:08.9, the local mean time of the Abbasizeh
-# observatory; round to nearest.  Milne also says that the official time for
-# Egypt was mean noon at the Great Pyramid, 2:04:30.5, but apparently this
-# did not apply to Cairo, Alexandria, or Port Said.
-
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Egypt	1940	only	-	Jul	15	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	1940	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Egypt	1941	only	-	Apr	15	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	1941	only	-	Sep	16	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Egypt	1942	1944	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	1942	only	-	Oct	27	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Egypt	1943	1945	-	Nov	 1	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Egypt	1945	only	-	Apr	16	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	1957	only	-	May	10	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	1957	1958	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Egypt	1958	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	1959	1981	-	May	 1	1:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	1959	1965	-	Sep	30	3:00	0	-
-Rule	Egypt	1966	1994	-	Oct	 1	3:00	0	-
-Rule	Egypt	1982	only	-	Jul	25	1:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	1983	only	-	Jul	12	1:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	1984	1988	-	May	 1	1:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	1989	only	-	May	 6	1:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	1990	1994	-	May	 1	1:00	1:00	S
-# IATA (after 1990) says transitions are at 0:00.
-# Go with IATA starting in 1995, except correct 1995 entry from 09-30 to 09-29.
-
-# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-04-20):
-# "...Egypt's interim cabinet decided on Wednesday to cancel daylight
-# saving time after a poll posted on its website showed the majority of
-# Egyptians would approve the cancellation."
-#
-# Egypt to cancel daylight saving time
-# http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/407168
-# or
-# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt04.html
-Rule	Egypt	1995	2010	-	Apr	lastFri	 0:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	1995	2005	-	Sep	lastThu	24:00	0	-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-09-19):
-# The Egyptian Gazette, issue 41,090 (2006-09-18), page 1, reports:
-# Egypt will turn back clocks by one hour at the midnight of Thursday
-# after observing the daylight saving time since May.
-# http://news.gom.com.eg/gazette/pdf/2006/09/18/01.pdf
-Rule	Egypt	2006	only	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
-# From Dirk Losch (2007-08-14):
-# I received a mail from an airline which says that the daylight
-# saving time in Egypt will end in the night of 2007-09-06 to 2007-09-07.
-# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2007-08-15): [The following agree:]
-# http://www.nentjes.info/Bill/bill5.htm
-# https://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=53
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-09-04): The official information...:
-# http://www.sis.gov.eg/En/EgyptOnline/Miscellaneous/000002/0207000000000000001580.htm
-Rule	Egypt	2007	only	-	Sep	Thu>=1	24:00	0	-
-# From Abdelrahman Hassan (2007-09-06):
-# Due to the Hijri (lunar Islamic calendar) year being 11 days shorter
-# than the year of the Gregorian calendar, Ramadan shifts earlier each
-# year. This year it will be observed September 13 (September is quite
-# hot in Egypt), and the idea is to make fasting easier for workers by
-# shifting business hours one hour out of daytime heat. Consequently,
-# unless discontinued, next DST may end Thursday 28 August 2008.
-# From Paul Eggert (2007-08-17):
-# For lack of better info, assume the new rule is last Thursday in August.
-
-# From Petr Machata (2009-04-06):
-# The following appeared in Red Hat bugzilla[1] (edited):
-#
-# > $ zdump -v /usr/share/zoneinfo/Africa/Cairo | grep 2009
-# > /usr/share/zoneinfo/Africa/Cairo  Thu Apr 23 21:59:59 2009 UTC = Thu =
-# Apr 23
-# > 23:59:59 2009 EET isdst=0 gmtoff=7200
-# > /usr/share/zoneinfo/Africa/Cairo  Thu Apr 23 22:00:00 2009 UTC = Fri =
-# Apr 24
-# > 01:00:00 2009 EEST isdst=1 gmtoff=10800
-# > /usr/share/zoneinfo/Africa/Cairo  Thu Aug 27 20:59:59 2009 UTC = Thu =
-# Aug 27
-# > 23:59:59 2009 EEST isdst=1 gmtoff=10800
-# > /usr/share/zoneinfo/Africa/Cairo  Thu Aug 27 21:00:00 2009 UTC = Thu =
-# Aug 27
-# > 23:00:00 2009 EET isdst=0 gmtoff=7200
-#
-# > end date should be Thu Sep 24 2009 (Last Thursday in September at 23:59=
-# :59)
-# > http://support.microsoft.com/kb/958729/
-#
-# timeanddate[2] and another site I've found[3] also support that.
-#
-# [1] https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=492263
-# [2] https://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/clockchange.html?n=53
-# [3] https://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/time-zone/africa/egypt/
-
-# From Arthur David Olson (2009-04-20):
-# In 2009 (and for the next several years), Ramadan ends before the fourth
-# Thursday in September; Egypt is expected to revert to the last Thursday
-# in September.
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-08-11):
-# We have been able to confirm the August change with the Egyptian Cabinet
-# Information and Decision Support Center:
-# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/egypt-dst-ends-2009.html
-#
-# The Middle East News Agency
-# https://www.mena.org.eg/index.aspx
-# also reports "Egypt starts winter time on August 21"
-# today in article numbered "71, 11/08/2009 12:25 GMT."
-# Only the title above is available without a subscription to their service,
-# and can be found by searching for "winter" in their search engine
-# (at least today).
-
-# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-07-20):
-# According to News from Egypt - Al-Masry Al-Youm Egypt's cabinet has
-# decided that Daylight Saving Time will not be used in Egypt during
-# Ramadan.
-#
-# Arabic translation:
-# "Clocks to go back during Ramadan - and then forward again"
-# http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/news/clocks-go-back-during-ramadan-and-then-forward-again
-# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt02.html
-
-# From Ahmad El-Dardiry (2014-05-07):
-# Egypt is to change back to Daylight system on May 15
-# http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/1/64/100735/Egypt/Politics-/Egypts-government-to-reapply-daylight-saving-time-.aspx
-
-# From Gunther Vermier (2014-05-13):
-# our Egypt office confirms that the change will be at 15 May "midnight" (24:00)
-
-# From Imed Chihi (2014-06-04):
-# We have finally "located" a precise official reference about the DST changes
-# in Egypt.  The Ministers Cabinet decision is explained at
-# http://www.cabinet.gov.eg/Media/CabinetMeetingsDetails.aspx?id=347 ...
-# [T]his (Arabic) site is not accessible outside Egypt, but the page ...
-# translates into: "With regard to daylight saving time, it is scheduled to
-# take effect at exactly twelve o'clock this evening, Thursday, 15 MAY 2014,
-# to be suspended by twelve o'clock on the evening of Thursday, 26 JUN 2014,
-# and re-established again at the end of the month of Ramadan, at twelve
-# o'clock on the evening of Thursday, 31 JUL 2014."  This statement has been
-# reproduced by other (more accessible) sites[, e.g.,]...
-# http://elgornal.net/news/news.aspx?id=4699258
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-04):
-# Sarah El Deeb and Lee Keath of AP report that the Egyptian government says
-# the change is because of blackouts in Cairo, even though Ahram Online (cited
-# above) says DST had no affect on electricity consumption.  There is
-# no information about when DST will end this fall.  See:
-# http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/el-sissi-pushes-egyptians-line-23614833
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2015-04-08):
-# Egypt will start DST on midnight after Thursday, April 30, 2015.
-# This is based on a law (no 35) from May 15, 2014 saying it starts the last
-# Thursday of April....  Clocks will still be turned back for Ramadan, but
-# dates not yet announced....
-# http://almogaz.com/news/weird-news/2015/04/05/1947105 ...
-# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/egypt-starts-dst-2015.html
-
-# From Ahmed Nazmy (2015-04-20):
-# Egypt's ministers cabinet just announced ... that it will cancel DST at
-# least for 2015.
-#
-# From Tim Parenti (2015-04-20):
-# http://english.ahram.org.eg/WriterArticles/NewsContentP/1/128195/Egypt/No-daylight-saving-this-summer-Egypts-prime-minist.aspx
-# "Egypt's cabinet agreed on Monday not to switch clocks for daylight saving
-# time this summer, and carry out studies on the possibility of canceling the
-# practice altogether in future years."
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2015-04-24):
-# Yesterday the office of Egyptian President El-Sisi announced his
-# decision to abandon DST permanently.  See Ahram Online 2015-04-24.
-# http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/1/64/128509/Egypt/Politics-/Sisi-cancels-daylight-saving-time-in-Egypt.aspx
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2016-04-29):
-# Egypt will have DST from July 7 until the end of October....
-# http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContentP/1/204655/Egypt/Daylight-savings-time-returning-to-Egypt-on--July.aspx
-# From Mina Samuel (2016-07-04):
-# Egyptian government took the decision to cancel the DST,
-
-Rule	Egypt	2008	only	-	Aug	lastThu	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Egypt	2009	only	-	Aug	20	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Egypt	2010	only	-	Aug	10	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Egypt	2010	only	-	Sep	 9	24:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	2010	only	-	Sep	lastThu	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Egypt	2014	only	-	May	15	24:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	2014	only	-	Jun	26	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Egypt	2014	only	-	Jul	31	24:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Egypt	2014	only	-	Sep	lastThu	24:00	0	-
-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Cairo	2:05:09 -	LMT	1900 Oct
-			2:00	Egypt	EE%sT
-
-# Equatorial Guinea
-# See Africa/Lagos.
-
-# Eritrea
-# See Africa/Nairobi.
-
-# Eswatini (formerly Swaziland)
-# See Africa/Johannesburg.
-
-# Ethiopia
-# See Africa/Nairobi.
-#
-# Unfortunately tzdb records only Western clock time in use in Ethiopia,
-# as the tzdb format is not up to properly recording a common Ethiopian
-# timekeeping practice that is based on solar time.  See:
-# Mortada D. If you have a meeting in Ethiopia, you'd better double
-# check the time. PRI's The World. 2015-01-30 15:15 -05.
-# https://www.pri.org/stories/2015-01-30/if-you-have-meeting-ethiopia-you-better-double-check-time
-
-# Gabon
-# See Africa/Lagos.
-
-# Gambia
-# See Africa/Abidjan.
-
-# Ghana
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-01-30):
-# Whitman says DST was observed from 1931 to "the present";
-# Shanks & Pottenger say 1936 to 1942 with 20 minutes of DST,
-# with transitions on 09-01 and 12-31 at 00:00.
-# Page 33 of Parish GCB, Colonial Reports - Annual. No. 1066. Gold
-# Coast. Report for 1919. (March 1921), OCLC 784024077
-# http://libsysdigi.library.illinois.edu/ilharvest/africana/books2011-05/5530214/5530214_1919/5530214_1919_opt.pdf
-# lists the Determination of the Time Ordinance, 1919, No. 18,
-# "to advance the time observed locally by the space of twenty minutes
-# during the last four months of each year; the object in view being
-# to extend during those months the period of daylight-time available
-# for evening recreation after office hours."
-# Vanessa Ogle, The Global Transformation of Time, 1870-1950 (2015), p 33,
-# writes "In 1919, the Gold Coast (Ghana as of 1957) made Greenwich
-# time its legal time and simultaneously legalized a summer time of
-# UTC - 00:20 minutes from March to October."; a footnote lists
-# the ordinance as being dated 1919-11-24.
-# The Crown Colonist, Volume 12 (1942), p 176, says "the Government
-# intend advancing Gold Coast time half an hour ahead of G.M.T.
-# The actual date of the alteration has not yet been announced."
-# These sources are incomplete and contradictory.  Possibly what is
-# now Ghana observed different DST regimes in different years.  For
-# lack of better info, use Shanks except treat the minus sign as a
-# typo, and assume DST started in 1920 not 1936.
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Ghana	1920	1942	-	Sep	 1	0:00	0:20	-
-Rule	Ghana	1920	1942	-	Dec	31	0:00	0	-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Accra	-0:00:52 -	LMT	1918
-			 0:00	Ghana	GMT/+0020
-
-# Guinea
-# See Africa/Abidjan.
-
-# Guinea-Bissau
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-02-16):
-# Shanks gives 1911-05-26 for the transition to WAT,
-# evidently confusing the date of the Portuguese decree
-# (see Europe/Lisbon) with the date that it took effect.
-#
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Bissau	-1:02:20 -	LMT	1912 Jan  1  1:00u
-			-1:00	-	-01	1975
-			 0:00	-	GMT
-
-# Kenya
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Nairobi	2:27:16	-	LMT	1928 Jul
-			3:00	-	EAT	1930
-			2:30	-	+0230	1940
-			2:45	-	+0245	1960
-			3:00	-	EAT
-Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Addis_Ababa	 # Ethiopia
-Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Asmara	 # Eritrea
-Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Dar_es_Salaam # Tanzania
-Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Djibouti
-Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Kampala	 # Uganda
-Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Mogadishu	 # Somalia
-Link Africa/Nairobi Indian/Antananarivo	 # Madagascar
-Link Africa/Nairobi Indian/Comoro
-Link Africa/Nairobi Indian/Mayotte
-
-# Lesotho
-# See Africa/Johannesburg.
-
-# Liberia
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2017-03-02):
-#
-# The Nautical Almanac for the Year 1970, p 264, is the source for -0:44:30.
-#
-# In 1972 Liberia was the last country to switch from a UT offset
-# that was not a multiple of 15 or 20 minutes.  The 1972 change was on
-# 1972-01-07, according to an entry dated 1972-01-04 on p 330 of:
-# Presidential Papers: First year of the administration of
-# President William R. Tolbert, Jr., July 23, 1971-July 31, 1972.
-# Monrovia: Executive Mansion.
-#
-# Use the abbreviation "MMT" before 1972, as the more-accurate numeric
-# abbreviation "-004430" would be one byte over the POSIX limit.
-#
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Monrovia	-0:43:08 -	LMT	1882
-			-0:43:08 -	MMT	1919 Mar # Monrovia Mean Time
-			-0:44:30 -	MMT	1972 Jan 7 # approximately MMT
-			 0:00	-	GMT
-
-###############################################################################
-
-# Libya
-
-# From Even Scharning (2012-11-10):
-# Libya set their time one hour back at 02:00 on Saturday November 10.
-# https://www.libyaherald.com/2012/11/04/clocks-to-go-back-an-hour-on-saturday/
-# Here is an official source [in Arabic]: http://ls.ly/fb6Yc
-#
-# Steffen Thorsen forwarded a translation (2012-11-10) in
-# https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2012-November/018451.html
-#
-# From Tim Parenti (2012-11-11):
-# Treat the 2012-11-10 change as a zone change from UTC+2 to UTC+1.
-# The DST rules planned for 2013 and onward roughly mirror those of Europe
-# (either two days before them or five days after them, so as to fall on
-# lastFri instead of lastSun).
-
-# From Even Scharning (2013-10-25):
-# The scheduled end of DST in Libya on Friday, October 25, 2013 was
-# cancelled yesterday....
-# https://www.libyaherald.com/2013/10/24/correction-no-time-change-tomorrow/
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2013-10-25):
-# For now, assume they're reverting to the pre-2012 rules of permanent UT +02.
-
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Libya	1951	only	-	Oct	14	2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Libya	1952	only	-	Jan	 1	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Libya	1953	only	-	Oct	 9	2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Libya	1954	only	-	Jan	 1	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Libya	1955	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Libya	1956	only	-	Jan	 1	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Libya	1982	1984	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Libya	1982	1985	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Libya	1985	only	-	Apr	 6	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Libya	1986	only	-	Apr	 4	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Libya	1986	only	-	Oct	 3	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Libya	1987	1989	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Libya	1987	1989	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Libya	1997	only	-	Apr	 4	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Libya	1997	only	-	Oct	 4	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Libya	2013	only	-	Mar	lastFri	1:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Libya	2013	only	-	Oct	lastFri	2:00	0	-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Tripoli	0:52:44 -	LMT	1920
-			1:00	Libya	CE%sT	1959
-			2:00	-	EET	1982
-			1:00	Libya	CE%sT	1990 May  4
-# The 1996 and 1997 entries are from Shanks & Pottenger;
-# the IATA SSIM data entries contain some obvious errors.
-			2:00	-	EET	1996 Sep 30
-			1:00	Libya	CE%sT	1997 Oct  4
-			2:00	-	EET	2012 Nov 10  2:00
-			1:00	Libya	CE%sT	2013 Oct 25  2:00
-			2:00	-	EET
-
-# Madagascar
-# See Africa/Nairobi.
-
-# Malawi
-# See Africa/Maputo.
-
-# Mali
-# Mauritania
-# See Africa/Abidjan.
-
-# Mauritius
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-06-25):
-# Mauritius plans to observe DST from 2008-11-01 to 2009-03-31 on a trial
-# basis....
-# It seems that Mauritius observed daylight saving time from 1982-10-10 to
-# 1983-03-20 as well, but that was not successful....
-# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/mauritius-daylight-saving-time.html
-
-# From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-06-25):
-# http://economicdevelopment.gov.mu/portal/site/Mainhomepage/menuitem.a42b24128104d9845dabddd154508a0c/?content_id=0a7cee8b5d69a110VgnVCM1000000a04a8c0RCRD
-
-# From Arthur David Olson (2008-06-30):
-# The www.timeanddate.com article cited by Steffen Thorsen notes that "A
-# final decision has yet to be made on the times that daylight saving
-# would begin and end on these dates." As a place holder, use midnight.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2008-06-30):
-# Follow Thorsen on DST in 1982/1983, instead of Shanks & Pottenger.
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-07-10):
-# According to
-# http://www.lexpress.mu/display_article.php?news_id=111216
-# (in French), Mauritius will start and end their DST a few days earlier
-# than previously announced (2008-11-01 to 2009-03-31).  The new start
-# date is 2008-10-26 at 02:00 and the new end date is 2009-03-27 (no time
-# given, but it is probably at either 2 or 3 wall clock time).
-#
-# A little strange though, since the article says that they moved the date
-# to align itself with Europe and USA which also change time on that date,
-# but that means they have not paid attention to what happened in
-# USA/Canada last year (DST ends first Sunday in November). I also wonder
-# why that they end on a Friday, instead of aligning with Europe which
-# changes two days later.
-
-# From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-07-11):
-# Seems that English language article "The revival of daylight saving
-# time: Energy conservation?"- No. 16578 (07/11/2008) was originally
-# published on Monday, June 30, 2008...
-#
-# I guess that article in French "Le gouvernement avance l'introduction
-# de l'heure d'été" stating that DST in Mauritius starting on October 26
-# and ending on March 27, 2009 is the most recent one....
-# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_mauritius02.html
-
-# From Riad M. Hossen Ally (2008-08-03):
-# The Government of Mauritius weblink
-# http://www.gov.mu/portal/site/pmosite/menuitem.4ca0efdee47462e7440a600248a521ca/?content_id=4728ca68b2a5b110VgnVCM1000000a04a8c0RCRD
-# Cabinet Decision of July 18th, 2008 states as follows:
-#
-# 4. ...Cabinet has agreed to the introduction into the National Assembly
-# of the Time Bill which provides for the introduction of summer time in
-# Mauritius. The summer time period which will be of one hour ahead of
-# the standard time, will be aligned with that in Europe and the United
-# States of America. It will start at two o'clock in the morning on the
-# last Sunday of October and will end at two o'clock in the morning on
-# the last Sunday of March the following year. The summer time for the
-# year 2008-2009 will, therefore, be effective as from 26 October 2008
-# and end on 29 March 2009.
-
-# From Ed Maste (2008-10-07):
-# THE TIME BILL (No. XXVII of 2008) Explanatory Memorandum states the
-# beginning / ending of summer time is 2 o'clock standard time in the
-# morning of the last Sunday of October / last Sunday of March.
-# http://www.gov.mu/portal/goc/assemblysite/file/bill2708.pdf
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-06-05):
-# According to several sources, Mauritius will not continue to observe
-# DST the coming summer...
-#
-# Some sources, in French:
-# http://www.defimedia.info/news/946/Rashid-Beebeejaun-:-%C2%AB-L%E2%80%99heure-d%E2%80%99%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ne-sera-pas-appliqu%C3%A9e-cette-ann%C3%A9e-%C2%BB
-# http://lexpress.mu/Story/3398~Beebeejaun---Les-objectifs-d-%C3%A9conomie-d-%C3%A9nergie-de-l-heure-d-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ont-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-atteints-
-#
-# Our wrap-up:
-# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat.html
-
-# From Arthur David Olson (2009-07-11):
-# The "mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat" wrapup includes this:
-# "The trial ended on March 29, 2009, when the clocks moved back by one hour
-# at 2am (or 02:00) local time..."
-
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule Mauritius	1982	only	-	Oct	10	0:00	1:00	-
-Rule Mauritius	1983	only	-	Mar	21	0:00	0	-
-Rule Mauritius	2008	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	-
-Rule Mauritius	2009	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	0	-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Indian/Mauritius	3:50:00 -	LMT	1907 # Port Louis
-			4:00 Mauritius	+04/+05
-# Agalega Is, Rodriguez
-# no information; probably like Indian/Mauritius
-
-# Mayotte
-# See Africa/Nairobi.
-
-# Morocco
-# See the 'europe' file for Spanish Morocco (Africa/Ceuta).
-
-# From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-09):
-# Here is an article that Morocco plan to introduce Daylight Saving Time between
-# 1 June, 2008 and 27 September, 2008.
-#
-# "... Morocco is to save energy by adjusting its clock during summer so it will
-# be one hour ahead of GMT between 1 June and 27 September, according to
-# Communication Minister and Government Spokesman, Khalid Naciri...."
-#
-# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco01.html
-# http://en.afrik.com/news11892.html
-
-# From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-09):
-# The Morocco time change can be confirmed on Morocco web site Maghreb Arabe
-# Presse:
-# http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/box3/morocco_shifts_to_da/view
-#
-# Morocco shifts to daylight time on June 1st through September 27, Govt.
-# spokesman.
-
-# From Patrice Scattolin (2008-05-09):
-# According to this article:
-# https://www.avmaroc.com/actualite/heure-dete-comment-a127896.html
-# (and republished here: <http://www.actu.ma/heure-dete-comment_i127896_0.html>)
-# the changes occur at midnight:
-#
-# Saturday night May 31st at midnight (which in French is to be
-# interpreted as the night between Saturday and Sunday)
-# Sunday night the 28th at midnight
-#
-# Seeing that the 28th is Monday, I am guessing that she intends to say
-# the midnight of the 28th which is the midnight between Sunday and
-# Monday, which jives with other sources that say that it's inclusive
-# June 1st to Sept 27th.
-#
-# The decision was taken by decree *2-08-224 *but I can't find the decree
-# published on the web.
-#
-# It's also confirmed here:
-# http://www.maroc.ma/NR/exeres/FACF141F-D910-44B0-B7FA-6E03733425D1.htm
-# on a government portal as being between June 1st and Sept 27th (not yet
-# posted in English).
-#
-# The following Google query will generate many relevant hits:
-# https://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Conseil+de+gouvernement+maroc+heure+avance&btnG=Search
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-08-27):
-# Morocco will change the clocks back on the midnight between August 31
-# and September 1. They originally planned to observe DST to near the end
-# of September:
-#
-# One article about it (in French):
-# http://www.menara.ma/fr/Actualites/Maroc/Societe/ci.retour_a_l_heure_gmt_a_partir_du_dimanche_31_aout_a_minuit_officiel_.default
-#
-# We have some further details posted here:
-# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-ends-dst-early-2008.html
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-17):
-# Morocco will observe DST from 2009-06-01 00:00 to 2009-08-21 00:00 according
-# to many sources, such as
-# http://news.marweb.com/morocco/entertainment/morocco-daylight-saving.html
-# http://www.medi1sat.ma/fr/depeche.aspx?idp=2312
-# (French)
-#
-# Our summary:
-# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2009.html
-
-# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-17):
-# Here is a link to official document from Royaume du Maroc Premier Ministre,
-# Ministère de la Modernisation des Secteurs Publics
-#
-# Under Article 1 of Royal Decree No. 455-67 of Act 23 safar 1387 (2 June 1967)
-# concerning the amendment of the legal time, the Ministry of Modernization of
-# Public Sectors announced that the official time in the Kingdom will be
-# advanced 60 minutes from Sunday 31 May 2009 at midnight.
-#
-# http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/francais/Actualites_fr/PDF_Actualites_Fr/HeureEte_FR.pdf
-# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco03.html
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-04-13):
-# Several news media in Morocco report that the Ministry of Modernization
-# of Public Sectors has announced that Morocco will have DST from
-# 2010-05-02 to 2010-08-08.
-#
-# Example:
-# http://www.lavieeco.com/actualites/4099-le-maroc-passera-a-l-heure-d-ete-gmt1-le-2-mai.html
-# (French)
-# Our page:
-# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2010.html
-
-# From Dan Abitol (2011-03-30):
-# ...Rules for Africa/Casablanca are the following (24h format)
-# The 3rd April 2011 at 00:00:00, [it] will be 3rd April 01:00:00
-# The 31st July 2011 at 00:59:59, [it] will be 31st July 00:00:00
-# ...Official links of change in morocco
-# The change was broadcast on the FM Radio
-# I ve called ANRT (telecom regulations in Morocco) at
-# +212.537.71.84.00
-# http://www.anrt.net.ma/fr/
-# They said that
-# http://www.map.ma/fr/sections/accueil/l_heure_legale_au_ma/view
-# is the official publication to look at.
-# They said that the decision was already taken.
-#
-# More articles in the press
-# https://www.yabiladi.com/articles/details/5058/secret-l-heure-d-ete-maroc-leve.html
-# http://www.lematin.ma/Actualite/Express/Article.asp?id=148923
-# http://www.lavieeco.com/actualite/Le-Maroc-passe-sur-GMT%2B1-a-partir-de-dim
-
-# From Petr Machata (2011-03-30):
-# They have it written in English here:
-# http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/home/morocco_to_spring_fo/view
-#
-# It says there that "Morocco will resume its standard time on July 31,
-# 2011 at midnight." Now they don't say whether they mean midnight of
-# wall clock time (i.e. 11pm UTC), but that's what I would assume. It has
-# also been like that in the past.
-
-# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2012-03-09):
-# According to Infomédiaire web site from Morocco (infomediaire.ma),
-# on March 9, 2012, (in French) Heure légale:
-# Le Maroc adopte officiellement l'heure d'été
-# http://www.infomediaire.ma/news/maroc/heure-l%C3%A9gale-le-maroc-adopte-officiellement-lheure-d%C3%A9t%C3%A9
-# Governing Council adopted draft decree, that Morocco DST starts on
-# the last Sunday of March (March 25, 2012) and ends on
-# last Sunday of September (September 30, 2012)
-# except the month of Ramadan.
-# or (brief)
-# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco06.html
-
-# From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-10):
-# The infomediaire.ma source indicates that the system is to be in
-# effect every year. It gives 03H00 as the "fall back" time of day;
-# it lacks a "spring forward" time of day; assume 2:00 XXX.
-# Wait on specifying the Ramadan exception for details about
-# start date, start time of day, end date, and end time of day XXX.
-
-# From Christophe Tropamer (2012-03-16):
-# Seen Morocco change again:
-# http://www.le2uminutes.com/actualite.php
-# "...à partir du dernier dimanche d'avril et non fins mars,
-# comme annoncé précédemment."
-
-# From Milamber Space Network (2012-07-17):
-# The official return to GMT is announced by the Moroccan government:
-# http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=288 [in French]
-#
-# Google translation, lightly edited:
-# Back to the standard time of the Kingdom (GMT)
-# Pursuant to Decree No. 2-12-126 issued on 26 Jumada (I) 1433 (April 18,
-# 2012) and in accordance with the order of Mr. President of the
-# Government No. 3-47-12 issued on 24 Sha'ban (11 July 2012), the Ministry
-# of Public Service and Administration Modernization announces the return
-# of the legal time of the Kingdom (GMT) from Friday, July 20, 2012 until
-# Monday, August 20, 2012.  So the time will be delayed by 60 minutes from
-# 3:00 am Friday, July 20, 2012 and will again be advanced by 60 minutes
-# August 20, 2012 from 2:00 am.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2013-03-06):
-# Morocco's daylight-saving transitions due to Ramadan seem to be
-# announced a bit in advance.  On 2012-07-11 the Moroccan government
-# announced that year's Ramadan daylight-saving transitions would be
-# 2012-07-20 and 2012-08-20; see
-# http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=288
-
-# From Andrew Paprocki (2013-07-02):
-# Morocco announced that the year's Ramadan daylight-savings
-# transitions would be 2013-07-07 and 2013-08-10; see:
-# http://www.maroc.ma/en/news/morocco-suspends-daylight-saving-time-july-7-aug10
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2013-09-28):
-# Morocco extends DST by one month, on very short notice, just 1 day
-# before it was going to end.  There is a new decree (2.13.781) for
-# this, where DST from now on goes from last Sunday of March at 02:00
-# to last Sunday of October at 03:00, similar to EU rules.  Official
-# source (French):
-# http://www.maroc.gov.ma/fr/actualites/lhoraire-dete-gmt1-maintenu-jusquau-27-octobre-2013
-# Another source (specifying the time for start and end in the decree):
-# http://www.lemag.ma/Heure-d-ete-au-Maroc-jusqu-au-27-octobre_a75620.html
-
-# From Sebastien Willemijns (2014-03-18):
-# http://www.afriquinfos.com/articles/2014/3/18/maroc-heure-dete-avancez-tous-horloges-247891.asp
-
-# From Milamber Space Network (2014-06-05):
-# The Moroccan government has recently announced that the country will return
-# to standard time at 03:00 on Saturday, June 28, 2014 local time....  DST
-# will resume again at 02:00 on Saturday, August 2, 2014....
-# http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=586
-
-# From Milamber (2015-06-08):
-# (Google Translation) The hour will thus be delayed 60 minutes
-# Sunday, June 14 at 3:00, the ministry said in a statement, adding
-# that the time will be advanced again 60 minutes Sunday, July 19,
-# 2015 at 2:00.  The move comes under 2.12.126 Decree of 26 Jumada I
-# 1433 (18 April 2012) and the decision of the Head of Government of
-# 16 N. 3-29-15 Chaaban 1435 (4 June 2015).
-# Source (french):
-# https://lnt.ma/le-maroc-reculera-dune-heure-le-dimanche-14-juin/
-#
-# From Milamber (2015-06-09):
-# http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=863
-#
-# From Michael Deckers (2015-06-09):
-# [The gov.ma announcement] would (probably) make the switch on 2015-07-19 go
-# from 03:00 to 04:00 rather than from 02:00 to 03:00, as in the patch....
-# I think the patch is correct and the quoted text is wrong; the text in
-# <https://lnt.ma/le-maroc-reculera-dune-heure-le-dimanche-14-juin/> agrees
-# with the patch.
-
-# From Mohamed Essedik Najd (2018-10-26):
-# Today, a Moroccan government council approved the perpetual addition
-# of 60 minutes to the regular Moroccan timezone.
-# From Matt Johnson (2018-10-28):
-# http://www.sgg.gov.ma/Portals/1/BO/2018/BO_6720-bis_Ar.pdf
-#
-# From Maamar Abdelkader (2018-11-01):
-# We usually move clocks back the previous week end and come back to the +1
-# the week end after....  The government does not announce yet the decision
-# about this temporary change.  But it s 99% sure that it will be the case,
-# as in previous years.  An unofficial survey was done these days, showing
-# that 64% of asked peopke are ok for moving from +1 to +0 during Ramadan.
-# https://leconomiste.com/article/1035870-enquete-l-economiste-sunergia-64-des-marocains-plebiscitent-le-gmt-pendant-ramadan
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-11-01):
-# For now, guess that Morocco will fall back at 03:00 the last Sunday
-# before Ramadan, and spring forward at 02:00 the first Sunday after
-# Ramadan, as this has been the practice since 2012.  To implement this,
-# transition dates for 2019 through 2037 were determined by running the
-# following program under GNU Emacs 26.1.
-# (let ((islamic-year 1440))
-#   (require 'cal-islam)
-#   (while (< islamic-year 1460)
-#     (let ((a (calendar-islamic-to-absolute (list 9 1 islamic-year)))
-#           (b (calendar-islamic-to-absolute (list 10 1 islamic-year)))
-#           (sunday 0))
-#       (while (/= sunday (mod (setq a (1- a)) 7)))
-#       (while (/= sunday (mod b 7))
-#         (setq b (1+ b)))
-#       (setq a (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute a))
-#       (setq b (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute b))
-#       (insert
-#        (format
-#         (concat "Rule\tMorocco\t%d\tonly\t-\t%s\t%2d\t 3:00\t-1:00\t-\n"
-#                 "Rule\tMorocco\t%d\tonly\t-\t%s\t%2d\t 2:00\t0\t-\n")
-#         (car (cdr (cdr a))) (calendar-month-name (car a) t) (car (cdr a))
-#         (car (cdr (cdr b))) (calendar-month-name (car b) t) (car (cdr b)))))
-#     (setq islamic-year (+ 1 islamic-year))))
-
-# RULE	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Morocco	1939	only	-	Sep	12	 0:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	1939	only	-	Nov	19	 0:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	1940	only	-	Feb	25	 0:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	1945	only	-	Nov	18	 0:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	1950	only	-	Jun	11	 0:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	1950	only	-	Oct	29	 0:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	1967	only	-	Jun	 3	12:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	1967	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	1974	only	-	Jun	24	 0:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	1974	only	-	Sep	 1	 0:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	1976	1977	-	May	 1	 0:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	1976	only	-	Aug	 1	 0:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	1977	only	-	Sep	28	 0:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	1978	only	-	Jun	 1	 0:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	1978	only	-	Aug	 4	 0:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2008	only	-	Jun	 1	 0:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2008	only	-	Sep	 1	 0:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2009	only	-	Jun	 1	 0:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2009	only	-	Aug	21	 0:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2010	only	-	May	 2	 0:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2010	only	-	Aug	 8	 0:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2011	only	-	Apr	 3	 0:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2011	only	-	Jul	31	 0:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2012	2013	-	Apr	lastSun	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2012	only	-	Jul	20	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2012	only	-	Aug	20	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2012	only	-	Sep	30	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2013	only	-	Jul	 7	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2013	only	-	Aug	10	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2013	2017	-	Oct	lastSun	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2014	2018	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2014	only	-	Jun	28	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2014	only	-	Aug	 2	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2015	only	-	Jun	14	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2015	only	-	Jul	19	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2016	only	-	Jun	 5	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2016	only	-	Jul	10	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2017	only	-	May	21	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2017	only	-	Jul	 2	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2018	only	-	May	13	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2018	only	-	Jun	17	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2019	only	-	May	 5	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2019	only	-	Jun	 9	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2020	only	-	Apr	19	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2020	only	-	May	24	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2021	only	-	Apr	11	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2021	only	-	May	16	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2022	only	-	Mar	27	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2022	only	-	May	 8	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2023	only	-	Mar	19	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2023	only	-	Apr	23	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2024	only	-	Mar	10	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2024	only	-	Apr	14	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2025	only	-	Feb	23	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2025	only	-	Apr	 6	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2026	only	-	Feb	15	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2026	only	-	Mar	22	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2027	only	-	Feb	 7	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2027	only	-	Mar	14	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2028	only	-	Jan	23	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2028	only	-	Feb	27	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2029	only	-	Jan	14	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2029	only	-	Feb	18	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2029	only	-	Dec	30	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2030	only	-	Feb	10	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2030	only	-	Dec	22	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2031	only	-	Jan	26	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2031	only	-	Dec	14	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2032	only	-	Jan	18	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2032	only	-	Nov	28	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2033	only	-	Jan	 9	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2033	only	-	Nov	20	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2033	only	-	Dec	25	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2034	only	-	Nov	 5	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2034	only	-	Dec	17	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2035	only	-	Oct	28	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2035	only	-	Dec	 2	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2036	only	-	Oct	19	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2036	only	-	Nov	23	 2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Morocco	2037	only	-	Oct	 4	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Morocco	2037	only	-	Nov	15	 2:00	1:00	-
-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Africa/Casablanca	-0:30:20 -	LMT	1913 Oct 26
-			 0:00	Morocco	+00/+01	1984 Mar 16
-			 1:00	-	+01	1986
-			 0:00	Morocco	+00/+01	2018 Oct 28  3:00
-			 0:00	Morocco	+00/+01
-
-# Western Sahara
-#
-# From Gwillim Law (2013-10-22):
-# A correspondent who is usually well informed about time zone matters
-# ... says that Western Sahara observes daylight saving time, just as
-# Morocco does.
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2013-10-23):
-# Assume that this has been true since Western Sahara switched to GMT,
-# since most of it was then controlled by Morocco.
-
-Zone Africa/El_Aaiun	-0:52:48 -	LMT	1934 Jan # El Aaiún
-			-1:00	-	-01	1976 Apr 14
-			 0:00	Morocco	+00/+01	2018 Oct 28  3:00
-			 0:00	Morocco	+00/+01
-
-# Mozambique
-#
-# Shanks gives 1903-03-01 for the transition to CAT.
-# Perhaps the 1911-05-26 Portuguese decree
-# https://dre.pt/pdf1sdip/1911/05/12500/23132313.pdf
-# merely made it official?
-#
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Maputo	2:10:20 -	LMT	1903 Mar
-			2:00	-	CAT
-Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Blantyre	# Malawi
-Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Bujumbura	# Burundi
-Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Gaborone	# Botswana
-Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Harare	# Zimbabwe
-Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Kigali	# Rwanda
-Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Lubumbashi	# E Dem. Rep. of Congo
-Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Lusaka	# Zambia
-
-
-# Namibia
-
-# From Arthur David Olson (2017-08-09):
-# The text of the "Namibia Time Act, 1994" is available online at
-# www.lac.org.na/laws/1994/811.pdf
-# and includes this nugget:
-# Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (2) of section 1, the
-# first winter period after the commencement of this Act shall
-# commence at OOhOO on Monday 21 March 1994 and shall end at 02h00 on
-# Sunday 4 September 1994.
-
-# From Michael Deckers (2017-04-06):
-# ... both summer and winter time are called "standard"
-# (which differs from the use in Ireland) ...
-
-# From Petronella Sibeene (2007-03-30):
-# http://allafrica.com/stories/200703300178.html
-# While the entire country changes its time, Katima Mulilo and other
-# settlements in Caprivi unofficially will not because the sun there
-# rises and sets earlier compared to other regions.  Chief of
-# Forecasting Riaan van Zyl explained that the far eastern parts of
-# the country are close to 40 minutes earlier in sunrise than the rest
-# of the country.
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2017-02-22):
-# Although the Zambezi Region (formerly known as Caprivi) informally
-# observes Botswana time, we have no details about historical practice.
-# In the meantime people there can use Africa/Gaborone.
-# See: Immanuel S. The Namibian. 2017-02-23.
-# https://www.namibian.com.na/51480/read/Time-change-divides-lawmakers
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2017-08-09):
-# Namibia is going to change their time zone to what is now their DST:
-# https://www.newera.com.na/2017/02/23/namibias-winter-time-might-be-repealed/
-# This video is from the government decision:
-# https://www.nbc.na/news/na-passes-namibia-time-bill-repealing-1994-namibia-time-act.8665
-# We have made the assumption so far that they will change their time zone at
-# the same time they would normally start DST, the first Sunday in September:
-# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/namibia-new-time-zone.html
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2017-04-09):
-# Before the change, summer and winter time were both standard time legally.
-# However in common parlance, winter time was considered to be DST.  See, e.g.:
-# http://www.nbc.na/news/namibias-winter-time-could-be-scrapped.2706
-# https://zone.my.na/news/times-are-changing-in-namibia
-# https://www.newera.com.na/2017/02/23/namibias-winter-time-might-be-repealed/
-# Use plain "WAT" and "CAT" for the time zone abbreviations, to be compatible
-# with Namibia's neighbors.
-
-# RULE	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-# Vanguard section, for zic and other parsers that support negative DST.
-#Rule	Namibia	1994	only	-	Mar	21	0:00	-1:00	WAT
-#Rule	Namibia	1994	2017	-	Sep	Sun>=1	2:00	0	CAT
-#Rule	Namibia	1995	2017	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	-1:00	WAT
-# Rearguard section, for parsers that do not support negative DST.
-Rule	Namibia	1994	only	-	Mar	21	0:00	0	WAT
-Rule	Namibia	1994	2017	-	Sep	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	CAT
-Rule	Namibia	1995	2017	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	0	WAT
-# End of rearguard section.
-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Windhoek	1:08:24 -	LMT	1892 Feb 8
-			1:30	-	+0130	1903 Mar
-			2:00	-	SAST	1942 Sep 20  2:00
-			2:00	1:00	SAST	1943 Mar 21  2:00
-			2:00	-	SAST	1990 Mar 21 # independence
-# Vanguard section, for zic and other parsers that support negative DST.
-#			2:00	Namibia	%s
-# Rearguard section, for parsers that do not support negative DST.
-			2:00	-	CAT	1994 Mar 21  0:00
-# From Paul Eggert (2017-04-07):
-# The official date of the 2017 rule change was 2017-10-24.  See:
-# http://www.lac.org.na/laws/annoSTAT/Namibian%20Time%20Act%209%20of%202017.pdf
-			1:00	Namibia	%s	2017 Oct 24
-			2:00	-	CAT
-# End of rearguard section.
-
-# Niger
-# See Africa/Lagos.
-
-# Nigeria
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Lagos	0:13:36 -	LMT	1919 Sep
-			1:00	-	WAT
-Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Bangui	     # Central African Republic
-Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Brazzaville # Rep. of the Congo
-Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Douala	     # Cameroon
-Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Kinshasa    # Dem. Rep. of the Congo (west)
-Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Libreville  # Gabon
-Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Luanda	     # Angola
-Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Malabo	     # Equatorial Guinea
-Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Niamey	     # Niger
-Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Porto-Novo  # Benin
-
-# Réunion
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Indian/Reunion	3:41:52 -	LMT	1911 Jun # Saint-Denis
-			4:00	-	+04
-#
-# Crozet Islands also observes Réunion time; see the 'antarctica' file.
-#
-# Scattered Islands (Îles Éparses) administered from Réunion are as follows.
-# The following information about them is taken from
-# Îles Éparses (<http://www.outre-mer.gouv.fr/domtom/ile.htm>, 1997-07-22,
-# in French; no longer available as of 1999-08-17).
-# We have no info about their time zone histories.
-#
-# Bassas da India - uninhabited
-# Europa Island - inhabited from 1905 to 1910 by two families
-# Glorioso Is - inhabited until at least 1958
-# Juan de Nova - uninhabited
-# Tromelin - inhabited until at least 1958
-
-# Rwanda
-# See Africa/Maputo.
-
-# St Helena
-# See Africa/Abidjan.
-# The other parts of the St Helena territory are similar:
-#	Tristan da Cunha: on GMT, say Whitman and the CIA
-#	Ascension: on GMT, say the USNO (1995-12-21) and the CIA
-#	Gough (scientific station since 1955; sealers wintered previously):
-#		on GMT, says the CIA
-#	Inaccessible, Nightingale: uninhabited
-
-# São Tomé and Príncipe
-
-# See Europe/Lisbon for info about the 1912 transition.
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2018-01-08):
-# Multiple sources tell that São Tomé changed from UTC to UTC+1 as
-# they entered the year 2018.
-# From Michael Deckers (2018-01-08):
-# the switch is from 01:00 to 02:00 ... [Decree No. 25/2017]
-# http://www.mnec.gov.st/index.php/publicacoes/documentos/file/90-decreto-lei-n-25-2017
-
-# From Vadim Nasardinov (2018-12-29):
-# São Tomé and Príncipe is about to do the following on Jan 1, 2019:
-# https://www.stp-press.st/2018/12/05/governo-jesus-ja-decidiu-repor-hora-legal-sao-tomense/
-#
-# From Michael Deckers (2018-12-30):
-# https://www.legis-palop.org/download.jsp?idFile=102818
-# ... [The legal time of the country, which coincides with universal
-# coordinated time, will be restituted at 2 o'clock on day 1 of January, 2019.]
-
-Zone	Africa/Sao_Tome	 0:26:56 -	LMT	1884
-			-0:36:45 -	LMT	1912 Jan  1 00:00u # Lisbon MT
-			 0:00	-	GMT	2018 Jan  1 01:00
-			 1:00	-	WAT	2019 Jan  1 02:00
-			 0:00	-	GMT
-
-# Senegal
-# See Africa/Abidjan.
-
-# Seychelles
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Indian/Mahe	3:41:48 -	LMT	1906 Jun # Victoria
-			4:00	-	+04
-# From Paul Eggert (2001-05-30):
-# Aldabra, Farquhar, and Desroches, originally dependencies of the
-# Seychelles, were transferred to the British Indian Ocean Territory
-# in 1965 and returned to Seychelles control in 1976.  We don't know
-# whether this affected their time zone, so omit this for now.
-# Possibly the islands were uninhabited.
-
-# Sierra Leone
-# See Africa/Abidjan.
-
-# Somalia
-# See Africa/Nairobi.
-
-# South Africa
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	SA	1942	1943	-	Sep	Sun>=15	2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	SA	1943	1944	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00	0	-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Africa/Johannesburg 1:52:00 -	LMT	1892 Feb 8
-			1:30	-	SAST	1903 Mar
-			2:00	SA	SAST
-Link Africa/Johannesburg Africa/Maseru	   # Lesotho
-Link Africa/Johannesburg Africa/Mbabane    # Eswatini
-#
-# Marion and Prince Edward Is
-# scientific station since 1947
-# no information
-
-# Sudan
-
-# From <http://www.sunanews.net/sn13jane.html>
-# Sudan News Agency (2000-01-13),
-# also reported by Michaël De Beukelaer-Dossche via Steffen Thorsen:
-# Clocks will be moved ahead for 60 minutes all over the Sudan as of noon
-# Saturday....  This was announced Thursday by Caretaker State Minister for
-# Manpower Abdul-Rahman Nur-Eddin.
-
-# From Ahmed Atyya, National Telecommunications Corp. (NTC), Sudan (2017-10-17):
-# ... the Republic of Sudan is going to change the time zone from (GMT+3:00)
-# to (GMT+ 2:00) starting from Wednesday 1 November 2017.
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2017-10-18):
-# A scanned copy (in Arabic) of Cabinet Resolution No. 352 for the
-# year 2017 can be found as an attachment in email today from Yahia
-# Abdalla of NTC, archived at:
-# https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2017-October/025333.html
-
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Sudan	1970	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Sudan	1970	1985	-	Oct	15	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Sudan	1971	only	-	Apr	30	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Sudan	1972	1985	-	Apr	lastSun	0:00	1:00	S
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Khartoum	2:10:08 -	LMT	1931
-			2:00	Sudan	CA%sT	2000 Jan 15 12:00
-			3:00	-	EAT	2017 Nov  1
-			2:00	-	CAT
-
-# South Sudan
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Juba	2:06:28 -	LMT	1931
-			2:00	Sudan	CA%sT	2000 Jan 15 12:00
-			3:00	-	EAT
-
-# Tanzania
-# See Africa/Nairobi.
-
-# Togo
-# See Africa/Abidjan.
-
-# Tunisia
-
-# From Gwillim Law (2005-04-30):
-# My correspondent, Risto Nykänen, has alerted me to another adoption of DST,
-# this time in Tunisia.  According to Yahoo France News
-# <http://fr.news.yahoo.com/050426/5/4dumk.html>, in a story attributed to AP
-# and dated 2005-04-26, "Tunisia has decided to advance its official time by
-# one hour, starting on Sunday, May 1.  Henceforth, Tunisian time will be
-# UTC+2 instead of UTC+1.  The change will take place at 23:00 UTC next
-# Saturday."  (My translation)
-#
-# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-05-02):
-# La Presse, the first national daily newspaper ...
-# http://www.lapresse.tn/archives/archives280405/actualites/lheure.html
-# ... DST for 2005: on: Sun May 1 0h standard time, off: Fri Sept. 30,
-# 1h standard time.
-#
-# From Atef Loukil (2006-03-28):
-# The daylight saving time will be the same each year:
-# Beginning      : the last Sunday of March at 02:00
-# Ending         : the last Sunday of October at 03:00 ...
-# http://www.tap.info.tn/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1188&Itemid=50
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-16):
-# According to several news sources, Tunisia will not observe DST this year.
-# (Arabic)
-# http://www.elbashayer.com/?page=viewn&nid=42546
-# https://www.babnet.net/kiwidetail-15295.asp
-#
-# We have also confirmed this with the US embassy in Tunisia.
-# We have a wrap-up about this on the following page:
-# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/tunisia-cancels-dst-2009.html
-
-# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-17):
-# Here is a link to Tunis Afrique Presse News Agency
-#
-# Standard time to be kept the whole year long (tap.info.tn):
-#
-# (in English)
-# http://www.tap.info.tn/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=26813&Itemid=157
-#
-# (in Arabic)
-# http://www.tap.info.tn/ar/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=61240&Itemid=1
-
-# From Arthur David Olson (2009-03-18):
-# The Tunis Afrique Presse News Agency notice contains this: "This measure is
-# due to the fact that the fasting month of Ramadan coincides with the period
-# concerned by summer time.  Therefore, the standard time will be kept
-# unchanged the whole year long."  So foregoing DST seems to be an exception
-# (albeit one that may be repeated in the future).
-
-# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-27):
-# According to some news reports Tunis confirmed not to use DST in 2010
-#
-# (translation):
-# "The Tunisian government has decided to abandon DST, which was scheduled on
-# Sunday...
-# Tunisian authorities had suspended the DST for the first time last year also
-# coincided with the month of Ramadan..."
-#
-# (in Arabic)
-# http://www.moheet.com/show_news.aspx?nid=358861&pg=1
-# http://www.almadenahnews.com/newss/news.php?c=118&id=38036
-# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_tunis02.html
-
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Tunisia	1939	only	-	Apr	15	23:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Tunisia	1939	only	-	Nov	18	23:00s	0	-
-Rule	Tunisia	1940	only	-	Feb	25	23:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Tunisia	1941	only	-	Oct	 6	 0:00	0	-
-Rule	Tunisia	1942	only	-	Mar	 9	 0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Tunisia	1942	only	-	Nov	 2	 3:00	0	-
-Rule	Tunisia	1943	only	-	Mar	29	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Tunisia	1943	only	-	Apr	17	 2:00	0	-
-Rule	Tunisia	1943	only	-	Apr	25	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Tunisia	1943	only	-	Oct	 4	 2:00	0	-
-Rule	Tunisia	1944	1945	-	Apr	Mon>=1	 2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Tunisia	1944	only	-	Oct	 8	 0:00	0	-
-Rule	Tunisia	1945	only	-	Sep	16	 0:00	0	-
-Rule	Tunisia	1977	only	-	Apr	30	 0:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Tunisia	1977	only	-	Sep	24	 0:00s	0	-
-Rule	Tunisia	1978	only	-	May	 1	 0:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Tunisia	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00s	0	-
-Rule	Tunisia	1988	only	-	Jun	 1	 0:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Tunisia	1988	1990	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00s	0	-
-Rule	Tunisia	1989	only	-	Mar	26	 0:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Tunisia	1990	only	-	May	 1	 0:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Tunisia	2005	only	-	May	 1	 0:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Tunisia	2005	only	-	Sep	30	 1:00s	0	-
-Rule	Tunisia	2006	2008	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Tunisia	2006	2008	-	Oct	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
-
-# Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
-# more precise 0:09:21.
-# Shanks & Pottenger say the 1911 switch was on Mar 9; go with Howse's Mar 11.
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Africa/Tunis	0:40:44 -	LMT	1881 May 12
-			0:09:21	-	PMT	1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
-			1:00	Tunisia	CE%sT
-
-# Uganda
-# See Africa/Nairobi.
-
-# Zambia
-# Zimbabwe
-# See Africa/Maputo.
--- a/test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata/antarctica	Tue Jul 23 15:33:52 2019 -0400
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,364 +0,0 @@
-#
-# DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
-#
-# This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
-# under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
-# published by the Free Software Foundation.
-#
-# This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
-# ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
-# FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
-# version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
-# accompanied this code).
-#
-# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
-# 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
-# Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
-#
-# Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
-# or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
-# questions.
-#
-# tzdb data for Antarctica and environs
-
-# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
-# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (1999-11-15):
-# To keep things manageable, we list only locations occupied year-round; see
-# COMNAP - Stations and Bases
-# http://www.comnap.aq/comnap/comnap.nsf/P/Stations/
-# and
-# Summary of the Peri-Antarctic Islands (1998-07-23)
-# http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/bob/periant.htm
-# for information.
-# Unless otherwise specified, we have no time zone information.
-
-# FORMAT is '-00' and GMTOFF is 0 for locations while uninhabited.
-
-# Argentina - year-round bases
-# Belgrano II, Confin Coast, -770227-0343737, since 1972-02-05
-# Carlini, Potter Cove, King George Island, -6414-0602320, since 1982-01
-# Esperanza, Hope Bay, -6323-05659, since 1952-12-17
-# Marambio, -6414-05637, since 1969-10-29
-# Orcadas, Laurie I, -6016-04444, since 1904-02-22
-# San Martín, Barry I, -6808-06706, since 1951-03-21
-#	(except 1960-03 / 1976-03-21)
-
-# Australia - territories
-# Heard Island, McDonald Islands (uninhabited)
-#	previously sealers and scientific personnel wintered
-#	Margaret Turner reports
-#	https://web.archive.org/web/20021204222245/http://www.dstc.qut.edu.au/DST/marg/daylight.html
-#	(1999-09-30) that they're UT +05, with no DST;
-#	presumably this is when they have visitors.
-#
-# year-round bases
-# Casey, Bailey Peninsula, -6617+11032, since 1969
-# Davis, Vestfold Hills, -6835+07759, since 1957-01-13
-#	(except 1964-11 - 1969-02)
-# Mawson, Holme Bay, -6736+06253, since 1954-02-13
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-11):
-# Three Australian stations in Antarctica have changed their time zone:
-# Casey moved from UTC+8 to UTC+11
-# Davis moved from UTC+7 to UTC+5
-# Mawson moved from UTC+6 to UTC+5
-# The changes occurred on 2009-10-18 at 02:00 (local times).
-#
-# Government source: (Australian Antarctic Division)
-# http://www.aad.gov.au/default.asp?casid=37079
-#
-# We have more background information here:
-# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/antarctica-new-times.html
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-10):
-# We got these changes from the Australian Antarctic Division: ...
-#
-# - Casey station reverted to its normal time of UTC+8 on 5 March 2010.
-# The change to UTC+11 is being considered as a regular summer thing but
-# has not been decided yet.
-#
-# - Davis station will revert to its normal time of UTC+7 at 10 March 2010
-# 20:00 UTC.
-#
-# - Mawson station stays on UTC+5.
-#
-# Background:
-# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/antartica-time-changes-2010.html
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2016-10-28):
-# Australian Antarctica Division informed us that Casey changed time
-# zone to UTC+11 in "the morning of 22nd October 2016".
-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Antarctica/Casey	0	-	-00	1969
-			8:00	-	+08	2009 Oct 18  2:00
-			11:00	-	+11	2010 Mar  5  2:00
-			8:00	-	+08	2011 Oct 28  2:00
-			11:00	-	+11	2012 Feb 21 17:00u
-			8:00	-	+08	2016 Oct 22
-			11:00	-	+11	2018 Mar 11  4:00
-			8:00	-	+08
-Zone Antarctica/Davis	0	-	-00	1957 Jan 13
-			7:00	-	+07	1964 Nov
-			0	-	-00	1969 Feb
-			7:00	-	+07	2009 Oct 18  2:00
-			5:00	-	+05	2010 Mar 10 20:00u
-			7:00	-	+07	2011 Oct 28  2:00
-			5:00	-	+05	2012 Feb 21 20:00u
-			7:00	-	+07
-Zone Antarctica/Mawson	0	-	-00	1954 Feb 13
-			6:00	-	+06	2009 Oct 18  2:00
-			5:00	-	+05
-# References:
-# Casey Weather (1998-02-26)
-# http://www.antdiv.gov.au/aad/exop/sfo/casey/casey_aws.html
-# Davis Station, Antarctica (1998-02-26)
-# http://www.antdiv.gov.au/aad/exop/sfo/davis/video.html
-# Mawson Station, Antarctica (1998-02-25)
-# http://www.antdiv.gov.au/aad/exop/sfo/mawson/video.html
-
-# Belgium - year-round base
-# Princess Elisabeth, Queen Maud Land, -713412+0231200, since 2007
-
-# Brazil - year-round base
-# Ferraz, King George Island, -6205+05824, since 1983/4
-
-# Bulgaria - year-round base
-# St. Kliment Ohridski, Livingston Island, -623829-0602153, since 1988
-
-# Chile - year-round bases and towns
-# Escudero, South Shetland Is, -621157-0585735, since 1994
-# Frei Montalva, King George Island, -6214-05848, since 1969-03-07
-# O'Higgins, Antarctic Peninsula, -6319-05704, since 1948-02
-# Prat, -6230-05941
-# Villa Las Estrellas (a town), around the Frei base, since 1984-04-09
-# These locations employ Region of Magallanes time; use
-# TZ='America/Punta_Arenas'.
-
-# China - year-round bases
-# Great Wall, King George Island, -6213-05858, since 1985-02-20
-# Zhongshan, Larsemann Hills, Prydz Bay, -6922+07623, since 1989-02-26
-
-# France - year-round bases (also see "France & Italy")
-#
-# From Antoine Leca (1997-01-20):
-# Time data entries are from Nicole Pailleau at the IFRTP
-# (French Institute for Polar Research and Technology).
-# She confirms that French Southern Territories and Terre Adélie bases
-# don't observe daylight saving time, even if Terre Adélie supplies came
-# from Tasmania.
-#
-# French Southern Territories with year-round inhabitants
-#
-# Alfred Faure, Possession Island, Crozet Islands, -462551+0515152, since 1964;
-#	sealing & whaling stations operated variously 1802/1911+;
-#	see Indian/Reunion.
-#
-# Martin-de-Viviès, Amsterdam Island, -374105+0773155, since 1950
-# Port-aux-Français, Kerguelen Islands, -492110+0701303, since 1951;
-#	whaling & sealing station operated 1908/1914, 1920/1929, and 1951/1956
-#
-# St Paul Island - near Amsterdam, uninhabited
-#	fishing stations operated variously 1819/1931
-#
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Indian/Kerguelen	0	-	-00	1950 # Port-aux-Français
-			5:00	-	+05
-#
-# year-round base in the main continent
-# Dumont d'Urville, Île des Pétrels, -6640+14001, since 1956-11
-# <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dumont_d'Urville_Station> (2005-12-05)
-#
-# Another base at Port-Martin, 50km east, began operation in 1947.
-# It was destroyed by fire on 1952-01-14.
-#
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Antarctica/DumontDUrville 0 -	-00	1947
-			10:00	-	+10	1952 Jan 14
-			0	-	-00	1956 Nov
-			10:00	-	+10
-
-# France & Italy - year-round base
-# Concordia, -750600+1232000, since 2005
-
-# Germany - year-round base
-# Neumayer III, -704080-0081602, since 2009
-
-# India - year-round bases
-# Bharati, -692428+0761114, since 2012
-# Maitri, -704558+0114356, since 1989
-
-# Italy - year-round base (also see "France & Italy")
-# Zuchelli, Terra Nova Bay, -744140+1640647, since 1986
-
-# Japan - year-round bases
-# Syowa (also known as Showa), -690022+0393524, since 1957
-#
-# From Hideyuki Suzuki (1999-02-06):
-# In all Japanese stations, +0300 is used as the standard time.
-#
-# Syowa station, which is the first antarctic station of Japan,
-# was established on 1957-01-29.  Since Syowa station is still the main
-# station of Japan, it's appropriate for the principal location.
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Antarctica/Syowa	0	-	-00	1957 Jan 29
-			3:00	-	+03
-# See:
-# NIPR Antarctic Research Activities (1999-08-17)
-# http://www.nipr.ac.jp/english/ara01.html
-
-# S Korea - year-round base
-# Jang Bogo, Terra Nova Bay, -743700+1641205 since 2014
-# King Sejong, King George Island, -6213-05847, since 1988
-
-# New Zealand - claims
-# Balleny Islands (never inhabited)
-# Scott Island (never inhabited)
-#
-# year-round base
-# Scott Base, Ross Island, since 1957-01.
-# See Pacific/Auckland.
-
-# Norway - territories
-# Bouvet (never inhabited)
-#
-# claims
-# Peter I Island (never inhabited)
-#
-# year-round base
-# Troll, Queen Maud Land, -720041+0023206, since 2005-02-12
-#
-# From Paul-Inge Flakstad (2014-03-10):
-# I recently had a long dialog about this with the developer of timegenie.com.
-# In the absence of specific dates, he decided to choose some likely ones:
-#   GMT +1 - From March 1 to the last Sunday in March
-#   GMT +2 - From the last Sunday in March until the last Sunday in October
-#   GMT +1 - From the last Sunday in October until November 7
-#   GMT +0 - From November 7 until March 1
-# The dates for switching to and from UTC+0 will probably not be absolutely
-# correct, but they should be quite close to the actual dates.
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2014-03-21):
-# The CET-switching Troll rules require zic from tz 2014b or later, so as
-# suggested by Bengt-Inge Larsson comment them out for now, and approximate
-# with only UTC and CEST.  Uncomment them when 2014b is more prevalent.
-#
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-#Rule	Troll	2005	max	-	Mar	 1	1:00u	1:00	+01
-Rule	Troll	2005	max	-	Mar	lastSun	1:00u	2:00	+02
-#Rule	Troll	2005	max	-	Oct	lastSun	1:00u	1:00	+01
-#Rule	Troll	2004	max	-	Nov	 7	1:00u	0:00	+00
-# Remove the following line when uncommenting the above '#Rule' lines.
-Rule	Troll	2004	max	-	Oct	lastSun	1:00u	0:00	+00
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Antarctica/Troll	0	-	-00	2005 Feb 12
-			0:00	Troll	%s
-
-# Poland - year-round base
-# Arctowski, King George Island, -620945-0582745, since 1977
-
-# Romania - year-bound base
-# Law-Racoviță, Larsemann Hills, -692319+0762251, since 1986
-
-# Russia - year-round bases
-# Bellingshausen, King George Island, -621159-0585337, since 1968-02-22
-# Mirny, Davis coast, -6633+09301, since 1956-02
-# Molodezhnaya, Alasheyev Bay, -6740+04551,
-#	year-round from 1962-02 to 1999-07-01
-# Novolazarevskaya, Queen Maud Land, -7046+01150,
-#	year-round from 1960/61 to 1992
-
-# Vostok, since 1957-12-16, temporarily closed 1994-02/1994-11
-# From Craig Mundell (1994-12-15):
-# http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/antarctica/QA/computers/Directions,Time,ZIP
-# Vostok, which is one of the Russian stations, is set on the same
-# time as Moscow, Russia.
-#
-# From Lee Hotz (2001-03-08):
-# I queried the folks at Columbia who spent the summer at Vostok and this is
-# what they had to say about time there:
-# "in the US Camp (East Camp) we have been on New Zealand (McMurdo)
-# time, which is 12 hours ahead of GMT. The Russian Station Vostok was
-# 6 hours behind that (although only 2 miles away, i.e. 6 hours ahead
-# of GMT). This is a time zone I think two hours east of Moscow. The
-# natural time zone is in between the two: 8 hours ahead of GMT."
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2001-05-04):
-# This seems to be hopelessly confusing, so I asked Lee Hotz about it
-# in person.  He said that some Antarctic locations set their local
-# time so that noon is the warmest part of the day, and that this
-# changes during the year and does not necessarily correspond to mean
-# solar noon.  So the Vostok time might have been whatever the clocks
-# happened to be during their visit.  So we still don't really know what time
-# it is at Vostok.  But we'll guess +06.
-#
-Zone Antarctica/Vostok	0	-	-00	1957 Dec 16
-			6:00	-	+06
-
-# S Africa - year-round bases
-# Marion Island, -4653+03752
-# SANAE IV, Vesleskarvet, Queen Maud Land, -714022-0025026, since 1997
-
-# Ukraine - year-round base
-# Vernadsky (formerly Faraday), Galindez Island, -651445-0641526, since 1954
-
-# United Kingdom
-#
-# British Antarctic Territories (BAT) claims
-# South Orkney Islands
-#	scientific station from 1903
-#	whaling station at Signy I 1920/1926
-# South Shetland Islands
-#
-# year-round bases
-# Bird Island, South Georgia, -5400-03803, since 1983
-# Deception Island, -6259-06034, whaling station 1912/1931,
-#	scientific station 1943/1967,
-#	previously sealers and a scientific expedition wintered by accident,
-#	and a garrison was deployed briefly
-# Halley, Coates Land, -7535-02604, since 1956-01-06
-#	Halley is on a moving ice shelf and is periodically relocated
-#	so that it is never more than 10km from its nominal location.
-# Rothera, Adelaide Island, -6734-6808, since 1976-12-01
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2002-10-22)
-# <http://webexhibits.org/daylightsaving/g.html> says Rothera is -03 all year.
-#
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Antarctica/Rothera	0	-	-00	1976 Dec  1
-			-3:00	-	-03
-
-# Uruguay - year round base
-# Artigas, King George Island, -621104-0585107
-
-# USA - year-round bases
-#
-# Palmer, Anvers Island, since 1965 (moved 2 miles in 1968)
-# See 'southamerica' for Antarctica/Palmer, since it uses South American DST.
-#
-# McMurdo Station, Ross Island, since 1955-12
-# Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, continuously occupied since 1956-11-20
-#
-# From Chris Carrier (1996-06-27):
-# Siple, the first commander of the South Pole station,
-# stated that he would have liked to have kept GMT at the station,
-# but that he found it more convenient to keep GMT+12
-# as supplies for the station were coming from McMurdo Sound,
-# which was on GMT+12 because New Zealand was on GMT+12 all year
-# at that time (1957).  (Source: Siple's book 90 Degrees South.)
-#
-# From Susan Smith
-# http://www.cybertours.com/whs/pole10.html
-# (1995-11-13 16:24:56 +1300, no longer available):
-# We use the same time as McMurdo does.
-# And they use the same time as Christchurch, NZ does....
-# One last quirk about South Pole time.
-# All the electric clocks are usually wrong.
-# Something about the generators running at 60.1hertz or something
-# makes all of the clocks run fast.  So every couple of days,
-# we have to go around and set them back 5 minutes or so.
-# Maybe if we let them run fast all of the time, we'd get to leave here sooner!!
-#
-# See 'australasia' for Antarctica/McMurdo.
--- a/test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata/asia	Tue Jul 23 15:33:52 2019 -0400
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,3657 +0,0 @@
-#
-# DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
-#
-# This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
-# under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
-# published by the Free Software Foundation.
-#
-# This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
-# ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
-# FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
-# version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
-# accompanied this code).
-#
-# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
-# 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
-# Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
-#
-# Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
-# or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
-# questions.
-#
-# tzdb data for Asia and environs
-
-# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
-# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
-
-# This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
-# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
-# tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
-# the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-06-19):
-#
-# Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
-# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
-# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
-# Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
-#
-# Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source
-# for time zone data was the International Air Transport
-# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
-# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
-# of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted,
-# IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
-#
-# Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
-# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
-# I found in the UCLA library.
-#
-# For data circa 1899, a common source is:
-# Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94.
-# https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359
-#
-# For Russian data circa 1919, a source is:
-# Byalokoz EL. New Counting of Time in Russia since July 1, 1919.
-# (See the 'europe' file for a fuller citation.)
-#
-# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
-# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
-#
-# The following alphabetic abbreviations appear in these tables
-# (corrections are welcome):
-#	     std  dst
-#	     LMT	Local Mean Time
-#	2:00 EET  EEST	Eastern European Time
-#	2:00 IST  IDT	Israel
-#	5:30 IST	India
-#	7:00 WIB	west Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Barat)
-#	8:00 WITA	central Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Tengah)
-#	8:00 CST	China
-#	8:00 PST  PDT*	Philippine Standard Time
-#	8:30 KST  KDT	Korea when at +0830
-#	9:00 WIT	east Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Timur)
-#	9:00 JST  JDT	Japan
-#	9:00 KST  KDT	Korea when at +09
-#	9:30 ACST	Australian Central Standard Time
-# *I invented the abbreviation PDT; see "Philippines" below.
-# Otherwise, these tables typically use numeric abbreviations like +03
-# and +0330 for integer hour and minute UT offsets.  Although earlier
-# editions invented alphabetic time zone abbreviations for every
-# offset, this did not reflect common practice.
-#
-# See the 'europe' file for Russia and Turkey in Asia.
-
-# From Guy Harris:
-# Incorporates data for Singapore from Robert Elz' asia 1.1, as well as
-# additional information from Tom Yap, Sun Microsystems Intercontinental
-# Technical Support (including a page from the Official Airline Guide -
-# Worldwide Edition).
-
-###############################################################################
-
-# These rules are stolen from the 'europe' file.
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	EUAsia	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 1:00u	1:00	S
-Rule	EUAsia	1979	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00u	0	-
-Rule	EUAsia	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 1:00u	0	-
-Rule E-EurAsia	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 0:00	1:00	-
-Rule E-EurAsia	1979	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00	0	-
-Rule E-EurAsia	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 0:00	0	-
-Rule RussiaAsia	1981	1984	-	Apr	1	 0:00	1:00	-
-Rule RussiaAsia	1981	1983	-	Oct	1	 0:00	0	-
-Rule RussiaAsia	1984	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
-Rule RussiaAsia	1985	2010	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	-
-Rule RussiaAsia	1996	2010	-	Oct	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
-
-# Afghanistan
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Kabul	4:36:48 -	LMT	1890
-			4:00	-	+04	1945
-			4:30	-	+0430
-
-# Armenia
-# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
-# Shanks & Pottenger have Yerevan switching to 3:00 (with Russian DST)
-# in spring 1991, then to 4:00 with no DST in fall 1995, then
-# readopting Russian DST in 1997.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger, even
-# when they disagree with others.  Edgar Der-Danieliantz
-# reported (1996-05-04) that Yerevan probably wouldn't use DST
-# in 1996, though it did use DST in 1995.  IATA SSIM (1991/1998) reports that
-# Armenia switched from 3:00 to 4:00 in 1998 and observed DST after 1991,
-# but started switching at 3:00s in 1998.
-
-# From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
-# While Russia abandoned DST in 2011, Armenia may choose to
-# follow Russia's "old" rules.
-
-# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2012-02-10):
-# According to News Armenia, on Feb 9, 2012,
-# http://newsarmenia.ru/society/20120209/42609695.html
-#
-# The Armenia National Assembly adopted final reading of Amendments to the
-# Law "On procedure of calculation time on the territory of the Republic of
-# Armenia" according to which Armenia [is] abolishing Daylight Saving Time.
-# or
-# (brief)
-# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_armenia03.html
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule Armenia	2011	only	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	-
-Rule Armenia	2011	only	-	Oct	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Yerevan	2:58:00 -	LMT	1924 May  2
-			3:00	-	+03	1957 Mar
-			4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
-			3:00 RussiaAsia	+03/+04	1995 Sep 24  2:00s
-			4:00	-	+04	1997
-			4:00 RussiaAsia	+04/+05	2011
-			4:00	Armenia	+04/+05
-
-# Azerbaijan
-
-# From Rustam Aliyev of the Azerbaijan Internet Forum (2005-10-23):
-# According to the resolution of Cabinet of Ministers, 1997
-# From Paul Eggert (2015-09-17): It was Resolution No. 21 (1997-03-17).
-# http://code.az/files/daylight_res.pdf
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2016-03-17):
-# ... the Azerbaijani Cabinet of Ministers has cancelled switching to
-# daylight saving time....
-# https://www.azernews.az/azerbaijan/94137.html
-# http://vestnikkavkaza.net/news/Azerbaijani-Cabinet-of-Ministers-cancels-daylight-saving-time.html
-# http://en.apa.az/xeber_azerbaijan_abolishes_daylight_savings_ti_240862.html
-
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Azer	1997	2015	-	Mar	lastSun	 4:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Azer	1997	2015	-	Oct	lastSun	 5:00	0	-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Baku	3:19:24 -	LMT	1924 May  2
-			3:00	-	+03	1957 Mar
-			4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
-			3:00 RussiaAsia	+03/+04	1992 Sep lastSun  2:00s
-			4:00	-	+04	1996
-			4:00	EUAsia	+04/+05	1997
-			4:00	Azer	+04/+05
-
-# Bahrain
-# See Asia/Qatar.
-
-# Bangladesh
-# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-05-13):
-# According to newspaper Asian Tribune (May 6, 2009) Bangladesh may introduce
-# Daylight Saving Time from June 16 to Sept 30
-#
-# Bangladesh to introduce daylight saving time likely from June 16
-# http://www.asiantribune.com/?q=node/17288
-# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh02.html
-#
-# "... Bangladesh government has decided to switch daylight saving time from
-# June
-# 16 till September 30 in a bid to ensure maximum use of daylight to cope with
-# crippling power crisis. "
-#
-# The switch will remain in effect from June 16 to Sept 30 (2009) but if
-# implemented the next year, it will come in force from April 1, 2010
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-06-02):
-# They have finally decided now, but changed the start date to midnight between
-# the 19th and 20th, and they have not set the end date yet.
-#
-# Some sources:
-# https://in.reuters.com/article/southAsiaNews/idINIndia-40017620090601
-# http://bdnews24.com/details.php?id=85889&cid=2
-#
-# Our wrap-up:
-# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/bangladesh-daylight-saving-2009.html
-
-# From A. N. M. Kamrus Saadat (2009-06-15):
-# Finally we've got the official mail regarding DST start time where DST start
-# time is mentioned as Jun 19 2009, 23:00 from BTRC (Bangladesh
-# Telecommunication Regulatory Commission).
-#
-# No DST end date has been announced yet.
-
-# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-25):
-# Bangladesh won't go back to Standard Time from October 1, 2009,
-# instead it will continue DST measure till the cabinet makes a fresh decision.
-#
-# Following report by same newspaper-"The Daily Star Friday":
-# "DST change awaits cabinet decision-Clock won't go back by 1-hr from Oct 1"
-# http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=107021
-# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh04.html
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-13):
-# IANS (Indo-Asian News Service) now reports:
-# Bangladesh has decided that the clock advanced by an hour to make
-# maximum use of daylight hours as an energy saving measure would
-# "continue for an indefinite period."
-#
-# One of many places where it is published:
-# http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/business/bangladesh-to-continue-indefinitely-with-advanced-time_100259987.html
-
-# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-12-24):
-# According to Bangladesh newspaper "The Daily Star,"
-# Bangladesh will change its clock back to Standard Time on Dec 31, 2009.
-#
-# Clock goes back 1-hr on Dec 31 night.
-# http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=119228
-# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh05.html
-#
-# "...The government yesterday decided to put the clock back by one hour
-# on December 31 midnight and the new time will continue until March 31,
-# 2010 midnight. The decision came at a cabinet meeting at the Prime
-# Minister's Office last night..."
-
-# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-22):
-# According to Bangladesh newspaper "The Daily Star,"
-# Cabinet cancels Daylight Saving Time
-# http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/latest_news.php?nid=22817
-# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh06.html
-
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Dhaka	2009	only	-	Jun	19	23:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Dhaka	2009	only	-	Dec	31	24:00	0	-
-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Dhaka	6:01:40 -	LMT	1890
-			5:53:20	-	HMT	1941 Oct    # Howrah Mean Time?
-			6:30	-	+0630	1942 May 15
-			5:30	-	+0530	1942 Sep
-			6:30	-	+0630	1951 Sep 30
-			6:00	-	+06	2009
-			6:00	Dhaka	+06/+07
-
-# Bhutan
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Thimphu	5:58:36 -	LMT	1947 Aug 15 # or Thimbu
-			5:30	-	+0530	1987 Oct
-			6:00	-	+06
-
-# British Indian Ocean Territory
-# Whitman and the 1995 CIA time zone map say 5:00, but the
-# 1997 and later maps say 6:00.  Assume the switch occurred in 1996.
-# We have no information as to when standard time was introduced;
-# assume it occurred in 1907, the same year as Mauritius (which
-# then contained the Chagos Archipelago).
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Indian/Chagos	4:49:40	-	LMT	1907
-			5:00	-	+05	1996
-			6:00	-	+06
-
-# Brunei
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Brunei	7:39:40 -	LMT	1926 Mar # Bandar Seri Begawan
-			7:30	-	+0730	1933
-			8:00	-	+08
-
-# Burma / Myanmar
-
-# Milne says 6:24:40 was the meridian of the time ball observatory at Rangoon.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2017-04-20):
-# Page 27 of Reed & Low (cited for Asia/Kolkata) says "Rangoon local time is
-# used upon the railways and telegraphs of Burma, and is 6h. 24m. 47s. ahead
-# of Greenwich."  This refers to the period before Burma's transition to +0630,
-# a transition for which Shanks is the only source.
-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Yangon	6:24:47 -	LMT	1880        # or Rangoon
-			6:24:47	-	RMT	1920        # Rangoon local time
-			6:30	-	+0630	1942 May
-			9:00	-	+09	1945 May  3
-			6:30	-	+0630
-
-# Cambodia
-# See Asia/Bangkok.
-
-
-# China
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-10-02):
-# The following comes from Table 1 of:
-# Li Yu. Research on the daylight saving movement in 1940s Shanghai.
-# Nanjing Journal of Social Sciences. 2014;(2):144-50.
-# http://oversea.cnki.net/kns55/detail.aspx?dbname=CJFD2014&filename=NJSH201402020
-# The table lists dates only; I am guessing 00:00 and 24:00 transition times.
-# Also, the table lists the planned end of DST in 1949, but the corresponding
-# zone line cuts this off on May 28, when the Communists took power.
-#
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Shang	1940	only	-	Jun	 1	 0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Shang	1940	only	-	Oct	12	24:00	0	S
-Rule	Shang	1941	only	-	Mar	15	 0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Shang	1941	only	-	Nov	 1	24:00	0	S
-Rule	Shang	1942	only	-	Jan	31	 0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Shang	1945	only	-	Sep	 1	24:00	0	S
-Rule	Shang	1946	only	-	May	15	 0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Shang	1946	only	-	Sep	30	24:00	0	S
-Rule	Shang	1947	only	-	Apr	15	 0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Shang	1947	only	-	Oct	31	24:00	0	S
-Rule	Shang	1948	1949	-	May	 1	 0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Shang	1948	1949	-	Sep	30	24:00	0	S #plan
-
-# From Guy Harris:
-# People's Republic of China.  Yes, they really have only one time zone.
-
-# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
-# No they don't.  See TIME mag, 1986-02-17 p.52.  Even though
-# China is across 4 physical time zones, before Feb 1, 1986 only the
-# Peking (Beijing) time zone was recognized.  Since that date, China
-# has two of 'em - Peking's and Ürümqi (named after the capital of
-# the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region).  I don't know about DST for it.
-#
-# . . .I just deleted the DST table and this editor makes it too
-# painful to suck in another copy.  So, here is what I have for
-# DST start/end dates for Peking's time zone (info from AP):
-#
-#     1986 May 4 - Sept 14
-#     1987 mid-April - ??
-
-# From U. S. Naval Observatory (1989-01-19):
-# CHINA               8 H  AHEAD OF UTC  ALL OF CHINA, INCL TAIWAN
-# CHINA               9 H  AHEAD OF UTC  APR 17 - SEP 10
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2008-02-11):
-# Jim Mann, "A clumsy embrace for another western custom: China on daylight
-# time - sort of", Los Angeles Times, 1986-05-05 ... [says] that China began
-# observing daylight saving time in 1986.
-
-# From P Chan (2018-05-07):
-# The start and end time of DST in China [from 1986 on] should be 2:00
-# (i.e. 2:00 to 3:00 at the start and 2:00 to 1:00 at the end)....
-# Government notices about summer time:
-#
-# 1986-04-12 http://www.zj.gov.cn/attach/zfgb/198608.pdf p.21-22
-# (To establish summer time from 1986. On 4 May, set the clocks ahead one hour
-# at 2 am. On 14 September, set the clocks backward one hour at 2 am.)
-#
-# 1987-02-15 http://www.gov.cn/gongbao/shuju/1987/gwyb198703.pdf p.114
-# (Summer time in 1987 to start from 12 April until 13 September)
-#
-# 1987-09-09 http://www.gov.cn/gongbao/shuju/1987/gwyb198721.pdf p.709
-# (From 1988, summer time to start from 2 am of the first Sunday of mid-April
-# until 2 am of the first Sunday of mid-September)
-#
-# 1992-03-03 http://www.gov.cn/gongbao/shuju/1992/gwyb199205.pdf p.152
-# (To suspend summer time from 1992)
-#
-# The first page of People's Daily on 12 April 1988 stating that summer time
-# to begin on 17 April.
-# http://data.people.com.cn/pic/101p/1988/04/1988041201.jpg
-
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	PRC	1986	only	-	May	 4	 2:00	1:00	D
-Rule	PRC	1986	1991	-	Sep	Sun>=11	 2:00	0	S
-Rule	PRC	1987	1991	-	Apr	Sun>=11	 2:00	1:00	D
-
-# From Anthony Fok (2001-12-20):
-# BTW, I did some research on-line and found some info regarding these five
-# historic timezones from some Taiwan websites.  And yes, there are official
-# Chinese names for these locales (before 1949).
-#
-# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-07-14):
-# I have investigated the timezones around 1970 on the
-# https://www.astro.com/atlas site [with provinces and county
-# boundaries summarized below]....  A few other exceptions were two
-# counties on the Sichuan side of the Xizang-Sichuan border,
-# counties Dege and Baiyu which lies on the Sichuan side and are
-# therefore supposed to be GMT+7, Xizang region being GMT+6, but Dege
-# county is GMT+8 according to astro.com while Baiyu county is GMT+6
-# (could be true), for the moment I am assuming that those two
-# counties are mistakes in the astro.com data.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2017-01-05):
-# Alois Treindl kindly sent me translations of the following two sources:
-#
-# (1)
-# Guo Qing-sheng (National Time-Service Center, CAS, Xi'an 710600, China)
-# Beijing Time at the Beginning of the PRC
-# China Historical Materials of Science and Technology
-# (Zhongguo ke ji shi liao, 中国科技史料). 2003;24(1):5-9.
-# http://oversea.cnki.net/kcms/detail/detail.aspx?filename=ZGKS200301000&dbname=CJFD2003
-# It gives evidence that at the beginning of the PRC, Beijing time was
-# officially apparent solar time!  However, Guo also says that the
-# evidence is dubious, as the relevant institute of astronomy had not
-# been taken over by the PRC yet.  It's plausible that apparent solar
-# time was announced but never implemented, and that people continued
-# to use UT+8.  As the Shanghai radio station (and I presume the
-# observatory) was still under control of French missionaries, it
-# could well have ignored any such mandate.
-#
-# (2)
-# Guo Qing-sheng (Shaanxi Astronomical Observatory, CAS, Xi'an 710600, China)
-# A Study on the Standard Time Changes for the Past 100 Years in China
-# [undated and unknown publication location]
-# It says several things:
-#   * The Qing dynasty used local apparent solar time throughout China.
-#   * The Republic of China instituted Beijing mean solar time effective
-#     the official calendar book of 1914.
-#   * The French Concession in Shanghai set up signal stations in
-#     French docks in the 1890s, controlled by Xujiahui (Zikawei)
-#     Observatory and set to local mean time.
-#   * "From the end of the 19th century" it changed to UT+8.
-#   * Chinese Customs (by then reduced to a tool of foreign powers)
-#     eventually standardized on this time for all ports, and it
-#     became used by railways as well.
-#   * In 1918 the Central Observatory proposed dividing China into
-#     five time zones (see below for details).  This caught on
-#     at first only in coastal areas observing UT+8.
-#   * During WWII all of China was in theory was at UT+7.  In practice
-#     this was ignored in the west, and I presume was ignored in
-#     Japanese-occupied territory.
-#   * Japanese-occupied Manchuria was at UT+9, i.e., Japan time.
-#   * The five-zone plan was resurrected after WWII and officially put into
-#     place (with some modifications) in March 1948.  It's not clear
-#     how well it was observed in areas under Nationalist control.
-#   * The People's Liberation Army used UT+8 during the civil war.
-#
-# An AP article "Shanghai Internat'l Area Little Changed" in the
-# Lewiston (ME) Daily Sun (1939-05-29), p 17, said "Even the time is
-# different - the occupied districts going by Tokyo time, an hour
-# ahead of that prevailing in the rest of Shanghai."  Guess that the
-# Xujiahui Observatory was under French control and stuck with UT +08.
-#
-# In earlier versions of this file, China had many separate Zone entries, but
-# this was based on what were apparently incorrect data in Shanks & Pottenger.
-# This has now been simplified to the two entries Asia/Shanghai and
-# Asia/Urumqi, with the others being links for backward compatibility.
-# Proposed in 1918 and theoretically in effect until 1949 (although in practice
-# mainly observed in coastal areas), the five zones were:
-#
-# Changbai Time ("Long-white Time", Long-white = Heilongjiang area) UT +08:30
-# Now part of Asia/Shanghai; its pre-1970 times are not recorded here.
-# Heilongjiang (except Mohe county), Jilin
-#
-# Zhongyuan Time ("Central plain Time") UT +08
-# Now part of Asia/Shanghai.
-# most of China
-# Milne gives 8:05:43.2 for Xujiahui Observatory time; round to nearest.
-# Guo says Shanghai switched to UT +08 "from the end of the 19th century".
-#
-# Long-shu Time (probably as Long and Shu were two names of the area) UT +07
-# Now part of Asia/Shanghai; its pre-1970 times are not recorded here.
-# Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Ningxia, Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Yunnan;
-# most of Gansu; west Inner Mongolia; east Qinghai; and the Guangdong
-# counties Deqing, Enping, Kaiping, Luoding, Taishan, Xinxing,
-# Yangchun, Yangjiang, Yu'nan, and Yunfu.
-#
-# Xin-zang Time ("Xinjiang-Tibet Time") UT +06
-# This region is now part of either Asia/Urumqi or Asia/Shanghai with
-# current boundaries uncertain; times before 1970 for areas that
-# disagree with Ürümqi or Shanghai are not recorded here.
-# The Gansu counties Aksay, Anxi, Dunhuang, Subei; west Qinghai;
-# the Guangdong counties  Xuwen, Haikang, Suixi, Lianjiang,
-# Zhanjiang, Wuchuan, Huazhou, Gaozhou, Maoming, Dianbai, and Xinyi;
-# east Tibet, including Lhasa, Chamdo, Shigaise, Jimsar, Shawan and Hutubi;
-# east Xinjiang, including Ürümqi, Turpan, Karamay, Korla, Minfeng, Jinghe,
-# Wusu, Qiemo, Xinyan, Wulanwusu, Jinghe, Yumin, Tacheng, Tuoli, Emin,
-# Shihezi, Changji, Yanqi, Heshuo, Tuokexun, Tulufan, Shanshan, Hami,
-# Fukang, Kuitun, Kumukuli, Miquan, Qitai, and Turfan.
-#
-# Kunlun Time UT +05:30
-# This region is now in the same status as Xin-zang Time (see above).
-# West Tibet, including Pulan, Aheqi, Shufu, Shule;
-# West Xinjiang, including Aksu, Atushi, Yining, Hetian, Cele, Luopu, Nileke,
-# Zhaosu, Tekesi, Gongliu, Chabuchaer, Huocheng, Bole, Pishan, Suiding,
-# and Yarkand.
-
-# From Luther Ma (2009-10-17):
-# Almost all (>99.9%) ethnic Chinese (properly ethnic Han) living in
-# Xinjiang use Chinese Standard Time. Some are aware of Xinjiang time,
-# but have no need of it. All planes, trains, and schools function on
-# what is called "Beijing time." When Han make an appointment in Chinese
-# they implicitly use Beijing time.
-#
-# On the other hand, ethnic Uyghurs, who make up about half the
-# population of Xinjiang, typically use "Xinjiang time" which is two
-# hours behind Beijing time, or UT +06. The government of the Xinjiang
-# Uyghur Autonomous Region, (XAUR, or just Xinjiang for short) as well as
-# local governments such as the Ürümqi city government use both times in
-# publications, referring to what is popularly called Xinjiang time as
-# "Ürümqi time." When Uyghurs make an appointment in the Uyghur language
-# they almost invariably use Xinjiang time.
-#
-# (Their ethnic Han compatriots would typically have no clue of its
-# widespread use, however, because so extremely few of them are fluent in
-# Uyghur, comparable to the number of Anglo-Americans fluent in Navajo.)
-#
-# (...As with the rest of China there was a brief interval ending in 1990
-# or 1991 when summer time was in use.  The confusion was severe, with
-# the province not having dual times but four times in use at the same
-# time. Some areas remained on standard Xinjiang time or Beijing time and
-# others moving their clocks ahead.)
-
-# From Luther Ma (2009-11-19):
-# With the risk of being redundant to previous answers these are the most common
-# English "transliterations" (w/o using non-English symbols):
-#
-# 1. Wulumuqi...
-# 2. Kashi...
-# 3. Urumqi...
-# 4. Kashgar...
-# ...
-# 5. It seems that Uyghurs in Ürümqi has been using Xinjiang since at least the
-# 1960's. I know of one Han, now over 50, who grew up in the surrounding
-# countryside and used Xinjiang time as a child.
-#
-# 6. Likewise for Kashgar and the rest of south Xinjiang I don't know of any
-# start date for Xinjiang time.
-#
-# Without having access to local historical records, nor the ability to legally
-# publish them, I would go with October 1, 1949, when Xinjiang became the Uyghur
-# Autonomous Region under the PRC. (Before that Uyghurs, of course, would also
-# not be using Beijing time, but some local time.)
-
-# From David Cochrane (2014-03-26):
-# Just a confirmation that Ürümqi time was implemented in Ürümqi on 1 Feb 1986:
-# https://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,960684,00.html
-
-# From Luther Ma (2014-04-22):
-# I have interviewed numerous people of various nationalities and from
-# different localities in Xinjiang and can confirm the information in Guo's
-# report regarding Xinjiang, as well as the Time article reference by David
-# Cochrane.  Whether officially recognized or not (and both are officially
-# recognized), two separate times have been in use in Xinjiang since at least
-# the Cultural Revolution: Xinjiang Time (XJT), aka Ürümqi Time or local time;
-# and Beijing Time.  There is no confusion in Xinjiang as to which name refers
-# to which time. Both are widely used in the province, although in some
-# population groups might be use one to the exclusion of the other.  The only
-# problem is that computers and smart phones list Ürümqi (or Kashgar) as
-# having the same time as Beijing.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
-# In the early days of the PRC, Tibet was given its own time zone (UT +06)
-# but this was withdrawn in 1959 and never reinstated; see Tubten Khétsun,
-# Memories of life in Lhasa under Chinese Rule, Columbia U Press, ISBN
-# 978-0231142861 (2008), translator's introduction by Matthew Akester, p x.
-# As this is before our 1970 cutoff, Tibet doesn't need a separate zone.
-#
-# Xinjiang Time is well-documented as being officially recognized.  E.g., see
-# "The Working-Calendar for The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Government"
-# <http://www.sinkiang.gov.cn/service/ourworking/> (2014-04-22).
-# Unfortunately, we have no good records of time in Xinjiang before 1986.
-# During the 20th century parts of Xinjiang were ruled by the Qing dynasty,
-# the Republic of China, various warlords, the First and Second East Turkestan
-# Republics, the Soviet Union, the Kuomintang, and the People's Republic of
-# China, and tracking down all these organizations' timekeeping rules would be
-# quite a trick.  Approximate this lost history by a transition from LMT to
-# UT +06 at the start of 1928, the year of accession of the warlord Jin Shuren,
-# which happens to be the date given by Shanks & Pottenger (no doubt as a
-# guess) as the transition from LMT.  Ignore the usage of +08 before
-# 1986-02-01 under the theory that the transition date to +08 is unknown and
-# that the sort of users who prefer Asia/Urumqi now typically ignored the
-# +08 mandate back then.
-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-# Beijing time, used throughout China; represented by Shanghai.
-Zone	Asia/Shanghai	8:05:43	-	LMT	1901
-			8:00	Shang	C%sT	1949 May 28
-			8:00	PRC	C%sT
-# Xinjiang time, used by many in western China; represented by Ürümqi / Ürümchi
-# / Wulumuqi.  (Please use Asia/Shanghai if you prefer Beijing time.)
-Zone	Asia/Urumqi	5:50:20	-	LMT	1928
-			6:00	-	+06
-
-
-# Hong Kong (Xianggang)
-
-# Milne gives 7:36:41.7; round this.
-
-# From Lee Yiu Chung (2009-10-24):
-# I found there are some mistakes for the...DST rule for Hong
-# Kong. [According] to the DST record from Hong Kong Observatory (actually,
-# it is not [an] observatory, but the official meteorological agency of HK,
-# and also serves as the official timing agency), there are some missing
-# and incorrect rules. Although the exact switch over time is missing, I
-# think 3:30 is correct. The official DST record for Hong Kong can be
-# obtained from
-# http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
-
-# From Phake Nick (2018-10-27):
-# According to Singaporean newspaper
-# http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepresswk19041102-1.2.37
-# the day that Hong Kong start using GMT+8 should be Oct 30, 1904.
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-11-17):
-# Hong Kong had a time ball near the Marine Police Station, Tsim Sha Tsui.
-# "The ball was raised manually each day and dropped at exactly 1pm
-# (except on Sundays and Government holidays)."
-# Dyson AD. From Time Ball to Atomic Clock. Hong Kong Government. 1983.
-# <https://www.hko.gov.hk/publica/gen_pub/timeball_atomic_clock.pdf>
-# "From 1904 October 30 the time-ball at Hong Kong has been dropped by order
-# of the Governor of the Colony at 17h 0m 0s G.M.T., which is 23m 18s.14 in
-# advance of 1h 0m 0s of Hong Kong mean time."
-# Hollis HP. Universal Time, Longitudes, and Geodesy. Mon Not R Astron Soc.
-# 1905-02-10;65(4):405-6. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/65.4.382
-#
-# From Joseph Myers (2018-11-18):
-# An astronomer before 1925 referring to GMT would have been using the old
-# astronomical convention where the day started at noon, not midnight.
-#
-# From Steve Allen (2018-11-17):
-# Meteorological Observations made at the Hongkong Observatory in the year 1904
-# page 4 <https://books.google.com/books?id=kgw5AQAAMAAJ&pg=RA4-PA4>
-# ... the log of drop times in Table II shows that on Sunday 1904-10-30 the
-# ball was dropped.  So that looks like a special case drop for the sake
-# of broadcasting the new local time.
-#
-# From Phake Nick (2018-11-18):
-# According to The Hong Kong Weekly Press, 1904-10-29, p.324, the
-# governor of Hong Kong at the time stated that "We are further desired to
-# make it known that the change will be effected by firing the gun and by the
-# dropping of the Ball at 23min. 18sec. before one."
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
-# See <https://mmis.hkpl.gov.hk> for this; unfortunately Flash is required.
-
-# From Phake Nick (2018-10-26):
-# I went to check microfilm records stored at Hong Kong Public Library....
-# on September 30 1941, according to Ta Kung Pao (Hong Kong edition), it was
-# stated that fallback would occur on the next day (the 1st)'s "03:00 am (Hong
-# Kong Time 04:00 am)" and the clock will fall back for a half hour. (03:00
-# probably refer to the time commonly used in mainland China at the time given
-# the paper's background) ... the sunrise/sunset time given by South China
-# Morning Post for October 1st was indeed moved by half an hour compares to
-# before.  After that, in December, the battle to capture Hong Kong started and
-# the library doesn't seems to have any record stored about press during that
-# period of time.  Some media resumed publication soon after that within the
-# same month, but there were not much information about time there.  Later they
-# started including a radio program guide when they restored radio service,
-# explicitly mentioning it use Tokyo standard time, and later added a note
-# saying it's half an hour ahead of the old Hong Kong standard time, and it
-# also seems to indicate that Hong Kong was not using GMT+8 when it was
-# captured by Japan.
-#
-# Image of related sections on newspaper:
-# * 1941-09-30, Ta Kung Pao (Hong Kong), "Winter Time start tomorrow".
-#   https://i.imgur.com/6waY51Z.jpg (Chinese)
-# * 1941-09-29, South China Morning Post, Information on sunrise/sunset
-#   time and other things for September 30 and October 1.
-#   https://i.imgur.com/kCiUR78.jpg
-# * 1942-02-05. The Hong Kong News, Radio Program Guide.
-#   https://i.imgur.com/eVvDMzS.jpg
-# * 1941-06-14. Hong Kong Daily Press, Daylight Saving from 3am Tomorrow.
-#   https://i.imgur.com/05KkvtC.png
-# * 1941-09-30, Hong Kong Daily Press, Winter Time Warning.
-#   https://i.imgur.com/dge4kFJ.png
-# Also, the Liberation day of Hong Kong after WWII which British rule
-# over the territory resumed was August 30, 1945, which I think should
-# be the termination date for the use of JST in the territory....
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-11-17):
-# Here are the dates given at
-# https://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
-# as of 2014-06-19:
-# Year        Period
-# 1941        15 Jun to 30 Sep
-# 1942        Whole year
-# 1943        Whole year
-# 1944        Whole year
-# 1945        Whole year
-# 1946        20 Apr to 1 Dec
-# 1947        13 Apr to 30 Dec
-# 1948        2 May to 31 Oct
-# 1949        3 Apr to 30 Oct
-# 1950        2 Apr to 29 Oct
-# 1951        1 Apr to 28 Oct
-# 1952        6 Apr to 2 Nov
-# 1953        5 Apr to 1 Nov
-# 1954        21 Mar to 31 Oct
-# 1955        20 Mar to 6 Nov
-# 1956        18 Mar to 4 Nov
-# 1957        24 Mar to 3 Nov
-# 1958        23 Mar to 2 Nov
-# 1959        22 Mar to 1 Nov
-# 1960        20 Mar to 6 Nov
-# 1961        19 Mar to 5 Nov
-# 1962        18 Mar to 4 Nov
-# 1963        24 Mar to 3 Nov
-# 1964        22 Mar to 1 Nov
-# 1965        18 Apr to 17 Oct
-# 1966        17 Apr to 16 Oct
-# 1967        16 Apr to 22 Oct
-# 1968        21 Apr to 20 Oct
-# 1969        20 Apr to 19 Oct
-# 1970        19 Apr to 18 Oct
-# 1971        18 Apr to 17 Oct
-# 1972        16 Apr to 22 Oct
-# 1973        22 Apr to 21 Oct
-# 1973/74     30 Dec 73 to 20 Oct 74
-# 1975        20 Apr to 19 Oct
-# 1976        18 Apr to 17 Oct
-# 1977        Nil
-# 1978        Nil
-# 1979        13 May to 21 Oct
-# 1980 to Now Nil
-# The page does not give times of day for transitions,
-# or dates for the 1942 and 1945 transitions.
-# The Japanese occupation of Hong Kong began 1941-12-25.
-# The Japanese surrender of Hong Kong was signed 1945-09-16; see:
-# Heaver S. The days after the Pacific war ended: unsettling times
-# in Hong Kong. Post Magazine. 2016-06-13.
-# https://www.scmp.com/magazines/post-magazine/article/1852990/days-after-pacific-war-ended-unsettling-times-hong-kong
-# For lack of anything better, use start of those days as the
-# transition times.
-
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	HK	1946	only	-	Apr	20	3:30	1:00	S
-Rule	HK	1946	only	-	Dec	1	3:30	0	-
-Rule	HK	1947	only	-	Apr	13	3:30	1:00	S
-Rule	HK	1947	only	-	Dec	30	3:30	0	-
-Rule	HK	1948	only	-	May	2	3:30	1:00	S
-Rule	HK	1948	1951	-	Oct	lastSun	3:30	0	-
-Rule	HK	1952	1953	-	Nov	Sun>=1	3:30	0	-
-Rule	HK	1949	1953	-	Apr	Sun>=1	3:30	1:00	S
-Rule	HK	1954	1964	-	Mar	Sun>=18	3:30	1:00	S
-Rule	HK	1954	only	-	Oct	31	3:30	0	-
-Rule	HK	1955	1964	-	Nov	Sun>=1	3:30	0	-
-Rule	HK	1965	1976	-	Apr	Sun>=16	3:30	1:00	S
-Rule	HK	1965	1976	-	Oct	Sun>=16	3:30	0	-
-Rule	HK	1973	only	-	Dec	30	3:30	1:00	S
-Rule	HK	1979	only	-	May	Sun>=8	3:30	1:00	S
-Rule	HK	1979	only	-	Oct	Sun>=16	3:30	0	-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Hong_Kong	7:36:42 -	LMT	1904 Oct 30  0:36:42
-			8:00	-	HKT	1941 Jun 15  3:30
-			8:00	1:00	HKST	1941 Oct  1  4:00
-			8:30	-	HKT	1941 Dec 25
-			9:00	-	JST	1945 Sep 16
-			8:00	HK	HK%sT
-
-###############################################################################
-
-# Taiwan
-
-# From smallufo (2010-04-03):
-# According to Taiwan's CWB [Central Weather Bureau],
-# http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V6/astronomy/cdata/summert.htm
-# Taipei has DST in 1979 between July 1st and Sep 30.
-
-# From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2013-07-12):
-# On Dec 28, 1895, the Meiji Emperor announced Ordinance No. 167 of
-# Meiji Year 28 "The clause about standard time", mentioned that
-# Taiwan and Penghu Islands, as well as Yaeyama and Miyako Islands
-# (both in Okinawa) adopt the Western Standard Time which is based on
-# 120E. The adoption began from Jan 1, 1896. The original text can be
-# found on Wikisource:
-# https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時)
-# ... This could be the first adoption of time zone in Taiwan, because
-# during the Qing Dynasty, it seems that there was no time zone
-# declared officially.
-#
-# Later, in the beginning of World War II, on Sep 25, 1937, the Showa
-# Emperor announced Ordinance No. 529 of Showa Year 12 "The clause of
-# revision in the ordinance No. 167 of Meiji year 28 about standard
-# time", in which abolished the adoption of Western Standard Time in
-# western islands (listed above), which means the whole Japan
-# territory, including later occupations, adopt Japan Central Time
-# (UT+9). The adoption began on Oct 1, 1937. The original text can
-# be found on Wikisource:
-# https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/明治二十八年勅令第百六十七號標準時ニ關スル件中改正ノ件
-#
-# That is, the time zone of Taipei switched to UT+9 on Oct 1, 1937.
-
-# From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-02):
-# I've found more evidence about when the time zone was switched from UT+9
-# back to UT+8 after WW2.  I believe it was on Sep 21, 1945.  In a document
-# during Japanese era [1] in which the officer told the staff to change time
-# zone back to Western Standard Time (UT+8) on Sep 21.  And in another
-# history page of National Cheng Kung University [2], on Sep 21 there is a
-# note "from today, switch back to Western Standard Time".  From these two
-# materials, I believe that the time zone change happened on Sep 21.  And
-# today I have found another monthly journal called "The Astronomical Herald"
-# from The Astronomical Society of Japan [3] in which it mentioned the fact
-# that:
-#
-# 1. Standard Time of the Country (Japan) was adopted on Jan 1, 1888, using
-# the time at 135E (GMT+9)
-#
-# 2. Standard Time of the Country was renamed to Central Standard Time, on Jan
-# 1, 1898, and on the same day, the new territories Taiwan and Penghu islands,
-# as well as Yaeyama and Miyako islands, adopted a new time zone called
-# Western Standard Time, which is in GMT+8.
-#
-# 3. Western Standard Time was deprecated on Sep 30, 1937. From then all the
-# territories of Japan adopted the same time zone, which is Central Standard
-# Time.
-#
-# [1] Academica Historica, Taiwan:
-# http://163.29.208.22:8080/govsaleShowImage/connect_img.php?s=00101738900090036&e=00101738900090037
-# [2] Nat'l Cheng Kung University 70th Anniversary Special Site:
-# http://www.ncku.edu.tw/~ncku70/menu/001/01_01.htm
-# [3] Yukio Niimi, The Standard Time in Japan (1997), p.475:
-# http://www.asj.or.jp/geppou/archive_open/1997/pdf/19971001c.pdf
-
-# Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-03):
-# I finally have found the real official gazette about changing back to
-# Western Standard Time on Sep 21 in Taiwan.  It's Taiwan Governor-General
-# Bulletin No. 386 in Showa 20 years (1945), published on Sep 19, 1945. [1] ...
-# [It] abolishes Bulletin No. 207 in Showa 12 years (1937), which is a local
-# bulletin in Taiwan for that Ordinance No. 529. It also mentioned that 1am on
-# Sep 21, 1945 will be 12am on Sep 21.  I think this bulletin is much more
-# official than the one I mentioned in my first mail, because it's from the
-# top-level government in Taiwan. If you're going to quote any resource, this
-# would be a good one.
-# [1] Taiwan Governor-General Gazette, No. 1018, Sep 19, 1945:
-# http://db2.th.gov.tw/db2/view/viewImg.php?imgcode=0072031018a&num=19&bgn=019&end=019&otherImg=&type=gener
-
-# From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-02):
-# In 1946, DST in Taiwan was from May 15 and ended on Sep 30. The info from
-# Central Weather Bureau website was not correct.
-#
-# Original Bulletin:
-# http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=03502F0AKM1AF
-# http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=0350300AKM1B0 (cont.)
-#
-# In 1947, DST in Taiwan was expanded to Oct 31. There is a backup of that
-# telegram announcement from Taiwan Province Government:
-#
-# http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=0360310AKZ431
-#
-# Here is a brief translation:
-#
-#   The Summer Time this year is adopted from midnight Apr 15 until Sep 20
-#   midnight. To save (energy?) consumption, we're expanding Summer Time
-#   adoption till Oct 31 midnight.
-#
-# The Central Weather Bureau website didn't mention that, however it can
-# be found from historical government announcement database.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-03):
-# As per Yu-Cheng Chuang, say that Taiwan was at UT +09 from 1937-10-01
-# until 1945-09-21 at 01:00, overriding Shanks & Pottenger.
-# Likewise, use Yu-Cheng Chuang's data for DST in Taiwan.
-
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Taiwan	1946	only	-	May	15	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Taiwan	1946	only	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	S
-Rule	Taiwan	1947	only	-	Apr	15	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Taiwan	1947	only	-	Nov	1	0:00	0	S
-Rule	Taiwan	1948	1951	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Taiwan	1948	1951	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	S
-Rule	Taiwan	1952	only	-	Mar	1	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Taiwan	1952	1954	-	Nov	1	0:00	0	S
-Rule	Taiwan	1953	1959	-	Apr	1	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Taiwan	1955	1961	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	S
-Rule	Taiwan	1960	1961	-	Jun	1	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Taiwan	1974	1975	-	Apr	1	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Taiwan	1974	1975	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	S
-Rule	Taiwan	1979	only	-	Jul	1	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Taiwan	1979	only	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	S
-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-# Taipei or Taibei or T'ai-pei
-Zone	Asia/Taipei	8:06:00 -	LMT	1896 Jan  1
-			8:00	-	CST	1937 Oct  1
-			9:00	-	JST	1945 Sep 21  1:00
-			8:00	Taiwan	C%sT
-
-# Macau (Macao, Aomen)
-#
-# From P Chan (2018-05-10):
-# * LegisMac
-#   http://legismac.safp.gov.mo/legismac/descqry/Descqry.jsf?lang=pt
-#   A database for searching titles of legal documents of Macau in
-#   Chinese and Portuguese.  The term "HORÁRIO DE VERÃO" can be used for
-#   searching decrees about summer time.
-# * Archives of Macao
-#   http://www.archives.gov.mo/en/bo/
-#   It contains images of old official gazettes.
-# * The Macao Meteorological and Geophysical Bureau have a page listing the
-#   summer time history.  But it is not complete and has some mistakes.
-#   http://www.smg.gov.mo/smg/geophysics/e_t_Summer%20Time.htm
-# Macau adopted GMT+8 on 30 Oct 1904 to follow Hong Kong.  Clocks were
-# advanced by 25 minutes and 50 seconds.  Which means the LMT used was
-# +7:34:10.  As stated in the "Portaria No. 204" dated 21 October 1904
-# and published in the Official Gazette on 29 October 1904.
-# http://igallery.icm.gov.mo/Images/Archives/BO/MO_AH_PUB_BO_1904_10/MO_AH_PUB_BO_1904_10_00025_Grey.JPG
-#
-# Therefore the 1911 decree of Portugal did not change time in Macau.
-#
-# From LegisMac, here is a list of decrees that changed the time ...
-# [Decree Gazette-no. date; titles omitted in this quotation]
-#	DIL 732 BOCM 51 1941.12.20
-#	DIL 764 BOCM 9S 1942.04.30
-#	DIL 781 BOCM 21 1942.10.10
-#	PT 3434 BOCM 8S 1943.04.17
-#	PT 3504 BOCM 20 1943.09.25
-#	PT 3843 BOCM 39 1945.09.29
-#	PT 3961 BOCM 17 1946.04.27
-#	PT 4026 BOCM 39 1946.09.28
-#	PT 4153 BOCM 16 1947.04.10
-#	PT 4271 BOCM 48 1947.11.29
-#	PT 4374 BOCM 18 1948.05.01
-#	PT 4465 BOCM 44 1948.10.30
-#	PT 4590 BOCM 14 1949.04.02
-#	PT 4666 BOCM 44 1949.10.29
-#	PT 4771 BOCM 12 1950.03.25
-#	PT 4838 BOCM 43 1950.10.28
-#	PT 4946 BOCM 12 1951.03.24
-#	PT 5025 BO 43 1951.10.27
-#	PT 5149 BO 14 1952.04.05
-#	PT 5251 BO 43 1952.10.25
-#	PT 5366 BO 13 1953.03.28
-#	PT 5444 BO 44 1953.10.31
-#	PT 5540 BO 12 1954.03.20
-#	PT 5589 BO 44 1954.10.30
-#	PT 5676 BO 12 1955.03.19
-#	PT 5739 BO 45 1955.11.05
-#	PT 5823 BO 11 1956.03.17
-#	PT 5891 BO 44 1956.11.03
-#	PT 5981 BO 12 1957.03.23
-#	PT 6064 BO 43 1957.10.26
-#	PT 6172 BO 12 1958.03.22
-#	PT 6243 BO 43 1958.10.25
-#	PT 6341 BO 12 1959.03.21
-#	PT 6411 BO 43 1959.10.24
-#	PT 6514 BO 11 1960.03.12
-#	PT 6584 BO 44 1960.10.29
-#	PT 6721 BO 10 1961.03.11
-#	PT 6815 BO 43 1961.10.28
-#	PT 6947 BO 10 1962.03.10
-#	PT 7080 BO 43 1962.10.27
-#	PT 7218 BO 12 1963.03.23
-#	PT 7340 BO 43 1963.10.26
-#	PT 7491 BO 11 1964.03.14
-#	PT 7664 BO 43 1964.10.24
-#	PT 7846 BO 15 1965.04.10
-#	PT 7979 BO 42 1965.10.16
-#	PT 8146 BO 15 1966.04.09
-#	PT 8252 BO 41 1966.10.08
-#	PT 8429 BO 15 1967.04.15
-#	PT 8540 BO 41 1967.10.14
-#	PT 8735 BO 15 1968.04.13
-#	PT 8860 BO 41 1968.10.12
-#	PT 9035 BO 16 1969.04.19
-#	PT 9156 BO 42 1969.10.18
-#	PT 9328 BO 15 1970.04.11
-#	PT 9418 BO 41 1970.10.10
-#	PT 9587 BO 14 1971.04.03
-#	PT 9702 BO 41 1971.10.09
-#	PT 38-A/72 BO 14 1972.04.01
-#	PT 126-A/72 BO 41 1972.10.07
-#	PT 61/73 BO 14 1973.04.07
-#	PT 182/73 BO 40 1973.10.06
-#	PT 282/73 BO 51 1973.12.22
-#	PT 177/74 BO 41 1974.10.12
-#	PT 51/75 BO 15 1975.04.12
-#	PT 173/75 BO 41 1975.10.11
-#	PT 67/76/M BO 14 1976.04.03
-#	PT 169/76/M BO 41 1976.10.09
-#	PT 78/79/M BO 19 1979.05.12
-#	PT 166/79/M BO 42 1979.10.20
-# Note that DIL 732 does not belong to "HORÁRIO DE VERÃO" according to
-# LegisMac.... Note that between 1942 and 1945, the time switched
-# between GMT+9 and GMT+10.  Also in 1965 and 1965 the DST ended at 2:30am.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-05-10):
-# The 1904 decree says that Macau changed from the meridian of
-# Fortaleza do Monte, presumably the basis for the 7:34:10 for LMT.
-
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Macau	1942	1943	-	Apr	30	23:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Macau	1942	only	-	Nov	17	23:00	0	-
-Rule	Macau	1943	only	-	Sep	30	23:00	0	S
-Rule	Macau	1946	only	-	Apr	30	23:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	Macau	1946	only	-	Sep	30	23:00s	0	S
-Rule	Macau	1947	only	-	Apr	19	23:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	Macau	1947	only	-	Nov	30	23:00s	0	S
-Rule	Macau	1948	only	-	May	 2	23:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	Macau	1948	only	-	Oct	31	23:00s	0	S
-Rule	Macau	1949	1950	-	Apr	Sat>=1	23:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	Macau	1949	1950	-	Oct	lastSat	23:00s	0	S
-Rule	Macau	1951	only	-	Mar	31	23:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	Macau	1951	only	-	Oct	28	23:00s	0	S
-Rule	Macau	1952	1953	-	Apr	Sat>=1	23:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	Macau	1952	only	-	Nov	 1	23:00s	0	S
-Rule	Macau	1953	1954	-	Oct	lastSat	23:00s	0	S
-Rule	Macau	1954	1956	-	Mar	Sat>=17	23:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	Macau	1955	only	-	Nov	 5	23:00s	0	S
-Rule	Macau	1956	1964	-	Nov	Sun>=1	03:30	0	S
-Rule	Macau	1957	1964	-	Mar	Sun>=18	03:30	1:00	D
-Rule	Macau	1965	1973	-	Apr	Sun>=16	03:30	1:00	D
-Rule	Macau	1965	1966	-	Oct	Sun>=16	02:30	0	S
-Rule	Macau	1967	1976	-	Oct	Sun>=16	03:30	0	S
-Rule	Macau	1973	only	-	Dec	30	03:30	1:00	D
-Rule	Macau	1975	1976	-	Apr	Sun>=16	03:30	1:00	D
-Rule	Macau	1979	only	-	May	13	03:30	1:00	D
-Rule	Macau	1979	only	-	Oct	Sun>=16	03:30	0	S
-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Macau	7:34:10 -	LMT	1904 Oct 30
-			8:00	-	CST	1941 Dec 21 23:00
-			9:00	Macau	+09/+10	1945 Sep 30 24:00
-			8:00	Macau	C%sT
-
-
-###############################################################################
-
-# Cyprus
-
-# Milne says the Eastern Telegraph Company used 2:14:00.  Stick with LMT.
-# IATA SSIM (1998-09) has Cyprus using EU rules for the first time.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2016-09-09):
-# Yesterday's Cyprus Mail reports that Northern Cyprus followed Turkey's
-# lead and switched from +02/+03 to +03 year-round.
-# http://cyprus-mail.com/2016/09/08/two-time-zones-cyprus-turkey-will-not-turn-clocks-back-next-month/
-#
-# From Even Scharning (2016-10-31):
-# Looks like the time zone split in Cyprus went through last night.
-# http://cyprus-mail.com/2016/10/30/cyprus-new-division-two-time-zones-now-reality/
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2017-10-18):
-# Northern Cyprus will reinstate winter time on October 29, thus
-# staying in sync with the rest of Cyprus.  See: Anastasiou A.
-# Cyprus to remain united in time.  Cyprus Mail 2017-10-17.
-# https://cyprus-mail.com/2017/10/17/cyprus-remain-united-time/
-
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Cyprus	1975	only	-	Apr	13	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Cyprus	1975	only	-	Oct	12	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Cyprus	1976	only	-	May	15	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Cyprus	1976	only	-	Oct	11	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Cyprus	1977	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Cyprus	1977	only	-	Sep	25	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Cyprus	1978	only	-	Oct	2	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Cyprus	1979	1997	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Cyprus	1981	1998	-	Mar	lastSun	0:00	1:00	S
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Nicosia	2:13:28 -	LMT	1921 Nov 14
-			2:00	Cyprus	EE%sT	1998 Sep
-			2:00	EUAsia	EE%sT
-Zone	Asia/Famagusta	2:15:48	-	LMT	1921 Nov 14
-			2:00	Cyprus	EE%sT	1998 Sep
-			2:00	EUAsia	EE%sT	2016 Sep  8
-			3:00	-	+03	2017 Oct 29 1:00u
-			2:00	EUAsia	EE%sT
-
-# Classically, Cyprus belongs to Asia; e.g. see Herodotus, Histories, I.72.
-# However, for various reasons many users expect to find it under Europe.
-Link	Asia/Nicosia	Europe/Nicosia
-
-# Georgia
-# From Paul Eggert (1994-11-19):
-# Today's _Economist_ (p 60) reports that Georgia moved its clocks forward
-# an hour recently, due to a law proposed by Zurab Murvanidze,
-# an MP who went on a hunger strike for 11 days to force discussion about it!
-# We have no details, but we'll guess they didn't move the clocks back in fall.
-#
-# From Mathew Englander, quoting AP (1996-10-23 13:05-04):
-# Instead of putting back clocks at the end of October, Georgia
-# will stay on daylight savings time this winter to save energy,
-# President Eduard Shevardnadze decreed Wednesday.
-#
-# From the BBC via Joseph S. Myers (2004-06-27):
-#
-# Georgia moved closer to Western Europe on Sunday...  The former Soviet
-# republic has changed its time zone back to that of Moscow.  As a result it
-# is now just four hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time, rather than five hours
-# ahead.  The switch was decreed by the pro-Western president of Georgia,
-# Mikheil Saakashvili, who said the change was partly prompted by the process
-# of integration into Europe.
-
-# From Teimuraz Abashidze (2005-11-07):
-# Government of Georgia ... decided to NOT CHANGE daylight savings time on
-# [Oct.] 30, as it was done before during last more than 10 years.
-# Currently, we are in fact GMT +4:00, as before 30 October it was GMT
-# +3:00.... The problem is, there is NO FORMAL LAW or governmental document
-# about it.  As far as I can find, I was told, that there is no document,
-# because we just DIDN'T ISSUE document about switching to winter time....
-# I don't know what can be done, especially knowing that some years ago our
-# DST rules where changed THREE TIMES during one month.
-
-# Milne 1899 says Tbilisi (Tiflis) time was 2:59:05.7.
-# Byalokoz 1919 says Georgia was 2:59:11.
-# Go with Byalokoz.
-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Tbilisi	2:59:11 -	LMT	1880
-			2:59:11	-	TBMT	1924 May  2 # Tbilisi Mean Time
-			3:00	-	+03	1957 Mar
-			4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
-			3:00 RussiaAsia +03/+04	1992
-			3:00 E-EurAsia	+03/+04	1994 Sep lastSun
-			4:00 E-EurAsia	+04/+05	1996 Oct lastSun
-			4:00	1:00	+05	1997 Mar lastSun
-			4:00 E-EurAsia	+04/+05	2004 Jun 27
-			3:00 RussiaAsia	+03/+04	2005 Mar lastSun  2:00
-			4:00	-	+04
-
-# East Timor
-
-# See Indonesia for the 1945 transition.
-
-# From João Carrascalão, brother of the former governor of East Timor, in
-# East Timor may be late for its millennium
-# <https://etan.org/et99c/december/26-31/30ETMAY.htm> (1999-12-26/31):
-# Portugal tried to change the time forward in 1974 because the sun
-# rises too early but the suggestion raised a lot of problems with the
-# Timorese and I still don't think it would work today because it
-# conflicts with their way of life.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2000-12-04):
-# We don't have any record of the above attempt.
-# Most likely our records are incomplete, but we have no better data.
-
-# From Manoel de Almeida e Silva, Deputy Spokesman for the UN Secretary-General
-# http://www.hri.org/news/world/undh/2000/00-08-16.undh.html
-# (2000-08-16):
-# The Cabinet of the East Timor Transition Administration decided
-# today to advance East Timor's time by one hour.  The time change,
-# which will be permanent, with no seasonal adjustment, will happen at
-# midnight on Saturday, September 16.
-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Dili	8:22:20 -	LMT	1912 Jan  1
-			8:00	-	+08	1942 Feb 21 23:00
-			9:00	-	+09	1976 May  3
-			8:00	-	+08	2000 Sep 17  0:00
-			9:00	-	+09
-
-# India
-
-# British astronomer Henry Park Hollis disliked India Standard Time's offset:
-# "A new time system has been proposed for India, Further India, and Burmah.
-# The scheme suggested is that the times of the meridians 5½ and 6½ hours
-# east of Greenwich should be adopted in these territories.  No reason is
-# given why hourly meridians five hours and six hours east should not be
-# chosen; a plan which would bring the time of India into harmony with
-# that of almost the whole of the civilised world."
-# Hollis HP. Universal Time, Longitudes, and Geodesy. Mon Not R Astron Soc.
-# 1905-02-10;65(4):405-6. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/65.4.382
-
-# From Ian P. Beacock, in "A brief history of (modern) time", The Atlantic
-# https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/12/the-creation-of-modern-time/421419/
-# (2015-12-22):
-# In January 1906, several thousand cotton-mill workers rioted on the
-# outskirts of Bombay....  They were protesting the proposed abolition of
-# local time in favor of Indian Standard Time....  Journalists called this
-# dispute the "Battle of the Clocks."  It lasted nearly half a century.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2017-04-20):
-# Good luck trying to nail down old timekeeping records in India.
-# "... in the nineteenth century ... Madras Observatory took its magnetic
-# measurements on Göttingen time, its meteorological measurements on Madras
-# (local) time, dropped its time ball on Greenwich (ocean navigator's) time,
-# and distributed civil (local time)." -- Bartky IR. Selling the true time:
-# 19th-century timekeeping in america. Stanford U Press (2000), 247 note 19.
-# "A more potent cause of resistance to the general adoption of the present
-# standard time lies in the fact that it is Madras time.  The citizen of
-# Bombay, proud of being 'primus in Indis' and of Calcutta, equally proud of
-# his city being the Capital of India, and - for a part of the year - the Seat
-# of the Supreme Government, alike look down on Madras, and refuse to change
-# the time they are using, for that of what they regard as a benighted
-# Presidency; while Madras, having for long given the standard time to the
-# rest of India, would resist the adoption of any other Indian standard in its
-# place." -- Oldham RD. On Time in India: a suggestion for its improvement.
-# Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (April 1899), 49-55.
-#
-# "In 1870 ... Madras time - 'now used by the telegraph and regulated from the
-# only government observatory' - was suggested as a standard railway time,
-# first to be adopted on the Great Indian Peninsular Railway (GIPR)....
-# Calcutta, Bombay, and Karachi, were to be allowed to continue with their
-# local time for civil purposes." - Prasad R. Tracks of Change: Railways and
-# Everyday Life in Colonial India. Cambridge University Press (2016), 145.
-#
-# Reed S, Low F. The Indian Year Book 1936-37. Bennett, Coleman, pp 27-8.
-# https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.282212
-# This lists +052110 as Madras local time used in railways, and says that on
-# 1906-01-01 railways and telegraphs in India switched to +0530.  Some
-# municipalities retained their former time, and the time in Calcutta
-# continued to depend on whether you were at the railway station or at
-# government offices.  Government time was at +055320 (according to Shanks) or
-# at +0554 (according to the Indian Year Book).  Railway time is more
-# appropriate for our purposes, as it was better documented, it is what we do
-# elsewhere (e.g., Europe/London before 1880), and after 1906 it was
-# consistent in the region now identified by Asia/Kolkata.  So, use railway
-# time for 1870-1941.  Shanks is our only (and dubious) source for the
-# 1941-1945 data.
-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Kolkata	5:53:28 -	LMT	1854 Jun 28 # Kolkata
-			5:53:20	-	HMT	1870	    # Howrah Mean Time?
-			5:21:10	-	MMT	1906 Jan  1 # Madras local time
-			5:30	-	IST	1941 Oct
-			5:30	1:00	+0630	1942 May 15
-			5:30	-	IST	1942 Sep
-			5:30	1:00	+0630	1945 Oct 15
-			5:30	-	IST
-# Since 1970 the following are like Asia/Kolkata:
-#	Andaman Is
-#	Lakshadweep (Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Is)
-#	Nicobar Is
-
-# Indonesia
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2014-09-06):
-# The 1876 Report of the Secretary of the [US] Navy, p 306 says that Batavia
-# civil time was 7:07:12.5; round to even for Jakarta.
-#
-# From Gwillim Law (2001-05-28), overriding Shanks & Pottenger:
-# http://www.sumatera-inc.com/go_to_invest/about_indonesia.asp#standtime
-# says that Indonesia's time zones changed on 1988-01-01.  Looking at some
-# time zone maps, I think that must refer to Western Borneo (Kalimantan Barat
-# and Kalimantan Tengah) switching from UTC+8 to UTC+7.
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2007-03-10):
-# Here is another correction to Shanks & Pottenger.
-# JohnTWB writes that Japanese forces did not surrender control in
-# Indonesia until 1945-09-01 00:00 at the earliest (in Jakarta) and
-# other formal surrender ceremonies were September 9, 11, and 13, plus
-# September 12 for the regional surrender to Mountbatten in Singapore.
-# These would be the earliest possible times for a change.
-# Régimes horaires pour le monde entier, by Henri Le Corre, (Éditions
-# Traditionnelles, 1987, Paris) says that Java and Madura switched
-# from UT +09 to +07:30 on 1945-09-23, and gives 1944-09-01 for Jayapura
-# (Hollandia).  For now, assume all Indonesian locations other than Jayapura
-# switched on 1945-09-23.
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2013-08-11):
-# Normally the tz database uses English-language abbreviations, but in
-# Indonesia it's typical to use Indonesian-language abbreviations even
-# when writing in English.  For example, see the English-language
-# summary published by the Time and Frequency Laboratory of the
-# Research Center for Calibration, Instrumentation and Metrology,
-# Indonesia, <http://time.kim.lipi.go.id/time-eng.php> (2006-09-29).
-# The time zone abbreviations and UT offsets are:
-#
-# WIB  - +07 - Waktu Indonesia Barat (Indonesia western time)
-# WITA - +08 - Waktu Indonesia Tengah (Indonesia central time)
-# WIT  - +09 - Waktu Indonesia Timur (Indonesia eastern time)
-#
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-# Java, Sumatra
-Zone Asia/Jakarta	7:07:12 -	LMT	1867 Aug 10
-# Shanks & Pottenger say the next transition was at 1924 Jan 1 0:13,
-# but this must be a typo.
-			7:07:12	-	BMT	1923 Dec 31 23:47:12 # Batavia
-			7:20	-	+0720	1932 Nov
-			7:30	-	+0730	1942 Mar 23
-			9:00	-	+09	1945 Sep 23
-			7:30	-	+0730	1948 May
-			8:00	-	+08	1950 May
-			7:30	-	+0730	1964
-			7:00	-	WIB
-# west and central Borneo
-Zone Asia/Pontianak	7:17:20	-	LMT	1908 May
-			7:17:20	-	PMT	1932 Nov    # Pontianak MT
-			7:30	-	+0730	1942 Jan 29
-			9:00	-	+09	1945 Sep 23
-			7:30	-	+0730	1948 May
-			8:00	-	+08	1950 May
-			7:30	-	+0730	1964
-			8:00	-	WITA	1988 Jan  1
-			7:00	-	WIB
-# Sulawesi, Lesser Sundas, east and south Borneo
-Zone Asia/Makassar	7:57:36 -	LMT	1920
-			7:57:36	-	MMT	1932 Nov    # Macassar MT
-			8:00	-	+08	1942 Feb  9
-			9:00	-	+09	1945 Sep 23
-			8:00	-	WITA
-# Maluku Islands, West Papua, Papua
-Zone Asia/Jayapura	9:22:48 -	LMT	1932 Nov
-			9:00	-	+09	1944 Sep  1
-			9:30	-	+0930	1964
-			9:00	-	WIT
-
-# Iran
-
-# From Roozbeh Pournader (2003-03-15):
-# This is an English translation of what I just found (originally in Persian).
-# The Gregorian dates in brackets are mine:
-#
-#	Official Newspaper No. 13548-1370/6/25 [1991-09-16]
-#	No. 16760/T233 H				1370/6/10 [1991-09-01]
-#
-#	The Rule About Change of the Official Time of the Country
-#
-#	The Board of Ministers, in the meeting dated 1370/5/23 [1991-08-14],
-#	based on the suggestion number 2221/D dated 1370/4/22 [1991-07-13]
-#	of the Country's Organization for Official and Employment Affairs,
-#	and referring to the law for equating the working hours of workers
-#	and officers in the whole country dated 1359/4/23 [1980-07-14], and
-#	for synchronizing the official times of the country, agreed that:
-#
-#	The official time of the country will should move forward one hour
-#	at the 24[:00] hours of the first day of Farvardin and should return
-#	to its previous state at the 24[:00] hours of the 30th day of
-#	Shahrivar.
-#
-#	First Deputy to the President - Hassan Habibi
-#
-# From personal experience, that agrees with what has been followed
-# for at least the last 5 years.  Before that, for a few years, the
-# date used was the first Thursday night of Farvardin and the last
-# Thursday night of Shahrivar, but I can't give exact dates....
-#
-# From Roozbeh Pournader (2005-04-05):
-# The text of the Iranian law, in effect since 1925, clearly mentions
-# that the true solar year is the measure, and there is no arithmetic
-# leap year calculation involved.  There has never been any serious
-# plan to change that law....
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-11-30):
-# Go with Shanks & Pottenger before Sept. 1991, and with Pournader thereafter.
-# I used the following code in GNU Emacs 26.1 to generate the "Rule Iran"
-# lines from 2008 through 2087.  Emacs 26.1 uses Ed Reingold's
-# cal-persia implementation of Birashk's approximation, which in the
-# 2008-2087 range disagrees with the the astronomical Persian calendar
-# for Persian years 1404 (Gregorian 2025) and 1437 (Gregorian 2058),
-# so the following code special-case those years.  See Table 15.1, page 264, of:
-# Edward M. Reingold and Nachum Dershowitz, Calendrical Calculations:
-# The Ultimate Edition, Cambridge University Press (2018).
-# https://www.cambridge.org/fr/academic/subjects/computer-science/computing-general-interest/calendrical-calculations-ultimate-edition-4th-edition
-# Page 258, footnote 2, of this book says there is some dispute over what will
-# happen in 2091 (and some other years after that), so this code
-# stops in 2087, as 2088 and 2089 agree with the "max" rule below.
-# (cl-loop
-#  initially (require 'cal-persia)
-#  with first-persian-year = 1387
-#  with last-persian-year = 1466
-#  ;; Exceptional years in the above range,
-#  ;; from Reingold & Dershowitz Table 15.1, page 264:
-#  with exceptional-persian-years = '(1404 1437)
-#  with range-start = nil
-#  for persian-year from first-persian-year to last-persian-year
-#  do
-#  (let*
-#      ((exceptional-year-offset
-#        (if (member persian-year exceptional-persian-years) 1 0))
-#       (beg-dst-absolute
-#        (+ (calendar-persian-to-absolute (list 1 1 persian-year))
-#           exceptional-year-offset))
-#       (end-dst-absolute
-#        (+ (calendar-persian-to-absolute (list 6 30 persian-year))
-#           exceptional-year-offset))
-#       (next-year-beg-dst-absolute
-#        (+ (calendar-persian-to-absolute (list 1 1 (1+ persian-year)))
-#           (if (member (1+ persian-year) exceptional-persian-years) 1 0)))
-#       (beg-dst (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute beg-dst-absolute))
-#       (end-dst (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute end-dst-absolute))
-#       (next-year-beg-dst (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute
-#                           next-year-beg-dst-absolute))
-#       (year (calendar-extract-year beg-dst))
-#       (range-end (if range-start year "only")))
-#    (setq range-start (or range-start year))
-#    (when (or (/= (calendar-extract-day beg-dst)
-#                  (calendar-extract-day next-year-beg-dst))
-#              (= persian-year last-persian-year))
-#      (insert
-#       (format
-#        "Rule\tIran\t%d\t%s\t-\t%s\t%2d\t24:00\t1:00\t-\n"
-#        range-start range-end
-#        (calendar-month-name (calendar-extract-month beg-dst) t)
-#        (calendar-extract-day beg-dst)))
-#      (insert
-#       (format
-#        "Rule\tIran\t%d\t%s\t-\t%s\t%2d\t24:00\t0\t-\n"
-#        range-start range-end
-#        (calendar-month-name (calendar-extract-month end-dst) t)
-#        (calendar-extract-day end-dst)))
-#      (setq range-start nil))))
-#
-# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-03-30), writing about future
-# discrepancies between cal-persia and the Iranian calendar:
-# For 2091 solar-longitude-after yields 2091-03-20 08:40:07.7 UT for
-# the vernal equinox and that gets so close to 12:00 some local
-# Iranian time that the definition of the correct location needs to be
-# known exactly, amongst other factors.  2157 is even closer:
-# 2157-03-20 08:37:15.5 UT.  But the Gregorian year 2025 should give
-# no interpretation problem whatsoever.  By the way, another instant
-# in the near future where there will be a discrepancy between
-# arithmetical and astronomical Iranian calendars will be in 2058:
-# vernal equinox on 2058-03-20 09:03:05.9 UT.  The Java version of
-# Reingold's/Dershowitz' calculator gives correctly the Gregorian date
-# 2058-03-21 for 1 Farvardin 1437 (astronomical).
-#
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-03-22):
-# Several of my users have reported that Iran will not observe DST anymore:
-# http://www.irna.ir/en/news/view/line-17/0603193812164948.htm
-#
-# From Reuters (2007-09-16), with a heads-up from Jesper Nørgaard Welen:
-# ... the Guardian Council ... approved a law on Sunday to re-introduce
-# daylight saving time ...
-# https://uk.reuters.com/article/oilRpt/idUKBLA65048420070916
-#
-# From Roozbeh Pournader (2007-11-05):
-# This is quoted from Official Gazette of the Islamic Republic of
-# Iran, Volume 63, No. 18242, dated Tuesday 1386/6/24
-# [2007-10-16]. I am doing the best translation I can:...
-# The official time of the country will be moved forward for one hour
-# on the 24 hours of the first day of the month of Farvardin and will
-# be changed back to its previous state on the 24 hours of the
-# thirtieth day of Shahrivar.
-#
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Iran	1978	1980	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	1978	only	-	Oct	20	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	1979	only	-	Sep	18	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	1980	only	-	Sep	22	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	1991	only	-	May	 2	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	1992	1995	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	1991	1995	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	1996	only	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	1996	only	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	1997	1999	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	1997	1999	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2000	only	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2000	only	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2001	2003	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2001	2003	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2004	only	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2004	only	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2005	only	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2005	only	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2008	only	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2008	only	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2009	2011	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2009	2011	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2012	only	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2012	only	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2013	2015	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2013	2015	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2016	only	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2016	only	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2017	2019	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2017	2019	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2020	only	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2020	only	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2021	2023	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2021	2023	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2024	only	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2024	only	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2025	2027	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2025	2027	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2028	2029	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2028	2029	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2030	2031	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2030	2031	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2032	2033	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2032	2033	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2034	2035	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2034	2035	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2036	2037	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2036	2037	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2038	2039	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2038	2039	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2040	2041	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2040	2041	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2042	2043	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2042	2043	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2044	2045	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2044	2045	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2046	2047	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2046	2047	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2048	2049	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2048	2049	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2050	2051	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2050	2051	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2052	2053	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2052	2053	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2054	2055	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2054	2055	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2056	2057	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2056	2057	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2058	2059	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2058	2059	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2060	2062	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2060	2062	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2063	only	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2063	only	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2064	2066	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2064	2066	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2067	only	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2067	only	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2068	2070	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2068	2070	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2071	only	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2071	only	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2072	2074	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2072	2074	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2075	only	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2075	only	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2076	2078	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2076	2078	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2079	only	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2079	only	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2080	2082	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2080	2082	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2083	only	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2083	only	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2084	2086	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2084	2086	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
-Rule	Iran	2087	only	-	Mar	21	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2087	only	-	Sep	21	24:00	0	-
-#
-# The following rules are approximations starting in the year 2088.
-# These are the best post-2088 approximations available, given the
-# restrictions of a single rule using ordinary Gregorian dates.
-# At some point this table will need to be extended, though quite
-# possibly Iran will change the rules first.
-Rule	Iran	2088	max	-	Mar	20	24:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iran	2088	max	-	Sep	20	24:00	0	-
-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Tehran	3:25:44	-	LMT	1916
-			3:25:44	-	TMT	1946     # Tehran Mean Time
-			3:30	-	+0330	1977 Nov
-			4:00	Iran	+04/+05	1979
-			3:30	Iran	+0330/+0430
-
-
-# Iraq
-#
-# From Jonathan Lennox (2000-06-12):
-# An article in this week's Economist ("Inside the Saddam-free zone", p. 50 in
-# the U.S. edition) on the Iraqi Kurds contains a paragraph:
-# "The three northern provinces ... switched their clocks this spring and
-# are an hour ahead of Baghdad."
-#
-# But Rives McDow (2000-06-18) quotes a contact in Iraqi-Kurdistan as follows:
-# In the past, some Kurdish nationalists, as a protest to the Iraqi
-# Government, did not adhere to daylight saving time.  They referred
-# to daylight saving as Saddam time.  But, as of today, the time zone
-# in Iraqi-Kurdistan is on standard time with Baghdad, Iraq.
-#
-# So we'll ignore the Economist's claim.
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-10):
-# The cabinet in Iraq abolished DST last week, according to the following
-# news sources (in Arabic):
-# http://www.aljeeran.net/wesima_articles/news-20080305-98602.html
-# http://www.aswataliraq.info/look/article.tpl?id=2047&IdLanguage=17&IdPublication=4&NrArticle=71743&NrIssue=1&NrSection=10
-#
-# We have published a short article in English about the change:
-# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/iraq-dumps-daylight-saving.html
-
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Iraq	1982	only	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iraq	1982	1984	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Iraq	1983	only	-	Mar	31	0:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iraq	1984	1985	-	Apr	1	0:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Iraq	1985	1990	-	Sep	lastSun	1:00s	0	-
-Rule	Iraq	1986	1990	-	Mar	lastSun	1:00s	1:00	-
-# IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says Apr 1 12:01am UTC; guess the ':01' is a typo.
-# Shanks & Pottenger say Iraq did not observe DST 1992/1997; ignore this.
-#
-Rule	Iraq	1991	2007	-	Apr	 1	3:00s	1:00	-
-Rule	Iraq	1991	2007	-	Oct	 1	3:00s	0	-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Baghdad	2:57:40	-	LMT	1890
-			2:57:36	-	BMT	1918     # Baghdad Mean Time?
-			3:00	-	+03	1982 May
-			3:00	Iraq	+03/+04
-
-
-###############################################################################
-
-# Israel
-
-# From Ephraim Silverberg (2001-01-11):
-#
-# I coined "IST/IDT" circa 1988.  Until then there were three
-# different abbreviations in use:
-#
-# JST  Jerusalem Standard Time [Danny Braniss, Hebrew University]
-# IZT  Israel Zonal (sic) Time [Prof. Haim Papo, Technion]
-# EEST Eastern Europe Standard Time [used by almost everyone else]
-#
-# Since timezones should be called by country and not capital cities,
-# I ruled out JST.  As Israel is in Asia Minor and not Eastern Europe,
-# EEST was equally unacceptable.  Since "zonal" was not compatible with
-# any other timezone abbreviation, I felt that 'IST' was the way to go
-# and, indeed, it has received almost universal acceptance in timezone
-# settings in Israeli computers.
-#
-# In any case, I am happy to share timezone abbreviations with India,
-# high on my favorite-country list (and not only because my wife's
-# family is from India).
-
-# From Shanks & Pottenger:
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Zion	1940	only	-	Jun	 1	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1942	1944	-	Nov	 1	0:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	1943	only	-	Apr	 1	2:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1944	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1945	only	-	Apr	16	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1945	only	-	Nov	 1	2:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	1946	only	-	Apr	16	2:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1946	only	-	Nov	 1	0:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	1948	only	-	May	23	0:00	2:00	DD
-Rule	Zion	1948	only	-	Sep	 1	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1948	1949	-	Nov	 1	2:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	1949	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1950	only	-	Apr	16	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1950	only	-	Sep	15	3:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	1951	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1951	only	-	Nov	11	3:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	1952	only	-	Apr	20	2:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1952	only	-	Oct	19	3:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	1953	only	-	Apr	12	2:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1953	only	-	Sep	13	3:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	1954	only	-	Jun	13	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1954	only	-	Sep	12	0:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	1955	only	-	Jun	11	2:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1955	only	-	Sep	11	0:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	1956	only	-	Jun	 3	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1956	only	-	Sep	30	3:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	1957	only	-	Apr	29	2:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1957	only	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	1974	only	-	Jul	 7	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1974	only	-	Oct	13	0:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	1975	only	-	Apr	20	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1975	only	-	Aug	31	0:00	0	S
-
-# From Alois Treindl (2019-03-06):
-# http://www.moin.gov.il/Documents/שעון קיץ/clock-50-years-7-2014.pdf
-# From Isaac Starkman (2019-03-06):
-# Summer time was in that period in 1980 and 1984, see
-# https://www.ynet.co.il/articles/0,7340,L-3951073,00.html
-# You can of course read it in translation.
-# I checked the local newspapers for that years.
-# It started on midnight and end at 01.00 am.
-# From Paul Eggert (2019-03-06):
-# Also see this thread about the moin.gov.il URL:
-# https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2018-November/027194.html
-Rule	Zion	1980	only	-	Aug	 2	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1980	only	-	Sep	13	1:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	1984	only	-	May	 5	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1984	only	-	Aug	25	1:00	0	S
-
-# From Shanks & Pottenger:
-Rule	Zion	1985	only	-	Apr	14	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1985	only	-	Sep	15	0:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	1986	only	-	May	18	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1986	only	-	Sep	 7	0:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	1987	only	-	Apr	15	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1987	only	-	Sep	13	0:00	0	S
-
-# From Avigdor Finkelstein (2014-03-05):
-# I check the Parliament (Knesset) records and there it's stated that the
-# [1988] transition should take place on Saturday night, when the Sabbath
-# ends and changes to Sunday.
-Rule	Zion	1988	only	-	Apr	10	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1988	only	-	Sep	 4	0:00	0	S
-
-# From Ephraim Silverberg
-# (1997-03-04, 1998-03-16, 1998-12-28, 2000-01-17, 2000-07-25, 2004-12-22,
-# and 2005-02-17):
-
-# According to the Office of the Secretary General of the Ministry of
-# Interior, there is NO set rule for Daylight-Savings/Standard time changes.
-# One thing is entrenched in law, however: that there must be at least 150
-# days of daylight savings time annually.  From 1993-1998, the change to
-# daylight savings time was on a Friday morning from midnight IST to
-# 1 a.m IDT; up until 1998, the change back to standard time was on a
-# Saturday night from midnight daylight savings time to 11 p.m. standard
-# time.  1996 is an exception to this rule where the change back to standard
-# time took place on Sunday night instead of Saturday night to avoid
-# conflicts with the Jewish New Year.  In 1999, the change to
-# daylight savings time was still on a Friday morning but from
-# 2 a.m. IST to 3 a.m. IDT; furthermore, the change back to standard time
-# was also on a Friday morning from 2 a.m. IDT to 1 a.m. IST for
-# 1999 only.  In the year 2000, the change to daylight savings time was
-# similar to 1999, but although the change back will be on a Friday, it
-# will take place from 1 a.m. IDT to midnight IST.  Starting in 2001, all
-# changes to/from will take place at 1 a.m. old time, but now there is no
-# rule as to what day of the week it will take place in as the start date
-# (except in 2003) is the night after the Passover Seder (i.e. the eve
-# of the 16th of Nisan in the lunar Hebrew calendar) and the end date
-# (except in 2002) is three nights before Yom Kippur [Day of Atonement]
-# (the eve of the 7th of Tishrei in the lunar Hebrew calendar).
-
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Zion	1989	only	-	Apr	30	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1989	only	-	Sep	 3	0:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	1990	only	-	Mar	25	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1990	only	-	Aug	26	0:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	1991	only	-	Mar	24	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1991	only	-	Sep	 1	0:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	1992	only	-	Mar	29	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1992	only	-	Sep	 6	0:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	1993	only	-	Apr	 2	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1993	only	-	Sep	 5	0:00	0	S
-
-# The dates for 1994-1995 were obtained from Office of the Spokeswoman for the
-# Ministry of Interior, Jerusalem, Israel.  The spokeswoman can be reached by
-# calling the office directly at 972-2-6701447 or 972-2-6701448.
-
-# Rule	NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
-Rule	Zion	1994	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1994	only	-	Aug	28	0:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	1995	only	-	Mar	31	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1995	only	-	Sep	 3	0:00	0	S
-
-# The dates for 1996 were determined by the Minister of Interior of the
-# time, Haim Ramon.  The official announcement regarding 1996-1998
-# (with the dates for 1997-1998 no longer being relevant) can be viewed at:
-#
-#   ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/1996-1998.ramon.ps.gz
-#
-# The dates for 1997-1998 were altered by his successor, Rabbi Eli Suissa.
-#
-# The official announcements for the years 1997-1999 can be viewed at:
-#
-#   ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/YYYY.ps.gz
-#
-#       where YYYY is the relevant year.
-
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Zion	1996	only	-	Mar	15	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1996	only	-	Sep	16	0:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	1997	only	-	Mar	21	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1997	only	-	Sep	14	0:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	1998	only	-	Mar	20	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1998	only	-	Sep	 6	0:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	1999	only	-	Apr	 2	2:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	1999	only	-	Sep	 3	2:00	0	S
-
-# The Knesset Interior Committee has changed the dates for 2000 for
-# the third time in just over a year and have set new dates for the
-# years 2001-2004 as well.
-#
-# The official announcement for the start date of 2000 can be viewed at:
-#
-#	ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2000-start.ps.gz
-#
-# The official announcement for the end date of 2000 and the dates
-# for the years 2001-2004 can be viewed at:
-#
-#	ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2000-2004.ps.gz
-
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Zion	2000	only	-	Apr	14	2:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	2000	only	-	Oct	 6	1:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	2001	only	-	Apr	 9	1:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	2001	only	-	Sep	24	1:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	2002	only	-	Mar	29	1:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	2002	only	-	Oct	 7	1:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	2003	only	-	Mar	28	1:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	2003	only	-	Oct	 3	1:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	2004	only	-	Apr	 7	1:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	2004	only	-	Sep	22	1:00	0	S
-
-# The proposed law agreed upon by the Knesset Interior Committee on
-# 2005-02-14 is that, for 2005 and beyond, DST starts at 02:00 the
-# last Friday before April 2nd (i.e. the last Friday in March or April
-# 1st itself if it falls on a Friday) and ends at 02:00 on the Saturday
-# night _before_ the fast of Yom Kippur.
-#
-# Those who can read Hebrew can view the announcement at:
-#
-#	ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2005+beyond.ps
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2012-10-26):
-# I used Ephraim Silverberg's dst-israel.el program
-# <ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/software/dst-israel.el> (2005-02-20)
-# along with Ed Reingold's cal-hebrew in GNU Emacs 21.4,
-# to generate the transitions from 2005 through 2012.
-# (I replaced "lastFri" with "Fri>=26" by hand.)
-# The spring transitions all correspond to the following Rule:
-#
-# Rule	Zion	2005	2012	-	Mar	Fri>=26	2:00	1:00	D
-#
-# but older zic implementations (e.g., Solaris 8) do not support
-# "Fri>=26" to mean April 1 in years like 2005, so for now we list the
-# springtime transitions explicitly.
-
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Zion	2005	only	-	Apr	 1	2:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	2005	only	-	Oct	 9	2:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	2006	2010	-	Mar	Fri>=26	2:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	2006	only	-	Oct	 1	2:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	2007	only	-	Sep	16	2:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	2008	only	-	Oct	 5	2:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	2009	only	-	Sep	27	2:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	2010	only	-	Sep	12	2:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	2011	only	-	Apr	 1	2:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	2011	only	-	Oct	 2	2:00	0	S
-Rule	Zion	2012	only	-	Mar	Fri>=26	2:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	2012	only	-	Sep	23	2:00	0	S
-
-# From Ephraim Silverberg (2013-06-27):
-# On June 23, 2013, the Israeli government approved changes to the
-# Time Decree Law.  The next day, the changes passed the First Reading
-# in the Knesset.  The law is expected to pass the Second and Third
-# (final) Readings by the beginning of September 2013.
-#
-# As of 2013, DST starts at 02:00 on the Friday before the last Sunday
-# in March.  DST ends at 02:00 on the last Sunday of October.
-
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Zion	2013	max	-	Mar	Fri>=23	2:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Zion	2013	max	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Jerusalem	2:20:54 -	LMT	1880
-			2:20:40	-	JMT	1918 # Jerusalem Mean Time?
-			2:00	Zion	I%sT
-
-
-
-###############################################################################
-
-# Japan
-
-# '9:00' and 'JST' is from Guy Harris.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (1995-03-06):
-# Today's _Asahi Evening News_ (page 4) reports that Japan had
-# daylight saving between 1948 and 1951, but "the system was discontinued
-# because the public believed it would lead to longer working hours."
-
-# From Mayumi Negishi in the 2005-08-10 Japan Times:
-# http://www.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/getarticle.pl5?nn20050810f2.htm
-# Occupation authorities imposed daylight-saving time on Japan on
-# [1948-05-01]....  But lack of prior debate and the execution of
-# daylight-saving time just three days after the bill was passed generated
-# deep hatred of the concept....  The Diet unceremoniously passed a bill to
-# dump the unpopular system in October 1951, less than a month after the San
-# Francisco Peace Treaty was signed.  (A government poll in 1951 showed 53%
-# of the Japanese wanted to scrap daylight-saving time, as opposed to 30% who
-# wanted to keep it.)
-
-# From Takayuki Nikai (2018-01-19):
-# The source of information is Japanese law.
-# http://www.shugiin.go.jp/internet/itdb_housei.nsf/html/houritsu/00219480428029.htm
-# http://www.shugiin.go.jp/internet/itdb_housei.nsf/html/houritsu/00719500331039.htm
-# ... In summary, it is written as follows.  From 24:00 on the first Saturday
-# in May, until 0:00 on the day after the second Saturday in September.
-
-# From Phake Nick (2018-09-27):
-# [T]he webpage authored by National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
-# https://eco.mtk.nao.ac.jp/koyomi/wiki/BBFEB9EF2FB2C6BBFEB9EF.html
-# ... mentioned that using Showa 23 (year 1948) as example, 13pm of September
-# 11 in summer time will equal to 0am of September 12 in standard time.
-# It cited a document issued by the Liaison Office which briefly existed
-# during the postwar period of Japan, where the detail on implementation
-# of the summer time is described in the document.
-# https://eco.mtk.nao.ac.jp/koyomi/wiki/BBFEB9EF2FB2C6BBFEB9EFB2C6BBFEB9EFA4CEBCC2BBDCA4CBA4C4A4A4A4C6.pdf
-# The text in the document do instruct a fall back to occur at
-# September 11, 13pm in summer time, while ordinary citizens can
-# change the clock before they sleep.
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-09-27):
-# This instruction is equivalent to "Sat>=8 25:00", so use that.  zic treats
-# it like "Sun>=9 01:00", which is not quite the same but is the best we can
-# do in any POSIX or C platform.  The "25:00" assumes zic from 2007 or later,
-# which should be safe now.
-
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Japan	1948	only	-	May	Sat>=1	24:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Japan	1948	1951	-	Sep	Sun>=9	 1:00	0	S
-Rule	Japan	1949	only	-	Apr	Sat>=1	24:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Japan	1950	1951	-	May	Sat>=1	24:00	1:00	D
-
-# From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-09):
-# 'Tokyo' usually stands for the former location of Tokyo Astronomical
-# Observatory: 139° 44' 40.90" E (9h 18m 58.727s), 35° 39' 16.0" N.
-# This data is from 'Rika Nenpyou (Chronological Scientific Tables) 1996'
-# edited by National Astronomical Observatory of Japan....
-# JST (Japan Standard Time) has been used since 1888-01-01 00:00 (JST).
-# The law is enacted on 1886-07-07.
-
-# From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-16):
-# The ordinance No. 51 (1886) established "standard time" in Japan,
-# which stands for the time on 135° E.
-# In the ordinance No. 167 (1895), "standard time" was renamed to "central
-# standard time".  And the same ordinance also established "western standard
-# time", which stands for the time on 120° E....  But "western standard
-# time" was abolished in the ordinance No. 529 (1937).  In the ordinance No.
-# 167, there is no mention regarding for what place western standard time is
-# standard....
-#
-# I wrote "ordinance" above, but I don't know how to translate.
-# In Japanese it's "chokurei", which means ordinance from emperor.
-
-# From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2013-07-12):
-# ...the Meiji Emperor announced Ordinance No. 167 of Meiji Year 28 "The clause
-# about standard time" ... The adoption began from Jan 1, 1896.
-# https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時)
-#
-# ...the Showa Emperor announced Ordinance No. 529 of Showa Year 12 ... which
-# means the whole Japan territory, including later occupations, adopt Japan
-# Central Time (UT+9). The adoption began on Oct 1, 1937.
-# https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/明治二十八年勅令第百六十七號標準時ニ關スル件中改正ノ件
-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Tokyo	9:18:59	-	LMT	1887 Dec 31 15:00u
-			9:00	Japan	J%sT
-# Since 1938, all Japanese possessions have been like Asia/Tokyo,
-# except that Truk (Chuuk), Ponape (Pohnpei), and Jaluit (Kosrae) did not
-# switch from +10 to +09 until 1941-04-01; see the 'australasia' file.
-
-# Jordan
-#
-# From <http://star.arabia.com/990701/JO9.html>
-# Jordan Week (1999-07-01) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
-# Clocks in Jordan were forwarded one hour on Wednesday at midnight,
-# in accordance with the government's decision to implement summer time
-# all year round.
-#
-# From <http://star.arabia.com/990930/JO9.html>
-# Jordan Week (1999-09-30) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-11-09):
-# Winter time starts today Thursday, 30 September. Clocks will be turned back
-# by one hour.  This is the latest government decision and it's final!
-# The decision was taken because of the increase in working hours in
-# government's departments from six to seven hours.
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2005-11-22):
-# Starting 2003 transitions are from Steffen Thorsen's web site timeanddate.com.
-#
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2005-11-23):
-# For Jordan I have received multiple independent user reports every year
-# about DST end dates, as the end-rule is different every year.
-#
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-10-01), after a heads-up from Hilal Malawi:
-# http://www.petranews.gov.jo/nepras/2006/Sep/05/4000.htm
-# "Jordan will switch to winter time on Friday, October 27".
-#
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-04-02):
-# This single one might be good enough, (2009-03-24, Arabic):
-# http://petra.gov.jo/Artical.aspx?Lng=2&Section=8&Artical=95279
-#
-# Google's translation:
-#
-# > The Council of Ministers decided in 2002 to adopt the principle of timely
-# > submission of the summer at 60 minutes as of midnight on the last Thursday
-# > of the month of March of each year.
-#
-# So - this means the midnight between Thursday and Friday since 2002.
-
-# From Arthur David Olson (2009-04-06):
-# We still have Jordan switching to DST on Thursdays in 2000 and 2001.
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2012-10-25):
-# Yesterday the government in Jordan announced that they will not
-# switch back to standard time this winter, so the will stay on DST
-# until about the same time next year (at least).
-# http://www.petra.gov.jo/Public_News/Nws_NewsDetails.aspx?NewsID=88950
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2013-12-11):
-# Jordan Times and other sources say that Jordan is going back to
-# UTC+2 on 2013-12-19 at midnight:
-# http://jordantimes.com/govt-decides-to-switch-back-to-wintertime
-# Official, in Arabic:
-# http://www.petra.gov.jo/public_news/Nws_NewsDetails.aspx?Menu_ID=&Site_Id=2&lang=1&NewsID=133230&CatID=14
-# ... Our background/permalink about it
-# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/jordan-reverses-dst-decision.html
-# ...
-# http://www.petra.gov.jo/Public_News/Nws_NewsDetails.aspx?lang=2&site_id=1&NewsID=133313&Type=P
-# ... says midnight for the coming one and 1:00 for the ones in the future
-# (and they will use DST again next year, using the normal schedule).
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2013-12-11):
-# As Steffen suggested, consider the past 21-month experiment to be DST.
-
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Jordan	1973	only	-	Jun	6	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Jordan	1973	1975	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Jordan	1974	1977	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Jordan	1976	only	-	Nov	1	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Jordan	1977	only	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Jordan	1978	only	-	Apr	30	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Jordan	1978	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Jordan	1985	only	-	Apr	1	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Jordan	1985	only	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Jordan	1986	1988	-	Apr	Fri>=1	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Jordan	1986	1990	-	Oct	Fri>=1	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Jordan	1989	only	-	May	8	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Jordan	1990	only	-	Apr	27	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Jordan	1991	only	-	Apr	17	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Jordan	1991	only	-	Sep	27	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Jordan	1992	only	-	Apr	10	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Jordan	1992	1993	-	Oct	Fri>=1	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Jordan	1993	1998	-	Apr	Fri>=1	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Jordan	1994	only	-	Sep	Fri>=15	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Jordan	1995	1998	-	Sep	Fri>=15	0:00s	0	-
-Rule	Jordan	1999	only	-	Jul	 1	0:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Jordan	1999	2002	-	Sep	lastFri	0:00s	0	-
-Rule	Jordan	2000	2001	-	Mar	lastThu	0:00s	1:00	S
-Rule	Jordan	2002	2012	-	Mar	lastThu	24:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Jordan	2003	only	-	Oct	24	0:00s	0	-
-Rule	Jordan	2004	only	-	Oct	15	0:00s	0	-
-Rule	Jordan	2005	only	-	Sep	lastFri	0:00s	0	-
-Rule	Jordan	2006	2011	-	Oct	lastFri	0:00s	0	-
-Rule	Jordan	2013	only	-	Dec	20	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Jordan	2014	max	-	Mar	lastThu	24:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Jordan	2014	max	-	Oct	lastFri	0:00s	0	-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Amman	2:23:44 -	LMT	1931
-			2:00	Jordan	EE%sT
-
-
-# Kazakhstan
-
-# From Kazakhstan Embassy's News Bulletin No. 11
-# <http://www.kazsociety.org.uk/news/2005/03/30.htm> (2005-03-21):
-# The Government of Kazakhstan passed a resolution March 15 abolishing
-# daylight saving time citing lack of economic benefits and health
-# complications coupled with a decrease in productivity.
-#
-# From Branislav Kojic (in Astana) via Gwillim Law (2005-06-28):
-# ... what happened was that the former Kazakhstan Eastern time zone
-# was "blended" with the Central zone.  Therefore, Kazakhstan now has
-# two time zones, and difference between them is one hour.  The zone
-# closer to UTC is the former Western zone (probably still called the
-# same), encompassing four provinces in the west: Aqtöbe, Atyraū,
-# Mangghystaū, and West Kazakhstan.  The other zone encompasses
-# everything else....  I guess that would make Kazakhstan time zones
-# de jure UTC+5 and UTC+6 respectively.
-
-# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-27):
-# Review of the linked documents from http://adilet.zan.kz/
-# produced the following data for post-1991 Kazakhstan:
-#
-# 0. Act of the Cabinet of Ministers of the USSR
-# from 1991-02-04 No. 20
-# http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&nd=102010545
-# removed the extra hour ("decree time") on the territory of the USSR
-# starting with the last Sunday of March 1991.
-# It also allowed (but not mandated) Kazakh SSR, Kirghiz SSR, Tajik SSR,
-# Turkmen SSR and Uzbek SSR to not have "summer" time.
-#
-# The 1992-01-13 act also refers to the act of the Cabinet of Ministers
-# of the Kazakh SSR from 1991-03-20 No. 170 "About the act of the Cabinet
-# of Ministers of the USSR from 1991-02-04 No. 20" but I didn't found its
-# text.
-#
-# According to Izvestia newspaper No. 68 (23334) from 1991-03-20
-# (page 6; available at http://libinfo.org/newsr/newsr2574.djvu via
-# http://libinfo.org/index.php?id=58564) on 1991-03-31 at 2:00 during
-# transition to "summer" time:
-# Republic of Georgia, Latvian SSR, Lithuanian SSR, SSR Moldova,
-# Estonian SSR; Komi ASSR; Kaliningrad oblast; Nenets autonomous okrug
-# were to move clocks 1 hour forward.
-# Kazakh SSR (excluding Uralsk oblast); Republic of Kyrgyzstan, Tajik
-# SSR; Andijan, Jizzakh, Namangan, Sirdarya, Tashkent, Fergana oblasts
-# of the Uzbek SSR were to move clocks 1 hour backwards.
-# Other territories were to not move clocks.
-# When the "summer" time would end on 1991-09-29, clocks were to be
-# moved 1 hour backwards on the territory of the USSR excluding
-# Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenia, Tajikistan.
-#
-# Apparently there were last minute changes. Apparently Kazakh act No. 170
-# was one of such changes.
-#
-# https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Декретное время
-# claims that Sovetskaya Rossiya newspaper on 1991-03-29 published that
-# Nenets autonomous okrug, Komi and Kazakhstan (excluding Uralsk oblast)
-# were to not move clocks and Uralsk oblast was to move clocks
-# forward; on 1991-09-29 Kazakhstan was to move clocks backwards.
-# (Probably there were changes even after that publication. There is an
-# article claiming that Kaliningrad oblast decided on 1991-03-29 to not
-# move clocks.)
-#
-# This implies that on 1991-03-31 Asia/Oral remained on +04/+05 while
-# the rest of Kazakhstan switched from +06/+07 to +05/06 or from +05/06
-# to +04/+05. It's unclear how Qyzylorda oblast moved into the fifth
-# time belt. (By switching from +04/+05 to +05/+06 on 1991-09-29?) ...
-#
-# 1. Act of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Kazakhstan
-# from 1992-01-13 No. 28
-# http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P920000028_
-# (text includes modification from the 1996 act)
-# introduced new rules for calculation of time, mirroring Russian
-# 1992-01-08 act.  It specified that time would be calculated
-# according to time belts plus extra hour ("decree time"), moved clocks
-# on the whole territory of Kazakhstan 1 hour forward on 1992-01-19 at
-# 2:00, specified DST rules.  It acknowledged that Kazakhstan was
-# located in the fourth and the fifth time belts and specified the
-# border between them to be located east of Qostanay and Aktyubinsk
-# oblasts (notably including Turgai and Qyzylorda oblasts into the fifth
-# time belt).
-#
-# This means switch on 1992-01-19 at 2:00 from +04/+05 to +05/+06 for
-# Asia/Aqtau, Asia/Aqtobe, Asia/Oral, Atyraū and Qostanay oblasts; from
-# +05/+06 to +06/+07 for Asia/Almaty and Asia/Qyzylorda (and Arkalyk)....
-#
-# 2. Act of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Kazakhstan
-# from 1992-03-27 No. 284
-# http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P920000284_
-# cancels extra hour ("decree time") for Uralsk and Qyzylorda oblasts
-# since the last Sunday of March 1992, while keeping them in the fourth
-# and the fifth time belts respectively.
-#
-# 3. Order of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Kazakhstan
-# from 1994-09-23 No. 384
-# http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/R940000384_
-# cancels the extra hour ("decree time") on the territory of Mangghystaū
-# oblast since the last Sunday of September 1994 (saying that time on
-# the territory would correspond to the third time belt as a
-# result)....
-#
-# 4. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan
-# from 1996-05-08 No. 575
-# http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P960000575_
-# amends the 1992-01-13 act to end summer time in October instead
-# of September, mirroring identical Russian change from 1996-04-23 act.
-#
-# 5. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan
-# from 1999-03-26 No. 305
-# http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P990000305_
-# cancels the extra hour ("decree time") for Atyraū oblast since the
-# last Sunday of March 1999 while retaining the oblast in the fourth
-# time belt.
-#
-# This means change from +05/+06 to +04/+05....
-#
-# 6. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan
-# from 2000-11-23 No. 1749
-# http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/archive/docs/P000001749_/23.11.2000
-# replaces the previous five documents.
-#
-# The only changes I noticed are in definition of the border between the
-# fourth and the fifth time belts.  They account for changes in spelling
-# and administrative division (splitting of Turgai oblast in 1997
-# probably changed time in territories incorporated into Qostanay oblast
-# (including Arkalyk) from +06/+07 to +05/+06) and move Qyzylorda oblast
-# from being in the fifth time belt and not using decree time into the
-# fourth time belt (no change in practice).
-#
-# 7. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan
-# from 2003-12-29 No. 1342
-# http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P030001342_
-# modified the 2000-11-23 act.  No relevant changes, apparently.
-#
-# 8. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan
-# from 2004-07-20 No. 775
-# http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/archive/docs/P040000775_/20.07.2004
-# modified the 2000-11-23 act to move Qostanay and Qyzylorda oblasts into
-# the fifth time belt and add Aktobe oblast to the list of regions not
-# using extra hour ("decree time"), leaving Kazakhstan with only 2 time
-# zones (+04/+05 and +06/+07).  The changes were to be implemented
-# during DST transitions in 2004 and 2005 but the acts got radically
-# amended before implementation happened.
-#
-# 9. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan
-# from 2004-09-15 No. 1059
-# http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P040001059_
-# modified the 2000-11-23 act to remove exceptions from the "decree time"
-# (leaving Kazakhstan in +05/+06 and +06/+07 zones), amended the
-# 2004-07-20 act to implement changes for Atyraū, West Kazakhstan,
-# Qostanay, Qyzylorda and Mangghystaū oblasts by not moving clocks
-# during the 2004 transition to "winter" time.
-#
-# This means transition from +04/+05 to +05/+06 for Atyraū oblast (no
-# zone currently), Asia/Oral, Asia/Aqtau and transition from +05/+06 to
-# +06/+07 for Qostanay oblast (Qostanay and Arkalyk, no zones currently)
-# and Asia/Qyzylorda on 2004-10-31 at 3:00....
-#
-# 10. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan
-# from 2005-03-15 No. 231
-# http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P050000231_
-# removes DST provisions from the 2000-11-23 act, removes most of the
-# (already implemented) provisions from the 2004-07-20 and 2004-09-15
-# acts, comes into effect 10 days after official publication.
-# The only practical effect seems to be the abolition of the summer
-# time.
-#
-# Unamended version of the act of the Government of the Russian Federation
-# No. 23 from 1992-01-08 [See 'europe' file for details].
-# Kazakh 1992-01-13 act appears to provide the same rules and 1992-03-27
-# act was to be enacted on the last Sunday of March 1992.
-
-# From Stepan Golosunov (2016-11-08):
-# Turgai reorganization should affect only southern part of Qostanay
-# oblast.  Which should probably be separated into Asia/Arkalyk zone.
-# (There were also 1970, 1988 and 1990 Turgai oblast reorganizations
-# according to wikipedia.)
-#
-# [For Qostanay] http://www.ng.kz/gazeta/195/hranit/
-# suggests that clocks were to be moved 40 minutes backwards on
-# 1920-01-01 to the fourth time belt.  But I do not understand
-# how that could happen....
-#
-# [For Atyrau and Oral] 1919 decree
-# (http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia-1919-02-08.html
-# and in Byalokoz) lists Ural river (plus 10 versts on its left bank) in
-# the third time belt (before 1930 this means +03).
-
-# From Alexander Konzurovski (2018-12-20):
-# Qyzyolrda Region (Asia/Qyzylorda) is changing its time zone from
-# UTC+6 to UTC+5 effective December 21st, 2018. The legal document is
-# located here: http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P1800000817 (russian language).
-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-#
-# Almaty (formerly Alma-Ata), representing most locations in Kazakhstan
-# This includes KZ-AKM, KZ-ALA, KZ-ALM, KZ-AST, KZ-BAY, KZ-VOS, KZ-ZHA,
-# KZ-KAR, KZ-SEV, KZ-PAV, and KZ-YUZ.
-Zone	Asia/Almaty	5:07:48 -	LMT	1924 May  2 # or Alma-Ata
-			5:00	-	+05	1930 Jun 21
-			6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
-			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
-			6:00 RussiaAsia	+06/+07	2004 Oct 31  2:00s
-			6:00	-	+06
-# Qyzylorda (aka Kyzylorda, Kizilorda, Kzyl-Orda, etc.) (KZ-KZY)
-Zone	Asia/Qyzylorda	4:21:52 -	LMT	1924 May  2
-			4:00	-	+04	1930 Jun 21
-			5:00	-	+05	1981 Apr  1
-			5:00	1:00	+06	1981 Oct  1
-			6:00	-	+06	1982 Apr  1
-			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
-			4:00 RussiaAsia	+04/+05	1991 Sep 29  2:00s
-			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
-			6:00 RussiaAsia	+06/+07	1992 Mar 29  2:00s
-			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	2004 Oct 31  2:00s
-			6:00	-	+06	2018 Dec 21  0:00
-			5:00	-	+05
-#
-# Qostanay (aka Kostanay, Kustanay) (KZ-KUS)
-# The 1991/2 rules are unclear partly because of the 1997 Turgai
-# reorganization.
-Zone	Asia/Qostanay	4:14:28 -	LMT	1924 May  2
-			4:00	-	+04	1930 Jun 21
-			5:00	-	+05	1981 Apr  1
-			5:00	1:00	+06	1981 Oct  1
-			6:00	-	+06	1982 Apr  1
-			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
-			4:00 RussiaAsia	+04/+05	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
-			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	2004 Oct 31  2:00s
-			6:00	-	+06
-
-# Aqtöbe (aka Aktobe, formerly Aktyubinsk) (KZ-AKT)
-Zone	Asia/Aqtobe	3:48:40	-	LMT	1924 May  2
-			4:00	-	+04	1930 Jun 21
-			5:00	-	+05	1981 Apr  1
-			5:00	1:00	+06	1981 Oct  1
-			6:00	-	+06	1982 Apr  1
-			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
-			4:00 RussiaAsia	+04/+05	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
-			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	2004 Oct 31  2:00s
-			5:00	-	+05
-# Mangghystaū (KZ-MAN)
-# Aqtau was not founded until 1963, but it represents an inhabited region,
-# so include timestamps before 1963.
-Zone	Asia/Aqtau	3:21:04	-	LMT	1924 May  2
-			4:00	-	+04	1930 Jun 21
-			5:00	-	+05	1981 Oct  1
-			6:00	-	+06	1982 Apr  1
-			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
-			4:00 RussiaAsia	+04/+05	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
-			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	1994 Sep 25  2:00s
-			4:00 RussiaAsia	+04/+05	2004 Oct 31  2:00s
-			5:00	-	+05
-# Atyraū (KZ-ATY) is like Mangghystaū except it switched from
-# +04/+05 to +05/+06 in spring 1999, not fall 1994.
-Zone	Asia/Atyrau	3:27:44	-	LMT	1924 May  2
-			3:00	-	+03	1930 Jun 21
-			5:00	-	+05	1981 Oct  1
-			6:00	-	+06	1982 Apr  1
-			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
-			4:00 RussiaAsia	+04/+05	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
-			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	1999 Mar 28  2:00s
-			4:00 RussiaAsia	+04/+05	2004 Oct 31  2:00s
-			5:00	-	+05
-# West Kazakhstan (KZ-ZAP)
-# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
-# The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
-Zone	Asia/Oral	3:25:24	-	LMT	1924 May  2 # or Ural'sk
-			3:00	-	+03	1930 Jun 21
-			5:00	-	+05	1981 Apr  1
-			5:00	1:00	+06	1981 Oct  1
-			6:00	-	+06	1982 Apr  1
-			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	1989 Mar 26  2:00s
-			4:00 RussiaAsia	+04/+05	1992 Jan 19  2:00s
-			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	1992 Mar 29  2:00s
-			4:00 RussiaAsia	+04/+05	2004 Oct 31  2:00s
-			5:00	-	+05
-
-# Kyrgyzstan (Kirgizstan)
-# Transitions through 1991 are from Shanks & Pottenger.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2005-08-15):
-# According to an article dated today in the Kyrgyzstan Development Gateway
-# http://eng.gateway.kg/cgi-bin/page.pl?id=1&story_name=doc9979.shtml
-# Kyrgyzstan is canceling the daylight saving time system.  I take the article
-# to mean that they will leave their clocks at 6 hours ahead of UTC.
-# From Malik Abdugaliev (2005-09-21):
-# Our government cancels daylight saving time 6th of August 2005.
-# From 2005-08-12 our GMT-offset is +6, w/o any daylight saving.
-
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Kyrgyz	1992	1996	-	Apr	Sun>=7	0:00s	1:00	-
-Rule	Kyrgyz	1992	1996	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Kyrgyz	1997	2005	-	Mar	lastSun	2:30	1:00	-
-Rule	Kyrgyz	1997	2004	-	Oct	lastSun	2:30	0	-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Bishkek	4:58:24 -	LMT	1924 May  2
-			5:00	-	+05	1930 Jun 21
-			6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
-			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	1991 Aug 31  2:00
-			5:00	Kyrgyz	+05/+06	2005 Aug 12
-			6:00	-	+06
-
-###############################################################################
-
-# Korea (North and South)
-
-# From Annie I. Bang (2006-07-10):
-# http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=200607100012
-# Korea ran a daylight saving program from 1949-61 but stopped it
-# during the 1950-53 Korean War.  The system was temporarily enforced
-# between 1987 and 1988 ...
-
-# From Sanghyuk Jung (2014-10-29):
-# https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-October/021830.html
-# According to the Korean Wikipedia
-# https://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/한국_표준시
-# [oldid=12896437 2014-09-04 08:03 UTC]
-# DST in Republic of Korea was as follows....  And I checked old
-# newspapers in Korean, all articles correspond with data in Wikipedia.
-# For example, the article in 1948 (Korean Language) proved that DST
-# started at June 1 in that year.  For another example, the article in
-# 1988 said that DST started at 2:00 AM in that year.
-
-# From Phake Nick (2018-10-27):
-# 1. According to official announcement from Korean government, the DST end
-# date in South Korea should be
-# 1955-09-08 without specifying time
-# http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027977557
-# 1956-09-29 without specifying time
-# http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027978341
-# 1957-09-21 24 o'clock
-# http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027979690#3
-# 1958-09-20 24 o'clock
-# http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027981189
-# 1959-09-19 24 o'clock
-# http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027982974#2
-# 1960-09-17 24 o'clock
-# http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0028044104
-# ...
-# 2.... https://namu.wiki/w/대한민국%20표준시 ... [says]
-# when Korea was using GMT+8:30 as standard time, the international
-# aviation/marine/meteorological industry in the country refused to
-# follow and continued to use GMT+9:00 for interoperability.
-
-
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	ROK	1948	only	-	Jun	 1	 0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	ROK	1948	only	-	Sep	12	24:00	0	S
-Rule	ROK	1949	only	-	Apr	 3	 0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	ROK	1949	1951	-	Sep	Sat>=7	24:00	0	S
-Rule	ROK	1950	only	-	Apr	 1	 0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	ROK	1951	only	-	May	 6	 0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	ROK	1955	only	-	May	 5	 0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	ROK	1955	only	-	Sep	 8	24:00	0	S
-Rule	ROK	1956	only	-	May	20	 0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	ROK	1956	only	-	Sep	29	24:00	0	S
-Rule	ROK	1957	1960	-	May	Sun>=1	 0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	ROK	1957	1960	-	Sep	Sat>=17	24:00	0	S
-Rule	ROK	1987	1988	-	May	Sun>=8	 2:00	1:00	D
-Rule	ROK	1987	1988	-	Oct	Sun>=8	 3:00	0	S
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2016-08-23):
-# The Korean Wikipedia entry gives the following sources for UT offsets:
-#
-# 1908: Official Journal Article No. 3994 (decree No. 5)
-# 1912: Governor-General of Korea Official Gazette Issue No. 367
-#       (Announcement No. 338)
-# 1954: Presidential Decree No. 876 (1954-03-17)
-# 1961: Law No. 676 (1961-08-07)
-#
-# (Another source "1987: Law No. 3919 (1986-12-31)" was in the 2014-10-30
-# edition of the Korean Wikipedia entry.)
-#
-# I guessed that time zone abbreviations through 1945 followed the same
-# rules as discussed under Taiwan, with nominal switches from JST to KST
-# when the respective cities were taken over by the Allies after WWII.
-#
-# For Pyongyang, guess no changes from World War II until 2015, as we
-# have no information otherwise.
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2015-08-07):
-# According to many news sources, North Korea is going to change to
-# the 8:30 time zone on August 15, one example:
-# http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-33815049
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2015-08-15):
-# Bells rang out midnight (00:00) Friday as part of the celebrations.  See:
-# Talmadge E. North Korea celebrates new time zone, 'Pyongyang Time'
-# http://news.yahoo.com/north-korea-celebrates-time-zone-pyongyang-time-164038128.html
-# There is no common English-language abbreviation for this time zone.
-# Use KST, as that's what we already use for 1954-1961 in ROK.
-
-# From Kang Seonghoon (2018-04-29):
-# North Korea will revert its time zone from UTC+8:30 (PYT; Pyongyang
-# Time) back to UTC+9 (KST; Korea Standard Time).
-#
-# From Seo Sanghyeon (2018-04-30):
-# Rodong Sinmun 2018-04-30 announced Pyongyang Time transition plan.
-# https://www.nknews.org/kcna/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2018/04/rodong-2018-04-30.pdf
-# ... the transition date is 2018-05-05 ...  Citation should be Decree
-# No. 2232 of April 30, 2018, of the Presidium of the Supreme People's
-# Assembly, as published in Rodong Sinmun.
-# From Tim Parenti (2018-04-29):
-# It appears to be the front page story at the top in the right-most column.
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-05-04):
-# The BBC reported that the transition was from 23:30 to 24:00 today.
-# https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-44010705
-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Seoul	8:27:52	-	LMT	1908 Apr  1
-			8:30	-	KST	1912 Jan  1
-			9:00	-	JST	1945 Sep  8
-			9:00	-	KST	1954 Mar 21
-			8:30	ROK	K%sT	1961 Aug 10
-			9:00	ROK	K%sT
-Zone	Asia/Pyongyang	8:23:00 -	LMT	1908 Apr  1
-			8:30	-	KST	1912 Jan  1
-			9:00	-	JST	1945 Aug 24
-			9:00	-	KST	2015 Aug 15 00:00
-			8:30	-	KST	2018 May  4 23:30
-			9:00	-	KST
-
-###############################################################################
-
-# Kuwait
-# See Asia/Riyadh.
-
-# Laos
-# See Asia/Bangkok.
-
-
-# Lebanon
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Lebanon	1920	only	-	Mar	28	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Lebanon	1920	only	-	Oct	25	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Lebanon	1921	only	-	Apr	3	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Lebanon	1921	only	-	Oct	3	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Lebanon	1922	only	-	Mar	26	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Lebanon	1922	only	-	Oct	8	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Lebanon	1923	only	-	Apr	22	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Lebanon	1923	only	-	Sep	16	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Lebanon	1957	1961	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Lebanon	1957	1961	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Lebanon	1972	only	-	Jun	22	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Lebanon	1972	1977	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Lebanon	1973	1977	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Lebanon	1978	only	-	Apr	30	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Lebanon	1978	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Lebanon	1984	1987	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Lebanon	1984	1991	-	Oct	16	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Lebanon	1988	only	-	Jun	1	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Lebanon	1989	only	-	May	10	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Lebanon	1990	1992	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Lebanon	1992	only	-	Oct	4	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Lebanon	1993	max	-	Mar	lastSun	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Lebanon	1993	1998	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Lebanon	1999	max	-	Oct	lastSun	0:00	0	-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Beirut	2:22:00 -	LMT	1880
-			2:00	Lebanon	EE%sT
-
-# Malaysia
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	NBorneo	1935	1941	-	Sep	14	0:00	0:20	-
-Rule	NBorneo	1935	1941	-	Dec	14	0:00	0	-
-#
-# peninsular Malaysia
-# taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30)
-# http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Asia/Kuala_Lumpur	6:46:46 -	LMT	1901 Jan  1
-			6:55:25	-	SMT	1905 Jun  1 # Singapore M.T.
-			7:00	-	+07	1933 Jan  1
-			7:00	0:20	+0720	1936 Jan  1
-			7:20	-	+0720	1941 Sep  1
-			7:30	-	+0730	1942 Feb 16
-			9:00	-	+09	1945 Sep 12
-			7:30	-	+0730	1982 Jan  1
-			8:00	-	+08
-# Sabah & Sarawak
-# From Paul Eggert (2014-08-12):
-# The data entries here are mostly from Shanks & Pottenger, but the 1942, 1945
-# and 1982 transition dates are from Mok Ly Yng.
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Asia/Kuching	7:21:20	-	LMT	1926 Mar
-			7:30	-	+0730	1933
-			8:00 NBorneo  +08/+0820	1942 Feb 16
-			9:00	-	+09	1945 Sep 12
-			8:00	-	+08
-
-# Maldives
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Indian/Maldives	4:54:00 -	LMT	1880 # Malé
-			4:54:00	-	MMT	1960 # Malé Mean Time
-			5:00	-	+05
-
-# Mongolia
-
-# Shanks & Pottenger say that Mongolia has three time zones, but
-# The USNO (1995-12-21) and the CIA map Standard Time Zones of the World
-# (2005-03) both say that it has just one.
-
-# From Oscar van Vlijmen (1999-12-11):
-# General Information Mongolia
-# <http://www.mongoliatourism.gov.mn/general.htm> (1999-09)
-# "Time: Mongolia has two time zones. Three westernmost provinces of
-# Bayan-Ölgii, Uvs, and Hovd are one hour earlier than the capital city, and
-# the rest of the country follows the Ulaanbaatar time, which is UTC/GMT plus
-# eight hours."
-
-# From Rives McDow (1999-12-13):
-# Mongolia discontinued the use of daylight savings time in 1999; 1998
-# being the last year it was implemented.  The dates of implementation I am
-# unsure of, but most probably it was similar to Russia, except for the time
-# of implementation may have been different....
-# Some maps in the past have indicated that there was an additional time
-# zone in the eastern part of Mongolia, including the provinces of Dornod,
-# Sükhbaatar, and possibly Khentii.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (1999-12-15):
-# Naming and spelling is tricky in Mongolia.
-# We'll use Hovd (also spelled Chovd and Khovd) to represent the west zone;
-# the capital of the Hovd province is sometimes called Hovd, sometimes Dund-Us,
-# and sometimes Jirgalanta (with variant spellings), but the name Hovd
-# is good enough for our purposes.
-
-# From Rives McDow (2001-05-13):
-# In addition to Mongolia starting daylight savings as reported earlier
-# (adopted DST on 2001-04-27 02:00 local time, ending 2001-09-28),
-# there are three time zones.
-#
-# Provinces [at 7:00]: Bayan-Ölgii, Uvs, Khovd, Zavkhan, Govi-Altai
-# Provinces [at 8:00]: Khövsgöl, Bulgan, Arkhangai, Khentii, Töv,
-#	Bayankhongor, Övörkhangai, Dundgovi, Dornogovi, Ömnögovi
-# Provinces [at 9:00]: Dornod, Sükhbaatar
-#
-# [The province of Selenge is omitted from the above lists.]
-
-# From Ganbold Ts., Ulaanbaatar (2004-04-17):
-# Daylight saving occurs at 02:00 local time last Saturday of March.
-# It will change back to normal at 02:00 local time last Saturday of
-# September.... As I remember this rule was changed in 2001.
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2004-04-17):
-# For now, assume Rives McDow's informant got confused about Friday vs
-# Saturday, and that his 2001 dates should have 1 added to them.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2005-07-26):
-# We have wildly conflicting information about Mongolia's time zones.
-# Bill Bonnet (2005-05-19) reports that the US Embassy in Ulaanbaatar says
-# there is only one time zone and that DST is observed, citing Microsoft
-# Windows XP as the source.  Risto Nykänen (2005-05-16) reports that
-# travelmongolia.org says there are two time zones (UT +07, +08) with no DST.
-# Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-05-20) reports that the Mongolian Embassy in
-# Washington, DC says there are two time zones, with DST observed.
-# He also found
-# http://ubpost.mongolnews.mn/index.php?subaction=showcomments&id=1111634894&archive=&start_from=&ucat=1&
-# which also says that there is DST, and which has a comment by "Toddius"
-# (2005-03-31 06:05 +0700) saying "Mongolia actually has 3.5 time zones.
-# The West (OLGII) is +7 GMT, most of the country is ULAT is +8 GMT
-# and some Eastern provinces are +9 GMT but Sükhbaatar Aimag is SUHK +8.5 GMT.
-# The SUKH timezone is new this year, it is one of the few things the
-# parliament passed during the tumultuous winter session."
-# For now, let's ignore this information, until we have more confirmation.
-
-# From Ganbold Ts. (2007-02-26):
-# Parliament of Mongolia has just changed the daylight-saving rule in February.
-# They decided not to adopt daylight-saving time....
-# http://www.mongolnews.mn/index.php?module=unuudur&sec=view&id=15742
-
-# From Deborah Goldsmith (2008-03-30):
-# We received a bug report claiming that the tz database UTC offset for
-# Asia/Choibalsan (GMT+09:00) is incorrect, and that it should be GMT
-# +08:00 instead. Different sources appear to disagree with the tz
-# database on this, e.g.:
-#
-# https://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=1026
-# http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_MN.aspx
-#
-# both say GMT+08:00.
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-31):
-# eznis airways, which operates several domestic flights, has a flight
-# schedule here:
-# http://www.eznis.com/Container.jsp?id=112
-# (click the English flag for English)
-#
-# There it appears that flights between Choibalsan and Ulaanbaatar arrive
-# about 1:35 - 1:50 hours later in local clock time, no matter the
-# direction, while Ulaanbaatar-Khovd takes 2 hours in the Eastern
-# direction and 3:35 back, which indicates that Ulaanbaatar and Khovd are
-# in different time zones (like we know about), while Choibalsan and
-# Ulaanbaatar are in the same time zone (correction needed).
-
-# From Arthur David Olson (2008-05-19):
-# Assume that Choibalsan is indeed offset by 8:00.
-# XXX--in the absence of better information, assume that transition
-# was at the start of 2008-03-31 (the day of Steffen Thorsen's report);
-# this is almost surely wrong.
-
-# From Ganbold Tsagaankhuu (2015-03-10):
-# It seems like yesterday Mongolian Government meeting has concluded to use
-# daylight saving time in Mongolia....  Starting at 2:00AM of last Saturday of
-# March 2015, daylight saving time starts.  And 00:00AM of last Saturday of
-# September daylight saving time ends.  Source:
-# http://zasag.mn/news/view/8969
-
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Mongol	1983	1984	-	Apr	1	0:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Mongol	1983	only	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	-
-# Shanks & Pottenger and IATA SSIM say 1990s switches occurred at 00:00,
-# but McDow says the 2001 switches occurred at 02:00.  Also, IATA SSIM
-# (1996-09) says 1996-10-25.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger through 1998.
-#
-# Shanks & Pottenger say that the Sept. 1984 through Sept. 1990 switches
-# in Choibalsan (more precisely, in Dornod and Sükhbaatar) took place
-# at 02:00 standard time, not at 00:00 local time as in the rest of
-# the country.  That would be odd, and possibly is a result of their
-# correction of 02:00 (in the previous edition) not being done correctly
-# in the latest edition; so ignore it for now.
-
-# From Ganbold Tsagaankhuu (2017-02-09):
-# Mongolian Government meeting has concluded today to cancel daylight
-# saving time adoption in Mongolia.  Source: http://zasag.mn/news/view/16192
-
-Rule	Mongol	1985	1998	-	Mar	lastSun	0:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Mongol	1984	1998	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	-
-# IATA SSIM (1999-09) says Mongolia no longer observes DST.
-Rule	Mongol	2001	only	-	Apr	lastSat	2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Mongol	2001	2006	-	Sep	lastSat	2:00	0	-
-Rule	Mongol	2002	2006	-	Mar	lastSat	2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Mongol	2015	2016	-	Mar	lastSat	2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Mongol	2015	2016	-	Sep	lastSat	0:00	0	-
-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-# Hovd, a.k.a. Chovd, Dund-Us, Dzhargalant, Khovd, Jirgalanta
-Zone	Asia/Hovd	6:06:36 -	LMT	1905 Aug
-			6:00	-	+06	1978
-			7:00	Mongol	+07/+08
-# Ulaanbaatar, a.k.a. Ulan Bataar, Ulan Bator, Urga
-Zone	Asia/Ulaanbaatar 7:07:32 -	LMT	1905 Aug
-			7:00	-	+07	1978
-			8:00	Mongol	+08/+09
-# Choibalsan, a.k.a. Bajan Tümen, Bajan Tumen, Chojbalsan,
-# Choybalsan, Sanbejse, Tchoibalsan
-Zone	Asia/Choibalsan	7:38:00 -	LMT	1905 Aug
-			7:00	-	+07	1978
-			8:00	-	+08	1983 Apr
-			9:00	Mongol	+09/+10	2008 Mar 31
-			8:00	Mongol	+08/+09
-
-# Nepal
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Kathmandu	5:41:16 -	LMT	1920
-			5:30	-	+0530	1986
-			5:45	-	+0545
-
-# Oman
-# See Asia/Dubai.
-
-# Pakistan
-
-# From Rives McDow (2002-03-13):
-# I have been advised that Pakistan has decided to adopt dst on a
-# TRIAL basis for one year, starting 00:01 local time on April 7, 2002
-# and ending at 00:01 local time October 6, 2002.  This is what I was
-# told, but I believe that the actual time of change may be 00:00; the
-# 00:01 was to make it clear which day it was on.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2002-03-15):
-# Jesper Nørgaard found this URL:
-# http://www.pak.gov.pk/public/news/app/app06_dec.htm
-# (dated 2001-12-06) which says that the Cabinet adopted a scheme "to
-# advance the clocks by one hour on the night between the first
-# Saturday and Sunday of April and revert to the original position on
-# 15th October each year".  This agrees with McDow's 04-07 at 00:00,
-# but disagrees about the October transition, and makes it sound like
-# it's not on a trial basis.  Also, the "between the first Saturday
-# and Sunday of April" phrase, if taken literally, means that the
-# transition takes place at 00:00 on the first Sunday on or after 04-02.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2003-02-09):
-# DAWN <http://www.dawn.com/2002/10/06/top13.htm> reported on 2002-10-05
-# that 2002 DST ended that day at midnight.  Go with McDow for now.
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2003-03-14):
-# According to http://www.dawn.com/2003/03/07/top15.htm
-# there will be no DST in Pakistan this year:
-#
-# ISLAMABAD, March 6: Information and Media Development Minister Sheikh
-# Rashid Ahmed on Thursday said the cabinet had reversed a previous
-# decision to advance clocks by one hour in summer and put them back by
-# one hour in winter with the aim of saving light hours and energy.
-#
-# The minister told a news conference that the experiment had rather
-# shown 8 per cent higher consumption of electricity.
-
-# From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-15):
-#
-# Here is an article that Pakistan plan to introduce Daylight Saving Time
-# on June 1, 2008 for 3 months.
-#
-# "... The federal cabinet on Wednesday announced a new conservation plan to
-# help reduce load shedding by approving the closure of commercial centres at
-# 9pm and moving clocks forward by one hour for the next three months. ...."
-#
-# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan01.html
-# http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008%5C05%5C15%5Cstory_15-5-2008_pg1_4
-
-# From Arthur David Olson (2008-05-19):
-# XXX--midnight transitions is a guess; 2008 only is a guess.
-
-# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2008-08-28):
-# Pakistan government has decided to keep the watches one-hour advanced
-# for another 2 months - plan to return to Standard Time on October 31
-# instead of August 31.
-#
-# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan02.html
-# http://dailymailnews.com/200808/28/news/dmbrn03.html
-
-# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-04-08):
-# Based on previous media reports that "... proposed plan to
-# advance clocks by one hour from May 1 will cause disturbance
-# to the working schedules rather than bringing discipline in
-# official working."
-# http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=171280
-#
-# recent news that instead of May 2009 - Pakistan plan to
-# introduce DST from April 15, 2009
-#
-# FYI: Associated Press Of Pakistan
-# April 08, 2009
-# Cabinet okays proposal to advance clocks by one hour from April 15
-# http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=73043&Itemid=1
-# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan05.html
-#
-# ....
-# The Federal Cabinet on Wednesday approved the proposal to
-# advance clocks in the country by one hour from April 15 to
-# conserve energy"
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-09-17):
-# "The News International," Pakistan reports that: "The Federal
-# Government has decided to restore the previous time by moving the
-# clocks backward by one hour from October 1. A formal announcement to
-# this effect will be made after the Prime Minister grants approval in
-# this regard."
-# http://www.thenews.com.pk/updates.asp?id=87168
-
-# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-28):
-# According to Associated Press Of Pakistan, it is confirmed that
-# Pakistan clocks across the country would be turned back by an hour from
-# October 1, 2009.
-#
-# "Clocks to go back one hour from 1 Oct"
-# http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=86715&Itemid=2
-# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan07.htm
-#
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-09-29):
-# Now they seem to have changed their mind, November 1 is the new date:
-# http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=24742
-# "The country's clocks will be reversed by one hour on November 1.
-# Officials of Federal Ministry for Interior told this to Geo News on
-# Monday."
-#
-# And more importantly, it seems that these dates will be kept every year:
-# "It has now been decided that clocks will be wound forward by one hour
-# on April 15 and reversed by an hour on November 1 every year without
-# obtaining prior approval, the officials added."
-#
-# We have confirmed this year's end date with both with the Ministry of
-# Water and Power and the Pakistan Electric Power Company:
-# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/pakistan-ends-dst09.html
-
-# From Christoph Göhre (2009-10-01):
-# [T]he German Consulate General in Karachi reported me today that Pakistan
-# will go back to standard time on 1st of November.
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-26):
-# Steffen Thorsen wrote:
-# > On Thursday (2010-03-25) it was announced that DST would start in
-# > Pakistan on 2010-04-01.
-# >
-# > Then today, the president said that they might have to revert the
-# > decision if it is not supported by the parliament. So at the time
-# > being, it seems unclear if DST will be actually observed or not - but
-# > April 1 could be a more likely date than April 15.
-# Now, it seems that the decision to not observe DST in final:
-#
-# "Govt Withdraws Plan To Advance Clocks"
-# http://www.apakistannews.com/govt-withdraws-plan-to-advance-clocks-172041
-#
-# "People laud PM's announcement to end DST"
-# http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=99374&Itemid=2
-
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule Pakistan	2002	only	-	Apr	Sun>=2	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule Pakistan	2002	only	-	Oct	Sun>=2	0:00	0	-
-Rule Pakistan	2008	only	-	Jun	1	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule Pakistan	2008	2009	-	Nov	1	0:00	0	-
-Rule Pakistan	2009	only	-	Apr	15	0:00	1:00	S
-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Karachi	4:28:12 -	LMT	1907
-			5:30	-	+0530	1942 Sep
-			5:30	1:00	+0630	1945 Oct 15
-			5:30	-	+0530	1951 Sep 30
-			5:00	-	+05	1971 Mar 26
-			5:00 Pakistan	PK%sT	# Pakistan Time
-
-# Palestine
-
-# From Amos Shapir (1998-02-15):
-#
-# From 1917 until 1948-05-15, all of Palestine, including the parts now
-# known as the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, was under British rule.
-# Therefore the rules given for Israel for that period, apply there too...
-#
-# The Gaza Strip was under Egyptian rule between 1948-05-15 until 1967-06-05
-# (except a short occupation by Israel from 1956-11 till 1957-03, but no
-# time zone was affected then).  It was never formally annexed to Egypt,
-# though.
-#
-# The rest of Palestine was under Jordanian rule at that time, formally
-# annexed in 1950 as the West Bank (and the word "Trans" was dropped from
-# the country's previous name of "the Hashemite Kingdom of the
-# Trans-Jordan").  So the rules for Jordan for that time apply.  Major
-# towns in that area are Nablus (Shchem), El-Halil (Hebron), Ramallah, and
-# East Jerusalem.
-#
-# Both areas were occupied by Israel in June 1967, but not annexed (except
-# for East Jerusalem).  They were on Israel time since then; there might
-# have been a Military Governor's order about time zones, but I'm not aware
-# of any (such orders may have been issued semi-annually whenever summer
-# time was in effect, but maybe the legal aspect of time was just neglected).
-#
-# The Palestinian Authority was established in 1993, and got hold of most
-# towns in the West Bank and Gaza by 1995.  I know that in order to
-# demonstrate...independence, they have been switching to
-# summer time and back on a different schedule than Israel's, but I don't
-# know when this was started, or what algorithm is used (most likely the
-# Jordanian one).
-#
-# To summarize, the table should probably look something like that:
-#
-# Area \ when | 1918-1947 | 1948-1967 | 1967-1995 | 1996-
-# ------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------
-# Israel      | Zion      | Zion      | Zion      | Zion
-# West bank   | Zion      | Jordan    | Zion      | Jordan
-# Gaza        | Zion      | Egypt     | Zion      | Jordan
-#
-# I guess more info may be available from the PA's web page (if/when they
-# have one).
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
-# Shanks & Pottenger write that Gaza did not observe DST until 1957, but go
-# with Shapir and assume that it observed DST from 1940 through 1947,
-# and that it used Jordanian rules starting in 1996.
-# We don't yet need a separate entry for the West Bank, since
-# the only differences between it and Gaza that we know about
-# occurred before our cutoff date of 1970.
-# However, as we get more information, we may need to add entries
-# for parts of the West Bank as they transitioned from Israel's rules
-# to Palestine's rules.
-
-# From IINS News Service - Israel - 1998-03-23 10:38:07 Israel time,
-# forwarded by Ephraim Silverberg:
-#
-# Despite the fact that Israel changed over to daylight savings time
-# last week, the PLO Authority (PA) has decided not to turn its clocks
-# one-hour forward at this time.  As a sign of independence from Israeli rule,
-# the PA has decided to implement DST in April.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (1999-09-20):
-# Daoud Kuttab writes in Holiday havoc
-# http://www.jpost.com/com/Archive/22.Apr.1999/Opinion/Article-2.html
-# (Jerusalem Post, 1999-04-22) that
-# the Palestinian National Authority changed to DST on 1999-04-15.
-# I vaguely recall that they switch back in October (sorry, forgot the source).
-# For now, let's assume that the spring switch was at 24:00,
-# and that they switch at 0:00 on the 3rd Fridays of April and October.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2005-11-22):
-# Starting 2004 transitions are from Steffen Thorsen's web site timeanddate.com.
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2005-11-23):
-# A user from Gaza reported that Gaza made the change early because of
-# the Ramadan.  Next year Ramadan will be even earlier, so I think
-# there is a good chance next year's end date will be around two weeks
-# earlier - the same goes for Jordan.
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-08-17):
-# I was informed by a user in Bethlehem that in Bethlehem it started the
-# same day as Israel, and after checking with other users in the area, I
-# was informed that they started DST one day after Israel.  I was not
-# able to find any authoritative sources at the time, nor details if
-# Gaza changed as well, but presumed Gaza to follow the same rules as
-# the West Bank.
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-09-26):
-# according to the Palestine News Network (2006-09-19):
-# http://english.pnn.ps/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=596&Itemid=5
-# > The Council of Ministers announced that this year its winter schedule
-# > will begin early, as of midnight Thursday.  It is also time to turn
-# > back the clocks for winter.  Friday will begin an hour late this week.
-# I guess it is likely that next year's date will be moved as well,
-# because of the Ramadan.
-
-# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2007-09-18):
-# According to Steffen Thorsen's web site the Gaza Strip and the rest of the
-# Palestinian territories left DST early on 13.th. of September at 2:00.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2007-09-20):
-# My understanding is that Gaza and the West Bank disagree even over when
-# the weekend is (Thursday+Friday versus Friday+Saturday), so I'd be a bit
-# surprised if they agreed about DST.  But for now, assume they agree.
-# For lack of better information, predict that future changes will be
-# the 2nd Thursday of September at 02:00.
-
-# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2008-08-28):
-# Here is an article, that Mideast running on different clocks at Ramadan.
-#
-# Gaza Strip (as Egypt) ended DST at midnight Thursday (Aug 28, 2008), while
-# the West Bank will end Daylight Saving Time at midnight Sunday (Aug 31, 2008).
-#
-# http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/feedarticle/7759001
-# http://www.abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=5676087
-# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip01.html
-
-# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-26):
-# According to the Palestine News Network (arabic.pnn.ps), Palestinian
-# government decided to start Daylight Time on Thursday night March
-# 26 and continue until the night of 27 September 2009.
-#
-# (in Arabic)
-# http://arabic.pnn.ps/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=50850
-#
-# (English translation)
-# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank01.html
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-08-31):
-# Palestine's Council of Ministers announced that they will revert back to
-# winter time on Friday, 2009-09-04.
-#
-# One news source:
-# http://www.safa.ps/ara/?action=showdetail&seid=4158
-# (Palestinian press agency, Arabic),
-# Google translate: "Decided that the Palestinian government in Ramallah
-# headed by Salam Fayyad, the start of work in time for the winter of
-# 2009, starting on Friday approved the fourth delay Sept. clock sixty
-# minutes per hour as of Friday morning."
-#
-# We are not sure if Gaza will do the same, last year they had a different
-# end date, we will keep this page updated:
-# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-dst-2009.html
-
-# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-02):
-# Seems that Gaza Strip will go back to Winter Time same date as West Bank.
-#
-# According to Palestinian Ministry Of Interior, West Bank and Gaza Strip plan
-# to change time back to Standard time on September 4, 2009.
-#
-# "Winter time unite the West Bank and Gaza"
-# (from Palestinian National Authority):
-# http://www.moi.gov.ps/en/?page=633167343250594025&nid=11505
-# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip02.html
-
-# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-19):
-# According to Voice of Palestine DST will last for 191 days, from March
-# 26, 2010 till "the last Sunday before the tenth day of Tishri
-# (October), each year" (October 03, 2010?)
-#
-# http://palvoice.org/forums/showthread.php?t=245697
-# (in Arabic)
-# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank03.html
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-24):
-# ...Ma'an News Agency reports that Hamas cabinet has decided it will
-# start one day later, at 12:01am. Not sure if they really mean 12:01am or
-# noon though:
-#
-# http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=271178
-# (Ma'an News Agency)
-# "At 12:01am Friday, clocks in Israel and the West Bank will change to
-# 1:01am, while Gaza clocks will change at 12:01am Saturday morning."
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-08-11):
-# According to several sources, including
-# http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=306795
-# the clocks were set back one hour at 2010-08-11 00:00:00 local time in
-# Gaza and the West Bank.
-# Some more background info:
-# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-end-dst-2010.html
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2011-08-26):
-# Gaza and the West Bank did go back to standard time in the beginning of
-# August, and will now enter daylight saving time again on 2011-08-30
-# 00:00 (so two periods of DST in 2011). The pause was because of
-# Ramadan.
-#
-# http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=416217
-# Additional info:
-# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/palestine-dst-2011.html
-
-# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-08-27):
-# According to the article in The Jerusalem Post:
-# "...Earlier this month, the Palestinian government in the West Bank decided to
-# move to standard time for 30 days, during Ramadan. The Palestinians in the
-# Gaza Strip accepted the change and also moved their clocks one hour back.
-# The Hamas government said on Saturday that it won't observe summertime after
-# the Muslim feast of Id al-Fitr, which begins on Tuesday..."
-# ...
-# https://www.jpost.com/MiddleEast/Article.aspx?id=235650
-# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip05.html
-# The rules for Egypt are stolen from the 'africa' file.
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2011-09-30):
-# West Bank did end Daylight Saving Time this morning/midnight (2011-09-30
-# 00:00).
-# So West Bank and Gaza now have the same time again.
-#
-# Many sources, including:
-# http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=424808
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-26):
-# Palestinian news sources tell that both Gaza and West Bank will start DST
-# on Friday (Thursday midnight, 2012-03-29 24:00).
-# Some of many sources in Arabic:
-# http://www.samanews.com/index.php?act=Show&id=122638
-#
-# http://safa.ps/details/news/74352/%D8%A8%D8%AF%D8%A1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%82%D9%8A%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%8A%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B6%D9%81%D8%A9-%D9%88%D8%BA%D8%B2%D8%A9-%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%84%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D9%85%D8%B9%D8%A9.html
-#
-# Our brief summary:
-# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/gaza-west-bank-dst-2012.html
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2013-03-26):
-# The following news sources tells that Palestine will "start daylight saving
-# time from midnight on Friday, March 29, 2013" (translated).
-# [These are in Arabic and are for Gaza and for Ramallah, respectively.]
-# http://www.samanews.com/index.php?act=Show&id=154120
-# http://safa.ps/details/news/99844/%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%85-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%84%D9%87-%D8%A8%D8%AF%D8%A1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%82%D9%8A%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%8A%D9%81%D9%8A-29-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D8%A7%D8%B1%D9%8A.html
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2013-09-24):
-# The Gaza and West Bank are ending DST Thursday at midnight
-# (2013-09-27 00:00:00) (one hour earlier than last year...).
-# This source in English, says "that winter time will go into effect
-# at midnight on Thursday in the West Bank and Gaza Strip":
-# http://english.wafa.ps/index.php?action=detail&id=23246
-# official source...:
-# http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/ar/Views/ViewDetails.aspx?pid=1252
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2015-03-03):
-# Sources such as http://www.alquds.com/news/article/view/id/548257
-# and https://www.raya.ps/ar/news/890705.html say Palestine areas will
-# start DST on 2015-03-28 00:00 which is one day later than expected.
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2015-03-03):
-# https://www.timeanddate.com/time/change/west-bank/ramallah?year=2014
-# says that the fall 2014 transition was Oct 23 at 24:00.
-
-# From Hannah Kreitem (2016-03-09):
-# http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/WebSite/ar/ViewDetails?ID=31728
-# [Google translation]: "The Council also decided to start daylight
-# saving in Palestine as of one o'clock on Saturday morning,
-# 2016-03-26, to provide the clock 60 minutes ahead."
-
-# From Sharef Mustafa (2016-10-19):
-# [T]he Palestinian cabinet decision (Mar 8th 2016) published on
-# http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/WebSite/Upload/Decree/GOV_17/16032016134830.pdf
-# states that summer time will end on Oct 29th at 01:00.
-#
-# From Tim Parenti (2016-10-19):
-# Predict fall transitions on October's last Saturday at 01:00 from now on.
-# This is consistent with the 2016 transition as well as our spring
-# predictions.
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2016-10-19):
-# It's also consistent with predictions in the following URLs today:
-# https://www.timeanddate.com/time/change/gaza-strip/gaza
-# https://www.timeanddate.com/time/change/west-bank/hebron
-
-# From Sharef Mustafa (2018-03-16):
-# Palestine summer time will start on Mar 24th 2018 by advancing the
-# clock by 60 minutes as per Palestinian cabinet decision published on
-# the official website, though the decree did not specify the exact
-# time of the time shift.
-# http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/Website/AR/NDecrees/ViewFile.ashx?ID=e7a42ab7-ee23-435a-b9c8-a4f7e81f3817
-
-# From Even Scharning (2019-03-23):
-# DST in Palestine will start on 30 March this year, not 23 March as the time
-# zone database predicted.
-# https://ramallah.news/post/123610
-#
-# From Tim Parenti (2019-03-23):
-# Combining this with the rules observed since 2016, adjust our spring
-# transition guess to Mar Sat>=24.
-
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule EgyptAsia	1957	only	-	May	10	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule EgyptAsia	1957	1958	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
-Rule EgyptAsia	1958	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule EgyptAsia	1959	1967	-	May	 1	1:00	1:00	S
-Rule EgyptAsia	1959	1965	-	Sep	30	3:00	0	-
-Rule EgyptAsia	1966	only	-	Oct	 1	3:00	0	-
-
-Rule Palestine	1999	2005	-	Apr	Fri>=15	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule Palestine	1999	2003	-	Oct	Fri>=15	0:00	0	-
-Rule Palestine	2004	only	-	Oct	 1	1:00	0	-
-Rule Palestine	2005	only	-	Oct	 4	2:00	0	-
-Rule Palestine	2006	2007	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule Palestine	2006	only	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	-
-Rule Palestine	2007	only	-	Sep	Thu>=8	2:00	0	-
-Rule Palestine	2008	2009	-	Mar	lastFri	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule Palestine	2008	only	-	Sep	 1	0:00	0	-
-Rule Palestine	2009	only	-	Sep	Fri>=1	1:00	0	-
-Rule Palestine	2010	only	-	Mar	26	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule Palestine	2010	only	-	Aug	11	0:00	0	-
-Rule Palestine	2011	only	-	Apr	 1	0:01	1:00	S
-Rule Palestine	2011	only	-	Aug	 1	0:00	0	-
-Rule Palestine	2011	only	-	Aug	30	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule Palestine	2011	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	0	-
-Rule Palestine	2012	2014	-	Mar	lastThu	24:00	1:00	S
-Rule Palestine	2012	only	-	Sep	21	1:00	0	-
-Rule Palestine	2013	only	-	Sep	Fri>=21	0:00	0	-
-Rule Palestine	2014	2015	-	Oct	Fri>=21	0:00	0	-
-Rule Palestine	2015	only	-	Mar	lastFri	24:00	1:00	S
-Rule Palestine	2016	max	-	Mar	Sat>=24	1:00	1:00	S
-Rule Palestine	2016	max	-	Oct	lastSat	1:00	0	-
-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Gaza	2:17:52	-	LMT	1900 Oct
-			2:00	Zion	EET/EEST 1948 May 15
-			2:00 EgyptAsia	EE%sT	1967 Jun  5
-			2:00	Zion	I%sT	1996
-			2:00	Jordan	EE%sT	1999
-			2:00 Palestine	EE%sT	2008 Aug 29  0:00
-			2:00	-	EET	2008 Sep
-			2:00 Palestine	EE%sT	2010
-			2:00	-	EET	2010 Mar 27  0:01
-			2:00 Palestine	EE%sT	2011 Aug  1
-			2:00	-	EET	2012
-			2:00 Palestine	EE%sT
-
-Zone	Asia/Hebron	2:20:23	-	LMT	1900 Oct
-			2:00	Zion	EET/EEST 1948 May 15
-			2:00 EgyptAsia	EE%sT	1967 Jun  5
-			2:00	Zion	I%sT	1996
-			2:00	Jordan	EE%sT	1999
-			2:00 Palestine	EE%sT
-
-# Paracel Is
-# no information
-
-# Philippines
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
-# The Spanish initially used American (west-of-Greenwich) time.
-# It is unknown what time Manila kept when the British occupied it from
-# 1762-10-06 through 1764-04; for now assume it kept American time.
-# On 1844-08-16, Narciso Clavería, governor-general of the
-# Philippines, issued a proclamation announcing that 1844-12-30 was to
-# be immediately followed by 1845-01-01; see R.H. van Gent's
-# History of the International Date Line
-# https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/idl/idl_philippines.htm
-# The rest of the data entries are from Shanks & Pottenger.
-
-# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-04-26):
-# ... claims that Philippines had DST last time in 1990:
-# http://story.philippinetimes.com/p.x/ct/9/id/145be20cc6b121c0/cid/3e5bbccc730d258c/
-# [a story dated 2006-04-25 by Cris Larano of Dow Jones Newswires,
-# but no details]
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2014-08-14):
-# The following source says DST may be instituted November-January and again
-# March-June, but this is not definite.  It also says DST was last proclaimed
-# during the Ramos administration (1992-1998); but again, no details.
-# Carcamo D. PNoy urged to declare use of daylight saving time.
-# Philippine Star 2014-08-05
-# http://www.philstar.com/headlines/2014/08/05/1354152/pnoy-urged-declare-use-daylight-saving-time
-
-# From Paul Goyette (2018-06-15):
-# In the Philippines, there is a national law, Republic Act No. 10535
-# which declares the official time here as "Philippine Standard Time".
-# The act [1] even specifies use of PST as the abbreviation, although
-# the FAQ provided by PAGASA [2] uses the "acronym PhST to distinguish
-# it from the Pacific Standard Time (PST)."
-# [1] http://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2013/05/15/republic-act-no-10535/
-# [2] https://www1.pagasa.dost.gov.ph/index.php/astronomy/philippine-standard-time#republic-act-10535
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-06-19):
-# I surveyed recent news reports, and my impression is that "PST" is
-# more popular among reliable English-language news sources.  This is
-# not just a measure of Google hit counts: it's also the sizes and
-# influence of the sources.  There is no current abbreviation for DST,
-# so use "PDT", the usual American style.
-
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Phil	1936	only	-	Nov	1	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Phil	1937	only	-	Feb	1	0:00	0	S
-Rule	Phil	1954	only	-	Apr	12	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Phil	1954	only	-	Jul	1	0:00	0	S
-Rule	Phil	1978	only	-	Mar	22	0:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Phil	1978	only	-	Sep	21	0:00	0	S
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Manila	-15:56:00 -	LMT	1844 Dec 31
-			8:04:00 -	LMT	1899 May 11
-			8:00	Phil	P%sT	1942 May
-			9:00	-	JST	1944 Nov
-			8:00	Phil	P%sT
-
-# Qatar
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Qatar	3:26:08 -	LMT	1920     # Al Dawhah / Doha
-			4:00	-	+04	1972 Jun
-			3:00	-	+03
-Link Asia/Qatar Asia/Bahrain
-
-# Saudi Arabia
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-08-29):
-# Time in Saudi Arabia and other countries in the Arabian peninsula was not
-# standardized until 1968 or so; we don't know exactly when, and possibly it
-# has never been made official.  Richard P Hunt, in "Islam city yielding to
-# modern times", New York Times (1961-04-09), p 20, wrote that only airlines
-# observed standard time, and that people in Jeddah mostly observed quasi-solar
-# time, doing so by setting their watches at sunrise to 6 o'clock (or to 12
-# o'clock for "Arab" time).
-#
-# Timekeeping differed depending on who you were and which part of Saudi
-# Arabia you were in.  In 1969, Elias Antar wrote that although a common
-# practice had been to set one's watch to 12:00 (i.e., midnight) at sunset -
-# which meant that the time on one side of a mountain could differ greatly from
-# the time on the other side - many foreigners set their watches to 6pm
-# instead, while airlines instead used UTC +03 (except in Dhahran, where they
-# used UTC +04), Aramco used UTC +03 with DST, and the Trans-Arabian Pipe Line
-# Company used Aramco time in eastern Saudi Arabia and airline time in western.
-# (The American Military Aid Advisory Group used plain UTC.)  Antar writes,
-# "A man named Higgins, so the story goes, used to run a local power
-# station. One day, the whole thing became too much for Higgins and he
-# assembled his staff and laid down the law. 'I've had enough of this,' he
-# shrieked. 'It is now 12 o'clock Higgins Time, and from now on this station is
-# going to run on Higgins Time.' And so, until last year, it did."  See:
-# Antar E. Dinner at When? Saudi Aramco World, 1969 March/April. 2-3.
-# http://archive.aramcoworld.com/issue/196902/dinner.at.when.htm
-# Also see: Antar EN. Arabian flying is confusing.
-# Port Angeles (WA) Evening News. 1965-03-10. page 3.
-#
-# The TZ database cannot represent quasi-solar time; airline time is the best
-# we can do.  The 1946 foreign air news digest of the U.S. Civil Aeronautics
-# Board (OCLC 42299995) reported that the "... Arabian Government, inaugurated
-# a weekly Dhahran-Cairo service, via the Saudi Arabian cities of Riyadh and
-# Jidda, on March 14, 1947".  Shanks & Pottenger guessed 1950; go with the
-# earlier date.
-#
-# Shanks & Pottenger also state that until 1968-05-01 Saudi Arabia had two
-# time zones; the other zone, at UT +04, was in the far eastern part of
-# the country.  Presumably this is documenting airline time.  Ignore this,
-# as it's before our 1970 cutoff.
-#
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Riyadh	3:06:52 -	LMT	1947 Mar 14
-			3:00	-	+03
-Link Asia/Riyadh Asia/Aden	# Yemen
-Link Asia/Riyadh Asia/Kuwait
-
-# Singapore
-# taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30)
-# http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Singapore	6:55:25 -	LMT	1901 Jan  1
-			6:55:25	-	SMT	1905 Jun  1 # Singapore M.T.
-			7:00	-	+07	1933 Jan  1
-			7:00	0:20	+0720	1936 Jan  1
-			7:20	-	+0720	1941 Sep  1
-			7:30	-	+0730	1942 Feb 16
-			9:00	-	+09	1945 Sep 12
-			7:30	-	+0730	1982 Jan  1
-			8:00	-	+08
-
-# Spratly Is
-# no information
-
-# Sri Lanka
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21):
-# Milne says "Madras mean time use from May 1, 1898.  Prior to this Colombo
-# mean time, 5h. 4m. 21.9s. F., was used."  But 5:04:21.9 differs considerably
-# from Colombo's meridian 5:19:24, so for now ignore Milne and stick with
-# Shanks and Pottenger.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03):
-# "Sri Lanka advances clock by an hour to avoid blackout"
-# (<http://www.virtual-pc.com/lankaweb/news/items/240596-2.html>, 1996-05-24,
-# no longer available as of 1999-08-17)
-# reported "the country's standard time will be put forward by one hour at
-# midnight Friday (1830 GMT) 'in the light of the present power crisis'."
-#
-# From Dharmasiri Senanayake, Sri Lanka Media Minister (1996-10-24), as quoted
-# by Shamindra in Daily News - Hot News Section
-# <news:54rka5$m5h@mtinsc01-mgt.ops.worldnet.att.net> (1996-10-26):
-# With effect from 12.30 a.m. on 26th October 1996
-# Sri Lanka will be six (06) hours ahead of GMT.
-
-# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-04-14), quoting Sri Lanka News Online
-# <http://news.sinhalaya.com/wmview.php?ArtID=11002> (2006-04-13):
-# 0030 hrs on April 15, 2006 (midnight of April 14, 2006 +30 minutes)
-# at present, become 2400 hours of April 14, 2006 (midnight of April 14, 2006).
-
-# From Peter Apps and Ranga Sirila of Reuters (2006-04-12) in:
-# http://today.reuters.co.uk/news/newsArticle.aspx?type=scienceNews&storyID=2006-04-12T172228Z_01_COL295762_RTRIDST_0_SCIENCE-SRILANKA-TIME-DC.XML
-# [The Tamil Tigers] never accepted the original 1996 time change and simply
-# kept their clocks set five and a half hours ahead of Greenwich Mean
-# Time (GMT), in line with neighbor India.
-# From Paul Eggert (2006-04-18):
-# People who live in regions under Tamil control can use [TZ='Asia/Kolkata'],
-# as that zone has agreed with the Tamil areas since our cutoff date of 1970.
-
-# From Sadika Sumanapala (2016-10-19):
-# According to http://www.sltime.org (maintained by Measurement Units,
-# Standards & Services Department, Sri Lanka) abbreviation for Sri Lanka
-# standard time is SLST.
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2016-10-18):
-# "SLST" seems to be reasonably recent and rarely-used outside time
-# zone nerd sources.  I searched Google News and found three uses of
-# it in the International Business Times of India in February and
-# March of this year when discussing cricket match times, but nothing
-# since then (though there has been a lot of cricket) and nothing in
-# other English-language news sources.  Our old abbreviation "LKT" is
-# even worse.  For now, let's use a numeric abbreviation; we can
-# switch to "SLST" if it catches on.
-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Colombo	5:19:24 -	LMT	1880
-			5:19:32	-	MMT	1906        # Moratuwa Mean Time
-			5:30	-	+0530	1942 Jan  5
-			5:30	0:30	+06	1942 Sep
-			5:30	1:00	+0630	1945 Oct 16  2:00
-			5:30	-	+0530	1996 May 25  0:00
-			6:30	-	+0630	1996 Oct 26  0:30
-			6:00	-	+06	2006 Apr 15  0:30
-			5:30	-	+0530
-
-# Syria
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Syria	1920	1923	-	Apr	Sun>=15	2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Syria	1920	1923	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00	0	-
-Rule	Syria	1962	only	-	Apr	29	2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Syria	1962	only	-	Oct	1	2:00	0	-
-Rule	Syria	1963	1965	-	May	1	2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Syria	1963	only	-	Sep	30	2:00	0	-
-Rule	Syria	1964	only	-	Oct	1	2:00	0	-
-Rule	Syria	1965	only	-	Sep	30	2:00	0	-
-Rule	Syria	1966	only	-	Apr	24	2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Syria	1966	1976	-	Oct	1	2:00	0	-
-Rule	Syria	1967	1978	-	May	1	2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Syria	1977	1978	-	Sep	1	2:00	0	-
-Rule	Syria	1983	1984	-	Apr	9	2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Syria	1983	1984	-	Oct	1	2:00	0	-
-Rule	Syria	1986	only	-	Feb	16	2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Syria	1986	only	-	Oct	9	2:00	0	-
-Rule	Syria	1987	only	-	Mar	1	2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Syria	1987	1988	-	Oct	31	2:00	0	-
-Rule	Syria	1988	only	-	Mar	15	2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Syria	1989	only	-	Mar	31	2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Syria	1989	only	-	Oct	1	2:00	0	-
-Rule	Syria	1990	only	-	Apr	1	2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Syria	1990	only	-	Sep	30	2:00	0	-
-Rule	Syria	1991	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Syria	1991	1992	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Syria	1992	only	-	Apr	 8	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Syria	1993	only	-	Mar	26	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Syria	1993	only	-	Sep	25	0:00	0	-
-# IATA SSIM (1998-02) says 1998-04-02;
-# (1998-09) says 1999-03-29 and 1999-09-29; (1999-02) says 1999-04-02,
-# 2000-04-02, and 2001-04-02; (1999-09) says 2000-03-31 and 2001-03-31;
-# (2006) says 2006-03-31 and 2006-09-22;
-# for now ignore all these claims and go with Shanks & Pottenger,
-# except for the 2006-09-22 claim (which seems right for Ramadan).
-Rule	Syria	1994	1996	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Syria	1994	2005	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Syria	1997	1998	-	Mar	lastMon	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Syria	1999	2006	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
-# From Stephen Colebourne (2006-09-18):
-# According to IATA data, Syria will change DST on 21st September [21:00 UTC]
-# this year [only]....  This is probably related to Ramadan, like Egypt.
-Rule	Syria	2006	only	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	-
-# From Paul Eggert (2007-03-29):
-# Today the AP reported "Syria will switch to summertime at midnight Thursday."
-# http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/03/29/africa/ME-GEN-Syria-Time-Change.php
-Rule	Syria	2007	only	-	Mar	lastFri	0:00	1:00	S
-# From Jesper Nørgaard (2007-10-27):
-# The sister center ICARDA of my work CIMMYT is confirming that Syria DST will
-# not take place 1st November at 0:00 o'clock but 1st November at 24:00 or
-# rather Midnight between Thursday and Friday. This does make more sense than
-# having it between Wednesday and Thursday (two workdays in Syria) since the
-# weekend in Syria is not Saturday and Sunday, but Friday and Saturday. So now
-# it is implemented at midnight of the last workday before weekend...
-#
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-10-27):
-# Jesper Nørgaard Welen wrote:
-#
-# > "Winter local time in Syria will be observed at midnight of Thursday 1
-# > November 2007, and the clock will be put back 1 hour."
-#
-# I found confirmation on this in this gov.sy-article (Arabic):
-# http://wehda.alwehda.gov.sy/_print_veiw.asp?FileName=12521710520070926111247
-#
-# which using Google's translate tools says:
-# Council of Ministers also approved the commencement of work on
-# identifying the winter time as of Friday, 2/11/2007 where the 60th
-# minute delay at midnight Thursday 1/11/2007.
-Rule	Syria	2007	only	-	Nov	 Fri>=1	0:00	0	-
-
-# From Stephen Colebourne (2008-03-17):
-# For everyone's info, I saw an IATA time zone change for [Syria] for
-# this month (March 2008) in the last day or so....
-# Country     Time Standard   --- DST Start ---   --- DST End ---  DST
-# Name        Zone Variation   Time    Date        Time    Date
-# Variation
-# Syrian Arab
-# Republic    SY    +0200      2200  03APR08       2100  30SEP08   +0300
-#                              2200  02APR09       2100  30SEP09   +0300
-#                              2200  01APR10       2100  30SEP10   +0300
-
-# From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-17):
-# Here's a link to English-language coverage by the Syrian Arab News
-# Agency (SANA)...
-# http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2008/03/11/165173.htm
-# ...which reads (in part) "The Cabinet approved the suggestion of the
-# Ministry of Electricity to begin daylight savings time on Friday April
-# 4th, advancing clocks one hour ahead on midnight of Thursday April 3rd."
-# Since Syria is two hours east of UTC, the 2200 and 2100 transition times
-# shown above match up with midnight in Syria.
-
-# From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-18):
-# My best guess at a Syrian rule is "the Friday nearest April 1";
-# coding that involves either using a "Mar Fri>=29" construct that old time zone
-# compilers can't handle  or having multiple Rules (a la Israel).
-# For now, use "Apr Fri>=1", and go with IATA on a uniform Sep 30 end.
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-10-07):
-# Syria has now officially decided to end DST on 2008-11-01 this year,
-# according to the following article in the Syrian Arab News Agency (SANA).
-#
-# The article is in Arabic, and seems to tell that they will go back to
-# winter time on 2008-11-01 at 00:00 local daylight time (delaying/setting
-# clocks back 60 minutes).
-#
-# http://sana.sy/ara/2/2008/10/07/195459.htm
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-19):
-# Syria will start DST on 2009-03-27 00:00 this year according to many sources,
-# two examples:
-#
-# http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2009/03/17/217563.htm
-# (English, Syrian Arab News # Agency)
-# http://thawra.alwehda.gov.sy/_View_news2.asp?FileName=94459258720090318012209
-# (Arabic, gov-site)
-#
-# We have not found any sources saying anything about when DST ends this year.
-#
-# Our summary
-# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-starts-march-27-2009.html
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-27):
-# The Syrian Arab News Network on 2009-09-29 reported that Syria will
-# revert back to winter (standard) time on midnight between Thursday
-# 2009-10-29 and Friday 2009-10-30:
-# http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2009/09/29/247012.htm (Arabic)
-
-# From Arthur David Olson (2009-10-28):
-# We'll see if future DST switching times turn out to be end of the last
-# Thursday of the month or the start of the last Friday of the month or
-# something else. For now, use the start of the last Friday.
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-17):
-# The "Syrian News Station" reported on 2010-03-16 that the Council of
-# Ministers has decided that Syria will start DST on midnight Thursday
-# 2010-04-01: (midnight between Thursday and Friday):
-# http://sns.sy/sns/?path=news/read/11421 (Arabic)
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-26):
-# Today, Syria's government announced that they will start DST early on Friday
-# (00:00). This is a bit earlier than the past two years.
-#
-# From Syrian Arab News Agency, in Arabic:
-# http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2012/03/26/408215.htm
-#
-# Our brief summary:
-# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-2012.html
-
-# From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-27):
-# Assume last Friday in March going forward XXX.
-
-Rule	Syria	2008	only	-	Apr	Fri>=1	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Syria	2008	only	-	Nov	1	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Syria	2009	only	-	Mar	lastFri	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Syria	2010	2011	-	Apr	Fri>=1	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Syria	2012	max	-	Mar	lastFri	0:00	1:00	S
-Rule	Syria	2009	max	-	Oct	lastFri	0:00	0	-
-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Damascus	2:25:12 -	LMT	1920 # Dimashq
-			2:00	Syria	EE%sT
-
-# Tajikistan
-# From Shanks & Pottenger.
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Dushanbe	4:35:12 -	LMT	1924 May  2
-			5:00	-	+05	1930 Jun 21
-			6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07	1991 Mar 31  2:00s
-			5:00	1:00	+05/+06	1991 Sep  9  2:00s
-			5:00	-	+05
-
-# Thailand
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Bangkok	6:42:04	-	LMT	1880
-			6:42:04	-	BMT	1920 Apr # Bangkok Mean Time
-			7:00	-	+07
-Link Asia/Bangkok Asia/Phnom_Penh	# Cambodia
-Link Asia/Bangkok Asia/Vientiane	# Laos
-
-# Turkmenistan
-# From Shanks & Pottenger.
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Ashgabat	3:53:32 -	LMT	1924 May  2 # or Ashkhabad
-			4:00	-	+04	1930 Jun 21
-			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	1991 Mar 31  2:00
-			4:00 RussiaAsia	+04/+05	1992 Jan 19  2:00
-			5:00	-	+05
-
-# United Arab Emirates
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Dubai	3:41:12 -	LMT	1920
-			4:00	-	+04
-Link Asia/Dubai Asia/Muscat	# Oman
-
-# Uzbekistan
-# Byalokoz 1919 says Uzbekistan was 4:27:53.
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Asia/Samarkand	4:27:53 -	LMT	1924 May  2
-			4:00	-	+04	1930 Jun 21
-			5:00	-	+05	1981 Apr  1
-			5:00	1:00	+06	1981 Oct  1
-			6:00	-	+06	1982 Apr  1
-			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	1992
-			5:00	-	+05
-# Milne says Tashkent was 4:37:10.8; round to nearest.
-Zone	Asia/Tashkent	4:37:11 -	LMT	1924 May  2
-			5:00	-	+05	1930 Jun 21
-			6:00 RussiaAsia	+06/+07	1991 Mar 31  2:00
-			5:00 RussiaAsia	+05/+06	1992
-			5:00	-	+05
-
-# Vietnam
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2014-10-04):
-# Milne gives 7:16:56 for the meridian of Saigon in 1899, as being
-# used in Lower Laos, Cambodia, and Annam.  But this is quite a ways
-# from Saigon's location.  For now, ignore this and stick with Shanks
-# and Pottenger for LMT before 1906.
-
-# From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-18):
-# The English-language name of Vietnam's most populous city is "Ho Chi Minh
-# City"; use Ho_Chi_Minh below to avoid a name of more than 14 characters.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2014-10-21) after a heads-up from Trần Ngọc Quân:
-# Trần Tiến Bình's authoritative book "Lịch Việt Nam: thế kỷ XX-XXI (1901-2100)"
-# (Nhà xuất bản Văn Hoá - Thông Tin, Hanoi, 2005), pp 49-50,
-# is quoted verbatim in:
-# http://www.thoigian.com.vn/?mPage=P80D01
-# is translated by Brian Inglis in:
-# https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-October/021654.html
-# and is the basis for the information below.
-#
-# The 1906 transition was effective July 1 and standardized Indochina to
-# Phù Liễn Observatory, legally 104° 17' 17" east of Paris.
-# It's unclear whether this meant legal Paris Mean Time (00:09:21) or
-# the Paris Meridian (2° 20' 14.03" E); the former yields 07:06:30.1333...
-# and the latter 07:06:29.333... so either way it rounds to 07:06:30,
-# which is used below even though the modern-day Phù Liễn Observatory
-# is closer to 07:06:31.  Abbreviate Phù Liễn Mean Time as PLMT.
-#
-# The following transitions occurred in Indochina in general (before 1954)
-# and in South Vietnam in particular (after 1954):
-# To 07:00 on 1911-05-01.
-# To 08:00 on 1942-12-31 at 23:00.
-# To 09:00 in 1945-03-14 at 23:00.
-# To 07:00 on 1945-09-02 in Vietnam.
-# To 08:00 on 1947-04-01 in French-controlled Indochina.
-# To 07:00 on 1955-07-01 in South Vietnam.
-# To 08:00 on 1959-12-31 at 23:00 in South Vietnam.
-# To 07:00 on 1975-06-13 in South Vietnam.
-#
-# Trần cites the following sources; it's unclear which supplied the info above.
-#
-# Hoàng Xuân Hãn: "Lịch và lịch Việt Nam". Tập san Khoa học Xã hội,
-# No. 9, Paris, February 1982.
-#
-# Lê Thành Lân: "Lịch và niên biểu lịch sử hai mươi thế kỷ (0001-2010)",
-# NXB Thống kê, Hanoi, 2000.
-#
-# Lê Thành Lân: "Lịch hai thế kỷ (1802-2010) và các lịch vĩnh cửu",
-# NXB Thuận Hoá, Huế, 1995.
-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Asia/Ho_Chi_Minh	7:06:40 -	LMT	1906 Jul  1
-			7:06:30	-	PLMT	1911 May  1 # Phù Liễn MT
-			7:00	-	+07	1942 Dec 31 23:00
-			8:00	-	+08	1945 Mar 14 23:00
-			9:00	-	+09	1945 Sep  2
-			7:00	-	+07	1947 Apr  1
-			8:00	-	+08	1955 Jul  1
-			7:00	-	+07	1959 Dec 31 23:00
-			8:00	-	+08	1975 Jun 13
-			7:00	-	+07
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2019-02-19):
-#
-# The Ho Chi Minh entry suffices for most purposes as it agrees with all of
-# Vietnam since 1975-06-13.  Presumably clocks often changed in south Vietnam
-# in the early 1970s as locations changed hands during the war; however the
-# details are unknown and would likely be too voluminous for this database.
-#
-# For timestamps in north Vietnam back to 1970 (the tzdb cutoff),
-# use Asia/Bangkok; see the VN entries in the file zone1970.tab.
-# For timestamps before 1970, see Asia/Hanoi in the file 'backzone'.
-
-
-# Yemen
-# See Asia/Riyadh.
--- a/test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata/australasia	Tue Jul 23 15:33:52 2019 -0400
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,2067 +0,0 @@
-#
-# DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
-#
-# This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
-# under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
-# published by the Free Software Foundation.
-#
-# This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
-# ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
-# FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
-# version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
-# accompanied this code).
-#
-# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
-# 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
-# Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
-#
-# Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
-# or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
-# questions.
-#
-# tzdb data for Australasia and environs, and for much of the Pacific
-
-# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
-# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
-
-# This file also includes Pacific islands.
-
-# Notes are at the end of this file
-
-###############################################################################
-
-# Australia
-
-# Please see the notes below for the controversy about "EST" versus "AEST" etc.
-
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Aus	1917	only	-	Jan	 1	0:01	1:00	D
-Rule	Aus	1917	only	-	Mar	25	2:00	0	S
-Rule	Aus	1942	only	-	Jan	 1	2:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Aus	1942	only	-	Mar	29	2:00	0	S
-Rule	Aus	1942	only	-	Sep	27	2:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Aus	1943	1944	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	0	S
-Rule	Aus	1943	only	-	Oct	 3	2:00	1:00	D
-# Go with Whitman and the Australian National Standards Commission, which
-# says W Australia didn't use DST in 1943/1944.  Ignore Whitman's claim that
-# 1944/1945 was just like 1943/1944.
-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-# Northern Territory
-Zone Australia/Darwin	 8:43:20 -	LMT	1895 Feb
-			 9:00	-	ACST	1899 May
-			 9:30	Aus	AC%sT
-# Western Australia
-#
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	AW	1974	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	AW	1975	only	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AW	1983	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	AW	1984	only	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AW	1991	only	-	Nov	17	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	AW	1992	only	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AW	2006	only	-	Dec	 3	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	AW	2007	2009	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AW	2007	2008	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
-Zone Australia/Perth	 7:43:24 -	LMT	1895 Dec
-			 8:00	Aus	AW%sT	1943 Jul
-			 8:00	AW	AW%sT
-Zone Australia/Eucla	 8:35:28 -	LMT	1895 Dec
-			 8:45	Aus +0845/+0945	1943 Jul
-			 8:45	AW  +0845/+0945
-
-# Queensland
-#
-# From Alex Livingston (1996-11-01):
-# I have heard or read more than once that some resort islands off the coast
-# of Queensland chose to keep observing daylight-saving time even after
-# Queensland ceased to.
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
-# IATA SSIM (1993-02/1994-09) say that the Holiday Islands (Hayman, Lindeman,
-# Hamilton) observed DST for two years after the rest of Queensland stopped.
-# Hamilton is the largest, but there is also a Hamilton in Victoria,
-# so use Lindeman.
-#
-# From J William Piggott (2016-02-20):
-# There is no location named Holiday Islands in Queensland Australia; holiday
-# islands is a colloquial term used globally.  Hayman and Lindeman are at the
-# north and south extremes of the Whitsunday Islands archipelago, and
-# Hamilton is in between; it is reasonable to believe that this time zone
-# applies to all of the Whitsundays.
-# http://www.australia.gov.au/about-australia/australian-story/austn-islands
-#
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	AQ	1971	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	AQ	1972	only	-	Feb	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AQ	1989	1991	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	AQ	1990	1992	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	Holiday	1992	1993	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	Holiday	1993	1994	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
-Zone Australia/Brisbane	10:12:08 -	LMT	1895
-			10:00	Aus	AE%sT	1971
-			10:00	AQ	AE%sT
-Zone Australia/Lindeman  9:55:56 -	LMT	1895
-			10:00	Aus	AE%sT	1971
-			10:00	AQ	AE%sT	1992 Jul
-			10:00	Holiday	AE%sT
-
-# South Australia
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	AS	1971	1985	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	AS	1986	only	-	Oct	19	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	AS	1987	2007	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	AS	1972	only	-	Feb	27	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AS	1973	1985	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AS	1986	1990	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AS	1991	only	-	Mar	3	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AS	1992	only	-	Mar	22	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AS	1993	only	-	Mar	7	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AS	1994	only	-	Mar	20	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AS	1995	2005	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AS	2006	only	-	Apr	2	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AS	2007	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AS	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AS	2008	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	D
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Australia/Adelaide	9:14:20 -	LMT	1895 Feb
-			9:00	-	ACST	1899 May
-			9:30	Aus	AC%sT	1971
-			9:30	AS	AC%sT
-
-# Tasmania
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2005-08-16):
-# http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml
-# says King Island didn't observe DST from WWII until late 1971.
-#
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	AT	1967	only	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	AT	1968	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AT	1968	1985	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	AT	1969	1971	-	Mar	Sun>=8	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AT	1972	only	-	Feb	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AT	1973	1981	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AT	1982	1983	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AT	1984	1986	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AT	1986	only	-	Oct	Sun>=15	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	AT	1987	1990	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AT	1987	only	-	Oct	Sun>=22	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	AT	1988	1990	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	AT	1991	1999	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	AT	1991	2005	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AT	2000	only	-	Aug	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	AT	2001	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	AT	2006	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AT	2007	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AT	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Australia/Hobart	9:49:16	-	LMT	1895 Sep
-			10:00	-	AEST	1916 Oct  1  2:00
-			10:00	1:00	AEDT	1917 Feb
-			10:00	Aus	AE%sT	1967
-			10:00	AT	AE%sT
-Zone Australia/Currie	9:35:28	-	LMT	1895 Sep
-			10:00	-	AEST	1916 Oct  1  2:00
-			10:00	1:00	AEDT	1917 Feb
-			10:00	Aus	AE%sT	1971 Jul
-			10:00	AT	AE%sT
-
-# Victoria
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	AV	1971	1985	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	AV	1972	only	-	Feb	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AV	1973	1985	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AV	1986	1990	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AV	1986	1987	-	Oct	Sun>=15	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	AV	1988	1999	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	AV	1991	1994	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AV	1995	2005	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AV	2000	only	-	Aug	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	AV	2001	2007	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	AV	2006	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AV	2007	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AV	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AV	2008	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	D
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Australia/Melbourne 9:39:52 -	LMT	1895 Feb
-			10:00	Aus	AE%sT	1971
-			10:00	AV	AE%sT
-
-# New South Wales
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	AN	1971	1985	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	AN	1972	only	-	Feb	27	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AN	1973	1981	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AN	1982	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AN	1983	1985	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AN	1986	1989	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AN	1986	only	-	Oct	19	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	AN	1987	1999	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	AN	1990	1995	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AN	1996	2005	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AN	2000	only	-	Aug	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	AN	2001	2007	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	AN	2006	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AN	2007	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AN	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	AN	2008	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	D
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Australia/Sydney	10:04:52 -	LMT	1895 Feb
-			10:00	Aus	AE%sT	1971
-			10:00	AN	AE%sT
-Zone Australia/Broken_Hill 9:25:48 -	LMT	1895 Feb
-			10:00	-	AEST	1896 Aug 23
-			9:00	-	ACST	1899 May
-			9:30	Aus	AC%sT	1971
-			9:30	AN	AC%sT	2000
-			9:30	AS	AC%sT
-
-# Lord Howe Island
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	LH	1981	1984	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	LH	1982	1985	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00	0	-
-Rule	LH	1985	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0:30	-
-Rule	LH	1986	1989	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00	0	-
-Rule	LH	1986	only	-	Oct	19	2:00	0:30	-
-Rule	LH	1987	1999	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0:30	-
-Rule	LH	1990	1995	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00	0	-
-Rule	LH	1996	2005	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	0	-
-Rule	LH	2000	only	-	Aug	lastSun	2:00	0:30	-
-Rule	LH	2001	2007	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0:30	-
-Rule	LH	2006	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	0	-
-Rule	LH	2007	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	0	-
-Rule	LH	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	0	-
-Rule	LH	2008	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00	0:30	-
-Zone Australia/Lord_Howe 10:36:20 -	LMT	1895 Feb
-			10:00	-	AEST	1981 Mar
-			10:30	LH	+1030/+1130 1985 Jul
-			10:30	LH	+1030/+11
-
-# Australian miscellany
-#
-# Ashmore Is, Cartier
-# no indigenous inhabitants; only seasonal caretakers
-# no times are set
-#
-# Coral Sea Is
-# no indigenous inhabitants; only meteorologists
-# no times are set
-#
-# Macquarie
-# Permanent occupation (scientific station) 1911-1915 and since 25 March 1948;
-# sealing and penguin oil station operated Nov 1899 to Apr 1919.  See the
-# Tasmania Parks & Wildlife Service history of sealing at Macquarie Island
-# http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/index.aspx?base=1828
-# http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/index.aspx?base=1831
-# Guess that it was like Australia/Hobart while inhabited before 2010.
-#
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-10):
-# We got these changes from the Australian Antarctic Division:
-# - Macquarie Island will stay on UTC+11 for winter and therefore not
-# switch back from daylight savings time when other parts of Australia do
-# on 4 April.
-#
-# From Arthur David Olson (2013-05-23):
-# The 1919 transition is overspecified below so pre-2013 zics
-# will produce a binary file with an [A]EST-type as the first 32-bit type;
-# this is required for correct handling of times before 1916 by
-# pre-2013 versions of localtime.
-Zone Antarctica/Macquarie 0	-	-00	1899 Nov
-			10:00	-	AEST	1916 Oct  1  2:00
-			10:00	1:00	AEDT	1917 Feb
-			10:00	Aus	AE%sT	1919 Apr  1  0:00s
-			0	-	-00	1948 Mar 25
-			10:00	Aus	AE%sT	1967
-			10:00	AT	AE%sT	2010 Apr  4  3:00
-			11:00	-	+11
-
-# Christmas
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Indian/Christmas	7:02:52 -	LMT	1895 Feb
-			7:00	-	+07
-
-# Cocos (Keeling) Is
-# These islands were ruled by the Ross family from about 1830 to 1978.
-# We don't know when standard time was introduced; for now, we guess 1900.
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Indian/Cocos	6:27:40	-	LMT	1900
-			6:30	-	+0630
-
-
-# Fiji
-
-# Milne gives 11:55:44 for Suva.
-
-# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-11-10):
-# According to Fiji Broadcasting Corporation,  Fiji plans to re-introduce DST
-# from November 29th 2009  to April 25th 2010.
-#
-# "Daylight savings to commence this month"
-# http://www.radiofiji.com.fj/fullstory.php?id=23719
-# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji01.html
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-11-10):
-# The Fiji Government has posted some more details about the approved
-# amendments:
-# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/publish/page_16198.shtml
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-03):
-# The Cabinet in Fiji has decided to end DST about a month early, on
-# 2010-03-28 at 03:00.
-# The plan is to observe DST again, from 2010-10-24 to sometime in March
-# 2011 (last Sunday a good guess?).
-#
-# Official source:
-# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1096:3310-cabinet-approves-change-in-daylight-savings-dates&catid=49:cabinet-releases&Itemid=166
-#
-# A bit more background info here:
-# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/fiji-dst-ends-march-2010.html
-
-# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-10-24):
-# According to Radio Fiji and Fiji Times online, Fiji will end DST 3
-# weeks earlier than expected - on March 6, 2011, not March 27, 2011...
-# Here is confirmation from Government of the Republic of the Fiji Islands,
-# Ministry of Information (fiji.gov.fj) web site:
-# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2608:daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
-# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji04.html
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2011-10-03):
-# Now the dates have been confirmed, and at least our start date
-# assumption was correct (end date was one week wrong).
-#
-# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4966:daylight-saving-starts-in-fiji&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
-# which says
-# Members of the public are reminded to change their time to one hour in
-# advance at 2am to 3am on October 23, 2011 and one hour back at 3am to
-# 2am on February 26 next year.
-
-# From Ken Rylander (2011-10-24)
-# Another change to the Fiji DST end date. In the TZ database the end date for
-# Fiji DST 2012, is currently Feb 26. This has been changed to Jan 22.
-#
-# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5017:amendments-to-daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
-# states:
-#
-# The end of daylight saving scheduled initially for the 26th of February 2012
-# has been brought forward to the 22nd of January 2012.
-# The commencement of daylight saving will remain unchanged and start
-# on the  23rd of October, 2011.
-
-# From the Fiji Government Online Portal (2012-08-21) via Steffen Thorsen:
-# The Minister for Labour, Industrial Relations and Employment Mr Jone Usamate
-# today confirmed that Fiji will start daylight savings at 2 am on Sunday 21st
-# October 2012 and end at 3 am on Sunday 20th January 2013.
-# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=6702&catid=71&Itemid=155
-
-# From the Fijian Government Media Center (2013-08-30) via David Wheeler:
-# Fiji will start daylight savings on Sunday 27th October, 2013 ...
-# move clocks forward by one hour from 2am
-# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/Media-Center/Press-Releases/DAYLIGHT-SAVING-STARTS-ON-SUNDAY,-27th-OCTOBER-201.aspx
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2013-01-10):
-# Fiji will end DST on 2014-01-19 02:00:
-# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/Media-Center/Press-Releases/DAYLIGHT-SAVINGS-TO-END-THIS-MONTH-%281%29.aspx
-
-# From Ken Rylander (2014-10-20):
-# DST will start Nov. 2 this year.
-# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/Media-Center/Press-Releases/DAYLIGHT-SAVING-STARTS-ON-SUNDAY,-NOVEMBER-2ND.aspx
-
-# From a government order dated 2015-08-26 and published as Legal Notice No. 77
-# in the Government of Fiji Gazette Supplement No. 24 (2015-08-28),
-# via Ken Rylander (2015-09-02):
-# the daylight saving period is 1 hour in advance of the standard time
-# commencing at 2.00 am on Sunday 1st November, 2015 and ending at
-# 3.00 am on Sunday 17th January, 2016.
-
-# From Raymond Kumar (2016-10-04):
-# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/Media-Center/Press-Releases/DAYLIGHT-SAVING-STARTS-ON-6th-NOVEMBER,-2016.aspx
-# "Fiji's daylight savings will begin on Sunday, 6 November 2016, when
-# clocks go forward an hour at 2am to 3am....  Daylight Saving will
-# end at 3.00am on Sunday 15th January 2017."
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2017-08-21):
-# Dominic Fok writes (2017-08-20) that DST ends 2018-01-14, citing
-# Extraordinary Government of Fiji Gazette Supplement No. 21 (2017-08-27),
-# [Legal Notice No. 41] of an order of the previous day by J Usamate.
-
-# From Raymond Kumar (2018-07-13):
-# http://www.fijitimes.com/government-approves-2018-daylight-saving/
-# ... The daylight saving period will end at 3am on Sunday January 13, 2019.
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-07-15):
-# For now, guess DST from 02:00 the first Sunday in November to 03:00
-# the first Sunday on or after January 13.  January transitions reportedly
-# depend on when school terms start.  Although the guess is ad hoc, it matches
-# transitions since late 2014 and seems more likely to match future
-# practice than guessing no DST.
-
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Fiji	1998	1999	-	Nov	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Fiji	1999	2000	-	Feb	lastSun	3:00	0	-
-Rule	Fiji	2009	only	-	Nov	29	2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Fiji	2010	only	-	Mar	lastSun	3:00	0	-
-Rule	Fiji	2010	2013	-	Oct	Sun>=21	2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Fiji	2011	only	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	-
-Rule	Fiji	2012	2013	-	Jan	Sun>=18	3:00	0	-
-Rule	Fiji	2014	only	-	Jan	Sun>=18	2:00	0	-
-Rule	Fiji	2014	max	-	Nov	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Fiji	2015	max	-	Jan	Sun>=13	3:00	0	-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Pacific/Fiji	11:55:44 -	LMT	1915 Oct 26 # Suva
-			12:00	Fiji	+12/+13
-
-# French Polynesia
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Pacific/Gambier	 -8:59:48 -	LMT	1912 Oct # Rikitea
-			 -9:00	-	-09
-Zone	Pacific/Marquesas -9:18:00 -	LMT	1912 Oct
-			 -9:30	-	-0930
-Zone	Pacific/Tahiti	 -9:58:16 -	LMT	1912 Oct # Papeete
-			-10:00	-	-10
-# Clipperton (near North America) is administered from French Polynesia;
-# it is uninhabited.
-
-# Guam
-
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-# http://guamlegislature.com/Public_Laws_5th/PL05-025.pdf
-# http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-59-7-Guam-Daylight-Savings-Time-May-6-1959.pdf
-Rule	Guam	1959	only	-	Jun	27	2:00	1:00	D
-# http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-61-5-Revocation-of-Daylight-Saving-Time-and-Restoratio.pdf
-Rule	Guam	1961	only	-	Jan	29	2:00	0	S
-# http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-67-13-Guam-Daylight-Savings-Time.pdf
-Rule	Guam	1967	only	-	Sep	 1	2:00	1:00	D
-# http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-69-2-Repeal-of-Guam-Daylight-Saving-Time.pdf
-Rule	Guam	1969	only	-	Jan	26	0:01	0	S
-# http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-69-10-Guam-Daylight-Saving-Time.pdf
-Rule	Guam	1969	only	-	Jun	22	2:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Guam	1969	only	-	Aug	31	2:00	0	S
-# http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-70-10-Guam-Daylight-Saving-Time.pdf
-# http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-70-30-End-of-Guam-Daylight-Saving-Time.pdf
-# http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-71-5-Guam-Daylight-Savings-Time.pdf
-Rule	Guam	1970	1971	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
-Rule	Guam	1970	1971	-	Sep	Sun>=1	2:00	0	S
-# http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-73-28.-Guam-Day-light-Saving-Time.pdf
-Rule	Guam	1973	only	-	Dec	16	2:00	1:00	D
-# http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-74-7-Guam-Daylight-Savings-Time-Rescinded.pdf
-Rule	Guam	1974	only	-	Feb	24	2:00	0	S
-# http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-76-13-Daylight-Savings-Time.pdf
-Rule	Guam	1976	only	-	May	26	2:00	1:00	D
-# http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-76-25-Revocation-of-E.O.-76-13.pdf
-Rule	Guam	1976	only	-	Aug	22	2:01	0	S
-# http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-77-4-Daylight-Savings-Time.pdf
-Rule	Guam	1977	only	-	Apr	24	2:00	1:00	D
-# http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-77-18-Guam-Standard-Time.pdf
-Rule	Guam	1977	only	-	Aug	28	2:00	0	S
-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Pacific/Guam	-14:21:00 -	LMT	1844 Dec 31
-			 9:39:00 -	LMT	1901        # Agana
-			10:00	-	GST	1941 Dec 10 # Guam
-			 9:00	-	+09	1944 Jul 31
-			10:00	Guam	G%sT	2000 Dec 23
-			10:00	-	ChST	# Chamorro Standard Time
-Link Pacific/Guam Pacific/Saipan # N Mariana Is
-
-# Kiribati
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Pacific/Tarawa	 11:32:04 -	LMT	1901 # Bairiki
-			 12:00	-	+12
-Zone Pacific/Enderbury	-11:24:20 -	LMT	1901
-			-12:00	-	-12	1979 Oct
-			-11:00	-	-11	1994 Dec 31
-			 13:00	-	+13
-Zone Pacific/Kiritimati	-10:29:20 -	LMT	1901
-			-10:40	-	-1040	1979 Oct
-			-10:00	-	-10	1994 Dec 31
-			 14:00	-	+14
-
-# N Mariana Is
-# See Pacific/Guam.
-
-# Marshall Is
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Pacific/Majuro	 11:24:48 -	LMT	1901
-			 11:00	-	+11	1914 Oct
-			  9:00	-	+09	1919 Feb  1
-			 11:00	-	+11	1937
-			 10:00	-	+10	1941 Apr  1
-			  9:00	-	+09	1944 Jan 30
-			 11:00	-	+11	1969 Oct
-			 12:00	-	+12
-Zone Pacific/Kwajalein	 11:09:20 -	LMT	1901
-			 11:00	-	+11	1937
-			 10:00	-	+10	1941 Apr  1
-			  9:00	-	+09	1944 Feb  6
-			 11:00	-	+11	1969 Oct
-			-12:00	-	-12	1993 Aug 20 24:00
-			 12:00	-	+12
-
-# Micronesia
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Pacific/Chuuk	-13:52:52 -	LMT	1844 Dec 31
-			 10:07:08 -	LMT	1901
-			 10:00	-	+10	1914 Oct
-			  9:00	-	+09	1919 Feb  1
-			 10:00	-	+10	1941 Apr  1
-			  9:00	-	+09	1945 Aug
-			 10:00	-	+10
-Zone Pacific/Pohnpei	-13:27:08 -	LMT	1844 Dec 31	# Kolonia
-			 10:32:52 -	LMT	1901
-			 11:00	-	+11	1914 Oct
-			  9:00	-	+09	1919 Feb  1
-			 11:00	-	+11	1937
-			 10:00	-	+10	1941 Apr  1
-			  9:00	-	+09	1945 Aug
-			 11:00	-	+11
-Zone Pacific/Kosrae	-13:08:04 -	LMT	1844 Dec 31
-			 10:51:56 -	LMT	1901
-			 11:00	-	+11	1914 Oct
-			  9:00	-	+09	1919 Feb  1
-			 11:00	-	+11	1937
-			 10:00	-	+10	1941 Apr  1
-			  9:00	-	+09	1945 Aug
-			 11:00	-	+11	1969 Oct
-			 12:00	-	+12	1999
-			 11:00	-	+11
-
-# Nauru
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Pacific/Nauru	11:07:40 -	LMT	1921 Jan 15 # Uaobe
-			11:30	-	+1130	1942 Aug 29
-			 9:00	-	+09	1945 Sep  8
-			11:30	-	+1130	1979 Feb 10  2:00
-			12:00	-	+12
-
-# New Caledonia
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	NC	1977	1978	-	Dec	Sun>=1	0:00	1:00	-
-Rule	NC	1978	1979	-	Feb	27	0:00	0	-
-Rule	NC	1996	only	-	Dec	 1	2:00s	1:00	-
-# Shanks & Pottenger say the following was at 2:00; go with IATA.
-Rule	NC	1997	only	-	Mar	 2	2:00s	0	-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Pacific/Noumea	11:05:48 -	LMT	1912 Jan 13 # Nouméa
-			11:00	NC	+11/+12
-
-
-###############################################################################
-
-# New Zealand
-
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	NZ	1927	only	-	Nov	 6	2:00	1:00	S
-Rule	NZ	1928	only	-	Mar	 4	2:00	0	M
-Rule	NZ	1928	1933	-	Oct	Sun>=8	2:00	0:30	S
-Rule	NZ	1929	1933	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00	0	M
-Rule	NZ	1934	1940	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	0	M
-Rule	NZ	1934	1940	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0:30	S
-Rule	NZ	1946	only	-	Jan	 1	0:00	0	S
-# Since 1957 Chatham has been 45 minutes ahead of NZ, but until 2018a
-# there was no documented single notation for the date and time of this
-# transition.  Duplicate the Rule lines for now, to give the 2018a change
-# time to percolate out.
-Rule	NZ	1974	only	-	Nov	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	Chatham	1974	only	-	Nov	Sun>=1	2:45s	1:00	-
-Rule	NZ	1975	only	-	Feb	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	Chatham	1975	only	-	Feb	lastSun	2:45s	0	-
-Rule	NZ	1975	1988	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	Chatham	1975	1988	-	Oct	lastSun	2:45s	1:00	-
-Rule	NZ	1976	1989	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	Chatham	1976	1989	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:45s	0	-
-Rule	NZ	1989	only	-	Oct	Sun>=8	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	Chatham	1989	only	-	Oct	Sun>=8	2:45s	1:00	-
-Rule	NZ	1990	2006	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	Chatham	1990	2006	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:45s	1:00	-
-Rule	NZ	1990	2007	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	Chatham	1990	2007	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:45s	0	-
-Rule	NZ	2007	max	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
-Rule	Chatham	2007	max	-	Sep	lastSun	2:45s	1:00	-
-Rule	NZ	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
-Rule	Chatham	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:45s	0	-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Pacific/Auckland	11:39:04 -	LMT	1868 Nov  2
-			11:30	NZ	NZ%sT	1946 Jan  1
-			12:00	NZ	NZ%sT
-Zone Pacific/Chatham	12:13:48 -	LMT	1868 Nov  2
-			12:15	-	+1215	1946 Jan  1
-			12:45	Chatham	+1245/+1345
-
-Link Pacific/Auckland Antarctica/McMurdo
-
-# Auckland Is
-# uninhabited; Māori and Moriori, colonial settlers, pastoralists, sealers,
-# and scientific personnel have wintered
-
-# Campbell I
-# minor whaling stations operated 1909/1914
-# scientific station operated 1941/1995;
-# previously whalers, sealers, pastoralists, and scientific personnel wintered
-# was probably like Pacific/Auckland
-
-# Cook Is
-# From Shanks & Pottenger:
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Cook	1978	only	-	Nov	12	0:00	0:30	-
-Rule	Cook	1979	1991	-	Mar	Sun>=1	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Cook	1979	1990	-	Oct	lastSun	0:00	0:30	-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Pacific/Rarotonga	-10:39:04 -	LMT	1901        # Avarua
-			-10:30	-	-1030	1978 Nov 12
-			-10:00	Cook	-10/-0930
-
-###############################################################################
-
-
-# Niue
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Pacific/Niue	-11:19:40 -	LMT	1901        # Alofi
-			-11:20	-	-1120	1951
-			-11:30	-	-1130	1978 Oct  1
-			-11:00	-	-11
-
-# Norfolk
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Pacific/Norfolk	11:11:52 -	LMT	1901 # Kingston
-			11:12	-	+1112	1951
-			11:30	-	+1130	1974 Oct 27 02:00
-			11:30	1:00	+1230	1975 Mar  2 02:00
-			11:30	-	+1130	2015 Oct  4 02:00
-			11:00	-	+11
-
-# Palau (Belau)
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Pacific/Palau	-15:02:04 -	LMT	1844 Dec 31	# Koror
-			  8:57:56 -	LMT	1901
-			  9:00	-	+09
-
-# Papua New Guinea
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Pacific/Port_Moresby 9:48:40 -	LMT	1880
-			9:48:32	-	PMMT	1895 # Port Moresby Mean Time
-			10:00	-	+10
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2014-10-13):
-# Base the Bougainville entry on the Arawa-Kieta region, which appears to have
-# the most people even though it was devastated in the Bougainville Civil War.
-#
-# Although Shanks gives 1942-03-15 / 1943-11-01 for UT +09, these dates
-# are apparently rough guesswork from the starts of military campaigns.
-# The World War II entries below are instead based on Arawa-Kieta.
-# The Japanese occupied Kieta in July 1942,
-# according to the Pacific War Online Encyclopedia
-# https://pwencycl.kgbudge.com/B/o/Bougainville.htm
-# and seem to have controlled it until their 1945-08-21 surrender.
-#
-# The Autonomous Region of Bougainville switched from UT +10 to +11
-# on 2014-12-28 at 02:00.  They call +11 "Bougainville Standard Time".
-# See:
-# http://www.bougainville24.com/bougainville-issues/bougainville-gets-own-timezone/
-#
-Zone Pacific/Bougainville 10:22:16 -	LMT	1880
-			 9:48:32 -	PMMT	1895
-			10:00	-	+10	1942 Jul
-			 9:00	-	+09	1945 Aug 21
-			10:00	-	+10	2014 Dec 28  2:00
-			11:00	-	+11
-
-# Pitcairn
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Pacific/Pitcairn	-8:40:20 -	LMT	1901        # Adamstown
-			-8:30	-	-0830	1998 Apr 27  0:00
-			-8:00	-	-08
-
-# American Samoa
-Zone Pacific/Pago_Pago	 12:37:12 -	LMT	1892 Jul  5
-			-11:22:48 -	LMT	1911
-			-11:00	-	SST	            # S=Samoa
-Link Pacific/Pago_Pago Pacific/Midway # in US minor outlying islands
-
-# Samoa (formerly and also known as Western Samoa)
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-16):
-# We have been in contact with the government of Samoa again, and received
-# the following info:
-#
-# "Cabinet has now approved Daylight Saving to be effected next year
-# commencing from the last Sunday of September 2010 and conclude first
-# Sunday of April 2011."
-#
-# Background info:
-# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/samoa-dst-plan-2009.html
-#
-# Samoa's Daylight Saving Time Act 2009 is available here, but does not
-# contain any dates:
-# http://www.parliament.gov.ws/documents/acts/Daylight%20Saving%20Act%20%202009%20%28English%29%20-%20Final%207-7-091.pdf
-
-# From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2010-10-07):
-# Please see
-# http://www.mcil.gov.ws
-# the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Labour (sideframe) "Last Sunday
-# September 2010 (26/09/10) - adjust clocks forward from 12:00 midnight
-# to 01:00am and First Sunday April 2011 (03/04/11) - adjust clocks
-# backwards from 1:00am to 12:00am"
-
-# From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2011-03-07):
-# [http://www.mcil.gov.ws/ftcd/daylight_saving_2011.pdf]
-#
-# ... when the standard time strikes the hour of four o'clock (4.00am
-# or 0400 Hours) on the 2nd April 2011, then all instruments used to
-# measure standard time are to be adjusted/changed to three o'clock
-# (3:00am or 0300Hrs).
-
-# From David Zülke (2011-05-09):
-# Subject: Samoa to move timezone from east to west of international date line
-#
-# http://www.morningstar.co.uk/uk/markets/newsfeeditem.aspx?id=138501958347963
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-27):
-# The International Date Line Act 2011
-# http://www.parliament.gov.ws/images/ACTS/International_Date_Line_Act__2011_-_Eng.pdf
-# changed Samoa from UT -11 to +13, effective "12 o'clock midnight, on
-# Thursday 29th December 2011".  The International Date Line was adjusted
-# accordingly.
-
-# From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2011-09-02):
-# http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html
-#
-# here is the official website publication for Samoa DST and dateline change
-#
-# DST
-# Year  End      Time              Start        Time
-# 2011  - - -    - - -             24 September 3:00am to 4:00am
-# 2012  01 April 4:00am to 3:00am  - - -        - - -
-#
-# Dateline Change skip Friday 30th Dec 2011
-# Thursday 29th December 2011	23:59:59 Hours
-# Saturday 31st December 2011	00:00:00 Hours
-#
-# From Nicholas Pereira (2012-09-10):
-# Daylight Saving Time commences on Sunday 30th September 2012 and
-# ends on Sunday 7th of April 2013....
-# http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-08):
-# That web page currently lists transitions for 2012/3 and 2013/4.
-# Assume the pattern instituted in 2012 will continue indefinitely.
-
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	WS	2010	only	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	1	-
-Rule	WS	2011	only	-	Apr	Sat>=1	4:00	0	-
-Rule	WS	2011	only	-	Sep	lastSat	3:00	1	-
-Rule	WS	2012	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	4:00	0	-
-Rule	WS	2012	max	-	Sep	lastSun	3:00	1	-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Pacific/Apia	 12:33:04 -	LMT	1892 Jul  5
-			-11:26:56 -	LMT	1911
-			-11:30	-	-1130	1950
-			-11:00	WS	-11/-10	2011 Dec 29 24:00
-			 13:00	WS	+13/+14
-
-# Solomon Is
-# excludes Bougainville, for which see Papua New Guinea
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Pacific/Guadalcanal 10:39:48 -	LMT	1912 Oct # Honiara
-			11:00	-	+11
-
-# Tokelau
-#
-# From Gwillim Law (2011-12-29)
-# A correspondent informed me that Tokelau, like Samoa, will be skipping
-# December 31 this year ...
-#
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2012-07-25)
-# ... we double checked by calling hotels and offices based in Tokelau asking
-# about the time there, and they all told a time that agrees with UTC+13....
-# Shanks says UT-10 from 1901 [but] ... there is a good chance the change
-# actually was to UT-11 back then.
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2012-07-25)
-# A Google Books snippet of Appendix to the Journals of the House of
-# Representatives of New Zealand, Session 1948,
-# <https://books.google.com/books?id=ZaVCAQAAIAAJ>, page 65, says Tokelau
-# was "11 hours slow on G.M.T."  Go with Thorsen and assume Shanks & Pottenger
-# are off by an hour starting in 1901.
-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Pacific/Fakaofo	-11:24:56 -	LMT	1901
-			-11:00	-	-11	2011 Dec 30
-			13:00	-	+13
-
-# Tonga
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Tonga	1999	only	-	Oct	 7	2:00s	1:00	-
-Rule	Tonga	2000	only	-	Mar	19	2:00s	0	-
-Rule	Tonga	2000	2001	-	Nov	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Tonga	2001	2002	-	Jan	lastSun	2:00	0	-
-Rule	Tonga	2016	only	-	Nov	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Tonga	2017	only	-	Jan	Sun>=15	3:00	0	-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Pacific/Tongatapu	12:19:20 -	LMT	1901
-			12:20	-	+1220	1941
-			13:00	-	+13	1999
-			13:00	Tonga	+13/+14
-
-# Tuvalu
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone Pacific/Funafuti	11:56:52 -	LMT	1901
-			12:00	-	+12
-
-
-# US minor outlying islands
-
-# Howland, Baker
-# Howland was mined for guano by American companies 1857-1878 and British
-# 1886-1891; Baker was similar but exact dates are not known.
-# Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; U.S. military bases 1943-1944;
-# uninhabited thereafter.
-# Howland observed Hawaii Standard Time (UT -10:30) in 1937;
-# see page 206 of Elgen M. Long and Marie K. Long,
-# Amelia Earhart: the Mystery Solved, Simon & Schuster (2000).
-# So most likely Howland and Baker observed Hawaii Time from 1935
-# until they were abandoned after the war.
-
-# Jarvis
-# Mined for guano by American companies 1857-1879 and British 1883?-1891?.
-# Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; IGY scientific base 1957-1958;
-# uninhabited thereafter.
-# no information; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati
-
-# Johnston
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2017-02-10):
-# Sometimes Johnston kept Hawaii time, and sometimes it was an hour behind.
-# Details are uncertain.  We have no data for Johnston after 1970, so
-# treat it like Hawaii for now.  Since Johnston is now uninhabited,
-# its link to Pacific/Honolulu is in the 'backward' file.
-#
-# In his memoirs of June 6th to October 4, 1945
-# <http://www.315bw.org/Herb_Bach.htm> (2005), Herbert C. Bach writes,
-# "We started our letdown to Kwajalein Atoll and landed there at 5:00 AM
-# Johnston time, 1:30 AM Kwajalein time."  This was in June 1945, and
-# confirms that Johnston kept the same time as Honolulu in summer 1945.
-#
-# From Lyle McElhaney (2014-03-11):
-# [W]hen JI was being used for that [atomic bomb] testing, the time being used
-# was not Hawaiian time but rather the same time being used on the ships,
-# which had a GMT offset of -11 hours.  This apparently applied to at least the
-# time from Operation Newsreel (Hardtack I/Teak shot, 1958-08-01) to the last
-# Operation Fishbowl shot (Tightrope, 1962-11-04).... [See] Herman Hoerlin,
-# "The United States High-Altitude Test Experience: A Review Emphasizing the
-# Impact on the Environment", Los Alamos LA-6405, Oct 1976.
-# https://www.fas.org/sgp/othergov/doe/lanl/docs1/00322994.pdf
-# See the table on page 4 where he lists GMT and local times for the tests; a
-# footnote for the JI tests reads that local time is "JI time = Hawaii Time
-# Minus One Hour".
-
-# Kingman
-# uninhabited
-
-# Midway
-# See Pacific/Pago_Pago.
-
-# Palmyra
-# uninhabited since World War II; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati
-
-# Wake
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Pacific/Wake	11:06:28 -	LMT	1901
-			12:00	-	+12
-
-
-# Vanuatu
-# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
-Rule	Vanuatu	1983	only	-	Sep	25	0:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Vanuatu	1984	1991	-	Mar	Sun>=23	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Vanuatu	1984	only	-	Oct	23	0:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Vanuatu	1985	1991	-	Sep	Sun>=23	0:00	1:00	-
-Rule	Vanuatu	1992	1993	-	Jan	Sun>=23	0:00	0	-
-Rule	Vanuatu	1992	only	-	Oct	Sun>=23	0:00	1:00	-
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Pacific/Efate	11:13:16 -	LMT	1912 Jan 13 # Vila
-			11:00	Vanuatu	+11/+12
-
-# Wallis and Futuna
-# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
-Zone	Pacific/Wallis	12:15:20 -	LMT	1901
-			12:00	-	+12
-
-###############################################################################
-
-# NOTES
-
-# This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
-# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
-# tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
-# the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
-#
-# Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
-# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
-# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
-# Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
-#
-# Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source
-# for time zone data was the International Air Transport
-# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
-# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
-# of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted,
-# IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
-#
-# Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
-# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
-# I found in the UCLA library.
-#
-# For data circa 1899, a common source is:
-# Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94.
-# https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359
-#
-# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
-# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
-#
-# I invented the abbreviation marked "*".
-# The following abbreviations are from other sources.
-# Corrections are welcome!
-#		std	dst
-#		LMT		Local Mean Time
-#	  8:00	AWST	AWDT	Western Australia
-#	  9:30	ACST	ACDT	Central Australia
-#	 10:00	AEST	AEDT	Eastern Australia
-#	 10:00	GST	GDT*	Guam through 2000
-#	 10:00	ChST		Chamorro
-#	 11:30	NZMT	NZST	New Zealand through 1945
-#	 12:00	NZST	NZDT	New Zealand 1946-present
-#	-11:00	SST		Samoa
-#	-10:00	HST		Hawaii
-#
-# See the 'northamerica' file for Hawaii.
-# See the 'southamerica' file for Easter I and the Galápagos Is.
-
-###############################################################################
-
-# Australia
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
-# Daylight saving time has long been controversial in Australia, pitting
-# region against region, rural against urban, and local against global.
-# For example, in her review of Graeme Davison's _The Unforgiving
-# Minute: how Australians learned to tell the time_ (1993), Perth native
-# Phillipa J Martyr wrote, "The section entitled 'Saving Daylight' was
-# very informative, but was (as can, sadly, only be expected from a
-# Melbourne-based study) replete with the usual chuckleheaded
-# Queenslanders and straw-chewing yokels from the West prattling fables
-# about fading curtains and crazed farm animals."
-# Electronic Journal of Australian and New Zealand History (1997-03-03)
-# http://www.jcu.edu.au/aff/history/reviews/davison.htm
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2005-12-08):
-# Implementation Dates of Daylight Saving Time within Australia
-# http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml
-# summarizes daylight saving issues in Australia.
-
-# From Arthur David Olson (2005-12-12):
-# Lawlink NSW:Daylight Saving in New South Wales
-# http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/Corporate/ll_agdinfo.nsf/pages/community_relations_daylight_saving
-# covers New South Wales in particular.
-
-# From John Mackin (1991-03-06):
-# We in Australia have _never_ referred to DST as 'daylight' time.
-# It is called 'summer' time.  Now by a happy coincidence, 'summer'
-# and 'standard' happen to start with the same letter; hence, the
-# abbreviation does _not_ change...
-# The legislation does not actually define abbreviations, at least
-# in this State, but the abbreviation is just commonly taken to be the
-# initials of the phrase, and the legislation here uniformly uses
-# the phrase 'summer time' and does not use the phrase 'daylight
-# time'.
-# Announcers on the Commonwealth radio network, the ABC (for Australian
-# Broadcasting Commission), use the phrases 'Eastern Standard Time'
-# or 'Eastern Summer Time'.  (Note, though, that as I say in the
-# current australasia file, there is really no such thing.)  Announcers
-# on its overseas service, Radio Australia, use the same phrases
-# prefixed by the word 'Australian' when referring to local times;
-# time announcements on that service, naturally enough, are made in UTC.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
-#
-# Inspired by Mackin's remarks quoted above, earlier versions of this
-# file used "EST" for both Eastern Standard Time and Eastern Summer
-# Time in Australia, and similarly for "CST", "CWST", and "WST".
-# However, these abbreviations were confusing and were not common
-# practice among Australians, and there were justifiable complaints
-# about them, so I attempted to survey current Australian usage.
-# For the tz database, the full English phrase is not that important;
-# what matters is the abbreviation.  It's difficult to survey the web
-# directly for abbreviation usage, as there are so many false hits for
-# strings like "EST" and "EDT", so I looked for pages that defined an
-# abbreviation for eastern or central DST in Australia, and got the
-# following numbers of unique hits for the listed Google queries:
-#
-#   10 "Eastern Daylight Time AEST" site:au [some are false hits]
-#   10 "Eastern Summer Time AEST" site:au
-#   10 "Summer Time AEDT" site:au
-#   13 "EDST Eastern Daylight Saving Time" site:au
-#   18 "Summer Time ESST" site:au
-#   28 "Eastern Daylight Saving Time EDST" site:au
-#   39 "EDT Eastern Daylight Time" site:au [some are false hits]
-#   53 "Eastern Daylight Time EDT" site:au [some are false hits]
-#   54 "AEDT Australian Eastern Daylight Time" site:au
-#  182 "Eastern Daylight Time AEDT" site:au
-#
-#   17 "Central Daylight Time CDT" site:au [some are false hits]
-#   46 "Central Daylight Time ACDT" site:au
-#
-# I tried several other variants (e.g., "Eastern Summer Time EST") but
-# they all returned fewer than 10 unique hits.  I also looked for pages
-# mentioning both "western standard time" and an abbreviation, since
-# there is no WST in the US to generate false hits, and found:
-#
-#  156 "western standard time" AWST site:au
-#  226 "western standard time" WST site:au
-#
-# I then surveyed the top ten newspapers in Australia by circulation as
-# listed in Wikipedia, using Google queries like "AEDT site:heraldsun.com.au"
-# and obtaining estimated counts from the initial page of search results.
-# All ten papers greatly preferred "AEDT" to "EDT".  The papers
-# surveyed were the Herald Sun, The Daily Telegraph, The Courier-Mail,
-# The Sydney Morning Herald, The West Australian, The Age, The Advertiser,
-# The Australian, The Financial Review, and The Herald (Newcastle).
-#
-# I also searched for historical usage, to see whether abbreviations
-# like "AEDT" are new.  A Trove search <http://trove.nla.gov.au/>
-# found only one newspaper (The Canberra Times) with a house style
-# dating back to the 1970s, I expect because other newspapers weren't
-# fully indexed.  The Canberra Times strongly preferred abbreviations
-# like "AEDT".  The first occurrence of "AEDT" was a World Weather
-# column (1971-11-17, page 24), and of "ACDT" was a Scoreboard column
-# (1993-01-24, p 16).  The style was the typical usage but was not
-# strictly enforced; for example, "Welcome to the twilight zones ..."
-# (1994-10-29, p 1) uses the abbreviations AEST/AEDT, CST/CDT, and
-# WST, and goes on to say, "The confusion and frustration some feel
-# about the lack of uniformity among Australia's six states and two
-# territories has prompted one group to form its very own political
-# party -- the Sydney-based Daylight Saving Extension Party."
-#
-# I also surveyed federal government sources.  They did not agree:
-#
-#   The Australian Government (2014-03-26)
-#   http://australia.gov.au/about-australia/our-country/time
-#   (This document was produced by the Department of Finance.)
-#   AEST ACST AWST AEDT ACDT
-#
-#   Bureau of Meteorology (2012-11-08)
-#   http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/daysavtm.shtml
-#   EST CST WST EDT CDT
-#
-#   Civil Aviation Safety Authority (undated)
-#   http://services.casa.gov.au/outnback/inc/pages/episode3/episode-3_time_zones.shtml
-#   EST CST WST (no abbreviations given for DST)
-#
-#   Geoscience Australia (2011-11-24)
-#   http://www.ga.gov.au/geodesy/astro/sunrise.jsp
-#   AEST ACST AWST AEDT ACDT
-#
-#   Parliamentary Library (2008-11-10)
-#   https://www.aph.gov.au/binaries/library/pubs/rp/2008-09/09rp14.pdf
-#   EST CST WST preferred for standard time; AEST AEDT ACST ACDT also used
-#
-#   The Transport Safety Bureau has an extensive series of accident reports,
-#   and investigators seem to use whatever abbreviation they like.
-#   Googling site:atsb.gov.au found the following number of unique hits:
-#   311 "ESuT", 195 "EDT", 26 "AEDT", 83 "CSuT", 46 "CDT".
-#   "_SuT" tended to appear in older reports, and "A_DT" tended to
-#   appear in reports of events with international implications.
-#
-# From the above it appears that there is a working consensus in
-# Australia to use trailing "DT" for daylight saving time; although
-# some sources use trailing "SST" or "ST" or "SuT" they are by far in
-# the minority.  The case for leading "A" is weaker, but since it
-# seems to be preferred in the overall web and is preferred in all
-# the leading newspaper websites and in many government departments,
-# it has a stronger case than omitting the leading "A".  The current
-# version of the database therefore uses abbreviations like "AEST" and
-# "AEDT" for Australian time zones.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19):
-# Shanks & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ.
-# Mark Prior writes that his newspaper
-# reports that NSW's fall 1995 change will occur at 2:00,
-# but Robert Elz says it's been 3:00 in Victoria since 1970
-# and perhaps the newspaper's '2:00' is referring to standard time.
-# For now we'll continue to assume 2:00s for changes since 1960.
-
-# From Eric Ulevik (1998-01-05):
-#
-# Here are some URLs to Australian time legislation. These URLs are stable,
-# and should probably be included in the data file. There are probably more
-# relevant entries in this database.
-#
-# NSW (including LHI and Broken Hill):
-# Standard Time Act 1987 (updated 1995-04-04)
-# https://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/sta1987137/index.html
-# ACT
-# Standard Time and Summer Time Act 1972
-# https://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/consol_act/stasta1972279/index.html
-# SA
-# Standard Time Act, 1898
-# https://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/sta1898137/index.html
-
-# From David Grosz (2005-06-13):
-# It was announced last week that Daylight Saving would be extended by
-# one week next year to allow for the 2006 Commonwealth Games.
-# Daylight Saving is now to end for next year only on the first Sunday
-# in April instead of the last Sunday in March.
-#
-# From Gwillim Law (2005-06-14):
-# I did some Googling and found that all of those states (and territory) plan
-# to extend DST together in 2006.
-# ACT: http://www.cmd.act.gov.au/mediareleases/fileread.cfm?file=86.txt
-# New South Wales: http://www.thecouriermail.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,5936,15538869%255E1702,00.html
-# South Australia: http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15555031-1246,00.html
-# Tasmania: http://www.media.tas.gov.au/release.php?id=14772
-# Victoria: I wasn't able to find anything separate, but the other articles
-# allude to it.
-# But not Queensland
-# http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15564030-1248,00.html
-
-# Northern Territory
-
-# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
-# # The NORTHERN TERRITORY..  [ Courtesy N.T. Dept of the Chief Minister ]
-# #					[ Nov 1990 ]
-# #	N.T. have never utilised any DST due to sub-tropical/tropical location.
-# ...
-# Zone        Australia/North         9:30    -       CST
-
-# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
-# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
-# the Northern Territory do[es] not have daylight saving.
-
-# Western Australia
-
-# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
-# #  The state of WESTERN AUSTRALIA..  [ Courtesy W.A. dept Premier+Cabinet ]
-# #						[ Nov 1990 ]
-# #	W.A. suffers from a great deal of public and political opposition to
-# #	DST in principle. A bill is brought before parliament in most years, but
-# #	usually defeated either in the upper house, or in party caucus
-# #	before reaching parliament.
-# ...
-# Zone	Australia/West		8:00	AW	%sST
-# ...
-# Rule	AW	1974	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
-# Rule	AW	1975	only	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	W
-# Rule	AW	1983	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
-# Rule	AW	1984	only	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	W
-
-# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
-# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
-# Western Australia...do[es] not have daylight saving.
-
-# From John D. Newman via Bradley White (1991-11-02):
-# Western Australia is still on "winter time". Some DH in Sydney
-# rang me at home a few days ago at 6.00am. (He had just arrived at
-# work at 9.00am.)
-# W.A. is switching to Summer Time on Nov 17th just to confuse
-# everybody again.
-
-# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
-# The 1992 ending date used in the rules is a best guess;
-# it matches what was used in the past.
-
-# The Australian Bureau of Meteorology FAQ
-# http://www.bom.gov.au/faq/faqgen.htm
-# (1999-09-27) writes that Giles Meteorological Station uses
-# South Australian time even though it's located in Western Australia.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-04-01):
-# The Guardian Express of Perth, Australia reported today that the
-# government decided to advance the clocks permanently on January 1,
-# 2019, from UT +08 to UT +09.  The article noted that an exemption
-# would be made for people aged 61 and over, who "can apply in writing
-# to have the extra hour of sunshine removed from their area."  See:
-# Daylight saving coming to WA in 2019. Guardian Express. 2018-04-01.
-# https://www.communitynews.com.au/guardian-express/news/exclusive-daylight-savings-coming-wa-summer-2018/
-
-# Queensland
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-02-26):
-# I lack access to the following source for Queensland DST:
-# Pearce C. History of daylight saving time in Queensland.
-# Queensland Hist J. 2017 Aug;23(6):389-403
-# https://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=994682348436426;res=IELHSS
-
-# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
-# #   The state of QUEENSLAND.. [ Courtesy Qld. Dept Premier Econ&Trade Devel ]
-# #						[ Dec 1990 ]
-# ...
-# Zone	Australia/Queensland	10:00	AQ	%sST
-# ...
-# Rule	AQ	1971	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
-# Rule	AQ	1972	only	-	Feb	lastSun	3:00	0	E
-# Rule	AQ	1989	max	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
-# Rule	AQ	1990	max	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	E
-
-# From Bradley White (1989-12-24):
-# "Australia/Queensland" now observes daylight time (i.e. from
-# October 1989).
-
-# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
-# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
-# ...Queensland...[has] agreed to end daylight saving
-# at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...
-
-# From John Mackin (1991-03-06):
-# I can certainly confirm for my part that Daylight Saving in NSW did in fact
-# end on Sunday, 3 March.  I don't know at what hour, though.  (It surprised
-# me.)
-
-# From Bradley White (1992-03-08):
-# ...there was recently a referendum in Queensland which resulted
-# in the experimental daylight saving system being abandoned. So, ...
-# ...
-# Rule	QLD	1989	1991	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
-# Rule	QLD	1990	1992	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	S
-# ...
-
-# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
-# The chosen rules the union of the 1971/1972 change and the 1989-1992 changes.
-
-# From Christopher Hunt (2006-11-21), after an advance warning
-# from Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-11-01):
-# WA are trialing DST for three years.
-# http://www.parliament.wa.gov.au/parliament/bills.nsf/9A1B183144403DA54825721200088DF1/$File/Bill175-1B.pdf
-
-# From Rives McDow (2002-04-09):
-# The most interesting region I have found consists of three towns on the
-# southern coast....  South Australia observes daylight saving time; Western
-# Australia does not.  The two states are one and a half hours apart.  The
-# residents decided to forget about this nonsense of changing the clock so
-# much and set the local time 20 hours and 45 minutes from the
-# international date line, or right in the middle of the time of South
-# Australia and Western Australia....
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2002-04-09):
-# This is confirmed by the section entitled
-# "What's the deal with time zones???" in
-# http://www.earthsci.unimelb.edu.au/~awatkins/null.html
-#
-# From Alex Livingston (2006-12-07):
-# ... it was just on four years ago that I drove along the Eyre Highway,
-# which passes through eastern Western Australia close to the southern
-# coast of the continent.
-#
-# I paid particular attention to the time kept there. There can be no
-# dispute that UTC+08:45 was considered "the time" from the border
-# village just inside the border with South Australia to as far west
-# as just east of Caiguna. There can also be no dispute that Eucla is
-# the largest population centre in this zone....
-#
-# Now that Western Australia is observing daylight saving, the
-# question arose whether this part of the state would follow suit. I
-# just called the border village and confirmed that indeed they have,
-# meaning that they are now observing UTC+09:45.
-#
-# (2006-12-09):
-# I personally doubt that either experimentation with daylight saving
-# in WA or its introduction in SA had anything to do with the genesis
-# of this time zone.  My hunch is that it's been around since well
-# before 1975.  I remember seeing it noted on road maps decades ago.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2006-12-15):
-# For lack of better info, assume the tradition dates back to the
-# introduction of standard time in 1895.
-
-
-# southeast Australia
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
-# Starting autumn 2008 Victoria, NSW, South Australia, Tasmania and the ACT
-# end DST the first Sunday in April and start DST the first Sunday in October.
-# http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/daylight-savings-to-span-six-months/2007/06/27/1182623966703.html
-
-
-# South Australia
-
-# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
-# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
-# ...South Australia...[has] agreed to end daylight saving
-# at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...
-
-# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
-# #   The state of SOUTH AUSTRALIA....[ Courtesy of S.A. Dept of Labour ]
-# #						[ Nov 1990 ]
-# ...
-# Zone	Australia/South		9:30	AS	%sST
-# ...
-# Rule	 AS	1971	max	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
-# Rule	 AS	1972	1985	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	C
-# Rule	 AS	1986	1990	-	Mar	Sun>=15	3:00	0	C
-# Rule	 AS	1991	max	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	C
-
-# From Bradley White (1992-03-11):
-# Recent correspondence with a friend in Adelaide
-# contained the following exchange:  "Due to the Adelaide Festival,
-# South Australia delays setting back our clocks for a few weeks."
-
-# From Robert Elz (1992-03-13):
-# I heard that apparently (or at least, it appears that)
-# South Aus will have an extra 3 weeks daylight saving every even
-# numbered year (from 1990).  That's when the Adelaide Festival
-# is on...
-
-# From Robert Elz (1992-03-16, 00:57:07 +1000):
-# DST didn't end in Adelaide today (yesterday)....
-# But whether it's "4th Sunday" or "2nd last Sunday" I have no idea whatever...
-# (it's just as likely to be "the Sunday we pick for this year"...).
-
-# From Bradley White (1994-04-11):
-# If Sun, 15 March, 1992 was at +1030 as kre asserts, but yet Sun, 20 March,
-# 1994 was at +0930 as John Connolly's customer seems to assert, then I can
-# only conclude that the actual rule is more complicated....
-
-# From John Warburton (1994-10-07):
-# The new Daylight Savings dates for South Australia ...
-# was gazetted in the Government Hansard on Sep 26 1994....
-# start on last Sunday in October and end in last sunday in March.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
-# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
-
-# Tasmania
-
-# The rules for 1967 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd
-# via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
-# #  The state of TASMANIA.. [Courtesy Tasmanian Dept of Premier + Cabinet ]
-# #					[ Nov 1990 ]
-
-# From Bill Hart via Guy Harris (1991-10-10):
-# Oh yes, the new daylight savings rules are uniquely tasmanian, we have
-# 6 weeks a year now when we are out of sync with the rest of Australia
-# (but nothing new about that).
-
-# From Alex Livingston (1999-10-04):
-# I heard on the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) radio news on the
-# (long) weekend that Tasmania, which usually goes its own way in this regard,
-# has decided to join with most of NSW, the ACT, and most of Victoria
-# (Australia) and start daylight saving on the last Sunday in August in 2000
-# instead of the first Sunday in October.
-
-# Sim Alam (2000-07-03) reported a legal citation for the 2000/2001 rules:
-# http://www.thelaw.tas.gov.au/fragview/42++1968+GS3A@EN+2000070300
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
-# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
-
-# Victoria
-
-# The rules for 1971 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd
-# via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
-# #   The state of VICTORIA.. [ Courtesy of Vic. Dept of Premier + Cabinet ]
-# #						[ Nov 1990 ]
-
-# From Scott Harrington (2001-08-29):
-# On KQED's "City Arts and Lectures" program last night I heard an
-# interesting story about daylight savings time.  Dr. John Heilbron was
-# discussing his book "The Sun in the Church: Cathedrals as Solar
-# Observatories"[1], and in particular the Shrine of Remembrance[2] located
-# in Melbourne, Australia.
-#
-# Apparently the shrine's main purpose is a beam of sunlight which
-# illuminates a special spot on the floor at the 11th hour of the 11th day
-# of the 11th month (Remembrance Day) every year in memory of Australia's
-# fallen WWI soldiers.  And if you go there on Nov. 11, at 11am local time,
-# you will indeed see the sunbeam illuminate the special spot at the
-# expected time.
-#
-# However, that is only because of some special mirror contraption that had
-# to be employed, since due to daylight savings time, the true solar time of
-# the remembrance moment occurs one hour later (or earlier?).  Perhaps
-# someone with more information on this jury-rig can tell us more.
-#
-# [1] http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/HEISUN.html
-# [2] http://www.shrine.org.au
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
-# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
-
-# New South Wales
-
-# From Arthur David Olson:
-# New South Wales and subjurisdictions have their own ideas of a fun time.
-# Based on law library research by John Mackin,
-# who notes:
-#	In Australia, time is not legislated federally, but rather by the
-#	individual states.  Thus, while such terms as "Eastern Standard Time"
-#	[I mean, of course, Australian EST, not any other kind] are in common
-#	use, _they have NO REAL MEANING_, as they are not defined in the
-#	legislation.  This is very important to understand.
-#	I have researched New South Wales time only...
-
-# From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-26):
-# DST will start in NSW on the last Sunday of August, rather than the usual
-# October in 2000.  See: Matthew Moore,
-# Two months more daylight saving, Sydney Morning Herald (1999-05-26).
-# http://www.smh.com.au/news/9905/26/pageone/pageone4.html
-
-# From Paul Eggert (1999-09-27):
-# See the following official NSW source:
-# Daylight Saving in New South Wales.
-# http://dir.gis.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/genobject/document/other/daylightsaving/tigGmZ
-#
-# Narrabri Shire (NSW) council has announced it will ignore the extension of
-# daylight saving next year.  See:
-# Narrabri Council to ignore daylight saving
-# http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/neweng/monthly/regeng-22jul1999-1.htm
-# (1999-07-22).  For now, we'll wait to see if this really happens.
-#
-# Victoria will follow NSW.  See:
-# Vic to extend daylight saving (1999-07-28)
-# http://abc.net.au/local/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990728112314_1.htm
-#
-# However, South Australia rejected the DST request.  See:
-# South Australia rejects Olympics daylight savings request (1999-07-19)
-# http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990719151754_1.htm
-#
-# Queensland also will not observe DST for the Olympics.  See:
-# Qld says no to daylight savings for Olympics
-# http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/06/item19990601114608_1.htm
-# (1999-06-01), which quotes Queensland Premier Peter Beattie as saying
-# "Look you've got to remember in my family when this came up last time
-# I voted for it, my wife voted against it and she said to me it's all very
-# well for you, you don't have to worry about getting the children out of
-# bed, getting them to school, getting them to sleep at night.
-# I've been through all this argument domestically...my wife rules."
-#
-# Broken Hill will stick with South Australian time in 2000.  See:
-# Broken Hill to be behind the times (1999-07-21)
-# http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/brokenh/monthly/regbrok-21jul1999-6.htm
-
-# IATA SSIM (1998-09) says that the spring 2000 change for Australian
-# Capital Territory, New South Wales except Lord Howe Island and Broken
-# Hill, and Victoria will be August 27, presumably due to the Sydney Olympics.
-
-# From Eric Ulevik, referring to Sydney's Sun Herald (2000-08-13), page 29:
-# The Queensland Premier Peter Beattie is encouraging northern NSW
-# towns to use Queensland time.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
-# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
-
-# Yancowinna
-
-# From John Mackin (1989-01-04):
-# 'Broken Hill' means the County of Yancowinna.
-
-# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
-# # YANCOWINNA..  [ Confirmation courtesy of Broken Hill Postmaster ]
-# #					[ Dec 1990 ]
-# ...
-# # Yancowinna uses Central Standard Time, despite [its] location on the
-# # New South Wales side of the S.A. border. Most business and social dealings
-# # are with CST zones, therefore CST is legislated by local government
-# # although the switch to Summer Time occurs in line with N.S.W. There have
-# # been years when this did not apply, but the historical data is not
-# # presently available.
-# Zone	Australia/Yancowinna	9:30	 AY	%sST
-# ...
-# Rule	 AY	1971	1985	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
-# Rule	 AY	1972	only	-	Feb	lastSun	3:00	0	C
-# [followed by other Rules]
-
-# Lord Howe Island
-
-# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
-# LHI...		[ Courtesy of Pauline Van Winsen ]
-#					[ Dec 1990 ]
-# Lord Howe Island is located off the New South Wales coast, and is half an
-# hour ahead of NSW time.
-
-# From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-01-27):
-# Lord Howe Island summer time in 2000/2001 will commence on the same
-# date as the rest of NSW (i.e. 2000-08-27).  For your information the
-# Lord Howe Island Board (controlling authority for the Island) is
-# seeking the community's views on various options for summer time
-# arrangements on the Island, e.g. advance clocks by 1 full hour
-# instead of only 30 minutes.  [Dependent] on the wishes of residents
-# the Board may approach the NSW government to change the existing
-# arrangements.  The starting date for summer time on the Island will
-# however always coincide with the rest of NSW.
-
-# From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-10-25):
-# Lord Howe Island advances clocks by 30 minutes during DST in NSW and retards
-# clocks by 30 minutes when DST finishes. Since DST was most recently
-# introduced in NSW, the "changeover" time on the Island has been 02:00 as
-# shown on clocks on LHI. I guess this means that for 30 minutes at the start
-# of DST, LHI is actually 1 hour ahead of the rest of NSW.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
-# For Lord Howe dates we use Shanks & Pottenger through 1989, and
-# Lonergan thereafter.  For times we use Lonergan.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
-# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-04-28):
-# According to the official press release, South Australia's extended daylight
-# saving period will continue with the same rules as used during the 2008-2009
-# summer (southern hemisphere).
-#
-# From
-# http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/DaylightDatesSet.pdf
-# The extended daylight saving period that South Australia has been trialling
-# for over the last year is now set to be ongoing.
-# Daylight saving will continue to start on the first Sunday in October each
-# year and finish on the first Sunday in April the following year.
-# Industrial Relations Minister, Paul Caica, says this provides South Australia
-# with a consistent half hour time difference with NSW, Victoria, Tasmania and
-# the ACT for all 52 weeks of the year...
-#
-# We have a wrap-up here:
-# https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html
-###############################################################################
-
-# New Zealand
-
-# From Mark Davies (1990-10-03):
-# the 1989/90 year was a trial of an extended "daylight saving" period.
-# This trial was deemed successful and the extended period adopted for
-# subsequent years (with the addition of a further week at the start).
-# source - phone call to Ministry of Internal Affairs Head Office.
-
-# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
-# # The Country of New Zealand   (Australia's east island -) Gee they hate that!
-# #				   or is Australia the west island of N.Z.
-# #	[ courtesy of Geoff Tribble.. Auckland N.Z. ]
-# #				[ Nov 1990 ]
-# ...
-# Rule	NZ      1974    1988	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
-# Rule	NZ	1989	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
-# Rule	NZ      1975    1989	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	S
-# Rule	NZ	1990	max	-	Mar	lastSun	3:00	0	S
-# ...
-# Zone	NZ			12:00	NZ		NZ%sT	# New Zealand
-# Zone	NZ-CHAT			12:45	-		NZ-CHAT # Chatham Island
-
-# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
-# The chosen rules use the Davies October 8 values for the start of DST in 1989
-# rather than the October 1 value.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19);
-# Shank & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ.
-# Robert Uzgalis writes that the New Zealand Daylight
-# Savings Time Order in Council dated 1990-06-18 specifies 2:00 standard
-# time on both the first Sunday in October and the third Sunday in March.
-# As with Australia, we'll assume the tradition is 2:00s, not 2:00.
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
-# The Department of Internal Affairs (DIA) maintains a brief history,
-# as does Carol Squires; see tz-link.html for the full references.
-# Use these sources in preference to Shanks & Pottenger.
-#
-# For Chatham, IATA SSIM (1991/1999) gives the NZ rules but with
-# transitions at 2:45 local standard time; this confirms that Chatham
-# is always exactly 45 minutes ahead of Auckland.
-
-# From Colin Sharples (2007-04-30):
-# DST will now start on the last Sunday in September, and end on the
-# first Sunday in April.  The changes take effect this year, meaning
-# that DST will begin on 2007-09-30 2008-04-06.
-# http://www.dia.govt.nz/diawebsite.nsf/wpg_URL/Services-Daylight-Saving-Daylight-saving-to-be-extended
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-14):
-# Chatham Island time was formally standardized on 1957-01-01 by
-# New Zealand's Standard Time Amendment Act 1956 (1956-10-26).
-# https://www.austlii.edu.au/nz/legis/hist_act/staa19561956n100244.pdf
-# According to Google Books snippet view, a speaker in the New Zealand
-# parliamentary debates in 1956 said "Clause 78 makes provision for standard
-# time in the Chatham Islands.  The time there is 45 minutes in advance of New
-# Zealand time.  I understand that is the time they keep locally, anyhow."
-# For now, assume this practice goes back to the introduction of standard time
-# in New Zealand, as this would make Chatham Islands time almost exactly match
-# LMT back when New Zealand was at UT +11:30; also, assume Chatham Islands did
-# not observe New Zealand's prewar DST.
-
-###############################################################################
-
-
-# Fiji
-
-# Howse writes (p 153) that in 1879 the British governor of Fiji
-# enacted an ordinance standardizing the islands on Antipodean Time
-# instead of the American system (which was one day behind).
-
-# From Rives McDow (1998-10-08):
-# Fiji will introduce DST effective 0200 local time, 1998-11-01
-# until 0300 local time 1999-02-28.  Each year the DST period will
-# be from the first Sunday in November until the last Sunday in February.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2000-01-08):
-# IATA SSIM (1999-09) says DST ends 0100 local time.  Go with McDow.
-
-# From the BBC World Service in
-# http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/205226.stm (1998-10-31 16:03 UTC):
-# The Fijian government says the main reasons for the time change is to
-# improve productivity and reduce road accidents.... [T]he move is also
-# intended to boost Fiji's ability to attract tourists to witness the dawning
-# of the new millennium.
-
-# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/press/2000_09/2000_09_13-05.shtml (2000-09-13)
-# reports that Fiji has discontinued DST.
-
-
-# Kiribati
-
-# From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
-# Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (page 1) reports that Kiribati
-# "declared it the same day [throughout] the country as of Jan. 1, 1995"
-# as part of the competition to be first into the 21st century.
-
-# From Kerry Shetline (2018-02-03):
-# December 31 was the day that was skipped, so that the transition
-# would be from Friday December 30, 1994 to Sunday January 1, 1995.
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-02-04):
-# One source for this is page 202 of: Bartky IR. One Time Fits All:
-# The Campaigns for Global Uniformity (2007).
-
-# Kwajalein
-
-# From an AP article (1993-08-22):
-# "The nearly 3,000 Americans living on this remote Pacific atoll have a good
-# excuse for not remembering Saturday night: there wasn't one.  Residents were
-# going to bed Friday night and waking up Sunday morning because at midnight
-# -- 8 A.M. Eastern daylight time on Saturday -- Kwajalein was jumping from
-# one side of the international date line to the other."
-# "In Marshall Islands, Friday is followed by Sunday", NY Times. 1993-08-22.
-# https://www.nytimes.com/1993/08/22/world/in-marshall-islands-friday-is-followed-by-sunday.html
-
-# From Phake Nick (2018-10-27):
-# <https://wiki.suikawiki.org/n/南洋群島の標準時> ... pointed out that
-# currently tzdata say Pacific/Kwajalein switched from GMT+11 to GMT-12 in
-# 1969 October without explanation, however an 1993 article from NYT say it
-# synchorized its day with US mainland about 40 years ago and thus the switch
-# should occur at around 1950s instead.
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
-# The NYT (actually, AP) article is vague and possibly wrong about this.
-# The article says the earlier switch was "40 years ago when the United States
-# Army established a missile test range here".  However, the Kwajalein Test
-# Center was established on 1960-10-01 and was run by the US Navy.  It was
-# transferred to the US Army on 1964-07-01.  See "Seize the High Ground"
-# <https://history.army.mil/html/books/070/70-88-1/cmhPub_70-88-1.pdf>.
-# Given that Shanks was right on the money about the 1993 change, I'm inclined
-# to take Shanks's word for the 1969 change unless we find better evidence.
-
-
-# N Mariana Is, Guam
-
-# From Phake Nick (2018-10-27):
-# Guam Island was briefly annexed by Japan during ... year 1941-1944 ...
-# however there are no detailed information about what time it use during that
-# period.  It would probably be reasonable to assume Guam use GMT+9 during
-# that period of time like the surrounding area.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
-# Howse writes (p 153) "The Spaniards, on the other hand, reached the
-# Philippines and the Ladrones from America," and implies that the Ladrones
-# (now called the Marianas) kept American date for quite some time.
-# For now, we assume the Ladrones switched at the same time as the Philippines;
-# see Asia/Manila.
-#
-# Use 1941-12-10 and 1944-07-31 for Guam WWII transitions, as the rough start
-# and end of Japanese control of Agana.  We don't know whether the Northern
-# Marianas followed Guam's DST rules from 1959 through 1977; for now, assume
-# they did as that avoids the need for a separate zone due to our 1970 cutoff.
-#
-# US Public Law 106-564 (2000-12-23) made UT +10 the official standard time,
-# under the name "Chamorro Standard Time".  There is no official abbreviation,
-# but Congressman Robert A. Underwood, author of the bill that became law,
-# wrote in a press release (2000-12-27) that he will seek the use of "ChST".
-
-# See also the commentary for Micronesia.
-
-
-# Marshall Is
-# See the commentary for Micronesia.
-
-
-# Micronesia (and nearby)
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
-# Like the Ladrones (see Guam commentary), assume the Spanish East Indies
-# kept American time until the Philippines switched at the end of 1844.
-
-# Alan Eugene Davis writes (1996-03-16),
-# "I am certain, having lived there for the past decade, that 'Truk'
-# (now properly known as Chuuk) ... is in the time zone GMT+10."
-#
-# Shanks & Pottenger write that Truk switched from UT +10 to +11
-# on 1978-10-01; ignore this for now.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29):
-# The Federated States of Micronesia Visitors Board writes in
-# The Federated States of Micronesia - Visitor Information (1999-01-26)
-# http://www.fsmgov.org/info/clocks.html
-# that Truk and Yap are UT +10, and Ponape and Kosrae are +11.
-# We don't know when Kosrae switched from +12; assume January 1 for now.
-
-# From Phake Nick (2018-10-27):
-#
-# From a Japanese wiki site https://wiki.suikawiki.org/n/南洋群島の標準時
-# ...
-# For "Southern Islands" (modern region of Mariana + Palau + Federation of
-# Micronesia + Marshall Islands):
-#
-# A 1906 Japanese magazine shown the Caroline Islands and Mariana Islands
-# who was occupied by Germany at the time as GMT+10, together with the like
-# of German New Guinea.  However there is a marking saying it have not been
-# implemented (yet).  No further information after that were found.
-#
-# Japan invaded those islands in 1914, and records shows that they were
-# instructed to use JST at the time.
-#
-# 1915 January telecommunication record on the Jaluit Atoll shows they use
-# the meridian of 170E as standard time (GMT+11:20), which is similar to the
-# longitude of the atoll.
-# 1915 February record say the 170E standard time is to be used until
-# February 9 noon, and after February 9 noon they are to use JST.
-# However these are time used within the Japanese Military at the time and
-# probably does not reflect the time used by local resident at the time (that
-# is if they keep their own time back then)
-#
-# In January 1919 the occupying force issued a command that split the area
-# into three different timezone with meridian of 135E, 150E, 165E (JST+0, +1,
-# +2), and the command was to become effective from February 1 of the same
-# year.  Despite the target of the command is still only for the occupying
-# force itself, further publication have described the time as the standard
-# time for the occupied area and thus it can probably be seen as such.
-#  * Area that use meridian of 135E: Palau and Yap civil administration area
-#    (Southern Islands Western Standard Time)
-#  * Area that use meridian of 150E: Truk (Chuuk) and Saipan civil
-#    administration area (Southern Islands Central Standard Time)
-#  * Area that use meridian of 165E: Ponape (Pohnpei) and Jaluit civil
-#    administration area (Southern Islands Eastern Standard Time).
-#  * In the next few years Japanese occupation of those islands have been
-#    formalized via League of Nation Mandate (South Pacific Mandate) and formal
-#    governance structure have been established, these district [become
-#    subprefectures] and timezone classification have been inherited as standard
-#    time of the area.
-#  * Saipan subprefecture include Mariana islands (exclude Guam which was
-#    occupied by America at the time), Palau and Yap subprefecture rule the
-#    Western Caroline Islands with 137E longitude as border, Truk and Ponape
-#    subprefecture rule the Eastern Caroline Islands with 154E as border, Ponape
-#    subprefecture also rule part of Marshall Islands to the west of 164E
-#    starting from (1918?) and Jaluit subprefecture rule the rest of the
-#    Marshall Islands.
-#
-# And then in year 1937, an announcement was made to change the time in the
-# area into 2 timezones:
-#  * Area that use meridian of 135E: area administered by Palau, Yap and
-#    Saipan subprefecture (Southern Islands Western Standard Time)
-#  * Area that use meridian of 150E: area administered by Truk (Chuuk),
-#    Ponape (Pohnpei) and Jaluit subprefecture (Southern Islands Eastern
-#    Standard Time)
-#
-# Another announcement issued in 1941 say that on April 1 that year,
-# standard time of the Southern Islands would be changed to use the meridian
-# of 135E (GMT+9), and thus abolishing timezone different within the area.
-#
-# Then Pacific theater of WWII started and Japan slowly lose control on the
-# island.  The webpage I linked above contain no information during this
-# period of time....
-#
-# After the end of WWII, in 1946 February, a document written by the
-# (former?) Japanese military personnel describe there are 3 hours time
-# different between Caroline islands time/Wake island time and the Chungking
-# time, which would mean the time being used there at the time was GMT+10.
-#
-# After that, the area become Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands
-# under American administration from year 1947.  The site listed some
-# American/International books/maps/publications about time used in those
-# area during this period of time but they doesn't seems to be reliable
-# information so it would be the best if someone know where can more reliable
-# information can be found.
-#
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
-#
-# For the above, use vague dates like "1914" and "1945" for transitions that
-# plausibly exist but for which the details are not known.  The information
-# for Wake is too sketchy to act on.
-#
-# The 1906 GMT+10 info about German-controlled islands might not have been
-# done, so omit it from the data for now.
-#
-# The Jaluit info governs Kwajalein.
-
-
-# Midway
-
-# From Charles T O'Connor, KMTH DJ (1956),
-# quoted in the KTMH section of the Radio Heritage Collection
-# <http://radiodx.com/spdxr/KMTH.htm> (2002-12-31):
-# For the past two months we've been on what is known as Daylight
-# Saving Time.  This time has put us on air at 5am in the morning,
-# your time down there in New Zealand.  Starting September 2, 1956
-# we'll again go back to Standard Time.  This'll mean that we'll go to
-# air at 6am your time.
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
-# We don't know the date of that quote, but we'll guess they
-# started DST on June 3.  Possibly DST was observed other years
-# in Midway, but we have no record of it.
-
-# Nauru
-
-# From Phake Nick (2018-10-31):
-# Currently, the tz database say Nauru use LMT until 1921, and then
-# switched to GMT+11:30 for the next two decades.
-# However, a number of timezone map published in America/Japan back then
-# showed its timezone as GMT+11 per https://wiki.suikawiki.org/n/ナウルの標準時
-# And it would also be nice if the 1921 transition date could be sourced.
-# ...
-# The "Nauru Standard Time Act 1978 Time Change"
-# http://ronlaw.gov.nr/nauru_lpms/files/gazettes/4b23a17d2030150404db7a5fa5872f52.pdf#page=3
-# based on "Nauru Standard Time Act 1978 Time Change"
-# http://www.paclii.org/nr/legis/num_act/nsta1978207/ defined that "Nauru
-# Alternative Time" (GMT+12) should be in effect from 1979 Feb.
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-11-19):
-# The 1921-01-15 introduction of standard time is in Shanks; it is also in
-# "Standard Time Throughout the World", US National Bureau of Standards (1935),
-# page 3, which does not give the UT offset.  In response to a comment by
-# Phake Nick I set the Nauru time of occupation by Japan to
-# 1942-08-29/1945-09-08 by using dates from:
-# https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_occupation_of_Nauru
-
-# Norfolk
-
-# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2015-09-23):
-# Norfolk Island will change ... from +1130 to +1100:
-# https://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2015L01483/Explanatory%20Statement/Text
-# ... at 12.30 am (by legal time in New South Wales) on 4 October 2015.
-# http://www.norfolkisland.gov.nf/nia/MediaRelease/Media%20Release%20Norfolk%20Island%20Standard%20Time%20Change.pdf
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2015-09-23):
-# Transitions before 2015 are from timeanddate.com, which consulted
-# the Norfolk Island Museum and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's
-# Norfolk Island station, and found no record of Norfolk observing DST
-# other than in 1974/5.  See:
-# https://www.timeanddate.com/time/australia/norfolk-island.html
-
-# Palau
-# See commentary for Micronesia.
-
-# Pitcairn
-
-# From Rives McDow (1999-11-08):
-# A Proclamation was signed by the Governor of Pitcairn on the 27th March 1998
-# with regard to Pitcairn Standard Time.  The Proclamation is as follows.
-#
-#	The local time for general purposes in the Islands shall be
-#	Co-ordinated Universal time minus 8 hours and shall be known
-#	as Pitcairn Standard Time.
-#
-# ... I have also seen Pitcairn listed as UTC minus 9 hours in several
-# references, and can only assume that this was an error in interpretation
-# somehow in light of this proclamation.
-
-# From Rives McDow (1999-11-09):
-# The Proclamation regarding Pitcairn time came into effect on 27 April 1998
-# ... at midnight.
-
-# From Howie Phelps (1999-11-10), who talked to a Pitcairner via shortwave:
-# Betty Christian told me yesterday that their local time is the same as
-# Pacific Standard Time. They used to be ½ hour different from us here in
-# Sacramento but it was changed a couple of years ago.
-
-
-# (Western) Samoa and American Samoa
-
-# Howse writes (p 153) that after the 1879 standardization on Antipodean
-# time by the British governor of Fiji, the King of Samoa decided to change
-# "the date in his kingdom from the Antipodean to the American system,
-# ordaining - by a masterpiece of diplomatic flattery - that
-# the Fourth of July should be celebrated twice in that year."
-# This happened in 1892, according to the Evening News (Sydney) of 1892-07-20.
-# https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/idl/idl.htm
-
-# Although Shanks & Pottenger says they both switched to UT -11:30
-# in 1911, and to -11 in 1950. many earlier sources give -11
-# for American Samoa, e.g., the US National Bureau of Standards
-# circular "Standard Time Throughout the World", 1932.
-# Assume American Samoa switched to -11 in 1911, not 1950,
-# and that after 1950 they agreed until (western) Samoa skipped a
-# day in 2011.  Assume also that the Samoas follow the US and New
-# Zealand's "ST"/"DT" style of daylight-saving abbreviations.
-
-
-# Tonga
-
-# From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
-# Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (p 1) reports that "Tonga has been plotting
-# to sneak ahead of [New Zealanders] by introducing daylight-saving time."
-# Since Kiribati has moved the Date Line it's not clear what Tonga will do.
-
-# Don Mundell writes in the 1997-02-20 Tonga Chronicle
-# How Tonga became 'The Land where Time Begins':
-# http://www.tongatapu.net.to/tonga/homeland/timebegins.htm
-#
-# Until 1941 Tonga maintained a standard time 50 minutes ahead of NZST
-# 12 hours and 20 minutes ahead of GMT.  When New Zealand adjusted its
-# standard time in 1940s, Tonga had the choice of subtracting from its
-# local time to come on the same standard time as New Zealand or of
-# advancing its time to maintain the differential of 13°
-# (approximately 50 minutes ahead of New Zealand time).
-#
-# Because His Majesty King Tāufaʻāhau Tupou IV, then Crown Prince
-# Tungī, preferred to ensure Tonga's title as the land where time
-# begins, the Legislative Assembly approved the latter change.
-#
-# But some of the older, more conservative members from the outer
-# islands objected. "If at midnight on Dec. 31, we move ahead 40
-# minutes, as your Royal Highness wishes, what becomes of the 40
-# minutes we have lost?"
-#
-# The Crown Prince, presented an unanswerable argument: "Remember that
-# on the World Day of Prayer, you would be the first people on Earth
-# to say your prayers in the morning."
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
-# Shanks & Pottenger say the transition was on 1968-10-01; go with Mundell.
-
-# From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-03):
-# Tonga's director of tourism, who is also secretary of the National Millennium
-# Committee, has a plan to get Tonga back in front.
-# He has proposed a one-off move to tropical daylight saving for Tonga from
-# October to March, which has won approval in principle from the Tongan
-# Government.
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
-# * Tonga will introduce DST in November
-#
-# I was given this link by John Letts:
-# http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm
-#
-# I have not been able to find exact dates for the transition in November
-# yet. By reading this article it seems like Fiji will be 14 hours ahead
-# of UTC as well, but as far as I know Fiji will only be 13 hours ahead
-# (12 + 1 hour DST).
-
-# From Arthur David Olson (1999-09-20):
-# According to <http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html>:
-# "Daylight Savings Time will take effect on Oct. 2 through April 15, 2000
-# and annually thereafter from the first Saturday in October through the
-# third Saturday of April.  Under the system approved by Privy Council on
-# Sept. 10, clocks must be turned ahead one hour on the opening day and
-# set back an hour on the closing date."
-# Alas, no indication of the time of day.
-
-# From Rives McDow (1999-10-06):
-# Tonga started its Daylight Saving on Saturday morning October 2nd at 0200am.
-# Daylight Saving ends on April 16 at 0300am which is Sunday morning.
-
-# From Steffen Thorsen (2000-10-31):
-# Back in March I found a notice on the website http://www.tongaonline.com
-# that Tonga changed back to standard time one month early, on March 19
-# instead of the original reported date April 16. Unfortunately, the article
-# is no longer available on the site, and I did not make a copy of the
-# text, and I have forgotten to report it here.
-# (Original URL was <http://www.tongaonline.com/news/march162000.htm>)
-
-# From Rives McDow (2000-12-01):
-# Tonga is observing DST as of 2000-11-04 and will stop on 2001-01-27.
-
-# From Sione Moala-Mafi (2001-09-20) via Rives McDow:
-# At 2:00am on the first Sunday of November, the standard time in the Kingdom
-# shall be moved forward by one hour to 3:00am.  At 2:00am on the last Sunday
-# of January the standard time in the Kingdom shall be moved backward by one
-# hour to 1:00am.
-
-# From Pulu ʻAnau (2002-11-05):
-# The law was for 3 years, supposedly to get renewed.  It wasn't.
-
-# From Pulu ʻAnau (2016-10-27):
-# http://mic.gov.to/news-today/press-releases/6375-daylight-saving-set-to-run-from-6-november-2016-to-15-january-2017
-# Cannot find anyone who knows the rules, has seen the duration or has seen
-# the cabinet decision, but it appears we are following Fiji's rule set.
-#
-# From Tim Parenti (2016-10-26):
-# Assume Tonga will observe DST from the first Sunday in November at 02:00
-# through the third Sunday in January at 03:00, like Fiji, for now.
-
-# From David Wade (2017-10-18):
-# In August government was disolved by the King.  The current prime minister
-# continued in office in care taker mode.  It is easy to see that few
-# decisions will be made until elections 16th November.
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2017-10-18):
-# For now, guess that DST is discontinued.  That's what the IATA is guessing.
-
-
-# Wake
-
-# From Vernice Anderson, Personal Secretary to Philip Jessup,
-# US Ambassador At Large (oral history interview, 1971-02-02):
-#
-# Saturday, the 14th [of October, 1950] - ...  The time was all the
-# more confusing at that point, because we had crossed the
-# International Date Line, thus getting two Sundays.  Furthermore, we
-# discovered that Wake Island had two hours of daylight saving time
-# making calculation of time in Washington difficult if not almost
-# impossible.
-#
-# https://www.trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/andrsonv.htm
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
-# We have no other report of DST in Wake Island, so omit this info for now.
-
-# See also the commentary for Micronesia.
-
-
-###############################################################################
-
-# The International Date Line
-
-# From Gwillim Law (2000-01-03):
-#
-# The International Date Line is not defined by any international standard,
-# convention, or treaty.  Mapmakers are free to draw it as they please.
-# Reputable mapmakers will simply ensure that every point of land appears on
-# the correct side of the IDL, according to the date legally observed there.
-#
-# When Kiribati adopted a uniform date in 1995, thereby moving the Phoenix and
-# Line Islands to the west side of the IDL (or, if you prefer, moving the IDL
-# to the east side of the Phoenix and Line Islands), I suppose that most
-# mapmakers redrew the IDL following the boundary of Kiribati.  Even that line
-# has a rather arbitrary nature.  The straight-line boundaries between Pacific
-# island nations that are shown on many maps are based on an international
-# convention, but are not legally binding national borders.... The date is
-# governed by the IDL; therefore, even on the high seas, there may be some
-# places as late as fourteen hours later than UTC.  And, since the IDL is not
-# an international standard, there are some places on the high seas where the
-# correct date is ambiguous.
-
-# From Wikipedia <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_zone> (2005-08-31):
-# Before 1920, all ships kept local apparent time on the high seas by setting
-# their clocks at night or at the morning sight so that, given the ship's
-# speed and direction, it would be 12 o'clock when the Sun crossed the ship's
-# meridian (12 o'clock = local apparent noon).  During 1917, at the
-# Anglo-French Conference on Time-keeping at Sea, it was recommended that all
-# ships, both military and civilian, should adopt hourly standard time zones
-# on the high seas.  Whenever a ship was within the territorial waters of any
-# nation it would use that nation's standard time.  The captain was permitted
-# to change his ship's clocks at a time of his choice following his ship's
-# entry into another zone time - he often chose midnight.  These zones were
-# adopted by all major fleets between 1920 and 1925 but not by many
-# independent merchant ships until World War II.
-
-# From Paul Eggert, using references suggested by Oscar van Vlijmen
-# (2005-03-20):
-#
-# The American Practical Navigator (2002)
-# http://pollux.nss.nima.mil/pubs/pubs_j_apn_sections.html?rid=187
-# talks only about the 180-degree meridian with respect to ships in
-# international waters; it ignores the international date line.
--- a/test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata/backward	Tue Jul 23 15:33:52 2019 -0400
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,152 +0,0 @@
-#
-# DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
-#
-# This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
-# under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
-# published by the Free Software Foundation.
-#
-# This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
-# ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
-# FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
-# version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
-# accompanied this code).
-#
-# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
-# 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
-# Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
-#
-# Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
-# or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
-# questions.
-#
-# tzdb links for backward compatibility
-
-# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
-# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
-
-# This file provides links between current names for timezones
-# and their old names.  Many names changed in late 1993.
-
-# Link	TARGET			LINK-NAME
-Link	Africa/Nairobi		Africa/Asmera
-Link	Africa/Abidjan		Africa/Timbuktu
-Link	America/Argentina/Catamarca	America/Argentina/ComodRivadavia
-Link	America/Adak		America/Atka
-Link	America/Argentina/Buenos_Aires	America/Buenos_Aires
-Link	America/Argentina/Catamarca	America/Catamarca
-Link	America/Atikokan	America/Coral_Harbour
-Link	America/Argentina/Cordoba	America/Cordoba
-Link	America/Tijuana		America/Ensenada
-Link	America/Indiana/Indianapolis	America/Fort_Wayne
-Link	America/Indiana/Indianapolis	America/Indianapolis
-Link	America/Argentina/Jujuy	America/Jujuy
-Link	America/Indiana/Knox	America/Knox_IN
-Link	America/Kentucky/Louisville	America/Louisville
-Link	America/Argentina/Mendoza	America/Mendoza
-Link	America/Toronto		America/Montreal
-Link	America/Rio_Branco	America/Porto_Acre
-Link	America/Argentina/Cordoba	America/Rosario
-Link	America/Tijuana		America/Santa_Isabel
-Link	America/Denver		America/Shiprock
-Link	America/Port_of_Spain	America/Virgin
-Link	Pacific/Auckland	Antarctica/South_Pole
-Link	Asia/Ashgabat		Asia/Ashkhabad
-Link	Asia/Kolkata		Asia/Calcutta
-Link	Asia/Shanghai		Asia/Chongqing
-Link	Asia/Shanghai		Asia/Chungking
-Link	Asia/Dhaka		Asia/Dacca
-Link	Asia/Shanghai		Asia/Harbin
-Link	Asia/Urumqi		Asia/Kashgar
-Link	Asia/Kathmandu		Asia/Katmandu
-Link	Asia/Macau		Asia/Macao
-Link	Asia/Yangon		Asia/Rangoon
-Link	Asia/Ho_Chi_Minh	Asia/Saigon
-Link	Asia/Jerusalem		Asia/Tel_Aviv
-Link	Asia/Thimphu		Asia/Thimbu
-Link	Asia/Makassar		Asia/Ujung_Pandang
-Link	Asia/Ulaanbaatar	Asia/Ulan_Bator
-Link	Atlantic/Faroe		Atlantic/Faeroe
-Link	Europe/Oslo		Atlantic/Jan_Mayen
-Link	Australia/Sydney	Australia/ACT
-Link	Australia/Sydney	Australia/Canberra
-Link	Australia/Lord_Howe	Australia/LHI
-Link	Australia/Sydney	Australia/NSW
-Link	Australia/Darwin	Australia/North
-Link	Australia/Brisbane	Australia/Queensland
-Link	Australia/Adelaide	Australia/South
-Link	Australia/Hobart	Australia/Tasmania
-Link	Australia/Melbourne	Australia/Victoria
-Link	Australia/Perth		Australia/West
-Link	Australia/Broken_Hill	Australia/Yancowinna
-Link	America/Rio_Branco	Brazil/Acre
-Link	America/Noronha		Brazil/DeNoronha
-Link	America/Sao_Paulo	Brazil/East
-Link	America/Manaus		Brazil/West
-Link	America/Halifax		Canada/Atlantic
-Link	America/Winnipeg	Canada/Central
-# This line is commented out, as the name exceeded the 14-character limit
-# and was an unused misnomer.
-#Link	America/Regina		Canada/East-Saskatchewan
-Link	America/Toronto		Canada/Eastern
-Link	America/Edmonton	Canada/Mountain
-Link	America/St_Johns	Canada/Newfoundland
-Link	America/Vancouver	Canada/Pacific
-Link	America/Regina		Canada/Saskatchewan
-Link	America/Whitehorse	Canada/Yukon
-Link	America/Santiago	Chile/Continental
-Link	Pacific/Easter		Chile/EasterIsland
-Link	America/Havana		Cuba
-Link	Africa/Cairo		Egypt
-Link	Europe/Dublin		Eire
-Link	Etc/UTC			Etc/UCT
-Link	Europe/London		Europe/Belfast
-Link	Europe/Chisinau		Europe/Tiraspol
-Link	Europe/London		GB
-Link	Europe/London		GB-Eire
-Link	Etc/GMT			GMT+0
-Link	Etc/GMT			GMT-0
-Link	Etc/GMT			GMT0
-Link	Etc/GMT			Greenwich
-Link	Asia/Hong_Kong		Hongkong
-Link	Atlantic/Reykjavik	Iceland
-Link	Asia/Tehran		Iran
-Link	Asia/Jerusalem		Israel
-Link	America/Jamaica		Jamaica
-Link	Asia/Tokyo		Japan
-Link	Pacific/Kwajalein	Kwajalein
-Link	Africa/Tripoli		Libya
-Link	America/Tijuana		Mexico/BajaNorte
-Link	America/Mazatlan	Mexico/BajaSur
-Link	America/Mexico_City	Mexico/General
-Link	Pacific/Auckland	NZ
-Link	Pacific/Chatham		NZ-CHAT
-Link	America/Denver		Navajo
-Link	Asia/Shanghai		PRC
-Link	Pacific/Honolulu	Pacific/Johnston
-Link	Pacific/Pohnpei		Pacific/Ponape
-Link	Pacific/Pago_Pago	Pacific/Samoa
-Link	Pacific/Chuuk		Pacific/Truk
-Link	Pacific/Chuuk		Pacific/Yap
-Link	Europe/Warsaw		Poland
-Link	Europe/Lisbon		Portugal
-Link	Asia/Taipei		ROC
-Link	Asia/Seoul		ROK
-Link	Asia/Singapore		Singapore
-Link	Europe/Istanbul		Turkey
-Link	Etc/UTC			UCT
-Link	America/Anchorage	US/Alaska
-Link	America/Adak		US/Aleutian
-Link	America/Phoenix		US/Arizona
-Link	America/Chicago		US/Central
-Link	America/Indiana/Indianapolis	US/East-Indiana
-Link	America/New_York	US/Eastern
-Link	Pacific/Honolulu	US/Hawaii
-Link	America/Indiana/Knox	US/Indiana-Starke
-Link	America/Detroit		US/Michigan
-Link	America/Denver		US/Mountain
-Link	America/Los_Angeles	US/Pacific
-Link	Pacific/Pago_Pago	US/Samoa
-Link	Etc/UTC			UTC
-Link	Etc/UTC			Universal
-Link	Europe/Moscow		W-SU
-Link	Etc/UTC			Zulu
--- a/test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata/etcetera	Tue Jul 23 15:33:52 2019 -0400
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,100 +0,0 @@
-#
-# DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
-#
-# This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
-# under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
-# published by the Free Software Foundation.
-#
-# This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
-# ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
-# FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
-# version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
-# accompanied this code).
-#
-# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
-# 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
-# Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
-#
-# Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
-# or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
-# questions.
-#
-# tzdb data for ships at sea and other miscellany
-
-# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
-# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
-
-# These entries are mostly present for historical reasons, so that
-# people in areas not otherwise covered by the tz files could "zic -l"
-# to a timezone that was right for their area.  These days, the
-# tz files cover almost all the inhabited world, and the only practical
-# need now for the entries that are not on UTC are for ships at sea
-# that cannot use POSIX TZ settings.
-
-# Starting with POSIX 1003.1-2001, the entries below are all
-# unnecessary as settings for the TZ environment variable.  E.g.,
-# instead of TZ='Etc/GMT+4' one can use the POSIX setting TZ='<-04>+4'.
-#
-# Do not use a POSIX TZ setting like TZ='GMT+4', which is four hours
-# behind GMT but uses the completely misleading abbreviation "GMT".
-
-Zone	Etc/GMT		0	-	GMT
-Zone	Etc/UTC		0	-	UTC
-
-# The following link uses older naming conventions,
-# but it belongs here, not in the file 'backward',
-# as functions like gmtime load the "GMT" file to handle leap seconds properly.
-# We want this to work even on installations that omit the other older names.
-Link	Etc/GMT				GMT
-
-Link	Etc/UTC				Etc/Universal
-Link	Etc/UTC				Etc/Zulu
-
-Link	Etc/GMT				Etc/Greenwich
-Link	Etc/GMT				Etc/GMT-0
-Link	Etc/GMT				Etc/GMT+0
-Link	Etc/GMT				Etc/GMT0
-
-# Be consistent with POSIX TZ settings in the Zone names,
-# even though this is the opposite of what many people expect.
-# POSIX has positive signs west of Greenwich, but many people expect
-# positive signs east of Greenwich.  For example, TZ='Etc/GMT+4' uses
-# the abbreviation "-04" and corresponds to 4 hours behind UT
-# (i.e. west of Greenwich) even though many people would expect it to
-# mean 4 hours ahead of UT (i.e. east of Greenwich).
-
-# Earlier incarnations of this package were not POSIX-compliant,
-# and had lines such as
-#		Zone	GMT-12		-12	-	GMT-1200
-# We did not want things to change quietly if someone accustomed to the old
-# way does a
-#		zic -l GMT-12
-# so we moved the names into the Etc subdirectory.
-# Also, the time zone abbreviations are now compatible with %z.
-
-Zone	Etc/GMT-14	14	-	+14
-Zone	Etc/GMT-13	13	-	+13
-Zone	Etc/GMT-12	12	-	+12
-Zone	Etc/GMT-11	11	-	+11
-Zone	Etc/GMT-10	10	-	+10
-Zone	Etc/GMT-9	9	-	+09
-Zone	Etc/GMT-8	8	-	+08
-Zone	Etc/GMT-7	7	-	+07
-Zone	Etc/GMT-6	6	-	+06
-Zone	Etc/GMT-5	5	-	+05
-Zone	Etc/GMT-4	4	-	+04
-Zone	Etc/GMT-3	3	-	+03
-Zone	Etc/GMT-2	2	-	+02
-Zone	Etc/GMT-1	1	-	+01
-Zone	Etc/GMT+1	-1	-	-01
-Zone	Etc/GMT+2	-2	-	-02
-Zone	Etc/GMT+3	-3	-	-03
-Zone	Etc/GMT+4	-4	-	-04
-Zone	Etc/GMT+5	-5	-	-05
-Zone	Etc/GMT+6	-6	-	-06
-Zone	Etc/GMT+7	-7	-	-07
-Zone	Etc/GMT+8	-8	-	-08
-Zone	Etc/GMT+9	-9	-	-09
-Zone	Etc/GMT+10	-10	-	-10
-Zone	Etc/GMT+11	-11	-	-11
-Zone	Etc/GMT+12	-12	-	-12
--- a/test/jdk/sun/util/calendar/zi/tzdata/europe	Tue Jul 23 15:33:52 2019 -0400
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,4016 +0,0 @@
-#
-# DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
-#
-# This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
-# under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
-# published by the Free Software Foundation.
-#
-# This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
-# ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
-# FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
-# version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
-# accompanied this code).
-#
-# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
-# 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
-# Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
-#
-# Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
-# or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
-# questions.
-#
-# tzdb data for Europe and environs
-
-# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
-# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
-
-# This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
-# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
-# tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
-# the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2017-02-10):
-#
-# Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
-# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
-# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
-# Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
-#
-# Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source
-# for time zone data was the International Air Transport
-# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
-# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
-# of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted,
-# IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
-#
-# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
-# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
-#
-# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for
-# entries through 1991, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
-#
-# Other sources occasionally used include:
-#
-#	Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
-#	Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated),
-#	which I found in the UCLA library.
-#
-#	William Willett, The Waste of Daylight, 19th edition
-#	<http://cs.ucla.edu/~eggert/The-Waste-of-Daylight-19th.pdf>
-#	[PDF] (1914-03)
-#
-#	Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94
-#	<https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>.  He writes:
-#	"It is requested that corrections and additions to these tables
-#	may be sent to Mr. John Milne, Royal Geographical Society,
-#	Savile Row, London."  Nowadays please email them to tz@iana.org.
-#
-#	Byalokoz EL. New Counting of Time in Russia since July 1, 1919.
-#	This Russian-language source was consulted by Vladimir Karpinsky; see
-#	https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-August/021320.html
-#	The full Russian citation is:
-#	Бялокоз, Евгений Людвигович. Новый счет времени в течении суток
-#	введенный декретом Совета народных комиссаров для всей России с 1-го
-#	июля 1919 г. / Изд. 2-е Междуведомственной комиссии. - Петроград:
-#	Десятая гос. тип., 1919.
-#	http://resolver.gpntb.ru/purl?docushare/dsweb/Get/Resource-2011/Byalokoz__E.L.__Novyy__schet__vremeni__v__techenie__sutok__izd__2(1).pdf
-#
-#	Brazil's Divisão Serviço da Hora (DSHO),
-#	History of Summer Time
-#	<http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm>
-#	(1998-09-21, in Portuguese)
-#
-# I invented the abbreviations marked '*' in the following table;
-# the rest are variants of the "xMT" pattern for a city's mean time,
-# or are from other sources.  Corrections are welcome!
-#                   std  dst  2dst
-#                   LMT             Local Mean Time
-#       -4:00       AST  ADT        Atlantic
-#        0:00       GMT  BST  BDST  Greenwich, British Summer
-#        0:00       GMT  IST        Greenwich, Irish Summer
-#        0:00       WET  WEST WEMT  Western Europe
-#        0:19:32.13 AMT* NST*       Amsterdam, Netherlands Summer (1835-1937)
-#        1:00       BST             British Standard (1968-1971)
-#        1:00       IST  GMT        Irish Standard (1968-) with winter DST
-#        1:00       CET  CEST CEMT  Central Europe
-#        1:00:14    SET             Swedish (1879-1899)
-#        1:36:34    RMT* LST*       Riga, Latvian Summer (1880-1926)*
-#        2:00       EET  EEST       Eastern Europe
-#        3:00       MSK  MSD  MDST* Moscow
-
-# From Peter Ilieve (1994-12-04), re EEC/EC/EU members:
-# The original six: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy,
-# Luxembourg, the Netherlands.
-# Plus, from 1 Jan 73: Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom.
-# Plus, from 1 Jan 81: Greece.
-# Plus, from 1 Jan 86: Spain, Portugal.
-# Plus, from 1 Jan 95: Austria, Finland, Sweden. (Norway negotiated terms for
-# entry but in a referendum on 28 Nov 94 the people voted No by 52.2% to 47.8%
-# on a turnout of 88.6%. This was almost the same result as Norway's previous
-# referendum in 1972, they are the only country to have said No twice.
-# Referendums in the other three countries voted Yes.)
-# ...
-# Estonia ... uses EU dates but not at 01:00 GMT, they use midnight GMT.
-# I don't think they know yet what they will do from 1996 onwards.
-# ...
-# There shouldn't be any [current members who are not using EU rules].
-# A Directive has the force of law, member states are obliged to enact
-# national law to implement it. The only contentious issue was the
-# different end date for the UK and Ireland, and this was always allowed
-# in the Directive.
-
-
-###############################################################################
-
-# Britain (United Kingdom) and Ireland (Eire)
-
-# From Peter Ilieve (1994-07-06):
-#
-# On 17 Jan 1994 the Independent, a UK quality newspaper, had a piece about
-# historical vistas along the Thames in west London. There was a photo
-# and a sketch map showing some of the sightlines involved. One paragraph
-# of the text said:
-#
-# 'An old stone obelisk marking a forgotten terrestrial meridian stands
-# beside the river at Kew. In the 18th century, before time and longitude
-# was standardised by the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, scholars observed
-# this stone and the movement of stars from Kew Observatory nearby. They
-# made their calculations and set the time for the Horse Guards and Parliament,
-# but now the stone is obscured by scrubwood and can only be seen by walking
-# along the towpath within a few yards of it.'
-#
-# I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's
-# position is 51° 28' 30" N, 0° 18' 45" W. The longitude should
-# be within about ±2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761.
-#
-# [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]
-
-# From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):
-#
-# Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time.
-# The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time,
-# and it was they who forced a uniform time on the country.
-# The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828)
-# and was popularized by Abraham Follett Osler (1808-1903).
-# The first railway to adopt London time was the Great Western Railway
-# in November 1840; other railways followed suit, and by 1847 most
-# (though not all) railways used London time.  On 1847-09-22 the
-# Railway Clearing House, an industry standards body, recommended that GMT be
-# adopted at all stations as soon as the General Post Office permitted it.
-# The transition occurred on 12-01 for the L&NW, the Caledonian,
-# and presumably other railways; the January 1848 Bradshaw's lists many
-# railways as using GMT.  By 1855 the vast majority of public
-# clocks in Britain were set to GMT (though some, like the great clock
-# on Tom Tower at Christ Church, Oxford, were fitted with two minute hands,
-# one for local time and one for GMT).  The last major holdout was the legal
-# system, which stubbornly stuck to local time for many years, leading
-# to oddities like polls opening at 08:13 and closing at 16:13.
-# The legal system finally switched to GMT when the Statutes (Definition
-# of Time) Act took effect; it received the Royal Assent on 1880-08-02.
-#
-# In the tables below, we condense this complicated story into a single
-# transition date for London, namely 1847-12-01.  We don't know as much
-# about Dublin, so we use 1880-08-02, the legal transition time.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-19):
-# The ancients had no need for daylight saving, as they kept time
-# informally or via hours whose length depended on the time of year.
-# Daylight saving time in its modern sense was invented by the
-# New Zealand entomologist George Vernon Hudson (1867-1946),
-# whose day job as a postal clerk led him to value
-# after-hours daylight in which to pursue his research.
-# In 1895 he presented a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society
-# that proposed a two-hour daylight-saving shift.  See:
-# Hudson GV. On seasonal time-adjustment in countries south of lat. 30°.
-# Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. 1895;28:734
-# http://rsnz.natlib.govt.nz/volume/rsnz_28/rsnz_28_00_006110.html
-# Although some interest was expressed in New Zealand, his proposal
-# did not find its way into law and eventually it was almost forgotten.
-#
-# In England, DST was independently reinvented by William Willett (1857-1915),
-# a London builder and member of the Royal Astronomical Society
-# who circulated a pamphlet "The Waste of Daylight" (1907)
-# that proposed advancing clocks 20 minutes on each of four Sundays in April,
-# and retarding them by the same amount on four Sundays in September.
-# A bill was drafted in 1909 an